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Wkh olqhdu yhorflw| ri wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| C dv wkh uvw wlph ghulydwlyh ri lwv srvlwlrq yhfwru hC ' h n @ ' % n + n !5 n !R @ ' R % n R + n !R E5 n @ lv  +  n R E+  %  n !R 5 C ' h  C ' R %  n R +  n !R 5  n  R  hC ' R E%  n @   @  Htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq Prwlrq ri wkh erg| lv jryhuqhg e| Hxohu*v prglhg htxdwlrqv 6E  C%R n C5R / R+R  C+R / R5R  ' 8%o n 6}5 6E  C+R n C%R /R5R  C5R / R%R  ' 8+o n 6} 6E  C5R n C+R /R%R  C%R /R+R  ' 85o  6}% 7 %o n 8+o @ U/  R%R n EU5  U /R+R / R5R n U5 l/R+R '  7 +o  8%o @ U/  R+R  EU5  U / R%R / R5R  U5 l/R%R '   '  7 5o U5 E/  R5R n l +4143.PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHOV RI ULJLG HOHPHQWV 45 Dffruglqj wr Ht1 419/ frpsrqhqwv ri wkh dqjxodu vshhg ri wkh sulqflsdo d{hv dorqj v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %R +R 5R duh  % n R   + n !R  5 '    o ' R ' R  +41. ../ 4143 dqg 4145 lqwr htxdwlrqv 4144/ zlwk dffxudf| wr vpdoo pdjqlwxghv ri rughu rqh/ rqh fdq rewdlq wkh htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq lq wkh iroorzlqj irup  + ' 8% n 6}5 6%  n 6@  % ' 8+ n 6} 6+   6@ 65  ' 85  6}%  % n U5 l + '  7 % n 8+ @ U   +  U5 l % '  7 +  8% @ U 5 '  75 U5   +4146. Lqwurgxflqj Htv1 41. +41<. +4144. 7 dorqj wkh vwdwlrqdu| v|vwhp ri frrugl0 Frpsrqhqwv ri wkh lqwhudfwlrq irufhv 6 dqg  qdwhv/ dffruglqj wr Ht1 419/ duh htxdo wr wkhlu frpsrqhqwv dorqj wkh urwdwlqj v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv zlwk dffxudf| wr vpdoo pdjqlwxghv ri rughu rqh1 8%o ' 8% c 8+o ' 8+ c 85o ' 85 c 7 %o '  7 %c  7 +o '  7+c  7 5o '  75  +4145.

Li rqh dvvxph wkdw vkdiw/ wkh erg| lv dwwdfkhg wr/ fdq qrw shuirup d{ldo yleudwlrqv +5 ' f./ wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho iru wkh erg| fdq eh vlpsolhg wr wkh iroorzlqj irup 4 n U  ' + n 6C +4149.PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHOV RI ULJLG HOHPHQWV φx φy _ My y Iljxuh 7 46 My _ z O Mx φx _ Mx x ϕx φy _ My Mx z O ϕy Wkh vl{wk htxdwlrq ri 4146 uhsuhvhqwv wruvlrqdo yleudwlrqv Wkh judsklfdo lqwhusuhwdwlrq ri wkh dqjxodu glvsodfhphqwv dqg prphqwv lv jlyhq lq Ilj1 71 Lq Ilj1 7 qhz qrwdwlrqv iru wkh dqjxodu glvsodfhphqwv ) dqg prphqwv  / zklfk duh frpprqo| xvhg phfkdqlfv ri vrolgv/ duh vkrzq dovr1 Wkhuh h{lvwv wkh iroorzlqj uhodwlrqvkls ehwzhhq wkh dqjxodu glvsodfhphqwv  dqg ) dv zhoo 7 dqg  1 dv prphqwv  % ' )+ c + ' )% c 5 ' )5 c 7 % ' + c  7 + ' % c  7 5 ' 5  +4147. dqg wruvlrqdo yleudwlrq +)5 ' f. . Lqwurgxfwlrq ri Ht1 4147 lqwr Ht1 4146 |lhogv htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq lq wkh irup 6%  n 6@)  % ' 8% n 6})5 6+  n 6@)  + ' 8+ n 6} 65  ' 85 n 6})+ U)  % n U5 l )+ ' %  8% @  U)  +  U5 l )% ' +  8+ @ U5 )  5 ' 5  +4148.

1 Qrz/ ohw xv dvvxph wkdw wkh sulqflsdo prphqw ri lqhuwld U% dqg U+ duh qrw htxdo wr hdfk rwkhu exw lwv d{lv ri urwdwlrq frlqflghv wkh sulqflsdo d{lv ri lqhuwld 5R wkurxjk wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| C dvvrfldwhg zlwk wkh prphqw ri lqhuwld U5 +Ilj 8.. +414.PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHOV RI ULJLG HOHPHQWV zkhuh= 6 f 6@ 9 f 6 f 4 ' 9 7 6@ f U n 6@2 f 6@ f 5 6 f f f f 9 f f f f : : U ' 9 7 f f f U5 l 8 f f U5 l f 5 6 5 % 8% 9 + : 9 8+ : 9 ' 9 7 )% 8 c + ' 7 % )+ + 5 6 f 6@ : : 8 f 2 U n 6@ 47 6 : :c 8 6 f 9 6} : : 6C ' 9 7 f 8 6}@ 5 +414:. +4153.1 Lq Ilj1 8/ %+5 lv wkh devroxwh v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv1 Zlwk uhvshfw wr wkh devroxwh v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %+5 / wkh uljlg hohphqw shuirupv vpdoo prwlrq ghwhuplqhg e| wkh vpdoo srvlwlrq yhfwru h dqg wkh vpdoo dqjxodu glvsodfhphqw 1 Wkhvh wzr yhfwruv ghqhv srvlwlrq ri wkh urwdwlqj v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %o +o 5o 1 Wkh erg| urwdwhv derxw d{lv 5o zlwk wkh frqvwdqw yhorflw| l1 Wkhuhiruh lwv sulqflsdo d{lv 5R frlqflghv d{lv sulqflsdo 5o dqg wkh sulqflsdo d{lv %R +R duh glvsodfhg e| wkh dqjxodu glvsodfhphqw l| zlwk uhvshfw wr %o +o Ohw xv dvvxph wkdw wkh yhfwruv h dqg  duh jlyhq e| wkhlu frpsrqhqwv dorqj wkh urwdwlqj v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %+5 1 h ' % n + n !5  ' % n + n !5 +414<. . Dv rqh fdq vhh iurp wkh wklug ri htxdwlrq 4148/ wklv dvvxpswlrq uhvxowv lq h{lvwhqfh ri d{ldo irufh 85 ' 6})+ 41415 Htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq ri qrq0v|pphwulf erglhv Sk|vlfdo prgho Lq wkh frqvlghudwlrqv fduulhg rxw lq wkh suhylrxv sdudjudsk/ lw zdv dvvxphg wkdw d{lv ri urwdwlrq ri wkh uljlg hohphqw frlqflghv zlwk lwv d{lv ri v|pphwu| + U% ' U+ ' U .

PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHOV RI ULJLG HOHPHQWV z _ Mz Fz y r x z C a mg r G G Ω x _ Mx 48 O zr zp φ y yr a Fy _ My Fx xr Ωt xp Ωt yp Iljxuh 8 Pdwulfhv ri gluhfwlrqdo frvlqhv Pdwul{ ri gluhfwlrqdo frvlqhv ehwzhhq v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %+5 dqg %o +o 5o zdv gh0 ulyhg suhylrxvo| wr eh 65 6 5 6 5  5 + % %o 7 + 8 ' 7 5  % 8 7 +o 8 +4154. . 5 + %  5o Pdwul{ ri gluhfwlrqdo frvlqhv ehwzhhq wkh urwdwlqj sulqflsdo d{hv %R +R 5R lv dv iroorzv 5 6 5 %o ULt l |  t? l | 7 +o 8 ' 7 t? l |5 ULt l | 5o f f v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %o +o 5o dqg 6 65 f %R f 8 7 +R 8 5R  +4155.

PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHOV RI ULJLG HOHPHQWV 49 Khqfh / pdwul{ ri gluhfwlrqdo frvlqhv ehwzhhq wkh devroxwh v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %+5 dqg wkh sulqflsdo d{lv %R +R 5R lv 5 6 5 65 65 6 %  5 + ULt l|  t? l| f %R 7 + 8 ' 7 5  % 8 7 t? l| ULt l| f 8 7 +R 8 5 + %  f f  5R 65 6 5  t? l|  5 ULt l| + %R ULt l|  5 t? l| 5 t? l| n ULt l| % 8 7 +R 8 ' 7 n t? l| n 5 ULt l + ULt l| n % t? l| + t? l| n % ULt l|  5R 5 6 %R +4156. +4157. Lq d vlplodu pdqqhu rqh fdq ghyhors h{suhvvlrq iru frpsrqhqwv ri wkh srvlwlrq yhfwru h dorqj wkh sulqflsdo d{hv %R +R 5R  5 6 5 6 5 6 %R % % ULt l| n + t? l| 7 +R 8 ' dR<@ oA 7 + 8 ' 7 % t? l| n + ULt l| 8 +415:. +4158. ' dR<@ o 7 +R 8 5R Dqjxodu dqg olqhdu yhorflwlhv Wkh dqjxodu vshhg ri wkh urwdwlqj v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv dffruglqj wr Ht1 4153 lv  % n   + n ! 5  '  o '  Lwv frpsrqhqwv dorqj wkh sulqflsdo d{hv %R +R 5R duh 5 6 5  6 5   + t? l| 6 % % ULt l| n  /oR%  + 8 ' 7   % t? l| n   + ULt l| 8 7 / oR+ 8 ' dR<@ oA 7  5 5 /oR5   Khqfh/ wkh dqjxodu vshhg ri wkh sulqflsdo d{hv lv  R ' o n !R l  % ULt l| n   + t? l| n R E  % t? l| n   + ULt l n !R E  5 n l ' R E +4159. 5R 5 5 Khqfh/ wkh srvlwlrq yhfwru ri wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| C lv hC ' h n !R @ ' R E% ULt l| n + t? l n R E% t? l| n + ULt l n !R E5 n @ Lwv uvw wlph ghulydwlyh |lhogv wkh devroxwh yhorflw| ri wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| C1 C ' h  C ' hC n   hC  % t? l| n   + ULt l| ' R E%  ULt l| n +  t? l| n @E  + t? l|  % ULt l| n  nR E%  t? l| n +  ULt l|  @E n!R E5  +415.. . +415<.

PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHOV RI ULJLG HOHPHQWV Htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq 4: Prwlrq ri wkh erg| lv jryhuqhg e| Hxohu*v Htxdwlrqv ri Prwlrq wkdw kdyh wkh iroorzlqj irup 6E  C%R n C5R /R+R  C+R /R5R  ' 8%R n C%R 6E  C+R n C%R / R5R  C5R /R%R  ' 8+R n C+R 6E  C5R n C+R / R%R  C%R / R+R  ' 85R n C5R 7 %R n 8+R @ U% /  R%R n EU5  U+ /R+R /R5R '  7 +R  8%R @ U+ /  R+R n EU%  U5 /R%R /R5R '  7 5R U5 /  R5R n EU+  U% /R%R /R+R '  +4163. Lq wkh deryh htxdwlrqv C%R c C+R c C5R vwdqg iru frpsrqhqwv ri wkh judylw| irufh B ' 6} wkdw fdq eh rewdlqhg zlwk khos ri wkh pdwul{ ri gluhfwlrqdo frvlqhv Ht1 41561 5 6 5 6 5 6 C%R f 5 6} ULt l| n 6} t? l| 7 C+R 8 ' dR<@ oA 7 6} 8 ' 7 5 6} t? l| n 6} ULt l| 8 C5R f 6}% Vlploduo|/ wkh frpsrqhqwv ri lqwhudfwlrq irufhv dorqj wkh sulqflsdo d{hv 7 %R c  7 +R c  7 5R 8%R c 8+R c 85R c  fdq eh h{suhvvhg lq whupv ri wkhlu frpsrqhqwv dorqj wkh devroxwh v|vwhp ri frrugl0 qdwhv %+5 1 5 6 8%R 7 8+R 8 85R 65 6 5 8% ULt l|  5 t? l| n t? l| n 5 ULt l + ULt l| n % t? l| ' 7  t? l|  5 ULt l| 5 t? l| n ULt l| + t? l| n % ULt l| 8 7 8+ 8 %  85 + 5 6 8% ULt l| n 8+ t? l| 7 8% t? l| n 8+ ULt l| 8 +4166. ' 85 +4164. . +4165.

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PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO RI VKDIWV element 1 Oi z node 1 x node i x i yi ϕ xi ϕ yi y Iljxuh 53 node N element i element N-1 79 ai 1 yi1 Fi Ei Ji Ai ρ i z yi2 ϕ yi1 li y Iljxuh 54 2 ϕyi2 + lv htxdo wr wkh yluwxdo zrun surgxfhg e| d vhw ri irufhv dorqj wkh frruglqdwhv + )+ +2 )+2  Khqfh < . + A A A A @ ? )+ +41478. Y` ' 8  + E@ c | ' i8 c  c 82 c 2 j +2 A A A A = > )+2 Exw dffruglqj wr 41454 .  2  .

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 .PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO RI VKDIWV .

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PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO RI VKDIWV O Ci Oi z 7. xR yR O yRi Oi ayi axi xR a) i z xR yR O α xi Ci yR i α yi xR i b) Ci Oi Fa xRi Fa xR yRi z c) xR i yR yR i Iljxuh 55 Ci Oi Fa yRi Fa x i Fa xRi Fa y i xi Ωt xRi yR i yi Iljxuh 56 .

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PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO RI VKDIWV 83 !K@@ @% n !K@o !Ko@ @% n !Koo Vhfrqg htxdwlrq |lhogv -o -o -o ' 6%-@ ' f +4148. Vlploduo|/ wkh htxlydohqw yhfwru ri irufhv lq sodqh +.t? l| n 6@+.. Lqwurgxfwlrq ri htxdwlrq 4148< lqwr wkh uvw htxdwlrq ri wkh v|vwhp 4148.t? l| +41496.' f zkhuh  6+-@ ' !K@@ @+ n !K@o E!3 Koo E!Ko@ @+  +41494.ULt l| 41516 Prghoolqj ri uhvlgxdo xqedodqfh Lq wkh deryh prghoolqj zh kdyh dvvxphg wkdw wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| ri hdfk vhfwlrq C frlqflghv d{lv ri urwdwlrq ri wkh vkdiw  dqg sulqflsdo d{hv ri hdfk vhfwlrq frlqflgh d{hv ri urwdwlrq1 Wklv dvvxpswlrq lv qhyhu vwulfwo| ixooohg1 Wkh uhvlgxdo xqedodqfh O Gi Oi xi yi x ϕx i ϕy z i xi yi y Iljxuh 57 ri hdfk urwru vhfwlrq / dffruglqj wr wkh frqvlghudwlrq fduulhg rxw vhfwlrq 416 ri wkh .5 lv   6+-@ 6@+. +41495.  ' !3 Koo E!Ko@ @%  +4148<.ULt l|  6@+. surgxfhv wkh zdqwhg h{suhvvlrq iru 6%-@  6%-@ ' !K@@ @% n !K@o E!3 Koo E!Ko@ @%  +41493. 6@ E| ' ' 6@+ 6@%. Htxlydohqw yhfwru ri irufhv dorqj wkh vwdwlrqdu| v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv/ dffruglqj wr Ht1 41485 lv     6@% 6@%.

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+414:9. Vlqfh yhfwru K kdv wr eh/ lq wkh fdvh frqvlghuhg/ htxdo wr wkh yhfwru M/ vxevwlwxwlrq ri wklv uhodwlrqvkls lqwr wkh vhfrqg htxdwlrq ri Htv1 414:6 |lhogv htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq ri wkh urwru lq wkh iroorzlqj irup1 4oo o n !oo o K  !or MK ' +o n 6o  4oK M +414:7.PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO RI VKDIWV rqh fdq rewdlq wzr vhwv ri htxdwlrqv 4KK K n 4Ko o n !KK 4oK K n 4oo o n !oK n !Ko K n !oo K o o 86 ' +K n 6 K ' +o n 6o +414:6. Wkh odvw wzr whupv uhsuhvhqw wkh h{whuqdo h{flwdwlrq fdxvhg e| prwlrq ri wkh vxssruwv  1 41519 Frqvwudlqwv lpsrvhg e| uljlg erglhv Dffruglqj wr wkh dgrswhg dvvxpswlrqv/ prwlrq ri wkh hohphqwv dorqj wkh d{lv 5 lv qhjohfwhg dqg urwdwlrq derxw d{lv 5 lv dvvxphg wr eh nqrzq1 Wkhuhiruh/ d uljlg erg| kdv lq wkh sodqh %5 wzr ghjuhh ri iuhhgrp dqg lq wkh sodqh +5 kdv dqrwkhu wzr ghjuhh ri iuhhgrp1 H1j11 frruglqdwhv +o dqg )o xqltxho| ghwhuplqh srvlwlrq ri wkh uljlg erg| lq wkh +o 5 sodqh ri wkh urwdwlqj v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %o +o 5 +vhh Ilj1 5:. Prwlrq ri wkh v|vwhp vxssruwhg xsrq wkh vxssruwv  dorqj wkh frruglqdwhv o lv jryhuqhg e| vroxwlrq ri wkh htxdwlrq 414:71 Li rqh ghqrwh wklv prwlrq e| jo E|/ wkh uvw htxdwlrq ri Htv1 414:6 rhuv wkh g|qdplf uhdfwlrqv dorqj frruglqdwhv wkh vkdiw lv vxssruwhg xsrq1  n 4Ko j  o n !KK M n !Ko jo E|  6K +K ' 4KK M +414:8.1 Khqfh/ li rqh fkrrvh wkhp dv wkh lqghshqghqw frruglqdwhv/ srvlwlrq ri wkh erg| dorqj wkh frruglqdwhv +o2 c )o2 c +o. Lw lv hdv| wr qrwlfh wkdw wkh htxdwlrq ri prwlrq ri wkh vxssruwhg vkdiw Ht1 414:7 kdv wkh vdph irup dv wkh xqvxssruwhg rqh1 4 n ! ' + n 6 zkhuh=  K  !or MK 6 ' 6@ E| n 6L E| n 6*  4oK M +414::.

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1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05[m] ϕ y6 ϕ y7 ϕ ϕ y14 y15 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.7 x 0.1 0.0001m 0.3 a 0.10.3 a = 0.1 0.1 [m] y y y y y y 1 2 3 4 5 6 y y y y y y y y 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 y y y y y y 15 16 17 18 19 20 Iljxuh 7 ri doljqphqw ri wkh krohv lv K ' ffffd6o1 Wklv guxp lv frqqhfwhg wr wkh h{leoh vkdiw dqg vxssruwhg dv vkrzq lq Ilj1 71 Wkh g|qdplf surshuwlhv ri wkh vkdiw duh dv iroorzv= _ ' ffD6 0 gldphwhu ri wkh vkdiw .65 m Ixx = I 2 b Iljxuh 6 Wkh guxp vkrzq lq Ilj1 6/ fdq eh frqvlghuhg dv uljlg erg|1 Wkh wrohudqfh 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0. ' f2  f2 *62 0 \rxqj prgxoxv C ' ffSSS  f2 *62 0 vkhdu prgxoxv D ' f.SUREOHPV 617 SUREOHPV Sureohp 45 447 x m=50kg 0.1 0.05 z z yy = I =15kgm 2 I z =10kgm b = 0.

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9 rad/s α =735. ' +S n f. c +S c +.5rad/s a) b) Iljxuh 8 dgrswhg lq wkh iroorzlqj irup= +. c +H c +b c +2f oA qrw hqjdjhg frruglqdwhv1 Vroxwlrq ri wkh hljhqydoxh dqg hljhqyhfwru sureohp iru wkh deryh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho uhvxowv lq wkh iroorzlqj qdwxudo prghv dqg qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv ri wkh xqfrq0 vwudlqhg dqg iuhh 0 iuhh urwru1 Dffruglqj wr Ilj1 6/ wkh frqvwudlqw htxdwlrqv fdq eh _ α = 266.

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1 Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri wkh iroorzlqj qrq0 krprjhqhrxv htxdwlrq         S S f S +616<. 4 n} n! ' ULt l| n t? l| S ) S ) S )S 6+ 6r + . n} n! ' 4 ) S ) S )S B uhsuhvhqwv wkh vwdwlf gh hfwlrq olqh gxh wr wkh judylw| irufhv1 Lw lv vkrzq lq Ilj1 <1 Durxqg wklv htxloleulxp srvlwlrq wkh urwru shuirupv wkh irufhg yleudwlrq gxh wr wkh qrq }hur wrohudqfh K +vhh Ilj1 6. Wkh qdwxudo prghv dqg wkh qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv ri wkh vxssruwhg vkdiw0guxp vxe0 v|vwhp duh vkrzq lq Ilj1 ..SUREOHPV zkhuh 4_ '  6 6@ 6@ U n 6@2  c U_ '  f f f U5 l  c B_ '  6} 6}@  44: +6169.1 Wkh irufhg yleudwlrqv/ gxh wr wkh lqdffxudf| ri wkh guxp/ duh dssur{lpdwhg e| wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri wkh iroorzlqj qrq0krprjhqhrxv htxdwlrq1        S   r  6% 6% S S S +6173. 6S 6%S +%S_ f %S n n ULt l | n t? l ' BS_ ++S_ 6S 6r +S +S Wkh qdwxudo prghv ri wkh iuhh0iuhh vkdiw 0 guxp vxe0v|vwhp duh vkrzq lq Ilj1 :1 Lqwurgxfwlrq ri wkh erxqgdu| frqglwlrqv +vhh sdjh 85. uhvxowv lq wkh iroorzlqj a) b) α = 937 rad/s α = 1069 rad/s Iljxuh : pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho1          S   r  6% 6% S S f S 4 n} n! ' n ULt l| n t? l| ) S ) S )S B 6S 6r + + +616. Dssolfdwlrq ri wkh frpsrvlwlrq uxohv wr wkh htxdwlrq 6167 dqg 6167 |lhogv htxdwlrq ri prwlrq ri wkh iuhh0iuhh vkdiw 0 guxp pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho1       S S S n} n! 4S_ ) S  S_ )  S  S_  )S     r  +616:.

1x10 -4 static deflection [m] 2x10 -4 Iljxuh < Dpsolwxgh ri wkh irufhg yleudwlrq dorqj wkh frruglqdwh +S +vhh Ilj1 7.3 rad/s a) b) Iljxuh .SUREOHPV 44. dv d ixqfwlrq ri wkh dqjxodu yhorflw| l lv suhvhqwhg lq Ilj1 431 Gxh wr wkh jhrphwulfdo v|pphwu| ri wkh v|vwhp frqvlghuhg/ wkh uvw fulwlfdo vshhg +lSo ' be.4 rad/s α =194. α = 420.

do@_*ro. frlqflghv zlwk wkh uvw qdwxudo iuhtxhqf| zkhuhdv wkh vhfrqg fulwlfdo vshhg + lSo2 ' DSHdo@_*ro . lv gxh wr wkh j|urvfrslf hhfw/ kljkhu1 .

SUREOHPV 10 44< amplitude x 10 4 [m] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Ω [rad/s] Iljxuh 43 Sureohp 46 Wzr ehdpv= ehdp @ dqg ehdp K/ vkrzq lq Ilj1 44d.1 Wkh g|qdplf surshuwlhv ri wkhvh ehdpv duh dv iroorzv . uhvshf0 wlyho|/ duh mrlqhg wrjhwkhu dorqj wkh frruglqdwhv +2e e| wkh xqlyhuvdo mrlqw +vhh Ilj1 44f. ' f2  f2 *62 0 \rxqj prgxoxv C ' ffSSS  f2 *62 0 vkhdu prgxoxv D ' f.. dqg Ilj1 44e.

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.f ' ffD +ee ' ffD Frpsxwh= 41 Vwdwlf htxloleulxp srvlwlrq ri wkh urwru v|vwhp 51 Qdwxudo prghv dqg fruuhvsrqglqj qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv 61 Uhvsrqvh ri wkh urwru v|vwhp gxh wr prwlrq ri wkh vxssruwv= +6174.

05 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 a) 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 b) c) 0.05 φ 0.4 1 2 0.1 φ 0. zkhuh= @ ' d+ c +2 c c +22 c +2.06 φ 0.05 3 4 z d) y Iljxuh 44 Vroxwlrq1 Wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho ri wkh ehdpv @ dqg K duh dv iroorzv  @  @   @  @   @  4 4@ )  ! !@ ) B 2 2 n ' @ @ @ @ @ @ 42 622 + 2e !2 &22 +2e C@ 2e  K 6K  42 K 42 4K 22 +6175.  K + 2e K ) 2  n  K & !K 2 K !2 !K 22  K +2e K )2  '  CK 2e B@ 2  +6176.1 2.04 φ 0.08 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 453 φ 0.04 φ 0.SUREOHPV φ 0.

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c +ee o +6177. Ilj1 47 suhvhqwv wkh qdwxudo prghv dqg wkh fruuhvsrqglqj qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv ri wkh vxe0v|vwhp wkdw lv jryhuqhg e| htxdwlrq 61781 Diwhu uhrujdql}dwlrq ri htxdwlrqv 6178 . 5 @ 65 6 5 @ 65 6 5 6 4 4@ f )  ! !@ f ) B@ 2 2  @ K K 87 + @ K K 8 7 + 8 ' 7 C@ n CK 8 7 4@ 2e 8 n 7 !@ 2e 2 622 n 6 42 2 &22 n & !2 2e 2e K K K f 42 422 ) 2 f !2 !K ) BK 2 22 2 +6178. Qdwxudo prghv dqg wkh fruuhvsrqglqj qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv ri wkh ehdp @ dqg ehdp Dssolfdwlrq ri wkh frpsrvlwlrq uxohv K duh vkrzq lq Ilj1 45 dqg 46 uhvshfwlyho|1 |lhogv pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho ri wkh wzr ehdpv mrlqhg dv vkrzq lq Ilj1 44f.

SUREOHPV 454 ω 1=230.3rad/s ω 2=757.1rad/s Iljxuh 46 .8rad/s Iljxuh 45 ω 1 =215.8rad/s ω 2 =719.

8rad/s ω =217.9rad/s 2 Iljxuh 47 zlwk uhvshfw wr wkh vxssruwhg frruglqdwhv ).SUREOHPV 455 ω 1=142.

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SUREOHPV 456 ω 1 =113.9rad/s ω 2 =388.6rad/s Iljxuh 48 rhuv wkh qdwxudo prghv dqg wkh qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv wkdw duh vkrzq lq Ilj1 481 Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri htxdwlrq= 4ee ) e n!ee )e ' Be !e.

surgxfhv htxloleulxp srvlwlrq ri wkh v|vwhp frqvlghuhg1 Lw lv vkrzq lq Ilj1 491 Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri htxdwlrq 4ee ) e n!ee )e ' !e. Mf +6186.

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02 0.06 Iljxuh 49 amplitudes of the kinematic excitation amplitudes of vibrations [m] x 10 2 Iljxuh 4: .01 0.03 0.SUREOHPV 457 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.

d./ wkh v|vwhp kdv ehhq vsolw lqwr wzr vxe0v|vwhpv vkrzq lq Ilj1 4.066 x 10 12 [N/m 2 ] dencity d=7800 [kg/m 3 ] all dimension are in meters Iljxuh 4.SUREOHPV Sureohp 47 458 Wr prgho wkh urwru v|vwhp vkrzq lq Ilj1 4.1 Wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho ri wkh iuhh0iuhh vkdiw 4 +wrjhwkhu zlwk ehdulqjv 6 .03 mass of bearings 3 .05 Φ 0.e.15 [kg] missalignment a=0.01 0.04 0. kdv ehhq frqghqvhg dorqj frruglqdwhv wr wkh qrghv 4/5/6/7/81 Dorqj frruglqdwhv          %  c %2 c %.0. 3 a) 1 z 1 y1 1 y2 y31 y41 Φ 0.04 y5 Φ 0.2 x 10 12 [N/m 2 ] Shear modulus G=0.06 b) y32 y42 0.00001 [m] Young modulus E= 0.02 2 a y51 z 2 Φ 0.

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n '       42 422 2 !2 !22 + 2 2%   4  42  4 2 422   )   ) 2  n   !  !2  ! 2 !22   )  )2  '  B  B 2  + + + 2+  +6189. c +e c +D wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prghov duh uhvshfwlyho|              4 4  ! ! +% 2 2  +6188. .

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Wkh orzhu htxdwlrqv 6195 dqg 6196 irup wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho ri wkh vxssruwhg vkdiw 41     4 22 2 n!22 2 ' +2%     4 2 n! 22 )2 ' B2 n+2+ 22 ) +6197.. Dw wklv vwdjh ri frpsrvlwlrq wkh| duh qrw frxsohg dqg wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri    4 2 n! 22 )2 ' B2 22 ) +6198. fdxvhv yhfwru ri h{whuqdo h{flwdwlrq ghwhuplqhg e| wkh irupxod 414851 Lq wkh fdvh frqvlghuhg wklv yhfwru ri h{flwdwlrq lv 6% ' !2 @2 + t? l| 6+ ' !2 @2 + ULt l| +6199. Vroxwlrq ri wkh krprjhqhrxv htxdwlrq 619: |lhogv wkh qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv dqg qdwxudo prghv1 Wkh| duh vkrzq lq Ilj 541 Frpsrvlwlrq ri wkh wzr pdwkhpdwlfdo prghov 6197 dqg 619:/ uhvxowv lq pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho ri wkh urwru v|vwhp1 2 2 2 2 2  E4  n E! 22 n4 ) 22 n! ) ' B2 nB n! @+ ULt l|  2 2 E4 22 n4  n E!22 n!  2 ' !2 @2 + t? l% | +619. dqg wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho ri wkh vkdiw 5 wdnhv wkh iroorzlqj irup 42 2 n!2 2 2 42 ) 2 n!2 )2 ' B2 n !2 @2 + ULt l| n ++ 2 ' !2 @2 + t? l| n +% +619:. Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri htxdwlrq 2  2 E6 + n E&22 n &2 + ' C 22 n 6  2nC +619<. D vlplodu wuhdwphqw ri htxdwlrqv 6189 |lhogv     4 2 n! 2 )2 ' B n++ 2 )     4 2 n! 22 )2 ' B2 n+2+ 22 ) +6196. |lhogv vwdwlf gh hfwlrq ri wkh vkdiw 4 dqg wkh jhqhudo vroxwlrq surgxfhv lwv qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv dqg qdwxudo prghv1 Wkh| duh vkrzq lq Ilj1 4< dqg Ilj1 53 uhvshfwlyho|1 Wkh vkdiw 5 vkrxog eh frqvlghuhg dv shupdqhqwo| gh hfwhg vkdiw1 Wkh shupdqhqw gh hfwlrq +vhh sdjh 7:. .SUREOHPV 45: Vroxwlrq1 Vlqfh wkh vkdiw 4 lv vxssruwhg dorqj frruglqdwhv   / ohw xv sduwlwlrq wkh htxd0 wlrqv 6188 dqg zlwk uhvshfw wr wklv yhfwru dqg lqwurgxfh wkh erxqgdu| frqglwlrqv   ' f1   4 2 2 n!2   4 22 2 n!22  2  2 ' + % ' + 2% +6195.

4 0.2 0.3 0.0 17920 [rad/s] 41720 [rad/s] 0.0 -0. y [m] 1.1 0.1 0.0 -1.0 x10 -4 0.5 z [m] Iljxuh 54 .5 z [m] Iljxuh 4< 1.0 338.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 45.2 0.0 0.4 0.SUREOHPV 0.3 0.4 0.7 [rad/s] 2073 [rad/s] 0.3 0.5 z [m] Iljxuh 53 1.

SUREOHPV 0.3 0./f.0 x 10 -3 0.0 45< 1. rqh nhhsv wkh wlph ghshqghqw whupv rqo|/ 2 2 2 2 E4  n E! 22 n4 ) 22 n! ) ' ! @+ ULt l|  2 2 E4 22 n4  n E!22 n!  2 ' !2 @2 + t? l% +61:3. uhvshfwlyho|1 Li lq wkh uljkw kdqg vlgh ri htxdwlrq 619./e.1 0. lwv sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq uhsuhvhqwv wkh irufhg yleudwlrqv ri wkh dvvhpeo| gxh wr wkh pdqxidfwxulqj wrohudqfhv1 Dpsolwxgh ri wkhvh irufhg yleudwlrqv /dorqj frruglqdwhv +.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 x 10 -3 2.5 z [m] Iljxuh 55 uhsuhvhqwv vwdwlf gh hfwlrq olqh lq wkh yhuwlfdo sodqh +5 1 Lw lv vkrzq lq Ilj1 551 Vroxwlrq ri wkh krprjhqhrxv htxdwlrq rhuv wkh qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv dqg wkh qdwxudo prghv1 Wkh uvw wkuhh qdwxudo prghv dqg wkh fruuhvsrqglqj iuhtxhqflhv duh vkrzq lq Ilj1 56d.

c +e dqg +D / dv d ixqfwlrq ri wkh dqjxodu yhorflw| ri wkh urwru lv suhvhqwhg lq Ilj1 571 .

65 [rad/s] 0.2 0.2 0.5 z [m] c) 11920 [rad/s] 0.0 1.0 b) a) 87.0 0.0 Ω [rad/s] Iljxuh 57 10 000 .0 0.1 0.0 x 10 -4 y3 A [m] y5 y4 0.3 0.0 0.0 1653 [rad/s] -1.2 0.0 0.3 1.SUREOHPV 463 1.5 z [m] Iljxuh 56 1.3 0.1 0.4 0.0 -1.5 z [m] -1.0 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.

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+717.1 Xsrq dvvxplqj wkh sduwlfxodu srvlwlrq lq irup f ' fr t ' tr +719. rqh pd| rewdlq wkh iroorzlqj irupxodh iru frruglqdwhv ri wkh htxloleulxp srvlwlrq zklfk duh xvxdoo| uhihuuhg wr dv wkh vwdwlf gh hfwlrq ri wkh vkdiw1 fr ' 8fr c & tr ' 8t r & +71:. |lhogv wkh htxloleulxp srvlwlrq +fr c tr . .PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO 465 srvlwlrq ri wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| J lv ghwhuplqhg e| wkh dqjoh l| dqg wkh lpedodqfh > +yhfwru hC 1 Wkh devroxwh srvlwlrq ri wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| J/ lq Ilj1 5 lv ghqrwhg e| hC  Wkh yhfwru 6r uhsuhvhqwv wkh vwdwlf uhvxowdqw irufh dfwlqj rq wkh hohphqw H1 + vwdqgv iru wkh lqwhudfwlrq irufh ehwzhhq wkh hohphqw frqvlghuhg dqg wkh vkdiw1 715 PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO Prwlrq ri wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| C lv jryhuqhg e| wkh Qhzwrq odz 6 hC ' + n 6r zkhuh dffruglqj wr Ilj1 5 hC ' WEf n> ULt l| n aEt n> t? l| + ' W&f  a&t 6r ' W8fr n a8t r +714. +715. Lq wkh deryh irupxod & vwdqgv iru vwlqhvv ri wkh vkdiw dw wkh srlqw F dqg ft duh lwv frruglqdwhv1 Lqwurgxfwlrq ri Ht*v1 715 lqwr Ht1 714/ uhvxowv lq wkh iroorzlqj vhw ri glhuhqwldo htxdwlrqv1  >l2 ULt l| ' &f n 8fr 6Ef  >l2 t? l| ' &t n 8t r 6Et ru diwhu uhrujdql}dwlrq  n &f ' 8fr n 6>l2 ULt l| 6f  n &t ' 8t r n 6>l2 t? l| 6t Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri wkh qrq0krprjhqhrxv Ht1 718  n &f ' 8fr 6f  n &t ' 8t r 6t +718. +716.

. lqwr wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho 717 lq htxdwlrqv zklfk jryhuq wkh g|qdplf gh hfwlrqv %+1 6%  n &% ' 6>l2 ULt l| 6+  n &+ ' 6>l2 t? l| ru %  n /2 % ' ^ ULt l| +  n / 2 + ' ^ t? l| zkhuh /' u +7143. Lqwurgxfwlrq ri Ht1 71. +7144. Xsrq pxowlso|lqj wkh htxdwlrq 7144 e| wkh lpdjlqdu| xqlw  dqg dgglqj wkh htxdwlrqv 7143dqg 7144/ rqh pd| rewdlq wkh htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq ri wkh urwru lq wkh iroorzlqj irup 5  n /2 5 ' ^el| zkhuh 5 ' % n + +7147. +7146. & c 6 ^ ' >l2 +7145.1 f ' fr n % t ' tr n + +71. +71<.PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO Ys O o Xs x C G y X 466 x µ Ω t Y y Iljxuh 6 Wkh wrwdo gh hfwlrq ri wkh vkdiw f /t duh vxp ri wkh vwdwlf gh hfwlrq fr c tr dqg wkh g|qdplf gh hfwlrq %/+ +vhh Ilj1 6. .

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PRGHOOLQJ zkhuh= /2 % ' 2?% ' S?% c 6 &% c 6 2?% ' /2 + ' S?% c 6 &+ 6 2e% ' Se% 6 48< ^% ' l2 >%.n 2Ee% n ?+ + . Yhu| riwhq/ lqvwhdg ri wkh vtxduhg qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv ri wkh vwdwlrqdu| vkdiw /2 % dqg / wkhlu dyhudjh pdjqlwxgh lv lqwurgxfhg /2 + /2 J ' 2 /2 % n /+ 2 +8149. dqg vr fdoohg frh!flhqw ri sdudphwulfdo h{flwdwlrq 0 0' 2 /2 %  /+ 2 /2 % n /+ +814:.  f f  2Ee% n ?%  2l n2l 2Ee% n ?+   ( - 2 /2 2e% l J E n 0  l 2 /J E  0  l2 n2e% l  ' %+-   6 ' 6^ n 6} ' ^% ^+  n  } t? l| } ULt l|  +8153..n 2Ee% n ?% % 2 2 + .nU.'  -' 6  +814<. 2l+ . .c ^+ ' l2 >+- +8148. .' ^% n } t? l| J E n 0  l o%.n!zkhuh= 4.n d/2  . 2e% l+. Qrz/ rqh fdq hdvlo| duudqjh iru wkh deryh htxdwlrqv wr eh rujdqlvhg lq wkh vwdqgdug pdwul{ irup1 4.'   ( U..n 2l%  .n d/ J E  0  l o+.'  !.' ^+ n } ULt l| +814.n 2e% l%. Lqwurgxfwlrq ri wkh deryh h{suhvlrqv lqwr Ht1 8146 |lhogv 2 % .

U- Wkh lpdjlqdu| sduw / . Wkh frpsoh{ qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv o '  n /..nU./ pd| eh rewdlq iurp wkh fkdudfwhulvwlf htxdwlrq zklfk/ dffruglqj wr frqvlghudwlrq surylghg lq sduw5 fkds14 +vhh sdjh 446.n!-' f +8154.DQDO\VLV 815 DQDO\VLV 493 81514 Dqdo|vlv ri wkh iuhh yleudwlrqv 0 vwdelolw| dqdo|vlv Wkh krprjhqhxrv sduw ri htxdwlrq 815. jryhuqv wkh iuhh prwlrq ri wkh urwru frqvlghuhg dqg kdv wkh iroorzlqj irup 4. +8155./ kdv wkh iroorzlqj irup1 md  oom ' f zkhuh '   +8156..dqg wkh uhdo sduw  ri wkh frpsoh{ urrwv o dv d ixqfwlrq ri wkh urwdwlqj vshhg l duh suhvhqwhg lq jxuhv 6 7 81 . f    3 !  4 43 . .

1 Uhjlrq ri wkh dqjxodu vshhg zlwklq zklfk iuhtxhqf| ri yleudwlrq jurzlqj wr lqqlw| lv htxdo wr wkh dqjxodu vshhg lv fdoohg vlpsoh lqvwdelolw| uhjlrq1 Iru wkh dqjxodu vshhg juhdwhu wkdq l ? wkh htxloleulxp srvlwlrq ri wkh urwru lv vwdeoh1 40 20 ωR [1/s] 0 -20 -40 0 10 20 30 a) Ω [1/s] 4 2 h [1/s] 0 -2 -4 0 Ωn l b) 10 20 simple instability region 30 Ωn u Ω [1/s] Iljxuh 6 . ? wkhuh h{lvwv irxu qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv +lpdjlqdu| sduwv.' f1 Lw phdqv wkdw wklv iuhtxhqf| zlwk uhvshfw wr wkh vwdwlrqdu| frruglqdwhv / lv htxdo wr wkh dqjxodu vshhg ri wkh urwru l +vhh Ht1 7169 sdjh 46. zklfk fruuhvsrqg wr wkh uhdo sduw htxdo wr f1 Wkhuhiruh zlwklq wklv uhjlrq wkh htxloleulxp srvlwlrq ri  wkh urwru lv vwdeoh1 Iru udqjh l..DQDO\VLV 494 Lq Ilj1 6 uhvxowv ri dqdo|vlv ri wkh xqgdpshg fdvh Ee% ' ?% ' ?+ ' f duh vkrzq iru /J ' Dd*ro dqg 0 ' fS1 Iru wkh dqjxodu vshhg zlwklq wkh udqjh f l l. ? l l? wkhuh h{lvw wzr qrq0}hur uhdo sduwv  zklfk fruuhvsrqg wr wkh lpdjlqdu| sduwv htxdo wr }hur1 Rqh ri wkhvh uhdo sduwv lv srvlwlyh1 Wkhuhiruh wkh yleudwlrq ri wkh urwru zloo jurz wr lqqlw| dqg lwv htxloleulxp srvlwlrq lv xqvwdeoh1 Iuhtxhqf| ri wklv yleudwlrq/ dv lw fdq eh vhhq iurp wkh urwdwlqj v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv/ lv htxdo wr }hur E/.

4 0./ lv doprvw xqfkdqjhg exw wkh zlgwk ri wkh lqvwdelolw| uhjlrq +vhh Ilj1 7e .6 ε 0..DQDO\VLV 495 Wkh lq xhqfh ri wkh h{whuqdo gdpslqj rq vwdelolw| ri wkh htxloleulxp srvl0 wlrq lv suhvhqwhg lq Ilj1 7 Wkh gldjudp ri wkh qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv/ frpsxwhg iru / J ' Dd*ro/ 0 ' fSc e% ' 2d*ro/ ?% ' ?+ ' f dqg vkrzq lq Ilj1 7d . Ω [1/s] Iljxuh 7 .8 0. lv juhdwo| dhfwhg1 Wkh zlgwk ri wkh vlpsoh lqvwdelolw| uhjlrq dv d ixqfwlrq ri wkh frh!flhqw ri sdudphwulfdo h{flwdwlrq 0 lv suhvhqwhg lq Ilj1 7f . iru glhuhqw pdjqlwxghv ri wkh h{whuqdo gdpslqj1 Iurp wklv gldjudp rqh fdq vhh wkdw iru vx!flhqwo| odujh h{whuqdo gdpslqj wkh lqvwdelolw| uhjlrq lv vxssuhvvhg wr }hur1 40 20 ωR [1/s] -20 -40 0 a) 0 2 0 h [1/s] -2 -4 -6 0 10 20 30 Ω [1/s] b) Ω [1/s] l 10 Ωn 20 Ωu n 30 simple instability region 0.2 0 0 10 20 h ex= 0 [1/s] h ex= 2 [1/s] h ex= 5 [1/s] 30 c) .

6 ε 0.8 0. 40 20 ωR [1/s] -20 -40 0 a) 0 2 0 h [1/s] -2 -4 -6 0 10 20 30 Ω [1/s] Ωn Ωn 10 20 30 l u Ωt Ω [1/s] b) simple instability region instability threshold 0. +Ilj1 8.DQDO\VLV 496 Wkh lqwhuqdo gdpslqj +?% ' 2d*roc ?+ ' d*ro.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 c) Ω [1/s] Iljxuh 8 . dhfwv wkh vlpsoh lqvwdelolw| uhjlrq dqg fdxvhv wkh lqvwdelolw| wkuhvkrog iru kljkhu dqjxodu vshhg ri wkh urwru1 +frpsduh zlwk uhvxowv ri dqdo|vlv lq sdjh 479 Ilj1 4<.

Xvlqj wkh frpsoh{ qrwdwlrq +vhh sdjh 466. Khqfh/ wkh frpsoh{ yleudwlrq dv wkh| fdq eh revhuyhg iurp wkh vwdwlrqdu| v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv/ dffruglqj wr 714. wkh irufhg yleudwlrq duh= 5-^ ' %-^ n +-^ +815<. zkhuh %-^ dqg +-^ duh jlyhq e| Ht1 815:1 Wkh deryh htxdwlrqv duh htxlydohqw wr %^ '  t?El| n ) +^ '  ULtEl| n ) zkhuh= +8165. Hyhqwxdoo|/ prwlrq ri wkh urwru frqvlghuhg dorqj wkh vwdwlrqdu| v|vw|p ri frruglqdwhv %+ gxh wr lwv lpedodqfh lv= %^ ' %-^ ULt l|  +-^ t? l| +^ ' %-^ t? l| n +-^ ULt l| +8164.DQDO\VLV 81515 Dqdo|vlv ri wkh irufhg yleudwlrqv Irufhg yleudwlrqv fdxvhg e| lpedodqfh 497 Dffruglqj wr Ht1 8153 wkh irufhg yleudwlrq fdxvhg e| lpedodqfh duh jryhuqhg e| wkh iroorzlqj htxdwlrq1 4. .  +815. sdjh467/ duh dv iroorzv1 5^ ' 5-^ el| ' %-^ ULt l|  +-^ t? l| n E%-^ t? l| n +-^ ULt l| +8163.n!zkhuh= 6 ' 6^ '  -' 6 +8157. . ^% ^+  +8158.nU. Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri wkh deryh htxdwlrq fdq eh suhglfwhg dv d yhfwru ri frqvwdqw pdjqlwxghv -^ ' SJ?r| +8159. Lqwurgxfwlrq ri Ht1 8158 lqwr Ht1 8157 |lhogv wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq lq irup     ^% %-^  3 ' -^ ' !^+ +-^ zkhuh !.'  2 /2 2e% l J E n 0  l 2 n2e% l / J E  0  l2 +815:...

'9 7 % 8 '  nlUl2 4. Lqwurgxfwlrq ri wkh deryh h{suhvlrq lqwr wkh htxdwlrq 8168 |lhogv dojheudlf vhw ri htxd0 wlrqv olqhdu zlwk uhvshfw wr wkh frqvwdqw 5 dqg  Wklhu vroxwlrq rhuv pdjqlwxghv ri hohphqwv ri wkh pdwulfhv 5 dqg  5 6 7 %     3   2 9 7+ : 5  l 4 n !  l U } r : +816. Wkh wzr fulwlfdo vshhgv frlqflgh wkh ohiw dqg uljkw lqvwdelolw| uhjlrq zlwklq zklfk wkh vroxwlrq 8165 duh xqvwdeoh1 Irufhg yleudwlrqv fdxvhg e| judylwdwlrq Wkh irufhg yleudwlrqv fdxvhg e| judylwdwlrq duh jryhuqhg e| wkh iroorzlqj htxdwlrq1 4. -' 6 +8168.nU. ) ' |@?  +-^ Dv rqh fdq vhh iurp 8164/ wkh iuhtxhqf| ri wkh irufhg yleudwlrq fdxvhg e| wkh uhvlgxdo lpedodqfh lv htxdo wr wkh dqjxodu vshhg l ri wkh urwru dqg wkh dpsolwxgh ri wklv yleudwlrq lv lqghshqghqw ri wkh lqwhuqdo gdpslqj1 Wkh dpsolwxgh dv d ixqfwlrq ri wkh dqjxodu vshhg ri wkh urwru lv suhvhqwhg lq Ilj1 9 iru wkh iroorzlqj qxphulfdo gdwd /J ' Ddo@_*roc 0 ' fSc e% ' 2d*roc ?% ' 2d*roc ?+ ' d*ro +8167..n !}S + Khqfh/ wkh vroxwlrq dorqj wkh urwdwlqj v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv fdq eh zulwwhq dv iroorzv %-} ' 7% t? l| n % ULt l| +-} ' 7+ t? l| n + ULt l| .DQDO\VLV 498  0 vwdqgv iru dpsolwxgh ri wkh irufhg yleudwlrq/ ) 0 lv wkh skdvh ehwzhhq wkh h{flwdwlrq irufh dqg wkh v|vwhp uhvsrqvh1 t ?K ' E%-^ 2 n E+-^ 2   %-^  3 +8166.n!zkhuh= 6 ' 6} '   '   t? l| n   ULt l| ' }r t? l| n }S ULt l| +8169. .. } t? l| } ULt l| } f f } Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri wkh htxdwlrq 8168 fdq eh suhglfwhg lq wkh iroorzlqj irup1 -} ' 5 t? l| n  ULt l| +816:.

04 b) 0. +816<. .DQDO\VLV 2 0 h [1/s] -2 -4 -6 0 499 Ω nu Ω nl 10 20 30 Ωt Ω [1/s] a) simple instability region instability threshold 0.1 0. wkh frpsoh{ vroxwlrq fdq eh wudqviruphg wr eh     % n 7+ +  7% l| %  7+ + n 7% 3l| 5-} ' n e n n e 2 2 2 2 +8174.06 unstable solutions 0.08 stable solutions A unb [m] 0.02 0 Ω cr = Ω nl l 10 20 u= Ω cr Ω nu 30 Ω [1/s] Iljxuh 9 ru lq wkh frpsoh{ irup1 5-} ' %-} n +-} ' E7% n 7+  t? l| n E% n +  ULt l| Vlqfh dffruglqj wr wkh Hxohu irupxodh t? l| ' el|  e3l| ( 2 ULt l| ' el| n e3l| 2 +8173.

DQDO\VLV 49: Wkh frpsoh{ sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq dorqj wkh vwdwlrqdu| v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv/ dffruglqj wr 714. . Lq wkh deryh irupxod %r dqg +r duh uhihuhg wr dv wkh htxloleulxp srvlwlrq ri wkh urwru1 Lq jhqhudo wklv htxloleulxp srvlwlrq ghshqgv rq wkh lqwhuqdo gdpslqj dqg wkh urwru*v dqjxodu vshhg l +frpsduh zlwk uhvxowv ri dqdo|vlv ri lq xhqfh ri lqwhuqdo gdpslqj rq sdjh 477.1 %r ' +r %  7+ 2 + n 7% ' 2 +8177. sdjh 467/ duh dv iroorzv1     +  7% 2l| + n 7% % n 7+ %  7+ l| +8175. 5} ' 5-} e ' n e n n 2 2 2 2 Vhsdudwlrq ri wkh uhdo sduw iurp wkh lpdjlqdu| sduw lq wkh h{suhvvlrq 8175 |lhogv prwlrq ri wkh urwru dorqj wkh % dqg + d{hv ri wkh vwdwlrqdu| v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv1 %} ' +} %  7+ +  7% % n 7+  t? 2l| n ULt 2l| ' %r n }o t?E2l| n ) 2 2 2 + n 7% % n 7+ +  7% ' n t? 2l| n ULt 2l| ' +r  }o ULtE2l| n ) 2 2 2 +8176. }o vwdqgv iru wkh dpsolwxgh ri wkh irufhg yleudwlrqv fdxvhg e| wkh judylwdwlrq1 v 2  2 +  7% % n 7+ }o ' n 2 2 Skdvh ri wklv yleudwlrqv lv ghqrwhg e| )   % n 7+  3 ) ' |@?  +  7% +8178.

/ fruuhvsrqg wr wkh iroorzlqj gdwd= /J ' Ddo@_*roc 0 ' fSc e% ' 2d*roc ?% ' 2d*roc ?+ ' d*ro +8179.1 0.DQDO\VLV 49. Uhvxowv ri wkh qxphulfdo frpsxwdwlrq ri wkh irufhg yleudwlrqv fdxvhg e| judy0 lwdwlrq/ suhvhqwhg lq Ilj*v1 : dqg . lv fdoohg vxekduprqlf uhvrqdqfh +vxekduprqlf fulwlfdo vshhg .1 2 0 h [1/s] -2 -4 -6 0 Ωn Ω nl 10 20 u Ωt 30 a) Ω [1/s] simple instability region instability threshold 0.04 unstable solutions b) 0.02 0 Ω 10 1 _ = ωo cr 2 20 30 Ω [1/s] Iljxuh : . wkh dyhudjh qdwxudo iuhtxhqf| ri wkh urwru / J 1 Vxfk d uhvrqdqfh +fulwlfdo vshhg. Lq Ilj1 : dpsolwxgh ri wkh irufhg yleudwlrqv lv suhvhqwhg dv d ixqfwlrq ri wkh urwru*v dqjxodu vshhg1 Iuhtxhqf| ri wkhvh yleudwlrqv/ dffruglqj wr Ht1 8176 lv wzlfh wkh dqjxodu vshhg l1 Fulwlfdo vshhg dsshduv dw wkh dqjxodu vshhg htxdo wr kdoi ri.06 A gr [m] 0.08 stable solutions 0.

04 Ω = 6 [rad/s] Ω = 40 [rad/s] Ω = 0 [rad/s] 0.06 -0.02 0.07 0.05 0.08 y [m] Iljxuh .02 -0.06 0.03 -0.01 x [m] 0. .04 -0.05 -0.DQDO\VLV 49< Ilj1 . vkrzv wudmhfwru| ri wkh htxloleulxp srvlwlrq dv d ixqfwlrq ri wkh urwru*v dqjxodu vshhg l1 -0.03 0.01 0.

wr eh dv iroorzv1  n Uj  n !j ' 6C 4j zkhuh= 6 6 f 6@ f 9 f 6 f 6@ : : 4'9 2 7 6@ f U n 6@ 8 f 2 f 6@ f U n 6@ f 9 f U'9 7 f f 5 6 f f f f f f : : f f U5 l 8 f U5 l f 5 5 & 9 f ! '9 7 &2 f 5 f & f &2 5 &2 f &22 f 6 f &2 : : f 8 &22 +914.Fkdswhu 9 DQDO\VLV RI PRWLRQ RI URWRU ZLWK RQH GLVN 914 PRGHOOLQJ S O G E Z Ω a Y Iljxuh 4 Ohw xv frqvlghu urwru vkrzq lq Ilj1 41 Dvvxph wkdw wkh vkdiw V ri wklv urwru lv h{leoh dqg pdvvohvv1 Wkh hohphqw H fdq eh frqvlghuhg dv d uljlg erg| dwwdfkhg wr wkh vkdiw dw wkh srlqw R1 Wkh srlqw R lv fkrvhq wr eh dq ruljlq ri wkh devroxwh v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv [\]1 Wkh fhqwuh ri judylw| J lv e| @ dsduw iurp wkh ruljlq R1 Wklv hohphqw srvvhvvhv pdvv 6 dqg wkh d{lv ] lv lwv d{lv ri v|pphwu|1 Wkhuhiruh wkh prphqwv ri lqhuwld derxw d{lv f dqg t duh htxdo wr hdfk rwkhu dqg duh ghqrwhg e| U% ' U dqg U+ ' U uhvshfwlyho|1 Wkh urwru urwdwhv zlwk wkh frqvwdqw dqjxodu yhorflw| l Wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho/ iru wkh deryh vwdwhg dvvxpswlrq/ zhuh ghulyhg lq sduw 4 +Ht1 41. 6 f 9 t : : j'9 7 )f 8 )t 6 f 9 6} : : 6C ' 9 7 f 8 6}@ +915. .5.

. +919. 6 % 9 + : : '9 7 )% 8 )+ 5 +91. +91<.1 5 6 5 6 L 8% 7 l2 ULtEl | n )7  9 L 8+ : 9 7 l2 t?El | n )7  : : 9 : +916.. +918. +91:. Ω y o ϕ z Y Iljxuh 5 j ' jr n wkh htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq fdq eh uhzulwwhq lq wkh iroorzlqj irup 4 n U  n ! ' 6L zkhuh +vhh Ilj1 5.PRGHOOLQJ 4:4 Iru ixuwkhu dqdo|vlv ohw xv dvvxph wkdw wkh hohphqw H lv vwdwlfdoo| dqg g|qdplfdoo| xqedodqfh1 Wkhuhiruh/ dffruglqj wr wkh frqvlghudwlrqv fduulhg rxw lq sduw 4/ lw lv qhfhvvdu| wr lqfoxgh lq wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho wkh iroorzlqj yhfwru uhsuhvhqwlqj wkh h{whuqdo h{flwdwlrq 6L +Ht1 4198. 6L ' 9 7 L % 8 ' 7 (l2 ULtEl | n )(  8 (l2 t?El | n )(  L+ Khqfh wkh pdwkhpdwlfdo prgho ri wkh v|vwhp frqvlghuhg fdq eh dgrswhg lq irup  n Uj  n !j ' 6C n 6L 4j Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri wkh iroorzlqj htxdwlrq  n Uj  n !j ' 6C 4j |lhogv frruglqdwhv ri wkh htxloleulxp srvlwlrq ri wkh v|vwhp1 Lw lv 5 6 fr 9 tr : 3 : jr ' 9 7 )f 8 ' ! 6C r )tr Li rqh lqwurgxfh qhz qrwdwlrqv +vhh Ilj1 . S O E Ys Z Ys +917.

+9145. |lhogv 6%  n 6@)  % n & % n &)% ' 7 l2 ULtEl | n )7  6+  n 6@)  + n & + n &)+ ' 7 l2 t?El | n )7  )% n U5 l)  + n &% n &22 )% ' (l2 ULtEl | n )(  6@%  n EU n 6@2  6@+  n EU n 6@2  )+  U5 l)  % n &+ n &22 )+ ' (l2 t?El | n )(  +9143. . 91514 Iuhh yleudwlrqv Li rqh qhjohfwv lq Ht1 9145 wkh h{whuqdo h{flwdwlrq gxh wr wkh uhvlgxdo xqedodqfh +7 ' f dqg ( ' f. Lwv sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq fdq eh suhglfwhg lq wkh iroorzlqj irup1 5 ' e/| )5 ' e/| +9148.DQDO\VLV 4:5 Wkh yhfwru ghwhuplqhv wkh lqvwdqwdqhrxv srvlwlrq ri wkh glvn zlwk uhvshfw wr wkh vwdwlrqdu| v|vwhp ri frruglqdwhv %+5 vkrzq lq Ilj1 51 Lqwurgxfwlrq ri 91< wr 91. Xsrq suh0pxowlso|lqj wkh vhfrqg ri Ht1 9143 dqg Ht1 9144 e| wkh lpdjlqdu| xqlw c dqg wkhq dgglqj htxdwlrqv 9143 dqg htxdwlrqv 9144 lq sdluv/ rqh pd| rewdlq wkh frpsoh{ irup ri htxdwlrqv ri prwlrq1 65  n 6@)  5 n & 5 n &)5 ' 7 l2 eEl|n)7  6@5  n EU n 6@2  )5  U5 l)  5 n &5 n &22 )5 ' (l2 eEl|n)(  zkhuh 5 ' % n + )5 ' )% n )+ 915 DQDO\VLV +9146. Lq wkh deryh htxdwlrq/ / uhsuhvhqw wkh qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv ri wkh urwru1 Wr hvwdeolvk wkh uhodwlrqvkls ehwzhhq wkhvh qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv dqg wkh dqjxodu yhorflw| ri wkh urwru/ ohw xv lqwurgxfh wkh suhglfwhg vroxwlrq 9148 lqwr wkh htxdwlrq ri prwlrq 91471 Wklv lqwurgxfwlrq |lhogv d vhw ri wkh dojheudlf htxdwlrqv olqhdu zlwk uhvshfw wr wkh frqvwdqwv  dqg  1 E/2 6 n &  n E/2 6@ n & ' f E/2 6@ n & n E/ 2 EU n 6@2  n U5 l/ n &22  ' f +9149. +9144./ wkh iroorzlqj krprjhqhrxv htxdwlrqv zloo jryhuq wkh iuhh prwlrq ri wkh urwru frqvlghuhg1 65  n 6@)  5 n & 5 n &)5 ' f 6@5  n EU n 6@  )5  U5 l)  5 n &5 n &22 )5 ' f 2 +9147.

lv lqglfdwhg e| wkh uhvxowdqw . 5 ' n  2 e 2 Lwv lqvwdqwdqhrxv srvlwlrq +vhh Ilj1 7.G ω 1 ω 2 y Iljxuh 7 . Iru srvlwlyh 6/ U / U5 c & / dqg &22 / wkh htxdwlrq 914: srvvhvvhv irxu uhdo urrwv1 Wzr n 3 3 ri wkhp duh srvlwlyh E/n  c / 2  dqg wkh rwkhu wzr duh qhjdwlyh E/  c / 2  Wkhvh irxu qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv/ dv d ixqfwlrq ri wkh urwdwlqj vshhg l/ duh vkrzq lq Ilj1 61 Wkh ω ω2 + + ω1 ω ω 1 2 Ω Iljxuh 6 olqhdu frpelqdwlrq ri wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrqv 9148 |lhogv prwlrq ri wkh fhqwuh ri vkdiw 1 n 3 3 /n  | n n e/ 2 | n 3 e/  | n 3 e/ 2 | +914.ri irxu yhfwruv1 Wzr ri wkhp shuirup wkh srvlwlyh suhfhvvlrq dqg wkh rwkhu wzr shuirup wkh qhjdwlyh suhfhvvlrq1 Ω ω + 1 x R + 2 ω C..DQDO\VLV Wkh deryh vhw ri htxdwlrq kdv qrq0}hur vroxwlrqv li dqg rqo| ghwhuplqdqw lv htxdo wr }hur1   /2 6 n & / 2 6@ n & m{E/c lm '   /2 6@ n & /2 EU n 6@2  n U5 l/ n &22 4:6 li lwv fkdudfwhulvwlf   'f  +914:.

zkhuh  dqg  duh wkh frpsoh{ frqvwdqw txdqwlwlhv zklfk fdq eh rewdlqhg e| lqwur0 gxfwlrq ri Ht1 9153 lqwr 91451 E6l2 n &  n E6@l2 n & ' 7 l2 e)7 E6@l2 n & n EEU n 6@2 l2 n U5 l2 n &22  ' (l2 e)( +9154. zlwk wkh vwudljkw olqh l ' / Wkhvh lqwhuvhfwlrq srlqwv duh vkrzq lq Ilj1 8   /2 6 n & / 2 6@ n & m{E/c lm '   /2 6@ n & /2 EU n 6@2  n U5 l/ n &22   'f  +915:. Wkh dpsolwxghv ri wkh irufhg yleudwlrqv kdyh lqqlwh pdjqlwxghv li wkh ghqrplqdwru m{Elm lv htxdo wr f Khqfh wkh htxdwlrq m{Elm ' f +9159. Vroxwlrq ri wkh deryh htxdwlrq zlwk uhvshfw wr wkh xqnqrzq  dqg  / dffruglqj wr Fudphu irupxodh/ duh m{ Elm m{Elm m{ Elm  ' m{Elm  ' zkhuh   m{Elm '     m{ Elm '     m{ Elm '     6l2 n & 6@l2 n &  6@l2 n & EU n 6@2 l2 n U5 l2 n &22    7 l2 e)7 6@l2 n &  2 )( 2 2 2 (l e EU n 6@ l n U5 l n &22   6l2 n & 7 l2 e)7   6@l2 n & (l2 e)(  +9155. +9158. iru l ' / Wkhuhiruh wkh fulwlfdo vshhgv fdq eh dowhuqdwlyho| rewdlq dv wkh lqwhuvhfwlrq srlqwv ri wkh gldjudp ri wkh qdwxudo iuhtxhqflhv ri wkh urwru +vhh Ilj1 6. . +9157. |lhogv wkh fulwlfdo vshhgv ri wkh urwru1 Lw lv hdv| wr qrwlfh wkdw wkh ghwhuplqdqw m{Elm lv htxdo wr m{E/c lm +vhh Ht1 914:. Wkh sduwlfxodu vroxwlrq ri wkh deryh htxdwlrqv fdq eh suhglfwhg lq wkh iroorzlqj irup +9153. +9156.DQDO\VLV 4:7 91515 Lq xhqfh ri uhvlgxdo xqedodqfh Wkh qrq0krprjhqhrxv htxdwlrqv zklfk jryhuq yleudwlrqv ri urwru gxh wr wkh uhvlgxdo xqedodqfh duh/ dffruglqj wr Ht1 9145/ dv iroorzv 65  n 6@)  5 n & 5 n &)5 ' 7 l2 e)7 el| 6@5  n EU n 6@2  )5  U5 l)  5 n &5 n &22 )5 ' (l2 e)( el| 5 ' el| )5 ' el| +914<.

DQDO\VLV 4:8 ω ω= Ω Ω cr2 Ω cr1 Ω cr1 Ω cr2 Ω Iljxuh 8 .

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3 0.3 (b) 60 40 ω [1/s] 20 (c) 0 Ω=ω -20 0 4 8 l Ω n1 12 16 u Ω n1 Ω [1/s] simple instability region Iljxuh 5 .1 h [1/s] 0 -0.2 0.3 30 20 10 ω R [1/s] 0 -10 -20 -30 (a) 0.DQDO\VLV 4.2 -0.1 -0.

8 h [1/s] (b) 50 40 30 ω [1/s] 20 10 0 -10 (c) Ω=ω 0 l Ω n1 4 8 u n1 l Ω n2 12 16 Ω [1/s] Ω u n3 Ω Ω u n2 Ω n3 l combined instability region simple instability regions Iljxuh 6 .2 0 -0.4 30 20 10 ω R [1/s] 0 -10 -20 -30 (a) 0.4 -0.2 -0.4 0.6 0.DQDO\VLV 4.8 0.6 -0.

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