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ED EXAM 2013---VII PAPER DATED---22/6/13 METHODOLOGY OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS SEC----A ANS---1---Perceptions of the nature and role of mathematics held by our society have a major influence on the development of school mathematics curriculum, instruction, and research. The understanding of different conceptions of mathematics is as important to the development and successful implementation of programs in school mathematics as it is to the conduct and interpretation of research studies. mathematics as a dynamic, growing field of study. Other conceptions of the subject define mathematics as a static discipline, with a known set of concepts, principles, and skills .The rapid growth of mathematics and its applications over the past 50 years has led to a number of scholarly essays that examine its nature and its importance . This literature has woven a rich mosaic of conceptions of the nature of mathematics, ranging from axiomatic structures to generalized heuristics for solving problems. These diverse views of the nature of mathematics also have a pronounced impact on the ways in which our society conceives of mathematics and reacts to its ever-widening influence on our daily lives. Many educated persons, especially scientists and engineers, harbor an image of mathematics as akin to a tree of knowledge: formulas, theorems, and results hang like ripe fruits to be plucked by passing scientists to nourish their theories. Mathematicians, in contrast, see their field as a rapidly growing rain forest, nourished and shaped by forcesoutside mathematics while contributing to human civilization a rich and everchanging variety of intellectual flora and fauna. These differences in perception are due primarily to the steep and harsh terrain of abstract language that separates the mathematical rain forest from the domain of ordinary human activity.Research shows that these differing conceptions have an influence on the ways in which both teachers and mathematicians approach the teaching and development of mathematics . Mathematics as a dynamic discipline, constantly changing as a result of new discoveries from experimentation and application . These contrasting views of the nature and source of mathematical knowledge have provided a continuum for conceptions of mathematics since the age of the Greeks. The lack of a common philosophy of mathematics has serious ramifications for both the practice and teaching of mathematics.This lack of consensus, some argue, is the reason that differing philosophies are not even discussed. Others conjecture that these views are transmitted to students and help shape their ideas about the nature of mathematics What follows is an overview of these conceptions of mathematics and their current and potential impact on the nature and course of mathematics education.

This caused Plato to draw distinctions between arithmetic-the theory of numbers-and logistics-the techniques of computation required by businessmen. lesson plan is possible introduction of education technology. most the teaching session will used the materials based on technology products.First. showing indignation at technicians'use of physical arguments to "prove" results in applied settings. This elevated position for mathematics as an abstract mental activityon externally existing objects that have only representations in the sensual world is also seen in Plato's discussion of the five regular solid~ in Timaeus (1952b) and his support and encouragement of the mathematical development of Athens. lesson plan also provides the room to teacher for evaluation and assessment for their teaching. teachers use the lesson plan as their guide to teach the same subject or topic for a presentation. teachers should prepared all equipments is needed in their teaching. Without all these things absolutely the teaching is not takes placed. As we can see nowadays.compelling them to reason about abstract numbers.Furthermore. the learners will more easily understand the teaching. Hence. it keeps them on track to accomplish the objectives. in the external world. In addition. For instance. to be lesson plan is well organized. For instance. lesson plan produced an effective teaching. here there are following importance that included in lesson plan. though they say that it should be studied for the sake of other things" (Aristotle.Besides that. handouts or white board and marker pen. instructional activities and assessment. According to the teaching principles 2. usually the teachers will do early preparation the lesson plan to make it smooth running of the lesson. From that. Mostly. projector. it promotes high level of confidence between teachers and learners. Among the first major contributors to the dialogue were Plato and his student. lesson plan shows the importance in teacher parts. 510). For example. Aristotle. teachers must do arrangement the contents in logically order to make lesson go in sequence. p. As a result. mathematics came to "be identical with philosophy for modern thinkers. Plato argued that the study of arithmetic has a positive effect on individuals.Examples of equipment are computer. ANS---2--Lesson plan prepares a lot of importance and benefit to the teachers and learners.In addition. In the Republic (1952a). where it consists of three major components such as objectives. a nurse wants to bring the Cancer patient visit to X-Ray department .Discussions of the nature of mathematics date back to the fourth century BC. In doing so. This can proved that educational level is developing towards the world.For Plato. beyond the mind. Plato took the position that the objects of mathematics had an existence of their own. It shows the effectiveness in teaching when it provides benefit to both sides such as teacher and learner. 1952. As example.Plato drew clear distinctions between the ideas of the mind and their representations perceived in the world by the senses. Plato consistently held to this view.

Of course. Below are examples of the structures of mathematics lessons from a study of mathematics teaching • Teacher reviews concept of perimeter (1 minute). Learning can take place at any time. • Pupils work individually on an exercise (11 minutes). particularly if these are Routledge text . and make important connections to real-life applications of the math they are learning. although in any given school this might last anywhere from thirty to seventy minutes. pupils do practice examples (25 minutes).combining teaching input and pupil task. What you should notice is that effective lessons have a structure. decimals and percentages. there is no conventional unit of learning. Partly this may be due to individual teacher show the radiation therapy procedure. deepend their understanding of important concepts by explaining and providing examples of those concepts. without careful planning. but there can be other underlying reasons. Another form of fragmentation can happen with investigativetasks when these are treated as comprising solely of distinct components such as“generating results”. other lessons structures are possible. Teachers use the writing assignments to assess student understanding of important concepts. all treated separately. pupils may never appreciate the connections between fractions. day or night. Although it may be . a final plenary (of from five to fifteen minutes) to round off the lesson . student proficiency in explaining and using those concepts and each student's attitude toward learning mathematics. but it also has to look to thelonger term.There are a number of reasons why mathematics lessons you observe may differ in style and approach. Writing in mathematics is a win-win for both teacher and student. In contrast. ANS---4---Teachers incorporate writing in math class to help students reflect on their learning. Breaking down learning into lesson-size chunks is necessary for teaching but this can result in a fragmentation of topics and ideas if teaching is solely thought of in terms of individual lessons. a major segment of whole-class and/or paired or group work (about twenty-five to forty minutes). “drawing a table” and “finding a formula”. and does not necessarily occur only in the presence of the teacher. • Teacher explains area of rectangle. pupils do practice examples (8 minutes). Effective planninghas to be in terms of individual lessons that work well. Therefore the X-Ray department should be informed before the nurse brings the patient to the department. a mathematics lesson might consist of: a starter task (perhaps an oral and mental starter) taking about five to ten minutes. For example. • Teacher explains area of triangles. Typically. The conventional unit of teaching is the lesson (or period).

The language of mathematics itself is a thinking tool that facilitates mathematical understanding and connects to natural language and everyday thinking. intuitive notions and the abstract language and symbolism of mathematics. Most experiences relating to mathematical communication will involve the use of natural language. helps students learn mathematics as they clarify their own ideas and listen to those of others. and parents. and mental representations of mathematical ideas. By sharing their mathematical understandings in written and oral form with their classmates. pictorial. for example. graphic. it is well worth the effort. When students see that one representation. listening. When they realize that some ways of representing a problem are more helpful than others. students develop confidence in themselves as mathematics learners and enable teachers to better monitor their progress. and representing visually (with pictures. with peers. kindergartners can sit back-to-back with one giving the other directions about how to make a tower of Unifix cubes. they begin to understand the power of mathematics. with parents. graphs. Other experiences will involve working in small groups. charts. graphs. diagrams.Mathematics can be thought of as a language that must be meaningful if students are to communicate mathematically and apply mathematics productively.Communication involves a variety of modes: speaking. Some experiences will involve working in pairs. Students should also use communication to generate and share ideas. such as when tenth-graders combine information from several separate clues to find the distance around a park. but some will also involve the use of tables.difficult to introduce this practice. but they should also be able to interrelate the descriptions obtained using different media. computers. Communicating with each other. making a model. reading. videos.Students need to have many experiences in communicating about mathematics in a variety of settings. orally and in writing. Look for simple ways to incorporate short writings throughout daily lessons and longer writings over the course of weeks or math units. they begin to understand the flexibility and usefulness of mathematics. and calculators. or other visual means). manipulatives.while others may involve drawing a picture.In summary. can describe many situations. Communication plays an important role in making mathematics meaningful. equations. It also plays a key role in helping students make critical connections among physical. it enables students to construct links between their informal. symbolic. with other adults. Some experiences will involve explaining something to the whole class. communicating mathematics - . or writing in a journal.Students need to learn the appropriate use of mathematical language and symbols. such as an equation. verbal. Students should not only be able to use each of these different media to describe mathematical ideas and solutions to problems. teachers. writing. Each of these can help students understand mathematics and use it effectively. and with the teacher.Communication of mathematical ideas will help students clarify and solidify their understanding of mathematics.

and that mathematicians consider it an activity that is mathematically worthwhile. the role that mathematics plays is mostly about thinking. it is“more useful to know how to mathematise than to know a lot of mathematics” . This has two important implications for the discussion on curriculum. Keeping in mind the Indian reality. schooling is a legal right. In the Indian context. and curriculum can help shape it.Even more importantly. the former aim specifically relates to numeracy. There are many ways of thinking. that teachers and students find it worth their time and energy addressing these problems. what mathematics offers is a way of doing things: to be able to solve mathematical problems. there is a centrality of concern which has an impact on all areas of school education. It should be ambitious in the sense that it seeks to achieve the higher aim mentioned above rather than (only) the narrower aim. to have the right attitude for problem solving and to be able to attack all kinds of problems in a systematic manner. Note that such importance is not a given thing. It should be coherent in the sense that the variety of methods and skills available piecemeal (in arithmetic. there is one main OBJECTIVES—the mathematisation of the child’s thought processes. and the kind of thinking one learns in mathematics is an ability to handle abstractions.orally. we can think of two kinds of aims for school education: a good and narrow aim. that of developing the inner resources of the growing child. With regard to school mathematics. algebra. and mathematics being a compulsory subject of study.What about the higher aim? In developing a child’s inner resources. ANS----6---What are the main OBJECTIVES of mathematics education in SECONDARY schools? Simply stated.namely that of universalisation of schooling. and a higher aim. percentages and ratios: all these are important for numeracy. measurement of quantities. Primary schools teach numbers and operations on them. geometry) cohere into an ability to address problems that come from science and social studies in high school. access to quality mathematics education is every child’s right. in writing. where few children . In the words of David Wheeler. Firstly. Students should use a variety of forms of communication in a variety of settings to generate and share ideas. and using symbols and visual representations . Clarity of thought and pursuing assumptions to logical conclusions is central to the mathematical enterprise. especially mathematics. It should be important in the sense that students feel the need to solve such problems.coherent and teaches important mathematics. and more generally. An important consequence of such requirements is that school mathematics must be activity-oriented.This calls for a curriculum that is vitally important to learning and using mathematics.According to George Polya. that of turning out employable adults who (eventually) contribute to social and economic development.fractions.

we want mathematics education that is affordable to every child. through the structures and policies that help or hinder a teacher's efforts." Systemwide influence occurs directly. during the next decade." the authors say. indirectly. and at the same time. However. "Yet there's still a gap." Designing Professional Development for Teachers of Science and Mathematics aims to address these needs. . and how it can strengthen the student’s resources. in a country where nearly half the children drop out of school during the elementary stage.but the other way about. There's no guidance. and that for the system. There's a lack of rich description of effective programs that are constructed in various contexts and that address common challenges in unique ways. Even if we achieve our targeted universalisation goals.attempt to delineate the core areas of concern and offer recommendations that address the concerns. ANS---8---"The national standards for science.a reorientation of the curriculum towards addressing the ‘higher aims’ mentioned above will make better use of the time children spend in schools in terms of the problem solving and analytical skills it builds in children. we will still have a substantial proportion of children exiting the system after Class VIII. in any one place. This implies that the mathematics taught is situated in the child’s lived reality.Much has been written about life skills and linkage of school education to livelihood." the authors say.Our reflections on the place of mathematics teaching in the curricular framework are positioned on these twin concerns: what mathematics education can do to engage the mind of every is not the subject that matters more than the child. "They have a key role in developing leadership in their teachers. and professional development exhibit a strong knowledge base and a great deal of consensus about what constitutes effective professional development.based on these twin perspectives. mathematics. Nowhere is there accumulated the knowledge of effective professional development strategies and structures for teachers of mathematics and science. about how these teachers can best be assisted in their professional growth.enjoyable. We describe our vision of mathematics in school.mathematics curricula cannot be grounded only on preparation for higher secondary and university education. Professional development also must go beyond the needs of individual teachers to address entire school systems. "School systems can influence teaching in powerful ways. It is then fair to ask what eight years of school mathematics offers for such children in terms of the challenges they will face afterwards. and prepare them better to encounter a wide variety of problems in life. It is certainly true that most of the skills taught at the primary stage are useful in everyday life.have access to expensive material.Secondly. through the nature of professional development that's offered and.

Designers of effective professional development filter knowledge through their own contexts to arrive at the most appropriate approach for a given setting. Professional developers can address the dual purpose of garnering public support for science and mathematics education reform and for teacher professional development. and beliefs. but for the culture of teaching and schooling itself to change. (d) the principles of effective professional development. the authors say." Public support for professional development is intimately related to public support for science and mathematics reform. for example. . "Professional development is recursive and sometimes messy. critical issues." When professional developers see the effects of their work. "It demands flexibility and continuous learning throughout the process. the authors say. they begin to think differently about students. The need to create subcultures for high-quality professional development is more than instrumental.A framework for designing professional development-----Successful professional development planners use distinct but related kinds of knowledge in their work: (a) what is known about learners and learning in general. teachers. professional development. They can do so. So schools need to build capacity not only for teachers to reflect on their own teaching. parents. "The nature of the reform that is embodied in the mathematics and science standards will require a large number of teachers to keep changing and learning.The University of Washington's professional development project for elementary school teachers directly addressed the issue of garnering public support for science education. they look to research for new ideas. it has a deeper significance. Teachers learned how to craft messages to address the questions and concerns of various audiences. (b) what is known about teachers and teaching. This knowledge includes strategies." says Loucks-Horsley. and (e) knowledge of change and the change process. and change." Loucks-Horsley says." the authors say. "It also implies a different intellectual culture for schools than is typical. "And as their needs and interests change. their disciplines. Beliefs change. too. by paying attention to three areas:increasing awareness of the importance of effective teaching and learning of science and mathematics. as well as effective professional development--and what they look like." Critical issues in designing professional development------Effective professional development programs support subcultures in which professional development can flourish. "As professional developers learn from their experiences. they become active contributors. (c) the nature of the disciplines of mathematics and science. Experience leads designers to consider new issues or gain deeper understanding of the ones they have grappled with.involving the public in learning situations (those of both students and teachers). andgathering and publicizing the results of teaching and professional development.

There are a number of ways of thinking about this question.principals. They interacted with a panel representing these groups around the question. the skills of the teacher. Explain in detail is more complex than in outline. to inflate to correct pressure etc.Aims are general statements concerning the overall goals. However the connection between teaching and learning is not a simple one. However to achieve this aim a series of objectives must be met. The Quality Assurance Agency (the quality control branch of the Higher Education Funding Council) specify that all taught sessions must have learning objectives. If you don't know what you're trying to produce how can you be sure your teaching methods and techniques are working? If you have no objective standards how can you monitor your teaching effectiveness and how can you improve? Since all teachers must evaluate their teaching they must know what their output is. use an observation protocol that includes monitoring the learning objectives of the teacher. The quickest answer is that all teachers in higher education have to use learning objectives. the relevance or usefulness of the material presented. SEC----B ANS-9A------Learning Objectives are statements that describe what a learner will be able to do as a result of learning. and city council members. QAA observers. the 'added value' of teaching. etc. If learning objectives are not know for each .A related view revolves around questions of quality and audit. Many factors can interfere with the achievement of objectives: the existing knowledge of the learner. For example a teacher might have an aim that a student should be able to take blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer. Just because knowledge or skills are taught does not mean that particular knowledge or skills are learned. Some definitions stress that a learning objective is a sort of contract that teachers make with learners that describes what they will be able to do after learning that they could not do before. to position cuff correctly. "What would motivate you to support science education?" They identified the common threads and the unique needs of the various groups. Learning Objectives are also statements that describe what a learner will be able to do as a result of teaching.Certain objectives can be modified by the degree to which they need to be completed. ends or intentions of teaching. . when conducting a subject review. Objectives are the individual stages that learners must achieve on the way in order to reach these goals. business executives. eg to explain procedure to patient. QAA observers have the right to watch any teacher teach and can ask them what their learning objectives are. They are sometimes called learning outcomes.From a curriculum perspective the learning objectives from each taught session should fit together coherently building towards the overall aims of each module and the whole curriculum. Measure to 95% accuracy is harder than simply measuring without any degree of accuracy given.

12÷3×2 = 30 . If a and b are negative numbers. a is closer to zero than b and therefore a is greater than b which written as a>b Subtract a to both sides and simplify a-a>b-a 0>b-a . then b Solution ---Since a and b are both negative.000.session then it is impossible to see how the whole curriculum fits together. In the case of the medical curriculum having many sessions without pre-defined learning objectives leads to a 'hidden' curriculum rather than the goal of an integrated curriculum.000. where a is a real number such that 1 ≤ |a| < 10 and n is an integer. Q---4--(True or False) .000.8 = 22 Q---3---(True or False) The inequality |x + 1| < 0 has no solution. Therefore there is no value of x that makes |x + 1| negative and therefore |x + 1| < 0 is never true and the statement "The inequality |x + 1| < 0 has no solution" is TRUE. 12÷3×2 (division and Solution ----The absolute value of a real expression is either positive or equal to zero.000 = 2. Solution -----Write the given number in the form a × 10 n .000 = 2. Since |a| < |b|. and |a| < |b|. It becomes impossible for teachers in different phases of the curriculum to see what students have learned in other areas making managing and auditing the curriculum more difficult. 230.12÷3×2 = Solution ----According to order of operations.3 × 10 11 Q---2---Evaluate: 30 .a is negative. multiplication) is done first from left to right 12÷3×2 = 4 × 2 = 8 Hence 30 . they are positioned to the left of zero on the number line.000.000 in scientific notation.000. Q-----1---Write 230.3 × 100.000.

horizontal D. vertical Solution ----Horizontal lines are of the form y = constant and vertical lines are of the from x = constant and therefore the two lines are neither horizontal nor vertical. Let us find the slopes of the two given lines y = 2x has a slope equal to 2 2y = . ANS----10---B--STEPS OF PREPARING DIAGNOSTCS TEST 1.Hence the statement "b .14 .x are A. Paper-based diagnostic tests (1992-97)----A paper-based multiple-choice test was designed to test basic knowledge of algebra. -7 D. solution set The answer to the above question is D since 2 is greater that or equal to 2. parallel B. the two lines are not parallel.7 and CHANGE symbol of inequality x ≥ 2 .6 to both sides -7x ≤ . add .6 ≤ -8 . simplify -7x / -7 ≥ -14 / -7 . Students with substantial difficulty in a topic were referred to a Mathematics and Statistics Learning Centre for additional tutoring. 0 C.The test was taken by students during induction week and was marked in time for results to be distributed during the first week of term.6 . trigonometry and elementary calculus. The system was inexpensive to set up and administer and provided feedback to . Q---6---The lines y = 2x and 2y = . perpendicular C.a is negative" is TRUE. 2 Solution ---Solve the inequality -7x + 6 ≤ -8 . The product of the two slopes is given by 2*-(1/2) = . Q---5---Which of these values of x satisfies the inequality -7x + 6 ≤ -8 A. given -7x + 6 . -2 B. divide by .x is equivalent to y = -(1/2) x and its slope is equal to -(1/2) Since the slopes are not equal.1 and hence the two lines are perpendicular.

Initially the system worked well but with each year the proportion of students demonstrating substantial weaknesses increased. equations.Many students did not participate in the remedial activity designed to address their real or perceived weaknesses. Follow-up support to the diagnostic tests is initially managed through contact with students in tutorials. Student reaction to being tested at the beginning of the course was quite negative. solving equations. a greater amount of time was given to the revision of basic techniques of algebraic manipulation.Computer-based diagnostic tests------Diagnostic tests were re-introduced for first year engineering students at the beginning of this academic year. The paper-based diagnostic test only offered students one attempt. Hence.The delivery of the module is as described in the previous section. Students with significant problems are then offered one-to-one support by the tutor or through the Mathematics and Statistics Learning Centre. Paper-based diagnostic testing was abandoned because it had ceased to make a positive contribution to the delivery of the module. workshops are held for students who still feel they require assistance with certain topics. Students take four computer-based tests in algebra. trigonometry and calculus. trigonometry and elementary calculus with three attempts at each test. Tutorials continued to be for one hour each week to a group of 20-24 students and resources given to the Mathematics and Statistics Learning Centre were increased so that it was staffed for one hour each day. The diagnostic tests form the first stage of a support mechanism for the module which is summarised below. In the period between the abandonment of the paperbased system and the introduction of computer-based diagnostic tests. Material on the module is organised into four blocks with a computer-based test held at the end of each block (note that there is also an end of module examination). In resource terms thiswas achieved by increasing the lecture time for each student from a single hour to two hours each week. 2. students and tutors are being . students can seek assistance during each test period from their tutor.Having identified areas of difficulty. The test is open for two weeks and students are permitted three attempts. It was clear that in this format the diagnostic test did not necessarily give a realistic picture of an individualís level of understanding and how they should subsequently organise their study. After each test. A different test (but of the same standard) is taken at each attempt.both students and tutors together with a mechanism for acting on the information. Students must complete the tests by the end of the second week of term and are given instant feedback as to their score. Students did not have time to ìprepareî for the test resulting in unease amongst some that they did not ìdo themselves justiceî and by inference throwing some doubt over the usefulness of the information received. until it became difficult to manage the follow-up support. Each test should take between thirty minutes to one hour to complete depending on the ability of the student.

some initial data is given below. One of the aims of the overall support developed for this module is to manage the different needs of the quite different groups taking the module.made aware at each stage where problems are occurring and the support offered can build upon the work already carried out by the student.equations. trigonometric functions and other topics such as partial fractions and complex numbers that were not in any of the diagnostic tests.The average test scores for the four diagnostic tests are shown in table 1. The test scores suggest that the majority of students have either maintained or improved their level of performance since the beginning of the course. and again includes material beyond the level covered in the initial diagnostic test. However.Clearly. One of the benefits of the computer-based delivery of both the diagnostic tests and the assessment is that it creates a mechanism for monitoring the progress of students that is reasonably efficient in staff resources. . This is not surprising as the calculus and trigonometry tests involve a higher level of manipulation than the algebra and equation tests. Table 1: Diagnostic Test Statistics -----------Diagnostic Test Median Algebra 67 Equations 68 Trigonometry 30 Calculus 39 Mean 74 61 34 40 The ìCalculus Testî consists of standard rules of differentiation and integration. Solve x(x + 5) = 0. we would have expected performance to improve once the course was underway. The average scores for algebra and equations are much higher than the scores for trigonometry and calculus. It is clearly too early to comment on the success or otherwise of the diagnostic tests in this course.The average scores for the first two computer-based assessments for the module are shown in table 2. The ìAlgebra and Functions Testî combines transposition of formulae. including integration by parts and parametric differentiation.

There is no justification for making that assumption! And (warning!) making that (implicit) assumption will cause you to lose half of your solution to this problem. 2 . –5 Solve x2 – 5x = 0. This equation is in "(quadratic) equals (zero)" form. But you can't divide by zero. (Warning: Do not "divide the x off". a factor can contain only a variable. so it's ready to solve. This two-term quadratic is easier to factor than were the previous quadratics: I can factor an x out of both terms. x + 5). taking the x out front. So set the factors equal to zero. do not make it magically "disappear". so "x" is a perfectly valid factor. so I'll apply the difference-ofsquares formula: x2 – 4 = 0 (x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x – 2 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 2 or x = –2 Then the solution is x = –2. and solve: x(x + 5) = 0 x = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = 0 or x = –5 Then the solution to x(x + 5) = 0 is x = 0.A very common mistake that students make on this type of problem is to "solve" the equation for "x + 5 = 0" by dividing off the x. dividing off the x makes the implicit assumption that x is not zero. 5 There is one other case of two-term quadratics that you can factor: Solve x2 – 4 = 0.Even though you are used to variable factors having variables and numbers (like the other factor. or you'll lose one of your solutions!) x(x – 5) = 0 x = 0 or x – 5 = 0 x = 0 or x = 5 Then the solution to x2 – 5x = 0 is x = 0. The quadratic itself is a difference of squares.

referencing any similar problem they may have previously encountered. interpreting and communicating information Formulating key questions. There is another way to work this last problem. however. seeking out appropriate data. experimenting. Understanding Does the student understated the problem. analyzing and conceptualizing problems. The problems are drawn from different syllabus strands and clearly can only be introduced once the students have mastered the appropriate content and while the problems are aimed at different levels. it has been only comparatively recently that problem solving has come to be regarded as an important medium for teaching and learning mathematics . what they are being asked to find and any conditions attaching to the problem. focusing on: • • • Developing skills and the ability to apply these skills to unfamiliar situations Gathering. The following process may prove useful in engaging the students in the problemsolving process. transferring skills and strategies to new situations. discovering patterns and similarities. but it was usually used in a token way as a starting point to obtain a single correct answer. How do the students know that the steps are correct? Can the students defend their reasoning? Reflection Does the students’ solution valid? Can the students show that the result is correct? . Planning Once the students understated the problem encourage them to plan a solution and to identify appropriate strategies and tools. Can the students explain their reasoning? Experimentation Check to see if the agreed strategies work. confidence and open-mindedness. defining problems and goals. organising. • The questions attached to this document are intended to engage the students in problem solving where the focus is on the process rather than the answers they ultimately achieve. the more able students should be exposed to the simpler problems before advancing to the more complex ones. professional organisations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM. Make sure that the students read and re-read the question and that they identify all the clues. Decide if each step in the solution is correct. Developing curiosity. which leads us to the next section. ANS---11 (II) --Although mathematical problems have traditionally been a part of the mathematics curriculum. usually by following a single 'correct' procedure. More recently.Note: This solution may also be formatted as "x = ± 2". 1980 and 1989) have recommended that the mathematics curriculum should be organized around problem solving. In the past problem solving had a place in the mathematics classroom.

13 However. Reform-based practices that emphasize student January 2007 interaction improve both problem-solving and conceptual understanding without the loss of computational mastery.In this model.3 and finally step aside as students take increasing responsibility for sustaining and enriching interactions. Why then does the traditional mathematics teaching model. student interaction was one of ten essential characteristics of effective mathematics teaching.Powerful problems are problems that allow for a range of solutions. In the math reform literature.4 The benefits increase further when students share their reasoning with one another. and disagreeing are encouraged.Can they suggest alternative methods of solving the problem? ANS---11-(III)---Research tells us that student interaction – through classroom discussion and other forms of interactive participation – is foundational to deep understanding and related student achievement. Discomfort for some with their own level of math content knowledge11 and lack of sustained professional development opportunities also make teachers reluctant to adopt math-talk strategies. teachers have devised some particularly effective strategies for facilitating math-talk. Research has firmly established that higher-order questions are correlated with increased student achievement. left to their own devices. the complex negotiation of mathtalk in the classroom requires facilitation skills and heightened attention to classroom dynamics. the time required for facilitated interaction has been identified by teachers as an inhibitor to implementing math-talk. continue to be the common instructional approach in many elementary schools? Math teachers face a number of challenges in facilitating high-quality student interaction.In an extensive study examining math classroom activity. The teacher must model math-talk so that students understand the norms of interaction in the math classroom. Time is another challenge. talking. The teacher provides students with powerful math problems to solve together and students are expected to justify and explain their solutions. The biggest is the complexity of trying to teach mathematics in ways they did not experience as students. learning math is viewed as a social endeavour. especially in face of curricular demands . . Challenges that Teachers Face • complexities of teaching mathematics in ways they did not experience as students • discomfort with their own mathematics knowledge • lack of sustained professional development opportunities •greater requirement for faciltiation skills and attention to classroom dynamics • lack of time. But implementing discussion in the mathematics classroom has been found to be challenging. agreeing. the math classroom functions as a community where thinking. or a range of problem-solving strategies.12 encourage students to justify their solutions and build on one another’s ideas. In the face of curricular demands. students will not necessarily engage in highquality math-talk. The primary goal is to extend one’s own thinking as well as that of others. The teacher plays an important role. particularly for conceptual understanding. Math problems are powerful when they take students beyond the singular goal of computational mastery into more complexmath thinking.However. focused on basic computational procedures with little facilitation of student discourse. Further. or “math-talk”. the research also tells us that despite these challenges.