You are on page 1of 218

c

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in

2007

with funding from

IVIicrosoft

Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/collectionoflatiOOhalkuoft

V LATIN MAXIMS AND KULES IN LAW AND EQUITY. MOST IN USE. .

.

BEING UNKNOWN. D. AND AN APPENDIX OF REFERENCE TO THE AUTHORITIES FROM WHICH THE MAXIMS ARE SELECTED. SRELLY. AND CHARLES HUNTER. AND CO. ON THE CIVIL. . 1823. FEUDAL. OF DECISIONS." L. LONDON. EDINBURGH: PRINTED FOR JOHN ANDERSON AND CO. . BY PETER HALKERSTON.COLLECTION OP LATIN MAXIMS & RULES. THE SCIENCE WHEREOF THEY ARE. CAUSES. ROYAL EXCHANGE MACREDIE. L. SELECTED FROM THE MOST EMINENT AUTHORS. 34. LAW BOOKSELLER.8. AND ELEMENTS. AUTHOR OF "THE COMPENDIUM OP THE FACULTY COLLECTION PRINCIPLES. &C. WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION. CANON. IS ALTOGETHER UNKNOWN. PRINCES STREET . ENGLISH AND SCOTS LAW. FORTESCUE b. IN LAW AND EQUITY.

Bayne. .Wnj. Printer. ifedinburgh. Jaiines's Court.

It has cost useful.PREFACE. as extensive as any that has hitherto been published. is me to me some That in it and I trust will be found to be it in every respect perfect. the fill Lawyer can have no difficulty in his practice. James's Square. Maxims are the pillars upon which the system is is erected. to up the outhne. General principles afford : the most beneficial subjects of reflection obvious. \ Maxims are general principles. that on the whole correct. St. be of any With regard say much. however. I trust. 1822. I beheve. it does not become labour. The collection of Maxims is. would be wrong me to suppose. that the hence it is memory cannot be to too well stored with Maxims. . With regard Law. When the memory stored with them. I have omitted none that I could discover to utility. it will be found pretty PETER HALKERSTON. here presented'to the Public. 18th December. to the translation.

1 .

Per qua&. regu a jus sumatur. for otherwise it A loses its iorce. non ut ex regula fiat. S\ rT"] TRANSLATION. sed ex jure.—L. rem quae est breviter enarrat. perdit officium ae Kegulis Juris Antiqui. suum. The rule is formed from the law that governs these cases. RULE of law is a maxim inferred from several cases depending on the same ground of law. And the rule must be applied duly to the proper cases . and not the law from the rule.THE NATURE OF A RULE Reoula est quag IN LAW. simul cum 1. quod reguJam igitur brevis rerum narratio m est. est. . ^iquo vitiata est. and is of HO significancy.

d .

. licet non affirmative. which admit of a clear interpre- tation. its From the impossibility of a thing to nonentity. and those points by no means to be changed.A OF LATIN MAXIMS. B . A non posse ad non esse sequitur argumentum necessarie negative. though not affirmatively. the argument or proof follows of necessity. A principalioribus seu dignioribus est inchoandum. negatively. et minime mutandae sunt quae certain interpretationem habent. A fact does not necessarily constitute a right. A coMMUNi observantia non est recedendum We must not depart rashly from common observance are . j or in we must attend to things of the greatest conset^ueucc. or more important matters other words. A digniori Title fieri debet denominatio et resolutio. We must begin with the more noble. IN LAW AND EQUITY. ought to proceed from the more worthy person. and acquittal A facto ad jus non datur consequentia.

or other applications. Abundans An cautela non excess of cautionary does no harm. principale. or explanation. An accessary follows the nature of his principal. and is not to be disputed. to accuse himself unless before .A rescriptls valet argumentum. absurd to affirm. making answers to petitions. not give credit to a judge. is From customary injury. is not so much to re- Accusare nemo Nobody ought se debet. the king's answer. Accesorium non ducit sed sequitur suum An accessary does not lead. Accipere quid ut justitiam facias. Accessorius sequitur naturam sui principalis. that we must nocet. Absurdum It is est. Ab assuetis non fit injuria. as to extort. A verbis legls non est recedendum. affirmare. re credendum esse non judici. non est tarn accipere quam To cxtorquere. An accessary follows the nature of the thing to which it relates. that you ceive. from a rescript or letter of a prince or emperor. An ar^ment more or proof is valid. treatment no injury happens . We must not depart from the letter of the law. God. nisi coram Deo. wherein he signifies his pleasure. or habit not an Absoluta sententia expositore non indiget. exposition. An absolute or perfect opinion or sentence. or laconically. but follows his principal. amounts to a law. Accessorium sequitur naturam rei cui accidit. needs no expounder. may do justice. receive any thing.

who dies. Actio non datur non dainnificato. Actio non tion. Actionum genera maxime sunt servanda. and without an intention Actio contra defunctum coepta. unless he accuse himself well. An action begun against a person agi:inst his heirs. nisi mens man action does not constitute a guilty unless he has a bad inten- Actio personalis moritur cum persona. nisi se bene de omissione excusaverit. impaired. Actio casus apud nostrates ea est. among our countrymen. or carried away arms. like good men. Acta exteriora indicant interiora secreta. Actio pcenalis in haeredem non datur. The nature of actions is strictly to be observed. A personal action dies with the person. External actions point out secret intentions within. implies an obligation to defraud to act fairly. nisi forte ex dam- no locupletior haeres factus action is sit. . A penal not sustained against an heir. concerning his neglect or omissien. in aliquo loco posita. unless richer by chance the heir hath become by the loss of the party. qua ut inter bonos bene agere oporteat et sine fraudatione.Accusator post rationabile tempus non est audiendus. An action is competent against any one. who hath destroyed. which have been deposited in any place. a cause The pleading of any one. An An action is not allowed to one who has sustained no sit rea. delevit sen abrasit. loss. continuitur in haeredes. An accuser after a reasonable time ought not to be heard. facit ream. may be transferred Actio datur si quis arma.

An act done involuntarily on iis part. Actor sequitur forum The agent rei. Actore non probante absolvitur reus. ratum is A judicial acts j but proceeding from persons in a judicial capacity ought to be act. autem a quocunque provenit. considered void ratified. can- not be recalled. act or visitation of God docs injury to nobody. . actus domini habetur. Actus An servi in quibus opera ejus communiter adhibita which he est. Actori incumbit onus probandi. . non my est meus ia actus. An act or deed of law does harm to nobody. the completion of which depends upon the An act. bounded. or a contingent circumstance. may be revoked upon . Legitimate acts or deeds. Actus legitimi non recipiunt modum. is considered the act of his master. Actus me invito factus. Actus Dei nemini The facit injuriam. si autem pendet ex voluntate tertiae personae vel ex contingent!. not my act. deed begun. is act of a servant in those things in commonly employ- ed with others. not in the presence of a judge. Actus judicarius coram non judice ministeriali irritus habetur. revocari non potest. the accused is acquitted. but if it depends upon the it will of a third person. do not admit of being modified. or will of the parties. When the accuser cannot prove his charge.Actus incoeptus cujus perfectio pendet ex voluntate partium revocari potest. attends the court where the business is carried on. Actus legis nemini facit injuriam. The burden of proving lies upon the prosecutor. or stinted. de esto.

but common to all. The judges. iEquitas casibus medetur. Ad questionem legis non respondent juratores sed judices. light. who is not in a capacity to do immediately on the death of the testator. Air. . and not the jurors. Admiralitas jurisdictionem non habet super iis quae com- muni lege dirimuntur.Ad Ad ea quae frequentius accidunt jura adaptantur. the running water. Natural reason allows one to defend himself against danger. as if were the davghter of consdepce. iEquitas curiae cancellariae quasi perat filia conscientiae obtem- secundum regulas is curiae. Aer. are the property of none. The laws electionem non cogitur qui statim mortuo testatx)re eligere non potuit. Equity remedies chances or misfortunes. Adhuc sub judice The matter is as yet undetermined. ferae. Ad questionem facti non respondent judices The sed juratores. determine the question of law. and not the judges. ^dificare intuo proprio solo non licet quod when alteri it noceat To build on ones own property is not allowed. He is not compelled to it. nuUi propria. may be hurt- ful to another. lux. those matters which The Admirality Court has no jurisdiction over are determined by common law. determine the question of fact lis est. make an election. object to the rules of Court. Adversus periculum naturalis ratio permittit se defendere. are adapted to those things which most frequently happen. omnibus communia. jury. aqua profluens. it The equity of the Court of Chancery. and wild beasts.

Equity admits some exception of something from the law generally enacted. et quae. an equality. ^quitas Equity is est correctio legis generaliter latse. Equity is as it were. and which in similar matters. Equity does cot confound jurisdiction. Equity assists ignorance. paria jura et judicia desiderat. but not in like manner carelessness. . jEquitas ex lege generaliter lata aliquid excipit. jEquitas eirorlbus medetur. qua parte deficit. in paribus rationibus. Equity is the suitableness of circumstances. MqmtSLS in eum qui vult summo jure agere. which equalizes all things. it is iEquitas est quasi aequalitas. who JEquitas in paribus causis paria jura desiderat. Equity stretches the utmost point of law towards him act according to the rigour of the law. the correction of the law generally enacted in the part where deficient. Equity rectifies mistakes. summum wishes to jus intendit. iEquitas est convenientia rerum quae cuncta eo sequiparat. jEquitas jurisdictiones non confundit. Equity in like causes requires like laws. jEquitas ignorantise opitulatur oscitantise non item.I JEquitas defectus supple t. That which and good is the law oi laws. ^quura et bonum is j^Usc est lex legura. Equity supplies defects. requires similar laws and judgments.

to prose- to the utmost extremity. ^quitas nomine bono poense constitutis remedium ex asquo el praestat. iEquitas nil statuit nisi in partes. which may be in the thii^gs hand or . iEquitas non supplet ea quae in Equity does not supply those grasp of an applicant. Equity does not change the nature of a thing. ^quitas neminem juvat cum Equity assists injuria alterius nobody to the injury of another. ^quitas non medetur defectu eorum quae jure requisita alium. or gives countenance to deliverance and seizen. or prosecute the same thing in a twofold way. manu orantis esse possunt. agreeable to what is just and good. Equity determines nothing unless towards the parties. ^Equitas naturam rei non mutat. but law. Equity does not permit any one at the same time to follow out. re- Mqmtas non sinit eum qui jus varum tenuit extremum jus persequi. ^quitas non facit jus.yEquitas liberationi et seizinae favet. iEquitas non sinit ut eandem rem duplici via simul quis persequatur. Equity furnishes a remedy to matters which have been appointed under the name of a punishment. Equity favours. Equity does not allow him cute it who hath obtained a true right. assists Equity does not constitute law. positivo Equity does not supply the deficiency of those things which are quired by positive law. sed juri auxiliatur.

.^quitas opitulatur ubi pensationi damni locus Equity assists where there is room for the compensation of a loss. uEquitas pars legis Angliae. Equity is liti ancillatur ubi remedium potest never the handmaid to strife. boundaries and ^quitas non vult res novas atque inusitatas inducere. unusual things. jEquitas rem ipsam intuetur de forma et circumstantiis minus anxia. sed terminos habet atque limites Equity is praefinitas. Equity considers the matter circumstances. Equity follows or attends the law. est. Equity is Hot bound to assist unless when the occasion renders k necessary.8 jEquitas non tenetur adjuvare ubi non est nodus dignus vindice. . to introduce Equity does not incline new and legi. itself.^quitas non vaga atque incerta est. jEquitas nunquam contravenit Equity never contravenes the law. not vague and uncertain. . iEquitas rei oppignoratae redemptionibus favet. iEquitas supervacua odit. Equity (is) part of the English law. but has detennmale or prescribed limits. where she can give a remedy. Equity hates superfluous matter*. ^quitas nunquam dare. less anxious about the form and ^quitas sequitur legem. Equity is favourable for the redemption of a thing given in pawn.

^stimatio praeteriti delicto ex postremo facto nunquam crescit. non neganti. above things to have restitution. The inclination is punished although the effect may not follow. An estimation of the past never increases from the fault last mltted. bonitatis et justitiae soror. favourable to wives. jEquitas vult spoliatos. equally favourable to that other. The affirmative implies the existence of the negative. Affirmanti. and the ruined. negativum implicat. Equity is liberis. upon the person affirming. creditoribus maximc favet. as that it which takes from him. ^quitas vult domum quod alteri obsit ex causa seque favorabili esse ac id quod aufert. the deceived. ^quitas Equity is veritatis filia.iEquitas uxoribus. com» Affectio tua nomen imponit a character operi tua service. the daughter of truth. / C . and chiefly to creditors. vel deceptos. incubit rests probation The burden of proving denying. iEquitas vult omnibus modis ad veritatem pervenire* Equity wishes by all means to arrive at truth. Your aflfection fixes upon your AfFectus punitur licet non sequatur effectus. vel lapsos ante nia restitui om all Equity wishes the spoiled. children. not upon him Affirmativum. and the sister of goodness and justice. another should Equity wishes that the house which may be injurious to be in the predicament.

AUegans contraria non est audiendus. same punishment. quia non One ought not to be judge in his own cause. A person alleging his own disgrace is not to be heard. dice I Aliud It is est possidere. AUegari non debuit quod probatum non That ought not to be alleged. principals and accessories should suffer the . aliud vendenti consentire. which. Aliud It is est vendere. AUegans suam tui-pitudinem non est audiendus. Altemativa petitio non is est audienda.10 Agentes The et consenticntes pari poena plectentur. one thing to and another thing to be in possession. when tried relevat. . sell. . The deceiving of one person does not afford an action to another. Aliquis non debet esse judex in propria causa potest esse judex et pars. is Alterius circumventio alii non praebet actionem. A person alleging contradictory things ought not to be heard. because he cannot be a judge and a party. one thing to and another thing to agree to the persons selling. and the brothel are infamous things. aliud esse in possessionem possess. An alternative petition not to be heard.^ Alea The et ganea res turplssimae. irrelevant.

An \ 5 ambiguous agreement is to be interpreted against the seller. to be considered as against the person who Ambiguis casibus seflnper is praesumitur pro rege. Ambiguum tem. latens verificatione facti tollitur. Ambiguum pactum contra venditorem interpretandum est. verified. placitum interpretari debet contra proferen- An ambiguous order is to be interpreted against the person uttering it. Ambiguitas verborum The latent fact. The latent ambiguity of words is supplied by their verification for the ambiguity which arises from the fact. verificatione nam quod ex facto oritur ambiguum. is taken away by its being . In doubtful cases there always a presumption in behalf of the king. so to be understood that the interest of the Ambigua gives responsio contra proferentem est accipienda. Ambiguitas verborum patens nulla tur. . verificatione excludi- The evident ambiguity of words is excluded by no verification. answer is An ambiguous it. intentio ita accipicnda est. facti tollitur. verificatione suppletur. ut res salva An ambiguous answer is pleader may be safe.11 Ambigua autem actori sit. is ambiguity of words removed by the establishment of the Ambiguitas verborum latens.

Impossibilities when they are spoken openly. man is the soul of his writing. The extreme points of the law are not the laws. . &c. ^ Animus hominis The mind of est anima scripti. et ita intelligimtur quam- diu habuerunt animum revertendi. and habitually. et ex consuetudine eunt et redeunt. are so far ours. eousque nostra sunt . fly back and fore. &c. Animalia fera. so long as they are inclined to return to U8. ut Cervi. if they have become tame. is Application the life of rule. Cygni. do not constitute calumny. as stags and swans. J Applicatio est vita regulae. i} Animi notum vultus detegit The countenance is the index of the mind. si facta sint mansueta. Aperte impossibilia cum dicuntur non faciunt calumniam. Arbitrio domini res fiestimari debet. and are so understood to be. and go and return.12 Anglise jura in omni casu libertatis dant favorem. . Apices juris non sunt jura. Wild animals. The laws of England in every case give countenance to liberty. volant et revolant. Property ought to be valued at the will of the owner.

division is from the strongest in the law. r ^ Argumenta ignota et IS et obscura ad lucem rationis profcrunt reddunt splendida. reason. less negatively. est fortissimum in jure. non valet valet e converse. plurimum valet in lege. has no weight Argumentum a An simili valet in lege. Atma in annates sumere jura anunt. Argumentum ab An authoritate est fortissimum in lege. Argumentum ab An argument impossibili. unknown and obscure and render them clear. from an impossibility has very great :weight Argumentum ab lex inconvenienti est validum in lege . . because the law does not allow any thing incongruous.. argument from the greater to the contrariwise. Argumentum a An argument divisione. is An argument from an incongruous thing not valid in law. is argument drawn from authority very strong in law. quia non permittit aliquod inconveniens. like case has argument from a weight In law. in law. arms against the ?irmed» The laws allow to take . negative. Arguments bring forward to the light of facts. Argumentum a An majori ad minus.

medicorum. Hunting curiously for words is unworthy of a judge. W Authoritates philosophorum. He commits barratry who barters justice for money. B. are to be re- garded and held in law. sunt in causis allegandae et tenendae. Beneficium non datum nisi propter ofHcium. A favour is not granted. The authorities of philosophers. unless on account of service. Baratriam committit qui propter pecuniam justitiam baractat. Beneficium non datur nisi officii cattsa. It is a blessed. Benedicta est expositio quando res redimitur a destnictione.14 Assignatus utitur jure auctoris. A benefice is not granted but for the sake of duty. .exposure when the thing is redeemed from destruction. physicians. An assignee enjoys the privilege of his author. Aucupia verborum sunt judice indigna. et poetarunij and poets.

nisi ex expresso all. est praeferenda. Beneficium principis debet esse mansurum. capital The benefit of the clergy inflicted is open to it when punishment is by the statute. and what is that the thing may succeed rather than perish . Benigne faciendae sunt interpretationes. Benigne faciendae sunt interpretationes propter simplicita- tem laicorum. et ut voletur repugnantia et su- pervacua Interpretations are to be made favourably. 15 -^ Beneficium clericale omnibus patet ubi poena capitalis statute inducitor. toUatjir. ut res magis valeat The meaning or the matter quam pereat. unless be taken away expressly. ut res magis valeat quam pereat.. ut res magis leat vat- quam pereat. that may rather succeed than perish. in general or doubtful words is to be . The more favourable opinion preferred. is interpretation of writs to be favourably taken. Benignior sententia in verbis generalibus seu dubiis. that the affair may rather prosper than perish. The kindness of a prince ought to be permanent Benigne faciendae sunt interpretationes chartarum. repugnant and superfluous may be avoided. Interpretations are to be favourably given of the simplicity of the laity.

quod ad se pervenerit. that their will or in- tention may be patitur .^ :^ Bona fides non patitur. Bis idem exegi bona fides non fieri quam semel facibus. The laws are to be more favourably explained preserved. i Bonaefidei possessor. quo conservetur. et in satisfaction. non pcrmittitur amplius tum est I Honesty does not satisfaction suffer the it is be exacted twice . put an end to the causes of the property of a good judge to gation. to enlarge his jurisdiction.16 voluntas earum Benignius leges interpretandae sunt. the property of a good judge Boni judicis It is est ampliare justitiam. ut bis idem exigatur» to . . and in hath been not granted that more be done than same thing to ] j once done. A bona fide possessor come to him. the property of a good judge to 1 liti- Bom judicis It is est causas litium dirimere.- Honesty does not permit the same thing be exacted twice. . is bound only with respect to that which has Boni judicis It is est ampliare jurisdictionem. enlarge or extend justice. in id tantum tenetur.

malum ex quolibet defectu. . non ad puniendos. lest law law suit . D . and it is the interest of the state that there be limits to law suits. Bonus judex secundum eequum et bonum judicat. ne lis ex lite oritur. It Is the est judicium sine dilatione mandarc execu- property of a good judge to give a mandate for execution without delay. is no good. Bonum necessarium extra terminos necessitatis non est bonum. Career ad homines custodiendos.17 Boni judicis tioni. and preferi Bonum Good is defendentis ex Integra causa. not for punishing them. A necessary good beyond the limits of necessity. A prison ought to be assigned for keeping men. Bonijudicis est lites dirimere. dari debet. et gequitatem stricto juri praefert. A good judge decides according to what is just and good equity to strict law. It is the property of a good judge to put an end to suit should arise out of law suits. et in- terest reipublicae ut sint fines litium. the result of a person defending from an entire cause : evil results from one defending from any defect.

Casus fortuitus non vinare. et incerta. A case omitted is to be considered as. ^ public cause does C^usa vaga :no!t admit of a substitute. omitted. but for ward. among the least Causa et origo est materia negotii. non is est causa rationabiliso A vague and uncertain cause not a reasonable cause. Casus omissus et oblivioni datus. Cause and origin are the subject matters of business. A case omitted and consigned to oblivion is left to the disposal of common law. de positioni communis juris relinquitur. cannot be lost. . est sperandus.18 Career non supplicii cJiusa sed custodiae conetitntus. things. Catalla reputantur inter Chatties are considered as minima in lege. (perhaps cattle). lawfully possessed. Causa publica vicarium non recipit. and nobody is bound to conjecture what may happen. et nemo tenetur di- A fortuitous case is not to be calculated upon. A little whelp. Catella juste possessa amitti non possunt. in law. Casus omissus pro omisso habendus est. A prison is ordained not for the sake of punishment.

woman who is under the power of her husband has no legal weight — is void in law.than a person.19 . . the effect ceases. seller Let the purchaser beware— let the beware. Caveat emptor . reason of a law discontinuing. Cessa regnare Cease to reign si if non vis judicare. in There 18 more security in the thing . -• Cessante causa. there be no power to judge. caveat venditor. The design and narration ought to be certain. which is brought into court to be Certum est quod certum reddi certain is potest. cessat ipsa lex. What can be rendered certain. . Certa debet esse intentio et narratio. tried. qui ignorare non debuit quod jus alie- num emit. et certum fundamen* turn. the law Charta ejus quae sub potestate The writing of that viri sit in lege nulla. et certa res qua? deducitur in judicium. and the foundation certain. Caveat emptor . The cause ceasing. Cessante ratione The i legis. cessat efFectus. itself discontinues. and the matter certain. Let the purchaser take care who ought not to be rgnorant what right of another he purchases. Cautionis in re plus est quam in persona.

A general clause does not refer to things mentioned. more severely punished than thost open- Clausula generalis de residue non ea complectitur quaa non ejusdem fuerant. repertum prsesumitur A bill found in the possession of a debtor. unnecessary clause.^0 Ohirographum apud debitorem solutum. or an ex post facto cause. inference. or disposition. in a secular office. Uncustomary clauses always induce suspicion. A certain matter it necessary sometimes to be brought trial. Clausula generalis non refertur ad expressa. sint generis cum iis quae speciatim dicta A general clause of reservation does not comprehend those things which may not be of the same kind with those wliich have been specially expressed. Certa res oportet in judicium deducatur. Clerici non ponantur in officio seculari. Clandestine transactions are ly committed. into court for Clam delinquentes magis puniuntur quam palam. is presumed to be paid. not supported by a remote Clausulae inconsuetae semper inducunt suspicionem. The clergy cannot be placed . Clausula vel dispositio inutilis per praesumptionem refacto is motam An vel causam ex post non fulcitur.

the excuse for the non performance of another. The appointment of an action for a certain day. A common error makes Commimiter unum One duty commonly is officium est excusatio alterius. Commercium in jure gentium et commune esse debet. when any thing in an uncertain case happens. confertur. A grant made to another person granting. Commodum ex injuria sua nemo habere debet. . should have a wide inter- Condictio dicitur. and the private gain of a few. law necessary. Communis error facit jus. which may have a tendency to be or not to be. to derive advantage Nobody ought from his injurious beliaviour. test cum quid in casum incertum.ai Collegium seu corpus corporatum nisi regiis constitutioni- bus non potest existere. and not to be converted into a monopoly. Commerce by the law of nations ought to be common. pretation. et non monopolium privatum paucorum quaestum convertendum. qui po- tendere ad esse aut non esse. A college or incorporated body^ cannot exist unless by royal authority. Concessio versus concedentem latam interpretationem habere debeat. is said to take place.

benigne. autem. which destroys one strictly. Conditio ex parte extincta ex toto extinguitur. An argument for taking away a ed. se- cundum verborum intentionem est interpret anda odiosa. Conditio beneficialis quae statum construit. free tenure. quae statum destruit. hse- redem quoque furis obligat.. binds the heir of the thief also. stricte. quia rei habct persecutionem. except ought not to be plead- from the deed. 2^ Condictio rei fuvtivae. ought to take place before can follow. is to A beneficial agreement which confirms be interpreted j favourably. Condictio praecedens adimpleri debet priusquam sequatur effectus. is to be understood according to the exact meaning of the words. relating to stolen implies the production of these stolen goods. as it on a certain day. Conditio ad liberum fenementum auferendum non nisi ex facto placitari debet. 4n agreement extinguished in part. The appointment of an any efFect action preceding^. state. one state. U wholly extinguished. secun- dum verborum proprietatem. action The appointment of an goods. . according to the intention of the words but an odious agreement. accipienda.

Conditiones prsecedentes stricte interpretandae. et commercium. Conditio partim extincta in omnibus cxtinguitur. it is otherwise concerning subsequent agreements. normam legis severe exilicet gendae aliter de subsequentibus ubi aequitati damnum rei infectae pensari. will have no weight by bare words without writing. is extinguished in them all. Preceding agreements must be rigorously exacted according to the rule of the law . Conditio neminem juvabit shall avail nisi qui pars fuerit aut privus. sed non ita de subsequentibus. where equity is allowed to make up for the loss incurred by the failure. strictly interpreted. An agreement extinguished in any of its parts. unless he have been a party. Preceding agreements are to be cerning subsequent ones. maxime autenr contra ma- trimonium Some agreements commerce. Conditiones prsecedentes ad . but not so con- Conditiones quaelibet odiosae . or it. but chiefly those against matrimony and .23 Conditio liberum tenemcntum cassans non per nuda verba sine charta valebit. An agreement making void a free tenement. are odious. shall An agreement privy to no one.

on trial. He confirms the use who takes away the abuse. made in a trial is stronger than all proof. omni probatione major Confession est. that which before was weak. Confirmatio est possessionis jure defective per eos jus est ratihabitio. to strengthen. There is no confirmation where the preceding gift is invalid.Confessio facta in judicio. Confirmare nemo potest priusquam jus Nobody can confirm before the right fall ei aoccderit. Confirmare est id quod prius infirmum fuit. The confirmation of a possession defective in law. Confessus in judicio pro judicato habetur. firmare vel firmum To confirm is facere. et quodam- modo sua A person sententia damnatur. Confirmat usum qui toUit abusum. or make strong. is quorum a ratification by meaos of those whose right . Confirmatio est nulla ubi donum praecedens est invali- dum. is who confesses considered as judged . it is. and in somo measure is condemned on his own admission. to him.

Consensus est voluntas plurium ad quos res pertinet simul in civilibus juncta. that of the person his interest lies. and even ignorant where Consensus facit jus. . The conjunction or union of male and female of nature. sometimes.25 Confirmatio omnes supplet defectus. Conscientia legis ex lege pendet. Consent is the joint will of many. although that which was done at Confirmation supplies all defects. Consciousness never contravenes the law. A consciousness of the law depends upon the law. Conjunctio maris et faeminae est de jure naturae. est licet id quod actum ab initio non valuit. Conscientia legi nunquam contravenit. the beginning hath not been valid. nonnunquam vel absentis et ubi ejus interest etiam ignorantis. does the same. : in civil cases. and in criminal cases the silence of a person present presumes consent absent. Consent constitutes law. is according to the law Conscientia legalis ex lege fundatur. Legal consciousness is founded upon the law. et in criminalibus silentium praesentis con- sensum prsesumit . to whom the thing at the same time belongs .

cunning intervene. non possunt ante annos nubiles. Construction is referred to the cause. de dolo actio competit. There Is no obligation not to give fraudulent counsel is . Consensus. and the parties cannot consent before marriageable years. Consentientes et agentes pari poena plectentur. Consentire matrimonio non possunt infra annos nubiles. Consilii non fraudulenti nulla obligatio est. Consent constitutes written Consensus non concubitus tire facit matrimonium. shall be subjected to the same punishment. and those who act. Consensus tollit errorem. Those who consent. Caeterum si dolus et calliditas intercessit. et con sen- Consent. an action competent concerning the Constructio ad causam refertur. . lavy. constitutes matrimony". facit matrimonium. constitutes marriage. Consent takes away error. Persons cannot consent to marriage before marriageable years. non coitus. but if fraud and craft.26 Consensus facit legem. Consent. and not cohabitation. and not coition.

contra rationem introducta. Constructio secundum eequalitatem rationis. Constructio est secundum aequitatem. referred to the principles of a tiling. Tiie construction of law doee not occasion injury. Consuetude alicujus loci lex specie diversa sed est legis loci . Consuetudo. Constructio legis non facit injuriam.27 Constructio ad principia refertur Construction is rei. legi communi non in genere contraria place . but not contrary in kjnd. potius usurpatio quam consuetudo appellari debet. habetur. ought rather to be called tisurpa- tion than qustom. . pro nullis . Construction is according to tlie equality of reason. for if uncertain. Conetruction is according to equity. it goes for nothing. Custom ought to be certain nam incerta. The custom of any place is the law of that to different in species commmi law. Custom introduced against reason. Consuetudo debet esse oerta.

and interprets a written law. is of a manor. however. nunquam tamen praejudicat manifestse veritati. if the law be general. regit. Custom is the good. rationabilis. be Consuetudo ex certa causa rationabDi usitata. to be observed. and common practice of any place. Usual custom from a certain reasonable cause. privat com- munem legem. if special. although it be of great authority. and of a place. it Custom and common practice overrules a law not written. cui memoria hominis non currat in contrarium. Consuetudo Custom is est optima interpres legum. is. never prejudical to evident truth. reasonable. Custom. contrary to which nothing is in the recollection of man. certain.28 Consuetudo est bonus. et interpretatur legem scrip- lex generalis. the best interpreter of the laws. Consuetudo tam) et communis assuetudo sit vincit legem non scriptam si si sit specialis. certus et communis loci alicujus usus. Consuetudo maneriorum domini voluntatem The custom of manors rules the will of the master. excludes common laws. . Consuetudo licet sit magnae authoritatis. Consuetudo manerii The custom et loci est observanda.

totius Angliae est lex totius Angliae com- The custom of all England is the common law of all England. lex volentes Custom guides those who are willing willing. Consuetudo volentes ducit. and the strongest in law. Consuetudo regni Angliae. Consuetude populi Anglican! The custom et communis lex liberta. is the law of England. Consuetudo praescripta et legitima. not prejudicial to truth. . et fortissimain lege. The custom of the kingdom of England.29 Consuetude neque Custom can neither injuria oriri neque tolli potest. is of the English people. Consuetudo non praejudicat Custom is veritati. : trahit. and the common law free. law draws those who are Contemporanea expositio The est optima. Consuetudo munis. Consuetudo pro lege servatur. Custom 18 observed for law. vincit legem. arise nor be taken away by injury. est Lex Angliae. Lawful and prescribed custom overcomes law. is exposition of contemporaries the best.

qui circumvenit salvis verbis legis. sententiam ejus He acts against the law. Against good morals. in fraudem vero. The law never allows any thing against truth. quod lex prohibet . Prescription does not run against one unable to act. mentem partium verbis notatam intelli. are not considered valid. observing the words of the law. or sub^iersive of good morals. Contra legem facit. meaning. Agreements made contrary to the civil law. non currit praescriptio. is void . qui id facit. according to the intention of parties expressed in words. ^/ Cdiitra non valentem agere. A contract is to be understood. rata non ha- bentur. that which the law prohibits but who. A c<mtract In an infamouj cause. Contra veritatem lex nunquam aliquid permittit. Contra jus civilis regulas pacta conventa. Contractus ex turpi causa. who docs he its acts fraudulently.90 Contra bonos mores. vel contra bonos mores nullus. Contractus ad gendus. eludes .

The joining together of words. or one under age. nor suffer attaint. ehows their acceptation in the same sense. invalid. Corpus corporatum non habet haeredes. Conventio privatorum non potest publico juri derogare. nor grant power of attorney j nor be excommunicated. The handling of another man's property with an intention of stealing it. nor forfeit their goods. Corpus corporatum neque in lite sisti neque utlagari. his loss. neque bona forisfacere. neque executores. nor executors. An incorporated body cannot be brought forward personally in a law suit. neque mori potest An incorporated body has no heirs. . one person. animo furandi. is theft. neque excommunicari potest.91 ' Contractus infantis invalidus The si in damnum is sui spcctet. if tends to Contrectatio rei alienae. Corpus corporatum ex uno potest An incorporated body can consist of consistere. est furtum. Copulatio verborum indicat occeptationem ineodem sensu. attoma- tum facere. nor can it die. neque attinctum pati. The agreement of p€r6on8 cannot derogate from public right. it contract of au infant. nor outlawed.

While wickedness increases. Crimen omnia ex se nota vitiat.32 Corpus humanum non recipit ajstimationem. et id. concedere videtur res ipsa esse . Tortures are odious to the laws. it. What any one which the grants to one. and that without . Cruciatus legibus invisi. is greater is allowed. A crime vltiatea all things proceeding from Crimina morte extinguntur. of valuation.not admit Creditor qui permittit rem venire. gives up the plfedge. sine quo non potuit. The creditor who allows property to be sold. Crescente malitia. non debet quod minus est non licere. what is lest ought also to be Cuique aliquis quid concedit. crescere debet et poena. he appears to grant thing-itself could not be. Cui licet quod majus. Crimes are extinguished by death. Crimen ex postfacto non diluitur. The human body does . To whom what allowed. . pignus dimittit. punishment ought also to increase. A crime is not attoned for by an after action.

Cujus est solum.9$ Cuilibet in arte sua credendum. He who has a right Cujus juris fi. ejus debet esse periculum. Jurisdictionis) est. ea quoque concessaessevidentur. has the advantage. Cui jurisdictio data sine. est. is He to whom more allowed than proper. have the risk. Cui plus licet quam par is est plus vult is quam licet. ejus est usque ad ccelum. e. has a right even to the sky. He who has Cujus est donandi. ejus est disponere. has been given. We ought to believe every one in his own profession. those things 'also seem to be To whom jurisdiction granted. has also the right of selling and granting. the right to give. Cujus est commodum. He to whom the jurisdiction belongs. will be the priocipal accessory of the same jurisdiction. est. principale ejusdem jiuis erit accessorium. without which jurisdiction could not be explained. to the soil. . wishes more than allowed. eidem et veridendi. quibus jurisdictio explicari non potuit. et concedendi jus He who has the right of conferring a donation. has the right to dispose. He should who Cujus est dare.

When the question is concerning the gain of two persons. Cum principalis causa non consistit. a fault to meddle with that which one has no business. the better. melior est causa possi- dentis.34 Culpa caret qui scit. We must act more mildly with a person confessing. . plerumque ne ea quidem quae sequuntur locum habent. not even the place. for the most part. Culpa It is est immiscete ge rei ad se non pertinent!. sed prohibere free non potest. He is from fault who knows. The chancery court favours the entire reduction of contracts. Cum de lucre duorum quaeratur. court of chancery not subject. Cura The cancellaria non is nisi parliamento subdita. the cause is of the one in possession. unless to the parliament. but cannot hinder. Culpa vel pcena ex equitate non intenditur. Blame or punishment does not proceed from Cum confitente mitius est agendum. the main cause is When not consistent. things which follow have a Cura cancellaria contractibus in plenum redigendis favet. equity.

Debet esse vel aliquod speciale damnum emergens. Curia Parliamenti suis propriis legibus substitit The parliament subsists by its own laws.35 Curia ccclesiastica locum non habet super iis quae juris sunt communis. vel saltem aliquod gravamen quod nocere possit et videatur probabiliter nociturum.- Let him be the guardian of the body of any infant. whom the inhe- D. An over-refined and captious interpretation is reprobated in law. Damnum sine injuria esse potest. or at least some grievance which can hurt. A debtor is not presumed to grant a donation. Curiosa et captiosa interpretatia in lege reprobatur. loss There may be without injustice. The ecclesiastical court has no right over tho€e things which are matter of common law. . to ritance cannot come. is esto ad quem ha. There ought to be ly to hurt. Custos corporis cuj usque infantis est reditas nequeat pervenire. and may appear in all probability like- Debitor non praesumitur donare. either some special emergent loss.

to be deceived than to deceive. esse haeres. Deceptis non decipientibus jura subveniunt. De non There apparentibus et non existentibus eadem est ratio. may be an De nunimis non curat hardfno care lex. is the same estimatioa concerning things not apparent and things not existing. The law of very small things. heir. Decipi It is quam fallere est tutius. We must proceed from similar things to similar.86 Debitum sequitur personam. hut concerning his knowledge whether error of the law or of the fact. question is not admitted concerning the honesty and duty of a it judge. more safe Deficiente uno non potest deficient. Debt follows the person. the same way. De similibus ad similia eadem ratione procedendum est. in Delegata potestas non potest delegari. . A delegated power cannot be delegated. Laws assist the deceived. sed de scientia sive error sit juris sive facti. not the deceiving. One being he cannot be an De A fide et officio judicis non recipitur questio .

Derivative power cannot be greater than primitive. not a day for court business. cum primi- Derivative power is of the same jurisdiction as the primitive. ex- The common law which ists. The particularizing of one is the exclusion of another. Descent takes away entrance. by the consent of all. Dies dominicus non The Lord's day is est dies juridicus. Derivativa potestas est ejusdem jurisdictionis tiva. and charge. Deum ess« ex consensu omnium communis orta lex in legibus Angliae plurimum has arisen valet. A delinquent provoked by anger. and is not devisible. et expressum cessare tacitum. puniri debet mitius. Derivativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva. ought to be punished more mildly. Designatio unius est exclusio alterius. . Descensus tollit intrationem. facit The designation of one is the exclusion of another .S7 Delinquens per iram provocatus. is ex- pressed makes what is tacit Designatio unius est exclusio alterius. et non est Dignity supposes office partibilis. and what to cease. Dignitas supponit officium et curam. that God has great weight in the laws of England.

virtue preserves them. delicta auferunt. Dissimulatione tollitur injuria. common right. provida relaxatio utilitate communi pensata. Dilatlo quae pro justitia faciat acceptissima quas contra justitiam maxirae invisa. to discern what is just by the law. Dispensation relates to an evil prohibited. is is very acceptable . Delays ia Iwr are odious. Injury is taken away by dissimulation. Delay or suspension trary to justice for justice sake. Discretio est per legem discernere quid Discretion is sit justum. The labourer is worthy of his hire. . virtus conservat. Dignus mercede operarius. Dispensatio est vulnus. transgressions take them away. a provident relaxation compensated by common advantage. . but delay con- very odious. I) . Dispensation is quod vulnerat jus commune. Discretio est scire per legem quid Discretion is sit justum. to know what is just by the law.. The king confers honours. a wound that injures Dispensatio est mali prohibiti.Dignitates rex dat. Dilationes id lege sunt odiosae.

and another Distinguenda sunt tempora. there to finish. Dominion cannot be over a thing depending. Times are to be distinguished. who asks what he ought to return. Dolo fecit. craft of an author does not hurt his successor. The crafty man is employed in universals. is a time to act. Craft is inconsistent in general. qui petit quod redditurus est. said to is have taken its rise from possession. aliud per- Times are to be distinguished .39 Distinguenda sunt tempora ficere. Dolosus versatur in universalibus. Districtio non potest esse nisi pro certis servitiis Distraining of goods cannot be. Craft is not justified by any round about way. unless for certain services or servitudes. aliud est fa<. I Domimum non potest esse in pendenti. He asks with guile.ere. Dolus auctoris non nocet The successori. Dolus versatur in generaKbus. Dolus circuitu non purgatur. . Dominium Donunion a possessione coepisse dicitur. .

Clandestine gifts are always suspicious. A donation is completed by the possession of Donatio principis intelligitur sine praejudicio tertii. . Dominus det . all hold of him. The king and is tamen ut suum cuique all sit. provided he does it lawful for every one to repair his not against the will of another over whom he has no right. et ab ita CO omnes tenent. own house. the cause or person of his ser- The master may without blame defend vant. quod nullo jure <jogente conceditur.40 4 Dominus omnium in regno terrarum rex habendus. understood to be without prejudice of . the receiver. dum non officiat invito alteri. vel causam servi vel alii personam inculpato defen- etiam ubi non liceret. Donatio non praesumitur* A donation is not presumed. A thing appears to be granted which is granted without any compuU sion of the law. to be reckoned the lord of the lands in the his kingdom . Domum suam It is unicuique reficere licet. in quo jus non habet. yet so as that every one has own. even where it is not lawful for another. is A donation of the principal a third party. Donari videtur. Donatio perflcitur possessione accipientis. Dona clandestina semper sunt suspiciosa.

hard to depart from the meaning of words by means of conjecture. die. are considered as things not in- cluded. or edict. is Durum It is est per divinationem a verbis recedere. Any donation obtains effect by the force of law. or which have no existence in the nature of things. A double will. vel quae in rerum natura non sunt. sleep. Duo non Two possunt in solido unam rem possidere. not admitted. . Ea quae dari impossibilia sunt. Those things which cannot possibly be given. J Dormiunt aliquando The laws sometime leges. is That interpretation to be received which is not defective.41 Donatio quaelibet ex vi legis sortitur effectum. Duo non Two possunt esse domini ejusdem rei in solidum^ persons cannot entirely be master of the same thing. never nunquam moriuntur. pro non adjectis habentur. cannot entirely possess one things Duplex placitum non admittitur. !fia est accipienda interpretatio quae vitio caret.

non temere in agendis negotiis computantur. 4qe8 npt. quaeque esse debeat. Eadem mens The uniuscuj usque praesumitur quae est juris. The effect follows the cause.heloBg. simulatque de pretio cpnvenerit. qui potest velle. Ejus It est non nolle. J Emptio et venditio contrahitur. . especially in dubious cases. Those things which seldom happen are not rashly to be computed transacting business.42 Ea quae raro accidunt. The church cannot pay tithes to the church. praesertim in dubiis. and as it ought to be. The church is always under the protection of the king ^^ EfFectus sequitur causam. sentence of transportation takes away those things alone which come to the treasury. Buying and selling is -contracted as soon m the price is agreed upon. in Ea A sola deportationis sententia aufert. quae ad fiscum pervenerit. Ecclesia semper in regis est tutela. intention of every one is presumed to be the same as that of the law.to him to refuse who can be willing. Ecclesia ecclesiae decimas solvere non debet.

Error placitandi aequitatem non The error in writing does not take tollit. away equity.quuy does not change the nature of a thing. Equitas naturara rei non mutat. uaciitf ttuoruin pluriumve in idem placitum con- r^asusi The rfr»'eement of two or more in the same will. Epheraeris annua pars legis Anglicana?. Est boni judicis ampiiare jurisdictionem. Excambion. An annual diary is a part of the English law. Error. In the same is constituitur. neque excambium inter tres partes datur. It ' •:'. constitutes an agree- Excambium non potest esse rerum diversse quaiitatis. nor is it granted among three parties. is approved. qui non resistitur. 2.' of a good judge to extend his jurisdiction. approbatur. or exchange. The error which is not resisted. cannot be of things of adifFerent quahty.Eodem modo quo quid vitur. eodem modo dissol- way in which any thing is constituted. ia the same way it dissolved — destroyed. .—destruitur.

Exceptio quae firmat legem. all things are presumed to be done by usage* Ex facto jus oritur. Excessus in re qualibet jure reprobatur communi. From the length of time. . de rebus non exceptis. Excess in any thing is reprobated by common law. non alias transeunt adversus haeredes poenae bonorum ademptionis. On account of admissions made at public trials. expounds the law. excepting in the case of high trea&on. is Punishment increased from the frequency of a transgression. contestata et condemnatio fuerit secuta quam . An exception makes good the rule about the things that are not ex^ cepted. ex- cepto majestatis judicio. An exception which strengthens the law.44 Exceptio probat regulam. than if a contested suit and condemnation followed . !Ex malefido non oritur contractus. exponit legem. Ex judiciorum si lis publicorum admissis. Ck>ntract does not arise irom injury. Ex diutumitate temporis omnia praesumuntur solenniter acta. Ex frequent! delicto augetur poena. the punishment of confiscation of goods does not otherwise pass. arises Right or law from deed-—fact.

Expressio unius est excluao alterius.5 Ex malis moribus bonae leges oriuntur. non expressa non nocent. An action does not arise from a bare submission. The expression of those things which are tacitif implied. Good laws Ex nuda submissione non oritur actio. is unneces- Ex qua persona debet. Expressa nocent. Expressio illorum quse tacite insunt nihil operatur. he ought to discharge the duty of that calling.4. . quis lucrum capit. ejus factum praestare From whatever calling any one derivee profit. The expression of one is the exclusion of another. Execution is the performance of the law according to judgment. Things expressed hurt . Executio est executio le^s secundum judicium. arise An action does not from a bare agreement. those not expressed do net hurt. take their origin from bad practices.. Ex nudo pacto non oritur actio. sary.

quam turpia facere. it extinguished if it into that situation from which cannot arise. justice. Rather suffer extremities. ia not binding. . et si dicenti impune non paretur. his life and liberty. si in eUm casum incident. Extra territorium jus est. habet res suas.46 Expressum What is facit cessare taciturn. the same happens his if one presumes to administer jus- beyond own jurisdiction. terras. Factum a judice quod ad turn non est. •' Exterus non habet libertatem. An act of a judge officium ejus non pertinet. is which has been sealed due form. et vitam. he has his own effects. is expressed makes what silent to cease. than do infamous things. Extinguitur obligatio quae rite constiterit. ra* which does not belong to his office. Extrema potius pati. beyond his One cannot with impunity obey one executing province tice . et A foreigner has no lands. Idem supra jurisdictionem suam velit jus dicere. a quo An obligation fall incipere in non potuit.

4r Facultas probatioiium non est angustanda. Erroneous orthography. men concerning any thing. the accusers. cannot depend on a simple feu. non viiiat concessionem. Let justice be done. A simple feu Fejrei in omnibus pcenalibus judiciis> et aetati et impru- dentise succurritur. s/ Fiat justitia. sive falsa gi'ammatica. He confesses the crime who avoids the trial. Almost in all penal trials allowvnce is madfi^ for yciuth and imprn* dence. Favorabiliores rei potius. ruat coelum. Accused persons are held more favourable Feodum simplex ex feodo simplici pendere non potest. or grammatical errors. \) Falsa orthographia. is not to be circumscribed. do not grant. . than. the constant opinion of good \) Fatetur facinus qui judicium fugit. if the sky should fall. The faculty of furnishing proofs. quam actores habentur. vitiate a Fama Fame est constans is virorum bonorum dc re aliqua opinio.

Fictio juris There is non est ubi \eritas. . publica sunt. under age ought to abstain from all civil offices. Piliation cannot be proved. It licet b lawful for women substitute. Almost all rivers et portus. law is stronger and later than that of a man. Flumina pene omnia. Flumina et portus publica sunt. and children to discharge offices by proxy or Fortior et posterior est dispositio legis The disposal of the quam hominis. public. —Likewise those Fceminis et infantibus per vicarium multis muneribus fungi. Rivers and harbours are public. is no supposition of right where the truth eVidenfii Filiatia non potest probari. Women are removed from all civil and public offices. and harbours are Foeminae ab omnibus sunt. Fiction yields to truth. officiis civilibus vel publicis remotae civilibus officiis de- Item impubes omnibus bet abstinere.48 '^ Fictio cedit veritati.

sed ex concilio quoque desideratur. is prejudicial to equity. Fraus adstringit non Fraud binds dissolvit perjuriam. Fraus Fraud est odiosa et is non praesumenda. but likewise from the intention. H . is conceal fraud fraud.4» ' Fractionem diei non recipit lex. ioli/? i •MnT The law does not admit of the fractional part of a day. odious. ought to be a protection to none. most odious to the laws. Fraudis interpretatio semper in jure civili non ex eventu duntaxat. Fraus To est celare fraudem. and not to be presumed. The interpretation of fraud in the civil law is not always desired from the event merely. Frustra expectatur cujus effectus nuUus sequitur. —does not iiiU Fraus Fraud aequitati praejudicat. dissolve perjury. Fraud and Fraus legibus Fraud is invisissima. That is expected in vain of which no effect follows. " Fraus et dolus craft nemini debent patrocinari.

Gknerale dictum. vert the laws themselves. A thing said in a general sense. G. He implores the assistance of the law in vain. who endeavours to sub- Frustra probatur quod probatum non relevat. Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. sit. Furiosus solo furore punitur. vel ejus cui bonis interdictum est. . or of him who is is interdicted from the adminis- tration of his goods. is to be understood in a general sense.50 Frustra legis auxilium implorat qui leges ipsas subvertere conatur. generaliter est intelligendum. is not relevant. ralia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. which. X madman is punished only by his own madness.— General words are to be 80 interpreted. Fundi non debent Farms ought not to inalienabiles esse. That thing is proved in vain. Gene- A general saying is to be interpreted in general. be unalienable. Furiosi. nothing. nulla voluntas The will of a madman. when proved.

Generalis gratia proditionem et homicidium non excipit poena. Generaliter probandum est. that in whatever case a condition is imposed upon the will of a master or to his agent yin bona Jidc triahy be considered according to the judgment of a good .in this is general. sed quid per adversarium habere non potuerit. specialia sequuntur. General things are not derogatory to special. Generalia sunt praeponenda singularibus.51 Oeneralia praecedunt. but what he could not have had opponent. not what the actor may have. non quid habeat actor. est. est. General things are to be preferred to single things. pro boni viri arbitrio hoc habendum We ought to prove. considerandum When there by his is a dispute concerning fraud. ubicunque in bonae fidei judiciis confertur. we are to consider in ge- neral. General favour does not exempt treason and homicide from punishment. special things follow. conditio. General things precede. Generaliter. special things are derogatory to general. in arbitrium domini aut procuratoris ejus. cum de fraude disputatur. Generalia specialibus non derogant. Generalibus specialia derogant.

is the succession to the universal right . grammar does not vitiate a writing. either increases or restricts . Inheritance had. than a temporary authority. and another unsubstantial —the what can be touched and seen seen. one kind substantial is substantial.52 Grammatica False falsa non vitiat chartam. Gravius est alternam tem. Habendum in charta novum inducit. alia incorporalis est. what cannot be touched nor I quod defunctus which the deceased V Hsereditas est successio in universum jus habuerat. quae tangi non potest nee is videri. It is quam temporalem laedere majesta- more grievous to hurt an alternate. What is vel auget vel restrin^t. Haeredi favetur. Inheritance. : Corporalis quae tangi potest et videri : Incorporalis. but it does not induce any thing new. alia corporalis. H. Hsereditas. sed non to be regarded in writing. Favour is shewn to an heir. —the unsubstantial.

aut jure representationis. One is an heir either by right of property. Haereditas nihil aliud est. Inheritance is not granted from half-blood. cum antecessore. Haeres est aut jure proprietatis. Inheritances ought to descend in a direct line.—pars ante- An heir is the same person with his predecessor —a part of that pre- decessor. An heir is the name of right —son is the name of nature. Filius est nomeh naturae. He is the lawful heir whom the marriage demonstrates to be ir so. sed non as- cend unt. or by^right of representa- tion. Haeres legitimus est quern nuptiae demonstrant. noo fx)up Haeres est nomen juris . quam successio in universum jus quod defunctus habuerit. Haereditates recta linea debent descendere. but do not ascend. Inheritance is nothing else than the succession to the whole right which the deceased may have had.Hacreditas ex dimidio sanguine non datur. Haeres est eadem persona cessoris. I .

except only what due to the king. Ibi semper debet fieri Triatio. more cer. inherent to human nature. The heir of my heir is my Humanum Man is est errare. sed id est certum. constat. where the jury may obtain better information. It is certain that an heir hath the same power and privilege which belonged to the deceased. or. tuSj nisi per antecessorem ad hoc fuerit obliga- praeterquam debita regis tantura. to err is liable to error. Trial must take place. . unless he hath been obliged is to this by his predecessor. •oHaeres haeredis mei est meus heir. but that is magis certum That is est certain which can be rendered is certain.54 Haercs non tenetur in Anglia ad debita antecessoris red- denda. Id certum est quod certum reddi quod de semetipso potest. tain which certain of itself. is The heir not bound in England to pay the debts of his predecessor. ubi juratores meliorem possunt habere notitiam. haeres. Haeredem ejusdem potestatis jurisque esse. cujus fuit de- functis.

ferri est. . That which deed. non trahit ad se quod est magis junctura. et qui noii est. sed e contraria in omni casu. agendum. sine facto nostro ad alium trans- non is potest. in fault. That 13 complete which consists of all its and nothing is perfect while any thing remains to be done.. Id quod nostrum . Idem est non esse et non apparere. ours cannot be transferred to another without our own Idem agens et patiens esse non potest patient The same person cannot be both the agent and Idem est facere et non prohibere cum possis. and not to appear the same. Idem It is est nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere. prohibet It is the cum prohibere possit. and to speak insufficiently. the same thing to speak nothing. is Not to be. Id quod est magis remotum. but the contrary in every case. . in culpa to prohibit same to do and not when you can is and he who does not prohibit when he can prohibit. Id perfectum et nihil est quod ex omnibus suis partibus constat perfectum est dum aliquid restat parts . That which is more remote does not draw to itself that which is more closely joined.

J Illud quod ali^s licitum non est. Ignorance of a fact or deed excuses. is always referred to the nearest antecedent. necessitas facit licitum privatur. omnes enim consentiant. et necessitas inducit privilegium That which is quod jure taken not lawful in another case. The ignorance of a judge is the calamity of the innocent. praesu- muntur eas nosse quibus omnes Ignorance of the law excuses no body. Ignorance of the law does not excuse. Ignorantia non excusat legem.. . for those things on all are presumed to know which all agree. ^ Ignorantia facti excusat. 56 Idem semper The same thing antecedent! proximo refertur. f' Ignorantia juris sui non praejudicat juri. Ignorance does not excuse the law. . Ignorantia legum neminem excusat. Ignorance of ones own right is not prejudicial to that right. o Ignorantia juris non excusat. V Ignorantia judicis est calamitas innocentis. necessity makes lawful is and necessity induces a privilege which away by the law.

aut rerum perpetuo similiter judicatarum auctoritatem. in ambiguitatibus quae ex legibus proficiscuntur. Impius et crudelis judicandus est qui libertati non favet He is to be considered a wicked and cruel person who does not favour liberty. should obtain the force of laws. dissipati sunto* Let wicked reports be silenced. Impotentia excusat legem. or the authority of cases constantly decided in the same manner. Our emperor wrote back to his subjects that in the ambiguities. Improbi rumores. consuetudinem. vim legis obtinere. Imperitia culpas adnumeratur. Inability excuses law« I . Impersonalitas non concludit nee Impersonality is ligat.57 Imaginaria venditio non est pretio accedente. the custom. Imperator iiostcr servus rescripsit. It is not an imaginary sale when the price is paid. which proceed from the laws. Unskilfulness is reckoned a fault. neither conclusive nor binding.

In ambiguis casibus semper praesumitur pro In ambiguous cases. In brevi aut cbarta generalia praesedunt specialia. is In equality of right. the power of election belongs to the debtor. better. General things precede special. In alternatives. Impunity always is an inducement to do worse. est voluntas tinet simul juncta. In aequali jure melior est conditio possidentis. the rege.58 Impunitas semper ad deteriora invitat. no obligation to things impossible . none is obliged to do impossibilities. In actis publicis collegii sive corporis alicujus corporati consensus. presumption is always in favour of the king* . the condition of the person la possession. Impossibilium nulla obBgatio There is est. the will of many to whom the matter belongs joined together. is the consent. • the In alternativis electio est debitoris. multorum ad quos res per- In public acts of a college or any incorporated body. in a brief or writing.

the what. qui eas protulisset. though does not follow. than is an attempt by a direct act less. and by capital cases. ut sit poenitentiae locus.In ambiguis orationibus maxime sententia spectanda ejus. it is determined otherwise. and the punishment of the attempt than that of the deed perpetrated. what manner. better to answer for endowments. In capitalibus minor est poena cogitationis manifestae quam conatus ex acta directo . where. with a is sufficient. a quo factum. in whom done. general malice. est. the inclination the eflFect is punished. fact of an equal degree of guilt. the opinion of him is est chiefly to be considered who had uttered them. debent exponi. quomodo. In ambiguis pro dotibus respondere melius In doubtful^cases. for In capitalibus quid. quando. is less. ubi. cum In circumstantiis solemnibus. In atrocioribus effectus. et minor conatus quam In capital patrati facinoris. with the particular circumstances. it is est. In capital cases. In capitalibus sufficit generalis malitia cum facto paris gradus. Sed in proditione in terrorem aliter statutum cases. that there : may be room for repentance terror. ought to be ex- plained. In ambiguous speeches. but in treason. and when. . delictis punitur affectus licet non sequatur In the more atrocious transactions. the punishment of an evident intention .

In civilibus proxima et directa praestare quia tenetur . the will shall In conjunctivis oportet utramque partem esse veram. solidi- is to be . but in criminal even consequent things. In a servant excuses. things are common. Jin civilibus voluntas pro facto reputabitur.60 « in casu extremae necessitatis biririia all '^iittt cbmtonia. consimile debet esse remedium. In co-partnerships. but not so in crimi- nal cases. In civilibus ministerium excusat. In consimili casu. it is necessary that each party be true. one is bound cases. not continuance of time. In a similar case there ought to be a similar remedy. In consuetudinibus non diutumitas temporis sed tas rationis est consideranda. In a case of extreme necessity. in criminalibus etiam consequentia. J. In civil cases. in criminalibus civil cases. be considered for the deed. considered. In civil cases. lu customs. the situation of non item. to perform the nearest and direct things. but solfdity of reason.

benigna . sale. ments more favourable: in restitutions most favourable of In contrahenda venditione ambiguum pactum contra venditorem interpretandum In contracting a the seller. ought to be clearer than the sun. there is In doubtful no presumption for a will. sufficient that In one party be true. a doubtful bargain is to be interpreted against In criminalibus probationes debent In criminal cases. is more worthy to be taken. . as the deed. in restitutionibus. In dubiis magis dignum In doubtful cases. est* in testamentis benignlor . the will facto non reputabitur. In criminalibus voluntas pro In criminal cases. an interpretation must be made favourable . cases. the est accipiendum. proofs esse luce clariores. in testaall. est. In dubiis non praesumitur pro testamento. it is partem esse veram. must not be considered In disjunctivis sufficit alteram dissolution of partnerships. benignissima interpretatio facienda In contracts.In contractibus.

liberty. there lees also included. In that where there is more. Heirs are not liable to actions which are'penal from injury. In that which either he who seeks. In favourable does hurt we rather attend to what does good. magis attenditur quod prodest quam quod nocet. cases. Equity always subsists on the supposition of In haeredes non solent transire actiones quae poenales ex maleficio sunt. In eo quod vel is. and innocence. right. semper inest is et minus. or he from whom is it is sought. In favorabilibus. 62 In eo quod plus sit. a quo petitur lucri fac- tus est. all things are presumed. than to what In favorem vitae. In fictione juris semper subsistit aequitas. omnia praesu- muntur In favour of life. the cause of the applicant harder. .. Buetudo alicujus patriae vel In those things which are conceded of any country or place is to all by common right. qui petit. durior causa est petitoris. for the sake of gain. the custom to be alleged. conloci est alleganda.. vel is. In his quae de jure communi omnibus consedentur. libertatis et innocentiae.

but the nearest is regarded. the cause of thing. aut quod plerumque In obscure cases. what is is probable is wont to be looked to. quamvis actum rei In- telligerent . In novo casu novum remedium apponendum est - In an extraordinary case.63 In judicio non creditur In a trial. pupillus omnia. nisi juratis. fieri solet. In maxima potentia minima In the greatest power there is*the licentia. not the jemote cause. In jure non remota causa. In negotiis contrahendis alia eorum qui fari alia causa habita est furiosorum. none are believed but those)|who are Bworn. possunt. In lege omnia semper in present! stare censentur. least liberty. inspici solere quod verisimile esset. tutore. all things are always judged to stand in their present state. In obscuris. On a trial. In contracting business. sed proxima spectatur. auctore. agere potest. . In law. a pupil can do all things with the authority of his guardian. or what for the most part used to be done. aa extraordinary remedy must be applied. and^the cause of those they understand the contract no business madmen is to be considered one who can speak another. in so far as transaction of a matter for a madman can . . nam furiosus nullum negotium contrar- here potest .

In the presence of the greater. in quo per sit. lesser ceases. aequitas spec- In all things indeed. obligations in which a day is not fixed. quo minus fact. In omnibus quidem. In praesentia majoris cessat potentia minoris. In an equal cause a possessor ought to be reckoned preferable. In pari delicto potior est conditio defendentis. is cases aid given to minors. is In an equal delict the state of the defender better. in jure. In omnibus In all fere minori aetati succurritur. equity is to be regarded. that is taken for a which by means of another its there may be a hinderance to prevent being done.64 In odium spoliatoris omnia praesumuntur. prsesenti die debitur. it is due on the present day. maxime tamen tanda est. All things are presumed In omnibus causis pro facto accipitur alilim morae In all id. In omnibus obligationibus. chiefly however in law. in fiat. the power of th? . In all in quibus dies non ponitur. In pari causa possessor potior haberi debet. in hatred of a defrauder. causes.

In things which are favourable for property. sometimes there although they be hurtful to may bean extension of the statute. the utility of doing so ought to be evident. In rebus. utrecedatur ab eojure. be- cause self-evident truths are not to be proved. In re dubia magis In a doubtful inficiatio quam affirmatio intelligenda. est favere repetitione quam adven- In an obscure case gain. it is better to favour repetition than adventitious In rebus manifestis errat qui authoritates legum qui perspicua vera non sunt probanda. In rebus novis constituendis evidens esse utilites debet. est. fiat aliquando extensio life. quam vis sunt damnosa rebus. quod diu asquum visum In settling that new matters. "V . quae sunt favorabilia animse. statuti.: 65 In poenalibus causis benignius interpretandum In penal causes est. In re obscura melius titio lucro. In republica maxime sunt conservanda jura In a statei belli. In evident things he errs allegat who alleges the authorities of the laws. the laws of war are by all means to be observed. so we may depart from that law which long seemed just. is affair denial rather thaa affirmation to be understood. we ought to interpret more mercifully.

restitution not to punishment. reason ought not to be considered. In testamentis ratio In testaments a silent tacita non debet considerari. that more should be done than what has once been done. but matter and reason are to be sought. mum habetur. A king cannot hold conjunctly with another In satisfactionibus non permittitur amplius est. In words.66 tn restitutionem non An heir succeeds to in pcenam haeres succedit. fiere quam semel factum In satisfaction. In verbis non verba sed res et ratio quaDrenda est. it is not allowed. and that considered a which has a reference to species. not the words themselves. species takes from genus. quoad ad speciem directum is In the whole of law. In rex non potest conjunctim tenere cum alio. . In testamentis plenius voluntates testantium interpretantur In testaments the intention of the testators are most fully interpreted. et illud potissiest. Intotojuregeneri per speciem d^rogatur. Incerta pro nuUis habentur. chief point. Uncertainties are accounted nullities.

if the whole law is not attended to. To judge and answer is uncivil. Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius. is the exclusion of the other. is reprobated in law. Incidents may not be separated. nisi tota lege perspecta. any one claim of it being merely proposed. Infans est qui propter defectum aetatis pro se fari nequeat. Children are obliged to performance concerning a like but not in manner concerning punishment. Incidentia rei tacite sequuntur. de poena non item. The inclusion of one. The incidents of a thing follow it. cannot speak for him- self. unless the whole of a sentence be attended to. judicare vel respondere. An uncertainty dependiag upon an uncertainty. una aliqua particula ejus proposita. Incivile est. It is uncivil to judge of any part. loss.67 Incertum ex incerto pendens lege reprobatur. Infantes de damno praestare tenentur. Incidentia nolunt separari. He is a child who on account of defect of age. . Incivile est nisi tota sententia perspecta de aliqua parte judicare. as a matter of course.

of themselves obnoxious. maxime habenda. An intention legitimately known and agreeable to the laws. . et legibus consentanea. An injury done to ones-self. Iniquum It is est alios permittere alios inhibere mercaturam. is to be regarded in an especial manner. is not anticipated. is reprobated in law. Injuria Injury non praesumitur. Injuria propria non cadet in beneficium facientis. will not fall to the benefit of the doer. if they liable to an were not so otherwise. Intentio legitime cognita. Innuendo non facit verba per se actioni obnoxia si aliter non essent An inuendo does not make words. and to prohibit others. Iniquum est aliquem rei sui esse judicem. action. Injuria servi dominium liable for the pertingit. What U unbounded. The master is damage done by his servant. unjust to allow some to merchandize. a judge of his It is unjust that any one be own affair. In propria causa nemo judex. No body is a judge in his own cause.68 Infinitum in jure reprobatur.

It concerns the perty. Interest reipublicae est judicia debitae execution! tur.69 Intentio mea imponit nomen name to operi meo. My intention gives a my Inter anna silent leges. Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium. It concerns the state. that there be an end to law Interest reipublicae ut carceres sint in tuto. It concerns the state that injuries do not remain unpunished. concerns the state not to rescind matters that have been judged. suits. state. Interest reipublicae ne maleficia remaneant impunita. that every one make good use of his own pro- . Interest reipublicae ut quilibet re sua bene utatur. work. It manden- concerns the state that decisions be duly executed. The laws are silent amidst arms. Interest reipublicae res judicatas It non rescindere. It concerns the state that prisons be secure.

70
Interest reipublicae ut bonis bene
sit,

et

male malis,

et

suum
It

cuique.
it

concerns the state that

wicked, and that every one

may be well with the good, may have his own.

ill

with the

Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus inter-

pretandi modus.

To

interpret

and make the laws agree with laws,

is

the best

way

of

interpreting them.

Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat
Such an interpretation ought
to be

quam

pereat.
either

made,

as that a thing

may

rather prosper than perish.

Invito beneficium

non datur.
it.

A favour is not bestowed on one unwilling to receive

Invitat

culpam qui peccatum
a
fault,

praeterit.

He encourages

who

passes over a transgression.

Invitus

nemo rem
is

cogitur defendere.

Nobody

compelled,

when

unwilling, to defend his property.

Ira hominis non implet justitium Dei.
The wrath of a man does not
fulfil

the justice of God.

71
Is

damnum

dat qui jubet dare, ejus vero nulla culpa est

cui parere necesse est.
lie occasions a loss, wlio gives orders to cause
it
;

but no blame be-

longs to

him who

is

under the necessity of obeying.

Is,

qui actionem habet ad rem recuperandam, ipsam rem

habere videtur.

He seems

to

have the property itself,

who hath an action to recover it.

Ita tuo utere ut alienum ne laedas.

Make

such use of your

own

property, that you do not hurt another

man's.

J.

Judex ante oculos aequitatem semper habere

debet.

A judge

ought always to have equity before his

eyes.

Judex aequitatem semper

spectare debet.

A

judge ought always

to regard equity.

Judex bonus
nunciet.

nihil

ex

arbitrio suo faciat, nee propositio

domesticiae voluntatis, sed juxta leges et jura pro-

A good judge ought to do nothing of
have in view the

his

own

pleasure, nor

may he

gratification of his private inclination, but

him pronounce according

to law

and

justice.

72
Judex damnatur, cum nocens
The judge
is

absolvitur.

condemned, when the guilty is acquitted.

Judex habere debet duos

sales,

salem sapientiae, ne

sit

insipidus, et salem eonscientiae,

ne

sit
salt

diabolus.
of wisdom, that he

A judge
may

ought

to

have two kinds of
j

salts

—the

not be insipid

and the

salt

of conscience, that he

may

not

be a devil.

Judex non
A

potest esse testis in propria causa.

judge cannot be a witness in his

own

cause.

Judex non

potest injuriam sibi

datam punire.

A judge

cannot punish an injury done to himself.

m
^i

Judex non

reddit plus

quam quod

petens ipse requirit.

A judge does not give more than the petitioner himself requires.
Judicandum
est legibus,

non exemplis.
by examples.

We must judge by the

law, and not

Judices non tenentur exprimere causam sententiae suae.
Judges are not bound to express the cause of their opinions.

Judices recenter et subtiliter excogitatis minime favent
contra

communem
the

legem.

Judges are by no means favourable to things raised recently and subtilely against

common

Xkyt.

\

73
r

Judicia posteriora sunt in lege fortiora.
The
last decisions

are stronger in law.

Judicia sunt tanquam jurisdicta.
Decisions are as
it

were

jurisdictions.

Judicia sunt tanquam jurisdicta, et pro veritate accipuntur.
Decisions are as
it

were jurisdictiona, and are accepted

as truth.

Judicis est jus dicere,
It
is

non dare
it.

the property of a judge to administer justice, not to give

Judicis est judicare
It

secundum

allegata et probata.

becomes a judge to decide according to things alleged and proved.

Judicis officium est opus die in die suo perficere.
It
is

the duty of a judge to accomplish his

work from day

to day.

Judiciis posterioribus fides est adhibenda.
Credit
is

to

be given to the

latter decisions.

Judicium duodecim proborum
ritatis

et legalium

hominum

ve-

dictum esse per

communem

Angliae legem

censetur.

The

decision of twelve

good and unexceptionable men,

is

thought by

the

common law

of England, to.be the dictate of truth.
I4

al- though words be wanting. Ecclesiastical laws are limited. It is a decision to favour those things which make for religion. .74 Judicium est iis quse pro religione faciant faveri etsi verba desint. A decision is given against the unwilling. Jura non in singulas personas sed generaliter constituuntur. ^ Jura naturae sunt immutabilia. Judicium redditur in invitos. Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur. A decision is always received as trutlu Jura debet It is esse omni exceptione major. A decision ought not to be illusory. Judicium non debet esse illusorium. The laws of nature are immutable. Jura eodem modo destituuntur quo constituuntur. Laws are annulled in the same way they were enacted. but fof the general good. proper that laws be greater than any exception. Jura ecclesiastica sunt limitata. The laws are established not for individuals.

' fact. that any accessory be convicted before any one hath been found guilty of the fact.75 Jura publica anteferenda privatis. . that by the law of no one become more rich by the detriment and injury of another. Public rights ought not to be decided promiscuously. Juramentum est indivisibile. Jura sanguinis nullo jure The rights civili dirimi possunt. Jura publica ex private promiscue decidi non debent. antequam It is aliquis de facto fuerit attinctus. . neminem cum aJterius detri- mento It is just et injuria fieri locupletiorem. according to private rights. and is not to be admitted partly'true and partly false. of blood can be dissolvjed by no civil right. Juratores sunt judices Jurors are judges of the facti. parte verum et in parte An oath is et non est admittendum in falsum. Juri non est consonum ut aliqui accessorius convincatur. indivisible. not consonant to law. Jure naturae aequum est. Public rights are to be preferred to private. nature.

equity. right of accrcscing has no place among merchants. The right of blood. by the agreements of private per- Jus respicit aequitatem. public law cannot be changed. or inventor. is A privilege falling unexpectedly upon an author. quod in legitimis successoribus spectatur ipso nativitatis tempore questium est. which is considered in legitimate succession. Jus superveniens authori accrescens successori. Jus accrescendi prefertur oneribus. addition to his successor. Jus publicum privatorum The pactis mutare non potest. Jus naturale est quod apud omnes homines eandem habet potentiam. Natural law is that which hath the same power among all men. the act of what is Law is good and just. The right of accrcscing is preferable to burdens. Law regards Jus sanguinus. sons. Jus est ars boni et sequi.76 Jus accrescendi The inter mercatores locum non habet. an . is sought for at the very time of birth.

ought neither to hurt nor to profit. and quick. Justitia debet esse libera. justice regards truth alone. more unfair than venal . quia nihil iniquius venali justitia. full.77 Jusjurandum debet. Justitae soror fides. inter alias factum nee nocere nee prodesse An oath made among others. is Justice ought to be free. because nothing justice . because justice ought not to be lame a kind of denial. Justitia non novit patrem nee matrem. Justice knows neither father nor mother . be- cause delay is Justitia libertati prior. Justitia est constans et perpetua voluntas jus suum cui- que tribuendi. non debet claudicare. . solam veritatem spectat justitia. Faith is the sister of justice. Justice is prior to liberty. plena. quia justitia celeris. Justice is the constant and perpetual desire of giving every man his own. et quia dilatio est qua^dem negatio.

command. without of Parliament. allow. Lex Anglae non patitur absurdum. construction of law. if contrary. against the law of nations. Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. Legates violare contra jus gentium To injure ambassadors is est. nunquam sine Parliamento mutare non po- The law of England cannot undergo a change. vetare. Leges The figendi et refigendi consuetude periculosissima est. forbid. to and punish.78 L. imperare. very dangerous. the strength of the law. does no injury. Legis constructio non The facit injuriam. Lex a Rege non est violenda. permitere^^punire. the interference . Lex Anglise test. is The law not to be violated by the king. is habit of confirming and rescinding laws. suffer The law of England does not an absurdity. Posterior laws abrogate former laws. Legis virtus hose This is est .

A beneficial law afTords a remedy similar Lex to the thing. The law does not admit of a proof which presumes. Lex communis Anglia est. is et Rex est anima Legis. probationem against that non it recipit. Lex est exercitus. Lex beneficialis rei consimile remedium praestat.79 Lex . The law the soul of the king. The law always dreads informers. Lex est anima Regis. that he cannot take away. certe esto. and previously determined by the laws. Lex contra id quod praesumit. and adequate to the crime. appetit rejoices in equity. The common law of England hath so modified and circumscribed the prerogative of the king. JEquitSL gaudet. it is the standard of rectitude. judicium tutissimus ductor* trial is The law is the army. et crimini idionea et legibus praefinita. and the king is the soul of the law. the safest leader. poena certa. . ita regis prerogativum admitita haereditatem alicujus et circumcripsit ut ne tollat laedatve. or hurt the inheritance of any one. The law perfect . Lex delatores semper exhorrit.—est norma what is recti. seeks perfectum. the punishment certain. Let the law be certain.

the king. \f. The law makes Lex fingit ubi subsistit ^quitas. non in perpetuum as- The law wishes inheritance to be bound in all time coming. quae jubet quae sunt utilla et ne- cessaria. and prohibiting the contrary. free to those who are not strictly Lex An injusta non is est lex. Lex est tutissima casis. ordering things honest. Lex facit regera. things. Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu inutllia peraganda. presumed not to know. traria. The law feigns Lex haereditates liberas esse vult trictis.80 Lex est ratio summa. The law Is the chief reason which orders what is useful and necessary. and prohibits the contrary. Lex est Sanctio justa. jubens honesta. unjust law not law. The law compells nobody to the performance of vain and useless Lex neminem The law obliges cogit ostendere quod is nescire praesumitur. et contraria prohibet. where equity stops short. nobody to shew what he . is The law safest for the poor. et prohibens con- The law is a just sanction.

The law does not admit fractions and divisions of questions. The law does not regard mere but overt Lex non patitur fractiones et divisiones statuum. is the father and guardian of orphans. to perform The law does not compel what is impossible. pro tutore atque pa- rente est The law poor.81 Lex nemini operatur to xniquum. et pauperibus. and the M . the insane. Lex nil facit frustra. Lex non consilia nuda sed actus apertus intentions.—nemini none facit injuriam. The law works wrong —does injustice to none. Lex non requirit The law the court. insanis. verificari quod apparet Curiae. acts. The law 7^ Lex non cogit ad impossibilia. 7^ Lex orbis. does not require that to be verified which appears evident to y Lex nostra neminem absentem damnat. Our law condemns no one in his absence. does nothing in vain. respicit.

the order of nature. The law Lex semper intendit intends quod convenit what is "agreeable ratloni. to reason. reprobates delay. The law always Lex spectat naturae ordinem. but does not look backward. Liberi parentibus qui nequeant victum tolerare opitulantor.. The law speaks Lex vult potius malum quam inconveniens. who are unable to support the - . Let children selves. the The law is approved by reason. The law regards Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur. more when it is found to be in the right. Lex reprobat moram. assist their parents. Lex prospicit non respicit The law looks forward. the same language to all.Lex plus laudatur quando Ratione probatur. The law designs rather punishment than an inconvenience.

Libertatis est sui esse quemque juris dimittendi ac retinendi dominum. . certain. that every one be master of quitting and of retjuning his own right. Libertas inaestimabilis res Liberty is est. communi consensu latas. provided he acts according to good. Libertas nullo pretio pensabilis. or en- croaching upon another's right. predetermined open laws. an inestimable thing. apertas. certas. praefinitas. unless what h© may be prohibited to do. concerning violence. Liberty cannot be compensated by any price. nisi quod cuique facere quod de vi aut jure prohibetur. It is the part of liberty.8^ Libertas est cum quisque quod velit faciat modo secun- dum leges. Liberty is the natural power of a man to do what he pleases. more favourable than all things. chooses. bonas. Libertas omnibus rebus favorabilior Liberty is est. enacted by common Libertas est naturalis facultas ejus libet. Liberty is when any one may do what he consent.

et longus usus. qui excedit memoria sufficit usage. succedit damnum et interesse. tamen'po- test fieri declaratio praecedens quse sortiatur effec- tum interveniente. -jkMajus trahit ad se minus.84. Licet dispositio de interesse future sit inutilis. which act. a greater crime to than to kill another. cannot be punished. will become efFectual by means of a new Loco rei impraestabilis. The greater draws the less to itself. pro jure. . which exceeds the memory. into punish- slipperiness of the tongue not easily to be drawn ment . novo actu. Although a disposition concerning future interest be useless. M. Longum tempus hominum. A loss and concern succeeds in the room of a matter which cannot be performed. or a lapsus linguis^ slips of the tongue. yet a pre- ceding declaration may be made. is Long time and long sufficient for Lubricum The linguae non facile in is pcenam est trahendum. Majus It is est delictum seipsum interficere kill ones-self. law. quam alium.

ought to be effected by Maledicta expositio It is quiie textum corrumpit. Malitia supplet aetatem. which virtue. cum quo virtute effici debeat. when literally impossible in any case. Malice supplies what is wantfng in age. cfught to be performed as near as possible according to the inten- tion of the law. An abuse ought to be abolished. frequent the evil. not presumed* Malum quo communius The more eo pejus. Malum non Evil is praesumitur. of the law. Male res se habet. Mandata legis me ad mentem The commands ad literam casu aliquo impossibilia proxilegis exequenda. it is. a cursed exposition which corrupts the text. id ten- tatur pecunia. The case ii bad when that is attempted to be done with money. vitiate a writ. . the worse Malus usus est abolendus.a* f Mala grammatica non Bad grammar does not vitiat chartam.

Melior The est conditio possidentis. is condition of the possessor better. Manifest things do not require proof. potest. better than severely punishing. et The condition of the possessor ther than the pursuer. A mandatory cannot exceed the bounds prescribed to Manifesta probatione non indigent. Subsequent marriage takes away the preceding transgression. . and that of the defender ra- Melior est conditio possidentis. ubi neuter jus habet. according to the law of na- Matrimonia debent Marriages ought to be esse libera. Justice truly preventing. is rei quam actoris. Melior est justitia vere praeveniens. The condition of the possessor is better where neither hath a right. is quam severe puniens.86 ^ Mandatorius terminos sibi positos transgredi non hira. of male and female is The conjunction ture. better. Melior est conditio possidentis. free. Matrimonium subsequens tollit peccatum praecedens. Maris et Faeminae conjunctio est de jure naturae.

which the law acknowledges fall upon a steady man. by no means . worse. A minor may make his condition better. deteri- orem nequaquam. deteriorem nequaquam. the benefit of the law. who intends to subvert Messis sementum sequitur. Merito beneficium legis amittit qui legem ipsam subvertere intendit. Melius est ut decern noxii evadant quam ut unus inno- cens pereat. in the excuse of a crime is The fear as such can . He deservedly loses the law itself. Meliorem conditionem suam facere potest minor. est talis qui cadere possit in constantem virum. Metuis quemagnoscunt leges in excusationem criminis. Defective law better than uncertain law.87. than that one innocent per- son perish. Meliorem conditionem ecclesiae suae facere potest tus. Melius est jus deficiens is quam jus incertum. It is better that ten guilty persons escape. by no means worse. praela- A prelate may make the condition of his church better. The harvest follows the seed time.

-Ministeria recipiunt vicarium. quae. which have always had a certain interpretation. but not in like manner offices. who spares the guilty. I non item pleraque judi- The offices of servants admit of a substitute. He threatens the innocent. dete*i A minor may make his condition better. not bound to defend himself with respect to an inheri- Minor non tenetur respondere durante minori (msi in causa dotis. Minima poena ria. Minor non tanetur The minor tance. is pacitare super haereditate. ty no means worse.) The minor is aetate not bound to answer during his minority. liorem nequaquam. propter favorem. interpretationem certain Those things are by no means to be changed. do most judicatory Minor. unless in the case of a dowry on account of favour.. than any pecuniary punish- Minime sunt mutanda. corporalis est major quavis poena pecunia- The least corporeal punishment is greater. 88 Minatur innocentlbus qui parcit nocentibiu. sed caria. semper haberunt. . meliorem conditionem suam facere potest.

and very ancient. The more mildly a cazn commands. rationabilis^'et perantiquus. to quam rem. . is less have an action than the property. Mobilia sequuntur personam. reasonable. A mode and agreement Monita overcome law. Modus debet esse certus. A mode ought to be certain. the better is he obeyed. Misera est servitus ubi is jus est vagum aut is incognitum. Mitius imperante' melius paretur. Money is » just medium and measure of things interchanged. est justum medium et mensura rerum commuta- bilium. Moveables follow the person. / Modus et conventio vincunt legem. Modus de non decimando non valet.89 Minus It est actionem habere. Bondage miserable where the law vague or uncertain. A mode of not taking tithes is unavailing.

fixing the price at his own pleasure. Multa transeunt cum seunt. human laws. nobody knows all things. Custom is for Uw.90 Mottopolia dictur. Mos pro lege. Multa non legibus humanis sed foro divino Many things belong not to pertinent. vetat lex quse prohibit tamen tacite damnat. la Delay reprobated in law. Mortc donantis donatio confirmatur. Multa non demns. A donation is confirmed by the death of the donor. con- The law does not many things which however it silently Multi multa nemo omnia novit Many know many things . but to the divine cognizance. pretium ad suum libitum 6tatuens. Mora reprobatur in lege. Monopoly is said to take place. . tura& cum nnuB solus aliquod genus merca- universum emit. universitate quse non per se tran- Many things pass with the generality which do not jpass by themselves. when one buys wholly any kind of merchandise.

in natural that any thing be dissolved in the same is way which it bound. nor does the law make any thing superfluous. to-day. Naturale est quidlibet dissolvi eo It is modo quo ligatur. perfect . Natura non faclt vacuum. ita et lex.9t Multiplicata transgressiOTie crescat poena? inflicto. Let the infliction of punishment increase as transgression multiplies. A multitude of unskilful persons ruin the court Mutata forma Interemitur prope substantia The substance of a thing is rei. 7 Ke in crastinum QfOFtiJl quod possis hodie. almost destroyed. Natura appetit perfectum Natur« desires what is . Nature makes no vacuum. ifs form being changed. so does the law. ]Qp OQt put tomorrow what you cao do . N. Multitudo imperitorum perdit curiam. ne^^ lex supervacuum.

X Necessitas non habet legem. because what in other cases not lawful. is Necessity makes a thing lawful. it defends. which does not operate the same in civil cases. Necessitas excusat aut es. Necessitas inducit privilegium quod jure is privatur. Necessity is is not bound down under law . Necessitas facit licitum quod alias non est licitum. Necessitas sub lege non continetur.' which otherwise unlawful. f\ Necessitas publica major est'*quam privata. quod non operatur idem in civilibus. seller Let not the appoint a person to bid.92 Ne licitatorem veiwjitor apponat. Necessity Lath no law. Necessitas"quod cogit. quia quod alias non est licitum necessitas facit licitum.teimal dejictum in capitaiibus. necessity makes lawful. Necessity brings in a privilege which taken away by law. defendit. Necessity excuses or extenuates a transgression in capital cases. What necessity conipels to do. . Public necessity is greater than private necessity.

Negatio destruit negationem. Nobody can rightly understand any part before he peruses the whole again and again.93 Necessitas vincet legem. no qne to be wiser than the laws. Denial cannot be proved. is is allowed to no one against another. Denial destroys denial Negatio non potest probari. Nemini More in alium plus licet quam concessum est legibus. antequam totum. Nobody punished twice for the same transgression* . — baffles the restraints of law. It is legis laqueos imiectere innocen- infamous to lay snares for the innocent. Nefarium per formulas tibus. Neminem It behoves oportet legibus esse sapientiorem. than what grjmted by the laws. iterum atque iterum perlegit. Nemo bis punitur is pro eodem delicto. Nemo aliquam partem recte intelligere potest.—legum vincula irridet. by means of the forms of law. Necessity will overcome the law.

for one and the same cause. Nobody forced to own property even for a just price. if it be certain to the ccnirt. quod pro una et eadem Nobody ought that it id be twice harassed. He who Nemo debet bis puniri pro uno delicto . to si constet curia?. . causa. etiam justo sell his pretio. et Deus non ftgit his in ipsum. deed. Nobody ought to be punished twice^for one fault .94 Nemo bis in shall periculum come twice veiiiet pro eodem delicto. quod faoere jus non Nobody occasions a loss but he who did that which he had not a right to do. Nobody into danger for the eame crime- Nemo cogitur is rem suam vendere. Nobody can come against his own Nemo damnum facit. and God does not act twice against him. Nemo debet bis vexari. nisi qui id fecit. Nemo contra factum suum venire potest. habet. Nemo dat qui non habet hath not cannot give.

95
Nemo
No
debet esse judex in propria causa.
his

one ought to be a judge in

own

cause.

Nemo
No

debet locupletari ex alterius incommodo.

one ought to be enriched at the expense of another.

Nemo debet rem
Nobody ought
deficiency.

suara sine facto aut defectu suo amittere.

to lose his

own

property, without his

own

deed for

Nemo dubitat,
No one
hesitates

solvendo videre
by means of paying

cum
to see

qui defenditur.
him who
is

defended.

Nemo

est haeres viventis.
is

Nobody

the heir of the person living.

-Nemo

est
is

supra leges.
above the laws.

Nobody

Nemo

ex dolo suo proprio relevetur, aut auxilium capiat.
own
proper

Let no one be relieved, or derive assistance from his
fraud.

Nemo

ex his qui negant

se debere, prohibitur etiam alia

defensione uti ; nisi lex impedit.

No one
use

of those

who deny
defence,

that they are owing,

is

prohibited also to

^nQthw

wol^the law

hinders,

96

Nemo

ex suo delicto meliorem suam conditionem facere

potest.

Nobody can make

his condition better

from

his

own

crime.

Nemo

factum a se alienum tenetur
is

scire.

Nobody

bound

to

know an

act or deed foreign to himself.

Nemo

forrestam habet nisi rex.
has a forest but the king.

Nobody

Nemo

ideo obligatur, cjuia recepturus est ab alio

quod

praestiterit.

Nobody
ther

is

bound, therefore, because he

is

about to receive from ano-

what he hath performed.

Nemo idonius publicum munus impositum potest recusare.
No
fit

person

may refuse

a public oS^ze imposed upon himself.

Nemo

igitur

ad

littus
is

maris accedere prohibetur.

Nobody,

therefore,

prohibited to approach the sea shore.

Nemo

inauditus nee summonitus condemnari debet,
sit

si

non

contumax.
to

Nobody ought
moned,
if

be condemned unheard, or without being sum-

he be not contumacious.

Nemoj qui condemnare
Ko one who
can coodemoi
is

potest, absolvere
unable (o acquit.

non potest

I

97

Nemo judex esse
Nobody ought

debet in propria causa.

to be a judge in his

own

cause.

Nemo locupletandus
Nobody
is

est

cum

detrimento alterius.
of another.

to be enriched

by the

loss

Nemo

militans
serving

Deo
God

implicet S3 negotiis secularibus.
affairs,

No one

should entangle himself with secular

Nemo

plus

commodi

hasredi suo relinquit,

quam

ipse ha-

buit.

Nobody

leaves

more advantage

to his heir than

he himself had.

Nemo

plus juris ad alium transferre potest,

quam

ipse

haberit.

Nobody can

transfer

more

privilege to another, than he should have.

Nemo

potest contra

recordum

verificare

per patriam.

Nobody can

certify against a record

through the country.

Nemo potest
Nobody can

episcopo mandare praeter regem.

give a mandate to a bishop, except the king.

Nemo

potest esse tenens et dominus.
tenant ai^ master.

Nobody can be both

O

98

Nemo

potest facere per

dium quod

per se non potest.
himself.

Nobody can do by another what he cannot do by

Nemo

potest gladii potestatem sibi datam, vel cujus al-

terius coercitionis,

ad alium

transferre.
to

Nobody can transfer
self,

to another the

power of the sword given

him-

or of any other coercion to himself.

Nemo potest

immittere in alienum.
into another^s
field.

Nobody can send

Nemo potest mutare
Nobodylcan change

consilium

suum

in alterius injuriam.

his plan to the injury of another.

Nemo

potest mutare consilium

suum

in prejudicium al-

terius.

Nobody can change

his design to the prejudice of another.

Nemo
No

potest nisi

quod de jure

potest.

one can do any thing but what he can do by law.

Nemo potest plus juris
bet
Nobody can
transfer

ad alium transferre quam ipse ha-

more

right to another than he has himself.

Nemo potest sibi mutare causam
Nobody can change

possessionis.

for himself the cauae of his posseseion.

Let no one ask the property of a thing to himself. Nobody prohibited to use many defences. or hold a menial o£Bce. on account of Nemo prohibetur pluribus defensionibus is uti. Nemo No prudens punit ut praeterita revocentur. Nemo proprietatem rei sibi quaerat invito domino. who hath told dowo the price. qui pretium numeravit. his dignity. sed ut futura praeveniantur. Nemo praesumitur donare. Nobody a pirate. but may be prevented.99 Nemo prasdo is est. Nemo pumtur Kobody is pro alieno fo'r delicto. prudent person punishes that past offences that future ones may be recalled. is Nobody presumed to give a donation. can either act as a juryman. punished another person Vtransgresaion. . Nemo procerum vel No nobleman in jurata poni vel seniscallus manerii esse debet propter dignitatem. while the owner is unwilling.

100

Nemo

qui non
is

sit

clericus beneficium clericale habebit bis.
^

No one who

not a clergyman shall have a clerical benefice twice.

Nemo rem suam
neglectu.
IiCt

amittat, nisi ex facto aut delicto suo aut

no one
sion,

lose his

own

property, unless by his

own deed,

transgres-

or neglect.

Nemo

tenetur armare adversarium contra
is

se.

Nobody

bound

to

arm

his

adversary against himself.

Nemo

tenetur edere instrumenta contra
is

se.

Nobody

bound

to furnish

arms against himself.

^"^'

Nemo

tenetur jurare in
is

suam turpitudinem.
to his

Nobody

bound

to

swear

own

disgrace.

^

Nemo

tenetur seipsum accusare.
is

Nobody

bound

to^accuse himself.

Nemo

videtur fraudare eos, qui sciunt et consentiunt.
to defraud those

Nobody appears

who know and

consent.

Neque

leges,

neque senatus consulta
sed

ita scribi

possunt,

ut omnes casus, qui quandoque insiderint, compre-

hendantur
contineri.

;

sufficit

ea quae plaerumque accidunt

Neither laws nor acts of parliament can be so written that they

may

JOl
comprehend
but
it is

all

cases

which

at

sufficient that those

any one time shall have happened be contained in them, which for the

most part happen.

Nihil calliditate stultius.
Nothing
is

more foolish than cunning.

Nihil dat qui

non habet.
who
has nothing.

He

gives nothing

Niha

facit error

nominis

cum de

corpore constat.

A mistake

with regard to the of the person.

name does nothing, when we are certain

Nihil in lege intolerabilius est,
censeri.

eandem rem diverso jure

Nothing

is

more

intolerable in law, than that the

ed by a

different rule,

same thing be iud^'

^

Nihil interest, ipso jure quis actionem

non>beat, an per

exceptionem infirmetur.
It is of

or

no consequence In the law itself, who may not have an may be weakened by an exception.

action '

Nihil magis consentaneum est, quam ut iisdem modisres dissolvatur quibus constituent.
Nothing
is more agreeal^le than that a matter be dissolved by the same means by which it was constituted.

102
Nihil perfectum est
Nothing
is

dum

aliquid reetat ageiidum.

perfect while something remains to be done.

Nihil potest

itix nisi

quod de jure

potest.

The king can do

nothing, unless what he can do

by

the law.

'^^

Nihil

quod

est contra
is

rationem est licitum.
is

Nothing which

against reason

lawful.

Nihil

quod inconveniens
is

est,

licitum

est.

Nothing which

inconvenient is allowed.

Nihil

vere,

tam naturale est, quam eo genere quidque dlssol. quo coUigatum est. Ideo verborum obiigatio
tollitur
;

verbis

nudi consersus obiigatio contrario

consensu dissolvitur.
Nothing is so natural
as to dissolve any thing in the way in which it was bound together. Therefore the obligation of words is taken away by words ; the obligation of mere consent is dissolved

by

the contrary consent.

*

Nihil

tam conveniens

est naturali aequitati

quam unum-

quodque
There
is

dissolvi eo ligaraine

quo ligatum est

nothing so agreeable to natural equity, than that every thing
tl;iat

be dissolved by

tie

by which

it

was bound.

103
Nihil tarn conveniens est imturali aequitati

quam

voluiir

tatem domini rem suam in alium transferre, ratam
habere.
Nothing
is

so agreeable to natural equity, as to reckon valid the will

of a master to transfer his property to another.

Niliil

tam proprium
is

est imperii

quam

legibus vivere.
laws.

Nothing

so peculiar to empire, as to live

by the

Nihil

tam naturale est, quam eo genere quodque vere quo colligatum est.
is

dissol-

Nothing

so natural as to dissolve

any thing in

that

way

in

which

it

was bound.

Nihil

cuiquam expedit quod per leges non
is

licet.

What

not allowed by the laws

is

profitable to. none.

Nil iniquius
Nothing
is

quam

sequitatem nimis intendere.

so unjust a»,to stretch equity too far.

Nil

tam proprium
vere.

imperii ac libertatis

quam

legibus

vi-

Nothing is so peculiar to empire and

liberty, as to live

by the laws.

Nil utile aut honestum quod legibus contrarium.
Nothing
is

useful Of hoopurable,

which

ia

contrary to the laws.

than according to what his condemnation is. qui jus is publicum sequitur. is Too much subtility reprobated in the law. Non alio modo puniatur aliquis. which common use and approved. verba in falsum quag corapetunt in ve- to be received for a falsehood which are competent Non He alienat. qui duntaxat omittit possessionem does not alienate who merely omits possession. Nolumus leges Anglae mutari quae huj usque atque approbatae. itself Nimia subtilitas in lege reprobatur. not taken who follows public right. usitatae sunt We are unwilling that the laws of England should hitherto have been in be changed. . Non He capitur. Words ought not to truth.104 Nimia certitude certitudinem ipsam Too great certainty destroys certainty destniit. quam secundum quod se habet condemnatio. Non accepi debent rum. No one can be punished in any other way.

. does not give. who gives contrary to law. not permitted Non decipitur. by means of another. quod reo non permittitur. quod minus is less est non licere. which to the defender. from whom Non An debet alteri per alterum iniqua conditio inferri. but as Non He dat qui contra leges dat. Non debet. deceived. is That ought not to be allowed to the pursuer. a quo jus in me transit. my author. I ought not to be in a better condition than the right passes to me. quam auctor meus. sed publicum a crime by itself.105 Non crimen per se neque privatum damnum malum leges spectant. cui plus is licet. nor as a private loss. i Non debeo melioris conditionis esse. The laws do not regard a public evil. To whom more allowed. unjust condition ought not to be brought forward to one. that which ought not to be allowed. He is not who knows that he is himself deceived. Non debet actori licere. qui scit se decipi.

what have once advantageously been constituted It is'not strange.106 Non defendere videtur. sculks. is To be held by the things to which you not law. Non est lex sed servitus ad tenere quibus non consenseris. ut quae semel licet ille utiliter constituta sunt du- rent. a person denying first We must not dispute against principles. Not only he who to defend. that endure. when his subjects are poor.e inclination has had no the effect follow. a quo initium capere non potuerint. Non est novum. Non est disputandum contra principia negantem. casus extiterit. aut non vult susci- pere actionem. Non The est deleganda reipublicse cura personse non idoneae. although the case may exist. non tantum qui latitat. may not have consented. effect. Non est dives is rex ubi subditi pauperes. unless TI. seems not Non efFecit afFectus nisi sequatur effectus. The king not rich. is care of the republic not to be delegated to an improper person. sed et is qui proesens negat se defendere. from which they could not have taken a beginning. but servitude. . but likewise he who when present refuses to defend himself. or does not wish to undertake an action.

Non morbus plerumque It is sed curatio neglecta kills. sed plerumque melior. than they had not. We must not grant to individuals. The king cannot do a favour to the injury of another. is condition of those who have not wont to be worse. The betraying of notjess than to wish to destroy the king.107 Non est singulis concendendum quod publice per ne occasio sit magis»» tratum fieri possit. majoris tumultus faciendi. eorum. but for the most part better. punishments are no less disgraceful to a prince.' All things are not allowed to a master towards his servants. qui litem contes- quam if si non. than funerals to a physician. Non minus Many sunt turpia principi multa supplicia quam memany dico multa funera. which for the most part of the cure. interficit. Non The solet deterior conditio fieri tati sunt. is quam regem velle perdere. not the disease. Non omnia domino in servos licita. Non potest rex gratiam facere cum injuria alterius. what can be publicly done by a magistrate. but the neglecting Non minor est proditio legis the law. lest there should be an occasion of making a greater tumult. . contested a suit.

Non No videtur quisquam id capere. to consent. impediment is not valid. if any one hath chang- ed any thing by the command of a person threatening him. qui per exceptionem a petitione re- movetur. sed declarat antiquum quia judicium est juris dictum. He does not seem to have obtained his request. right. They do not seem who commit a mistake. does not seem to have still given his consent. si quis ex praescripto minantis aliquid immutavit. . which does not obtain effect from law. who by exception is remov- ed from making Non videtur consensum He retinuisse. Non videntur. Non videtur cepisse. Novum judicium non dat novum jus. qui errant consentire. it is necessary for him to restore Non videntur rem amittere. restituere. et per ju. They do not seem to lose their whom it did not belong. quibus propria property to non fuit.108 Non An valet impedimentum quod de jure non sortitur ef fectum. quod ei necesse est alii one seems to obtain that which unto another.

except agreement . unless determined by the law hand. and by trial the law is revealed of new. vera autem et honesta et possibilia. Nudum pactum . Novatio non praesumitur. est noviter revelatum quod diu fiat vela- A new trial does not cause a trial is give a new law. where no cause exists. No impossible or dishonourable honourable. Nulla poena capitis nulla quae hominum remve may ejus des- truat esse potest nisi legibus praefinita. No capital punishment.10& dicium jus tum. and possible things. no punishment which destroy either a before- man or his property can be. the founda- Nulla impossibilia aut inhonesta sunt praesumenda . obligatio. A mere naked bargain where a cause tion of an action. be- the dictate of law. ^j. A bastard is the son of nobody. .^Nothus nullius est filius. is. which for a long time was veiled. but declares the ancient law . est ubi nulla subest causa praeter fit conven- tionem sed ubi subest causa. but true. but an obligation takes place. et parit actionem. and is exists. things are to be presumed. Innovation is not presumed.

locum suum et dignitatem. No virtue. to none shall we deny.110 Nulla res vehementius rempublicam continet quam fides. conservare potest sine modestia. nulla scientia. Nothing holds the state more strongly together than honesty. The written deed of no one can derogate from the laws. can preserve its place and dignity. Nulla unquam de morte hominis is cunctatio longa est. who does not hinder when he has no power Nullum damnum There is sine remedio. cum prohi- He is chargeable with no crime to hinder. differemus justitiam To none shall we sell. the same to alL \ • . NuUi yendemus nuUi negabimus aut vel rectum. Nulla virtus. JNullum crimen patitur bere (non) potest. or put off justice. or rec- titude. No delay ever long about the death of a man. Nullum exemplum No example is est idem omnibus. Nullius charta legibus potest derogare. is qui non prohibet. no knowledge. no loss without a remedy. without moderation.

Nullus dicitur accessorius post feloniam. No one can derive advantage from his own proper injury. : Rex nunquam. time occurs to the king the king never dies. applicable to all cases. Nullum tempus occurrit regi . Nullum No simile est idem. Nullum tempus No occurrit regi . Nullum medicamentum No remedy is est idem omnibus. is similar thing the same.Ill Nullum iniquum Nothing unjust is est proesumendum in jure. to be presumed in law. fails. sed vit principalem feloniam fecisse. . but he who knowi that he committed the principal felony. : Rex nunquam moritur. ille qui nof None is called an accessory after felony. Nullum iniquum No^injustice is in jure praesumendum est. No time occurs to the king the king never Nullus commodum capere potest de injuria sua propria. to be presumed in law.

No one seems to act with guile. J . A conclusion is never drawn in a supposed case. Let no one apply to the court of chancery without obtaming redress. is Prescription never founded in falsehood. Nunquam recurritur ad extraordinarium ubivalet ordi- narium. Nunquam praescribitur in falso. crescit ex post facto praeteriti delicti gestimatio. Nunquam The deed. but when an ordinary one fails. We never have recourie to an extraordinary nary one 18 in»tance. Nunquam Too much nimis dicitur quod is'never nunquam satis dicitur. who uses his own Nunquam concluditur in falso. is spoken when never enough spoken. right. when an ordi- valid. Nullus videtur dolo facere qui jure suo utitur.112 Nullusrecedat e curia canceUaria sine remedio. estimation of a past transgression never increases from an after- Nunquagm decurritur ad extraordinarium sed ubi ordinarium. Recourse is defecit never had to an extraordinary case.

o. A person's embarrassment proceeds from respect and fear of perjury. virtutis amore. non concubitus.113^ ^ Nuptias. in facts Odious and dishonourable things are not to be presumed in law . Not cobabitation>but consent. and which relate to good and evil. from a love of virtue. et in facto quod se habet ad bonum et malum. Obedience is the essence of the law. hate to sin. Ob reverentiam personarium et metum peijurii. ^ Oderunt peccare boni. from a fear of punishment. Odiosa et inhonesta non sunt in lege praesumenda . more to be presumed concerning good. The good hate to sin. Let a judge be free from hatred and love. constitutes marriage. it is evil. than coBcerning Q . Obedientia est legis essentia. magis de bono quam de malo praesumendum est. y Oderunt peccari mali. fonnidine The wicked poenae. Odio et amore judex careat. sed consensus facit.

just and advantageous to private persons.114 OfBcium nemini debet Duty ought esse damnosum. Omne actum Every action ab agentis intentione is est judicandum. honour- able to the state. useful to men. The laws approve all things agreeable to God. to be judged from the intention of the agent. to be hurtful to none. hominibus utiDa reipublicae honesta privatis justa et commoda probant leges: et pro viribus cuique imponunt. detegit. testator. and aggravates every crime. and impose then} upon every one according to his faculties . Drunkenness both inflames. bound to defend the republic with their life and all Omnia Deo gratia. All subjects are their goods. Every testament completed by the death of the Omnes in defensionem reipublicae vita bonisque omnibus cives tenentur. '- Omne crimen ebrietas et incendit. is finished and circumscribed by the time Omne testamentum morte consummatum is est. Every law and every action of the injury. Omne jus et omnis actio injuriarum tempore finita et cir- cumscripta sunt. et auget. detects.

presumed done by the Omnia praesumuntur contrarium. until trary. donee probetur in All things are presumed lawfully done. All things are presumed in hatred of the spoiler Omnia praesumuntur AH things are legibus facta. All transgressions openly committed are Omnia honeste Let all et ordine fiant. and in order. Omnia quaecunque causae cognitionem desiderant. it be proved to the con- Omnia praesumuntur solennita. . cannot be explained by a memorial. Omnia praesumuntur in odium spoliatoris. less. Omnia praesumuntur solemniter esse acta. All actions are usually presumed to be done in a solemn manner. per li- bellum expedire non possunt. laws. things be done honourably.115 Omnia dclicta in aperto leviora sunt. All things which require cognizance. legitime facta. All things are presumed to be done with^the usual solemnity.

disgraceful contract is odious to the laws. mariti sunt. Omnis Every contractus turpitudinis legibus invisus. and words of the jurors. belong to the husband while marriage continues. from the good and fair premises. but the husband.116 Omnia. All things which are contracted by law. Omnia uxoris durante conjugio. Omnis consensus All consent takes tollit errorem. the wife has no power herself. . All things pertaining to the wife. Omnis conclusio boni et veri judici. potestatem suae. perish by a contrary law. possit. Omnia quae sunt uxoris sunt ipsius viri : non habet uxor vir. contrario jure pereunt. Omnis definitio injure civili periculosa est. sed All things which belong to the wife. sequitur ex bonis et veris pragmissis et dictis juratorum. parum est enim ut non subverti Every its definition in the civil law is dangerous. away error. Every result of a good and fair trial follows. for there is a chance of being overturned. quae jure contrahuntur. belong to her husband.

Omnibus infra regnum lies orantibus legis open to all remedium patet. reckoned as innocent by the laws. yet it is the time of death. Omnis nova constitutio futuris temporibus . than it does good by Omnis lascivia le^bus is vetita. Omnis innovatio plus prodest. The remedy of the law within the kingdom Who ask it. to impose a Every new constitution ought on past times. All wantonness forbiddexi by the laws. Custom is the best interpreter of the laws. Every innovation its utility. not Omnis haereditas quamvis postea adeatur. novitate perturbat quam utilitate disturbs more by its novelty.117 Omnis indemnatus pro innoxio Every uncondemned person is legibus habetur. . form on future times. tamen cum tempore mortis continuatur. In whatever manner any inheritance continued till may be entered upon. formam im- ponere debet non praeteritis. Optima interpres legum consuetudo.

Optimus legum Custom is interpres consuetudo. sic leges interpretare ut The best method of interpreting. mores It is fiunt. nullam vim habere indubitati juris a part of established law. Optimus Use is interpres rerum usus. . Private bargains cannot derogate from public right. the best interpreter of things. that laws agree with laws. est. Pacta quae contra leges constitutioneeque vel contra bono est. is so to interpret the laws. and constituted authorities are against good manners. that bargains have no force which are made against laws. Pacta dant legem contractui. Bargains give a law to contract. Pacta privata juri publico derogare non possunt.118 Optimus interpretandi modus leges legibus concordant. the best interpreter of laws.

Par in parem imperium non habet. his like in wisdom. who deprives the indigent poor of bread. Par scientiae pares contrahentes facit. Any thing is allowed by a bargain. and who defrauds them. vel ex auctoritate et praesumptione legis obligant. Equal has no power over equal. Pactis privatorum publico juri derogari nequit. or from mutual adrantage. Pacta vel ex naturas et sanguinis vi. Panis egentium vita pauperum et qui defraudat eos vir sanguinis He is a man of violence. and from presumption of law. By the bargains of private persons. Mutual bargains bind both parties. Bargains are binding either from the ties of nature and blood. . Pacto aliquod licitum est quod sine pacto is non admittitur.119 Pacta reciproca vel utrosque ligant vel neutrum. which not admitted without a bargain. or from authority. or neither. vel ex mutuo fructu. nothing can be derogated from public law. Like makes those who repair to him.

for. before he hath perused the whole again and again. even bastards. Paribus sententiis reus absolvitur. Parum proficit scire sit quid fieri debet. si non cognoscas quo modo It is faciendum. Partem aliquam recte intelligere nemo potest. antequam totum. for or against him. duty of parents to maintain their children. The accomplice of a crime is nqt to be heard. or agaipst . The accused him.120 Paribus sententils reus absolvltur. perlegerit. iterum atque iterum. to be done. Nobody can rightly understand any part. Parentum It is the est liberos alere etiam nothos. The condition of the defender is more favourable. is acquitted by an equal number of votes. Partes rei sunt favorabiliores. A guilty person is absolved by an equal number of votes. you do not know how it may be Particeps criminis non est audiendus. if of little avail to know what ought done.

Partus ex legitimo thoro non certius noscit matrem ffenitorem quam suum. The Latin name fying cattle J divitias in for money is derived from another Latin term signi- for all the riches of the ancients consisted of animals. He is the father whom the marriage demonstrates to be so. maternal things to the mother. Sins against nature are most heinous.121 Patefactio rei trahit ad se reraedium. Paterna paternis. ^Peccata contra naturam sunt gravissima. Partus sequitur ventrem. . materna raaternis. Paternal things belong to a father. more certainly The oifspring of a lawful marriage does not know its molher than its father. The disclosing of a matter draws a remedy to itself. The offspring follows the mother. Pecunia dicitur a pecus^ omnes enim veterum animalibus consistebant. Pater est quern nuptiae demonstrant.

That is dangerous which good men. dangerous to introduce strange and unusual things. PericuJosum est quod non bonorum virorum comproba- tur exemplis. pending. let When the law-suit is there be no innovation^ Pendenti lite nihil is innovandum. We arrive at the legitimate meaning by reasonings. Per rationes pervenitur ad legitimam (legalem) rationem. worse to act in a trial unjustly.Pejus est judicio It is quam per vim injuste facere. than by forca Pendente lite nihil innovetur. legem experientia acts. I^et one perish. is not countenanced by the examples of Periculosum It is est res novas et inusitatas induccre. Per varies actus. Experience has made law by various Pereat unus. . no innovation ought to take place. While a law-suit depending. ne pereant omnes. lest all should perish. fecit.

. Perpetuitatibus lex obsistit The law opposes perpetuities. oath. The divine punishment of perjury is destruction the human punish- ment is disgrace. is abrogationem ex- ab initio non perpetual law.123 Perjurii pcena divina exitium humana dedecus. Self-evident truths are not to be proved. Pirata communis omnium hostis. . It is a et clausula quae valet. deceive the They are perjured who observing the words of an ears of those hear them. that there . A pirate it the common enemy of all men. Perjuri sunt qui servatis verbis juramenti decipiunt aures eorum qui who accipiunt. A conjunct person has an equal share in his own right. Perspicua vero non sunt probanda. Persona conjuncta eequiparatur interesse proprio. ac positivam perpetuam esse cludit. Perpetua lex est nuUam legem humanam . no human and positive is law pernot valid petual and the clause which excludes disannulling. from the beginning.

A will ought to be true. certum. others are peremptory. and agreeing with the brief. The wills of superiors ought to conclude fitly. et nil per inductionem supponere. sufficient. Placita negativa duo exitum non faciunt. simplex. The writS'Of superiors ought to be directly expressed.124 Placita debent apte concludere. . et praecedentibus constans. and having regard to order. and consisting with preceding ones.' and to suppose nothing by way of induction or inference. Two negative wills produce no efFecL Placitorum Some edicts alia dilatoria. alia peremptoria. admit of delay. A lying will. sufHciens. et ordinem spectans. clear. Placitum debet esse verum. Placitum affirmativum sine negative exitum non facit. Placita ex directo esse debent. simple. is not a will. An affirmative will produces no effect without a negative. Placitum mendax non est placitum. et brevi congruens.

adviser transgresses more than the Plus valet oculatus One eye witness is testis unus. transgressions. Examples do more harm than Plus peccat auctor The adviser is quam per quern agitur. i . quam quod similate conci- The matter in question is of greater weight than the induction which can be taken from similar ones. Plus enim valet quod agitur pitur. more valid. worse than the agent. quam in persona. Common custom is more valid. than ten ear witnesses. quam auriti decern. unless danda is Nobody can make by giving what better. Plus exempla quam peccata nocent. quam regalis concessio. Plus peccat author The quam actor. I Plus cautionis in re There is est. agent. than a royal grant. than in a person. Pluq valet vulgaris consuetude.125 Placitiim nemo cassabit nisi melius void a will. more security in property.

Two eyes see more than one. to precede a crime. Poena non debet ante Punishment ought not ire crimen. Poena potius moliendae. Poena ad paucos. Pondere. By weight. Poena vel remedium ex incrementio quod prius erat non tollit. quam exasperandae sunt. Neither punishment nor remedy. Let punishment come to a few. fear to all. Policies ought to to the laws. Punishments are rather to be mitigated. by number. et mensura. not laws to the policies.126 Plus vident oculi quam oculus. takes away from the increase which was before. Politiae le^bus non leges be adapted politiis adaptandag. and by measure. Poena et delicti defuncti haeres teneri non debet. than made more severe. metus ad omnes perveniat. transgression of the An heir cannot be bound by the punishment and deceased. numero. .

heiress. Possessio contra sessionis. possessio reversionarii est habenda. Latter things derogate from the formerr .127 Populiis Anglicanus nemini servirc aut consuevit aut debuit nisi Deo et legibus. The possession of a brother of a simple feu. Possessio fratria de foedo simplici facit sororem esse hae- redem. whicfi they themselves have chosen. is to be reckoned the pos- Posteriora derogant prioribus. but to God and the laws. makes his sister to be his Possessio terminum tenentis. except him who has the right of pos- session. nobody. The people of England are bound to obey only their own laws. Populus Anglicanus non nisi suis legibus quas ipse ele- gerit tenetur obtemperare. The possession of the tenant of a fund. session of a reversionary. prseter eum cui jus sit pos- is valid against all. subject to The people of England have been accustomed to be nor ought they . Possession omnes valet.

. deriving substance from the authority of the' law. Praescriptio est titulus qui sequitur personam. non The supreme power can dissolve itself. deriving substance from the authority of the law. i Potior est conditio possidentis. not to go before it. Potentia debet sequi justitiam. Prescriptio est titulus ex usu et tempore legis.128 Potestas rcgia est facere justitiam. is better than a public evil. Potestas suprema seipsum dissolvere potest. ex usu et tempore substantiam capiens ex auctoritate Prescription is legis. a title. Potius est privatum incommodum quam publicum malum. ligare potest. Power ought to follow justice. which follows the person from use and time. A private inconvenience. The condition of a possessor is preferable.. To do justice is royal power. substantiam capiens ab authoritate Prescription is a title from use and time. it cannot bind itself. non antecedere.

secundum bonas et antiquas . in the recess of his heart. takes away mistake of name j and of the name removes the error of demonstration. unless Prsesentia corporis tollit errorem nominis . Praetextu liciti non debet admitti illicitum. lest any injury may arise. Prerogativum est. Praesumitur The king is Rex habere omnia jura in scrinio pectoris to sui. the truth Presenti periculo succurrendum nequa oriri possit injuria. The presence of the body. Praestat cautela Caution is quam medela.129 /^ Prcscriplio iion datur in Prescription is bona felonum nisi per recordum. presumed have all the law. violenta valet in lege. An unlawful thing ought not to be admitted under a lawful pretext. in de- cus et tutamen regni. Strong presumption is valid in law. et Veritas no- minis toUit errorem demonstrationis. Praesumptio. We must bring relief to present danger. ejus Regis bonum et antiquum. by record. not granted against the goods of felons. better than a remedy.

When principal things are granted. Prerogative is the good and ancient right of the king. the approbatory act of the judge. non probantur. Pretium succedit in loco rei. Principles prove. Primus actus judicii The first act of a trial. and the usages and customs of the English I laws. Principiis obsistendum. antiquam perveniatur ad The principal ought always to be discussed. to- Principia data sequuntur concomitantia. J Principalis debet semper excuti fidei jussores.130 populi libertates et legis Anglicanae leges et consuetudines. . A price comes in the place of the property. according to the good and ancient liberties of the people. for the honour and protection of the kingdom. Principia probant. We must resist principles. are not proved. is est judicis approbatorius. concomitants follow. before recourse be had his cautioners.

perspicuae et intelligi. qui dolo He is desiit possidere. and easily understood. The agreement of a private person. who no Pro possessore habetur. who no longer or injury. Privilegium non valet contra rempublicam.by fraud considered as a possessor. I Probationes debent esse evidentes. Pro possessore habetur. qui dolo He is injuriave desiit possidere.131 Principis beneficium debet esse mansurum. Privilege is not valid against the state. The favour of a prince ought to be permanent. faciles Proofs ought to be evident. perspicuous. on him who raises the action. lies illi qui agit. Private advantage yields to public. Privatorum conventio juri publico non derogat. possesses . . does not derogate from public law_ Privatum commodum publico cedit. longer possesses by fraud. Probandi necessitas incumbit The necessity of proving. considered as a possessor.

Protectio trahit subjectionem. son . one more remote. The proprieties of words are to be observed. what may be hurtful to another person. Protection draws along with it subjection. It is the prerogative of the king to pardon a transgression. Proximus sum egomet mihi.132L Prohibetur ne quis faciat in suo quod nocere possit It is alteri. Proprietates verborum servandag sunt. forbidden that any one should do in his hurt another. Propinquior exciudit propinquium . I mysaif am nearest to myself. et subjectio protectionem. et propinquus remo- A nearer relation excludes propinquity. and subjection protection. Proprium est Regis gratiam delicti facere. and a relation a remote per- and a remote person. It is prohibited that anyone should do in his own concern. own concern what might Prohibetur ne quis faciat in suo quod nocere possit in alieno. .

Q. Things inherent to a person. commu- nem legem non What hurt laedunt. ought not to be into consequence. are strictly interpreted The things which derogate from common j Quae contra rationem juris introducta sunt. What things are introduced against the rule of right. . do not common law. He acts prudently who obeys the precept of the laws. cannot be separated from a person. Quae communi legi derogant stricte interpretantur. Quae ad unum finem loquuta sunt. What things have been spoken to one purpose ought not to be impro- perly applied to another.133 Prutlenter agit qui praecepto legis obtemperat. drawn Quae dubitationis causa tollendae inseruntur. things are inserted for the sake of removing ambiguity. non debent ad alium detorqueri. non debent trahi in consequentiam. law. Quae coheerent personae a persona seqarari nequeunt.

ought to hurt nobody. are performed in the lump by in- Quse in testamento sint : ita sunt scripta. jus commune non laedunt. are not to be drawn into example. 1 away law. What things are so written in a testament that they cannot be uuderif stood. What cannot be dividuals. sed prodesse possunt. What things are done among others. seem to be inherent Quae inter alios acta sunt nemini nocere debent. What things derogate from common law. but may do good. ut si intelligi non pos- perinde sunt. divided into parts. Quae incontinenti vel certo fiunt inesse videntur. ac scripta non essent. Those]_ things which are done at once.134 Quae dubitationis tollendas causa contractibus inseruntur. do not hurt common Quae in partes dividi nequeunt solida a singulis praestantur. are just as they had not been written. . or certainly. What things are inserted in contracts for the purpose of taking ambiguity. Quae legi communi derogant non sunt trahenda in exem- plum.

135
Quae non valeant (prosunt) singula, juncta juvant.
Those things which are of no avail^when
joined.
single, are profitable

when

Qua3 non valerent singula, juncta juvant.
What things would
not avail single, are profitable

when joined.

Quae praeter consuetudinem

et

morem majorem

fiunt,

neque placent, neque
What

recte videntur.

things are done contrary to custom and ancient usage, neither

please nor seem to be proper.

Quae rerum natura prohibentur, nulla lege confirmata
sunt.

What

things are prohibited in the nature of things, are confirmed

by

no law.

Quae singula non prosunt, juncta juvant.
Single things

which do no good,

assist

when combined.

Quae sunt temporalia ad agendum, sunt perpetua ad exci-

piendum.
What things
are temporal with regard to action, are perpetual for re-

ceiving.

Quaecunque intra rationem legem
esse judicantur.

legis inveniuntur, intra

ipsam

Whatsoever things are found within the meaning of the law, are judg^
ed to be wilhia the reach of the law.
{;;

136
Quaecunqiie lex
viilt fieri

non vult frustra
to

fieri.

Whatsoever the law wishes
in vain.

be done,

it

wishes not to be done

Qusedam in majus malum vitandum pcrmittet tamen nequaquam probet.
The law allows
however,

lex

que

certain things for the avoiding of a greater evil, which,

it

by no means approves.

Quaelibet concessio fortissime contra donatorem interpre-

tanda

est.
is

Any

grant

most forcibly to be interpreted against the donor.

Quselibet poena corporalis quamvis

minima, major

est

qua
The
least

libet

poena pecuniaria.
is

corporeal punishment,

greater than any pecuniary punish-

ment.

Quaestio

fit

de legibus, non de personis.
is

A

question

made concerning

the laws, not concerning persons.

Qualitas quae inesse debet, facile presumitur.

The

quality

which ought

to be inherent,

is

easily

presumed.

Quamvis aliquid ex

se

non

sit

malum, tamen

si

sit

mali

exempli, non est faciendum.
Although a thing is not bad of itself, however,
set a
if it

has a tendency to

bad example, it

is

not to be done.

137
Quamvis
lex generaliter loquitur, restringenda
:

tamen est
ratio sit
legislator

ut cessante ratione et ipsa cessat

cum enim

anima vigorque
id senisse
neralitas

ipsius legis,

non videtur

quod

ratione careat, etiamsi
facie aliter suadeat.
hi the general,
it is,

verborum ge-

prima

Although the law speaks
for since reason

however, to be restricted
the

that while the reason, or
is

meaning

ceaseth, itself likewise ceaseth;
itself,

the soul and strength of the law

legislator does not

seem to have perceived that which wants a

reason, although the generality of

words may at

first

sight induce

us to believe otherwise.

Quamvis

aliquid per se

non

sit

malum, tamen

si sit

mail

exempli, non est faciendum.
Althouo^h any thing

may

not be evil of

itself,

however,

if it

be of bad

example,

it is

not to be done.

Quando

aliquid cui conceditur, conceditur et id per

quod

pervenitur ad illud.

When

any thing

is

granted to any one, likewise that
to
it.

is

granted by

which he comes

Quando

aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur et per

obliquum.

When any
rectly.

thing

is

prohibited directly,

it is

prohibited likewise indi-

Quando aliquid prohibetur, prohibetur omne
devenitur ad
illud.
is

id per

quod

When any
come

thing

is

prohibited, that also

prohibited

by which we

to that.

T

138
Quando
charta continet generalem clausulam, posteaque

descendit ad verba specialia, qua? clausulae general!

sunt consentanea, interpretanda est charta secundum

verba

specialia.

When

a charter contains a general'claus?, and afterwards descends to

special expressions,

which are agreeable to the general

clause, the

charter

is

to be interpreted according to the special words.

Quando

lex aliquid alicui concedit, concedere videtur id

sine

quo

res ipsa esse

non
to

potest.
it

When the

law grants anything
itself

any one,

seems to grant that with-

out which the thing

cannot

exist.

Quando
cite

lex aliquid alicui concedit,

omnia

incidentia ta-

conceduntur.
law grants any thing
to

When the

any one,

all

incidental things are

tacitly granted.

Quando

lex est specialis, ratio

autem

generalis,

gene-

raliter lex est intelligenda.

When

the law

is

special,

but the reason general, the law

is

to be gene-

rally understood.

Quando plus fit quam fieri debet, fieri quod faciendum f uit.
When more
is

videtur etiam illud

done than ought to be done, that to6 seems to be done,

which should have been done.

will not obtain it is it by any other law than he from v/hom derived. reply. Qui adimit medium derimet finem. who accuses. so. statu ti sunt epecialia. Quemadmodo non juris respondent judices. Qui accusal Let him integrae famae sit et non criminosus. from that the jurors As judges do not tion o£ law. the When the words of a statute is tQ be understood generally. sed non patrem patriae.139 Quando verba lis. do not answer a ques- Qui ab ac alio is derivatum jus habet. but not the father of his country. He who takes away the middle. ratio autem genera- generaliter statutum est intelligendum. ea quaestionem non respondent juratores. but the reason general. . be of unblemished character. ita. patriam. Qui abjurat regoum amittit regnum sed non regem. loses the kingdom . and not criminal. will demolish the end. He who abjures the kingdom. statute ar» special. but not the king his native country. alia lege obtinebit unde derivatum He who hath a right derived from another. non est.

Qui altari serviunt ab altari vivant. benefit of the law extraordinarily. let Qui aliquid dixerit. let him lift . though he may speak hath not done what is just. justice. statuerit. Qui animo peccandi aliquid initio. it away Qui agquitatem petit. parte inaudita altera ajquum licet haud sequum fecerit. aequitatem faciat. puras manus Whosoever seeks the up pure hands. him practiie justice. or takes by force. or evil fraud. facit. at least in the same way. the one party being unheard. Whosoever demands justice. seems to have transgressed from the beginning. Let him in eodem saltern genere sit incu- who accuses another. suas amittitio. legis extra ordinem quaerit. not be accused. should live by the altar Qui alterum incusat ne sandus. He who shall have determined any thing. Qui beneficium afferto. aut vi vel dolo aufert.140 Qui alienas res negligenter perdit. let him lose his own. videtur peccasse ab He who does any thing with the intention of transgresoing. malo Whosoever negligently ruins another man's property. They who serve at the altar.

Qui causa decedit causa cadit. falleth from his cause. who dat. he who assists the wicked and inactive. He who is assists good men in poverty. or ought not to be igno- rant of his condition but this cannot be imputed to his heir. Qui bene interrogate bene docet. teaches well. He who departs from his cause. vel debet esse. bene docet.14rl Qui bene He who dlstinguit. He who interrogates well. destniit fineml He who destroys the middle. vel est. Qui bonis viris pauperibus dat legibus tpitulatur. gives to the poor. gives to the laws . and the disgrace of the laws. Qui cum non He who alio contrahit. . rus ejus conditionis potest. sine* he contracts not of his own accord with the legatees. hasredi non igna*autem hoc imputari cum non sponte cum legatariis contrahit is contracts with another. not. either . teaches well. Qui destruit medium. fosters a multitude of bad people. qui malis et inertibus segetem malorum fovet et legum opprobrium. . distinguishes well. destroys the end. Qui dat pauperibus Deo He gives to God.

acts facit per se. by himself. shall stand by the whole Qui extra causam divagatur calumniando. Qui ex parte testamenti aliquid donatum so testamento stabit. let him be Qui facit per alium. sticks He who merely to the bark.142 Qui dolo desierit possidere. his cause by uttering calumny. Qui habet jurisdictionem absolvendi. is crafty for the possessor. instead of a possessor. habet jurisdictionem ligandi. est. He who gives to the sluggish. punitor. Qui inertibus dat industrios nudat. by a part of a will. sticks to the letter. defrauds the industrious. Qui hgeret in litera haeret in cortice. has the right of binding. acts He who by means of another. Whosoever wanders out of punished. . accipit. He who has^the right of acquitting. univer- He who receives any thing will. pro possidente pro possessione dolus He who shall cease to possess by craft.

as often as the question concerning his advantage. Qui non cadunt in constantem virum. is and concerning a small matter. Qui in utero est pro jam nato habetur. Those fears are to be considered as vain. an id quod petitur deberetur fide jussores. no less than the heirs. et stringit. Qui inscienter laesit scienter emendit. quoties de ejus commodo He who is quaeritur. nemini facit injuriam. binds himself by an nearest to perjury. can allege just ignorance. does injury to none. is reckoned as already born. He who enjoys his own right. often. in the is womb.143 Qui in alterius locum succedunt justam habent ignorantioe : causam. the sureties. which do not fall upon a steady vanx. peijurio parvula de re juramento se obest. knowingly amende He who ignorantly Qui jure suo utitur. non minus quam sunt allegare. Qui libenter. and oath. et saepe. haeredes. vani timores sunt aestimandi. proximus He who willingly. have just cause of ignorance whether that which is sought for be due. justam ignorantiam pos- They who succeed in the room of another. hath hurt. .

facere videtur. Whosoever has no money. Qui non luat in crumina luat in corpore.144 Qui non habet in aere. shall not punishment. who does not oppose what he can oppose. does not freely declare the truth. alienandi. approves. He who does not deny. that no trans- gression should pass with impunity. suffer in the purse. approbat. Qui non peccavit poenam non feret. is a betrayer of the truth. He who does not disapprove. confesses. proditor est veritatis. Qui non habet potestatem retinendi. let him satisfy. suiOfer He who hath not transgressed. Qui non He who libere veritatem pronunciat. in his person . luat in corpore : (ne quid pecca- tur impune). has the necessity of retaining Qui non improbat. let Whosoever cannot him suffer in the body. I . potest. Qui non obstat quod obstare He seems to do. habet necessitatem He who has not the power of alienating. Qui non negat fatetur.

145 Qui non propulsat. quod prohibere potest. what he can prohibit. He who destruit commodum. consentire videtur. quod prohibere potest. debet negJigi. when he ought and can do it. injuriam quando potest. jubet. what he can hinder. He seems to consent. destroys convenience. nihil excludit. Qui non vult He who does intelligi. who does not prohibit. when he can. infer t. He who admits posterior things in order. Qui non He vetat cum debeat et possit. He who says all. He causes an injury. Qui ordine ulteriora admittit. ought to be neglected. excludes nothing. blocks up an access. affirms preceding things. He seems to assent. not wish to be understood. orders who does not forbid. assentire videtur. who does not prohibit. Qui non prohibet. U . who does not oppose it. Qui omne dicit. Qui obstruit aditum. Qui non prohibet. preecedentia affirmat.

He who has once renounced his action. punishes the innocent. innocentibus punit. cannot resume it any more. jubet. in eo peribit. and ought to forbid. orders who can. per se ipsum facere videtur. Qui semel actionem renunciaverit. He who Qui parcit nocentibus. seems to act by Qui periculum amat. shall perish in Qui He potest et debet vetare. and does not do it- Qui prior in tempore. let him giv© satisfaction when Qui per alium He who himself. luat sobrius. He who courts danger. amplius repetere non potest. potior in jure. offends when intoxicated. it. is He who is first preferable in law. Qui peccat Whosoever soben ebrius. He who spares the guilty. transacts through the agency of another. spares the guilty. in time.146 Qui parcit nocentibi|s> innocentibus minatur. . threatens the innocent. facit.

make laws for Christ. Qui sit jus. legis est definare. et in quo consistit injuria. and in what in- justice consists. trial provokes to without wicked fraud.147 Qui semel malus. is He who determines any thing while one party unheard. It belongs to the law to define what justice may be. Qui statuat aliquid parte inaudita altera statuerit aequum licet baud sequus olet. . Qui suspicionem peccati inducit. does not seem' to'- cause delay. though he may determine what is just. faciunt leges pro Christo. is has once been wicked. peccat. \ / Qui sine dolo malo ad judicium provocat. who occasions suspicion of an offence. non videtur moram He who facere. Qui sentit commodum—sentire debet et onus. semper praesumitur esse malus in eo dem He^who genera. Qui serviunt Christo. will not savour of the jusf man. He oflfends. always presumed to be wicked in the same way. They who serve Christ. ought also to feel the burden. He who feels the advantage.

Qui tacet. loses his cause* Quid fiere debet. legis est definire. He who seems to agree. is. He who pays rather slowly. less. facile to be done. . He who is tpo dilatory. et in quo consistat injuria. consentire videtur. minus solvit. "Whatever is facit. Quid sit jus. Quicquid in excessu actum Whatever is est. law to define what the law and in what injustice Quicquid contra bonos mores tum. jure communi veti- done against good morals. ubi tractatur de ejus com- modo. Qui tardius solvit. is silent. causam perdit. consentire videtur. done to excess. He seems to consent. pays rather Qui tempus praetermittit. is prassumitur. who is silent concerning his own advantage. is forbidden by common law. It belongs to the consists.148 Qui tacet. is prohibited by law. lege prohibetur. easily what ought presumed.

Quicquid per Whatever is se malum est. ordinarius. Quicunque jussu judicis aliquid fecerit. is the ordinary of that place. quia parere neeesse est. does not seem to have acted by guile. secundum modum is recipientis recipitur. auctoritati subjicitur. Whoever has done any thing by order it is of the judge. Quilibet enim jure pro se introducto renunciare potest. estillius lod Whoever has ordinary jurisdiction. is paid according to the manner of the payer. non videtur dolo malo fecisse. . novitati non sub- Whatever is subjected to the authority of a judge. and not by the weakness of opponent.149 Quicquid judicis jicitur. Quicunquehabetjurisdictionemordinariam. solvitur secundum modum solventis. bad in itself. himself. is not subjected to innovation. and received according to the manner of the receiver. id leges omnibus all. For any one can renounce by the law introduced for Quilibet ex virtute sua vincere« non imbecillitate adversarii debet Any one ought to overcome by his his own strength. vetant. Whatever is paid. the laws forbid that to Quicquid et solvitur. because necessary to obey.

eo hsereditas pervenit. Quisque praesumitur optime in sua causa Every one is dicere. Quo tutela redit. in A thing is dissolved in' the same way. Quilibet renunciare potest juri pro se introducto. Any one can renounce by the law introduced for himself. Any title excuses from spoliation. Quo ligatur. goes. eo dissolvitur. in which guardianship heirs intervene. which it is bound. Quilibet titulus excusat a spolio. and ought to know his own actions. Quisquis sua facta scire et presumitur et debet. and always in doubtful cases we must answer for the accused. unless when female . presumed to speak best in his own cause.150 Quisquis praesumitur bonus . et semper in dubiis pro reo respondendum. Every one is both presumed. Every one is presumed good . An inheritance comes in the way. nisi cum fsemi- nse haeredes intercedunt.

non post contractu temporis convalescere. will not b«come valid in the pro- cess of time.151 Quod ab initio non valet. What at the beginning is not valid. the same is not of course that of nations : but what ts the law of nations. malum et injustum is si per vim vel fraudem efficitur. the same ought to be civil law. is What good and just. in tractu temporis non conva- lescet. What at the beginning is faulty. all men are equal. omnes homines aequales With respect to natural law. Quod ab initio vitiosum est. rendered wicked and unjust. tractu temporis non potest convalescere. cannot become valid afterwards in the process of time. Quod ab initio non valet. Quod civile jus non idem continuo gentium tem gentium idem civile esse debet. Quod alisLS petatur. jus naturale attinet. . otherwise if it be sought by force or fraud. Quod ad sunt. is civil : quod au- What law. what at the beginning is not valid. cannot become valid in process of time. bonum et justum est.

secundum liber- tatem respondendum a doubtful interpretation of liberty. where the law deficient. . does not need the aid of witnesses. done in vain. is done against law. is conscience wishes. equity prescribes. What clear to the court. cording to liberty. non estprodu- cendum ad What is received against the meaning of the law. causa. Quod dubia What is interpretatio libertatis est. est. Quod What constat clare is non debet verificare. must not be drawn into consequences. Quod constat curiae opere testium is non indigit. additur rei satis demonstratas What is valid for the sake of demonstrating a thing.152 Quod What contra legem is fit pro infecto habetur. sequitas cogit. erit. Quod contra rationem juris receptum consequentias. evidently certain. Quod conscientia What vult ubi lex deficit. reckoned as undone. Quod demonstrandi frustra fit. sufficiently deis monstrated. ought to be answered ae. ought not to be verified.

Quod What fieri non debet factum is valet. forbidden also indiiectly. Quod estinconveniensjaut contra rationem. is necessary. to What ought be done. should not be done. What is unsuitable.153 Quod dubitas ne feceris. or against reason. do not do. unless it is introduced from necessity. Quod fieri debuit pro facto censatur. X . nisi quando necessarium. is lawful. "What proceeds from necessity. vetatur etiam ab obiiquo. doubt. when done Quod What fieri vetatur ex directo. Quod What est necessarium est licitum. not valid. is never introduced. is reckoned as done. Quod fieri debet facile praesumitur. to What ought have been done. is i? forbidden to be done directly. nonpermissum est in lege. is not permitted in law. What you Quod est ex necessitate nunquam introducitur. is easily presumed.

amplius esse tuum non potest. emerges of itself. fit domini regis. will be valid by no kind of positive law. non potest tractu temporis convalescere. cannot be more yours. What labours under no internal but yields to an opposing obit stacle. shall itself. Quod What lege is tuum est. Which Quod nuUo cessat. interno vitio laborat at objecto impedimenta remoto impedimento per fault. become valid. se emergit. it is valid against the defrauder. cannot. becomes the property of the king. becomes the property of the occupier. .154 Quod fraude factum est in alios infectum esto. at first is faulty. Quod What nullius est. Quod What initio vitiosum est. in process of time. Quod nullius est. Quod What in se malum ubicunque factum have been done. belongs to none. fraudatorem Let what is done be inefficient towards others . belongs to none. bad in fuerit. in fraud. Quod naturaliter inesse debet. the obstacle being removed. yours by law. naturally ought to be inherent. contra valet. fit occupantis. nulla juris positivi ration e valebit. What.

alteri non feceris. to Do not do to another. What. is proved by record. is observed among all in the same degree. What hath once been approved displease. indeed. the king orders against law. destitute of in fact. cannot be more mine. amplius meum esse non potest. ought not to be denied. of. once mine. si culpa absit. what you would not wish be done to yourself Quod vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit. non debet esse negatum. Quod tibi fieri non vis. is valid. natural reason hath constituted among all men. pro injussu reputabitur. id apud omnes peraeque custoditur quod semper aequum ac bonum est. Quod semel placuit in electionibus amplius displicere non potest. What can be immediately liquidated. Quod remedio What is destituitur ipsa re valet remedy. Quod Rex What contra leges jubet. . which is always just and good. if it be not faulty. cannot any longer Quod statim liquidare potest pro is jam liquido habetur. shall be considered as not com- manded. Quod semel meum What is est. in elections.155 Quod What per recordum probatum. held as already liquidated.

we must have recourse to Quoties duplici jure defertur alicui successio. or is bad. Quomodo quid In whatever solved. jure id fecisse videtur. contra verba fienda As often as there is ibi nulla expositio est. repudiato novo jure. force. have done that according to law. remain in Quoties in verbis nulla est ambiguitas. by a double right new right being set aside. way any constituted. Whatever any one hath done he seems to for the protection of his own person. no explanation ought to be made against words. a succession is conferred upon any one.156 Quodcunque aliquis ob tutelam corporis sui fecerit. the old right. formerly conferred. quod ante defertur supererit Whenever the will vetus. . Quodlibet in le^e eodem modo dissolvitur quo ligatum est. constituitur thing is eodem modo dissolvitur. ad principia re- currendum. Any thing in law is dissolved. in the same way in which it was bound. in the same way it is dis- Quoties aliquid dubitatur vel male est. As often as any thing principles. is doubted. no ambiguity in words.

Quotiens idem sermo duas sententias exprimit. either by interpretation. we should an- swer according to liberty. is that chiefly may be received. erit. which most fit for carrying on the business. may retard the matter. justis decretis res temporanda est. ca?tera quae tendunt ad eandem utilitatem. vel certe jurisdictione As often as any one thing. secundum li- bertatem respondendum As often as the interpretation of liberty is doubtful. at by Quotiens sequitate desiderii naturalis ratio aut dubitatio juris moratur. est. which tend to the same adleast. be supplied. vantage. ea potissi- mum excipiatur. or. Ratio est anima Eeason is legis. that other things. R. bona occasio suppleri. or another. ^ natural reason.157 Quoties lege aliquid. same speech expresses two meanings. or is doubt of law. Quotiens dubia interpi*etatio libertatis est. unum vel alterutn introdiictum est. As often as the quae rei gerendae aptior est. there is a good opportunity jurisdiction. the soul of the law . to be regulated by just decrees. As oft as by the equity of desire. vel interpretatione. is introduced in law.

juris potius quam injuriae et delicta maneant impunita.15S Ratio est legis anima. rather than that injuries and transgressions should remain unpunished. Reason may be alleged when the law is insufficient. mutata Reason is legis ratione mutatur et lex. when an ordinary one does not avail us. Reason and authority. nihil aliud est quam acceptum . are the two brightest lights of the world. the soul of the law. restituere : seu. . and ing. We depart from the enactments of the law. Recurrendum est ad extraordinarium quando non valet ordinarium. asjt were. Recorda sunt vestigia vetustatis et veritatis. We must have recourse to an extraordinary thing'. . the is meaning of the law being changed. Ratio potest allegari deficiente lege. Records are the vestiges of antiquity and truth. reddere est quasi retro dare et redditur dicitur a reduendo. s£l Ratio et authoritas. the law also changed. to give back . called render from return- because it goes back. duo clarissima mundi lumina. „ Radix The et vertex imperii in is obedientium consensus. consent of subjects the root and top of empire. To render is nothing else than to restore what it is is received j or to ren- der is. Reddere. quia retro it. Receditur a placitis.

impediment being removed.159 Regis curia et curia populi Anglicani sive parliamentum non ex The court scripto sed ex communi lege sunt. sed ex jure. An infamous giance. which at the sametime. Relatio est Reference is fictio juris et intenta ad unum. Repellitur a sacramento infamis. of the king. or the Parliament. law may but that which is of the law may be made is By a rule. quod fiat. and Remoto impedimento emergit An actio. A bargain is not regularly valid concerning the non-alienation of my property. et quasi causae conjectio est. loses cause. and the court house of the people of England. the supposition of the law. made to one case. regula tra- Per regulam igitur brevis rerum narratio ditur. were. when it its office. are not according to written. perdit officium suum. a is summary account of the corrupted. therefore. regula jus sumatur. person is repelled from the sacrament and oath of alle- . but according to common law. not that rule. simul cum in aliquo vitiata est. Regula est quae rem quae est breviter enarrat. an action emerges. quae. a short relation of things as it delivered and there is. Regulariter non valet pactum de re mea non alienanda. The rule is that which be taken from a a rule. briefly relates the matter. non ut ex est.

others. aliis non nocet. generalem habet significationem. Rerum ordo confunditur. Res. does not hurt .160 Reputatio est vulgaris opinio ubi non est vulgaris opinio est duplex. a common opinion arises between prudent and discreet ly arises men. which has the appearance of truth. naturae sive speciei. A report is is common opinion. if jurisdiction is not preserved to every one. because and species it it comprehends corporeal. si unicuique jurisdictio non conservatur. without the appearance of truth. absque specie veritatis. and opinion onbetween giddy and vulgar men. cujuscunque sunt generis. Et opinio vulgaris orta inter graves et discretes homines. Rerum suorum Every one is quilibet est moderator et arbiter. where there is not truth . whatever kind. Res inter alios acta. is a wretched circumstance. Veritas. A matter performed among some person*. the law vague and uncertain. Res It est misera ubi jus est is vagum when et incertum. quia tam corporea quam incorporea. viz. comprehendit. The order of things is confounded. nature as well as incorporeal circumstances. scit. A thing has a general signification. et opinio tantum orta inter leves et vulgares homines. of may be. the ruler and empire of his own affairs. and opinion twofold. et quae vultum veritatis habet.

Res inter alios acta. Rescriptum Principis contra jus non The rescript of the prince. not valid against the law. A thing decided is received for truth. . alteri nocere non debet. A thing decided between some. nor protestation. harm nor good to A thing done among some others. Res judicata inter alios. A matter judged. persons. the ri^ht of the receiver ii . taken for truth. but maintains it. is Res judicata pro veritate habetur. dissolved. makes law. Reservatio ut et protestatio non facit jus. aliis neque nocet neque prodest. Res stulta est nequitias modus.161 Res inter alios acta. ought not to hurt another. is valet. does neither Res judicata pro veritate aecipitur. . is Moderation in wickedness a foolish thing. A matter performed among some persons. For the right of the giver being dissolved. Neither reservation. Resoluto enim jure danjis^ resoivitur jus accipientis. neither hurts nor does good to others. sed tuetur. aliis neque nocet neque prodest.

missius constituatur quam aut severitatis aut clementiae gloria aiFectanda It is necessary for a judge to consider that nothing be determined easily. is The king a living law the king the father of his country. Religio Christiana pars est legis Angliae communis. Rex ad justitiam faciendam non The king is cogitur. Rex est pater patriae. is The king a mixed character. or orphan. Respondeat superior. est pater patriae. nee enim est. or clemency to be affected. answer for who could not have been ignorant that he hath carried off a minor. qui ignorare non potuit quod pupil- lum alienum abduxit. Let a superior answer. not forced to do justice. Let a seducer. for is neither the glory of severity . The Christian religion is part of the common law of England. is Rex . Respondeat raptor. either more severely or more than the cause demands.162 Respiciendum est judicanti. . Rex est mista persona. or violator. ne quid aut durius aut recausa deposcit . is The king the father of his country. Rex est lex vivens. it.

unless by parliament lawfully consti- Rex non He is est ubi voluntas dominatur. in the law. therefore the king give lawfully what the law hath given to him. Non est enim Rex dominatur voluntas et non law The king himself ought not . when hii will domineeri. viz. dominationem et im- perium.I6t Rex ipse lege. to be under man. by record. law. sed sub Deo et quia lex facit regem: attribuat igitur rex. for it is not the will of the king that rules. neither pays losses. - The king nothing else than the acting law. lege quod lex. not a king. . unless Rex nil potest jubere nisi per curiam legitime constitutam. non debet esse sub homine. viz. but the law. lex attribuit ei. nor receives Rex nihil aliud est is quam lex agens. dominion and authority . The king can order tuted. The king cannot fall in Rex neque The king solvit damna in lege neque them recipit. Rex nil dat nisi per recordum. Rex lege cadere non potest. nothing. The king give* nothing. but under God and the let because the law makes the king.

Sacramenta pauperum sunt servanda. ought to be simple. Petitions. Salus populi suprema lex esto. The king may do no evil or injustice. Rex non potest subditum onerare impositionibus. s. % The safety of the people is the highest law. The king may not expel from Rex non potest malum vel injuriam facere. quaestiones. is The king presumed to have all the laws in the recess of his heart Rogationes. a subject against his will. Salus populi est suprema lex. . The oaths of the poor are to be kept. a subject with taxes. and positions. Rex praesumitur in scrinio pectoris sui habere omnia jura.et positiones debent esse simplices. never below age. Let the safety of the people be the supreme law.164^ Rex non potest invitum civem regno depellere. the kingdom. questions. The king niay not burden Rex nunquam The king is infra setatem est.

but their foree and power. verba earum tenere. and the obligation of a mere consent is dissolved by a contrary consent. the property of a wise judge to think that so much is permitted to him. nummerio is pretio non est aestimanda. Scire leges non hoc est. . of the law not to be valued by a pecuniary consider- Sapientis judicis est cogitare taiitum sibi esse permissum. Scriptae obligationes scriptis tolluntur. than to follow streamlets. Satisfactio Satisfaction non is fit de minori. is not to understand their words. The wisdom ation. Satius est petere fontes It is quam sectari rivulos.165 Salus ubi multi consiliarii. better to repair to the source. as has been committed and intrusted to him. Sapiens omnia agit cum consilio. To know the laws. contrario consensu dissolvitur. quantum commissum It is et creditum. not exacted of a minor. et nudi consensus obligatio. Written obligations are taken away by writs . sed vim ac potestatem. A wise man does Sapientia legis all things with deliberation. is In the multitude of council there safety.

166 Scire proprie est rem ratione et per causam cognoscere. Secundum naturamest. In obscure cases we always folloTr that which is least. sunt. quod minimum est. is always presumed to be bad. or by cause. its is properly to comprehend a matter. . Semper in dubiis benigniora prteferenda Always in doubtful cases. or if that does not appear which hath been done. according to nature that the advantages of any thing follow him. in which sary to be done. religenda summa est. neque regionis mos appareat quia varius fuit ? ad id quod minimum in bargains. . A man once bad. si Quid ergo. aut non pareat. quid actum est. To know. Semper in stipulationibus et in caeteris contractibus id si sequimur. either. Semel malus semper prsesumitur esse malus in eodem genere. est. quod in regione in qua actum est frequentatur. to that which is the Semper in obscuris. we follow that which has been dom . in the same way. because if it was performed: what therefore the neces- the custom of the country does not appears ? has been various least. quod actum est . more favourable things are to be preferred. by reason. commoda cuj usque rei eum sequi quem It is sequentur incommoda. whom its disadvantages will follow. erit consequens ut id sequamur. sum is to be reduced. sequimur. Always and in other contracts. the is consequence will be that it we should follow that which usual in is the country.

raandare creditur. is does not prohibit one to interfere for himself. quod ges- tum He who est. he is bound by the action of his mandate. obstringitur mandati actione. and words are alway» be taken in the milder . et verba semper accipienda sunt in mitiore sensu. wd rough. but if any one shall confirm what hath been done. words are always Sensus verborum est duplex. words is the soul of the law* Sensus verborum ex causa dicendi accipiendus est . et sermones semper accipiendi sunt secundum subjectarn materiam. Special things are always included in general things. Semper pro There is legitimatione praesumitur a presumption in favour of legitimation. and be taken according to the subject matter. always be- lieved to order him .167 Semper qui non prohibet pro se intervenire. Sensus "verborum est anima The sense of legis. The sense of to words is twofold. Semper specialia generalibus insunt. sed et si quis ratum habuerit. mitis et asper. mild sense. The sense of words is to to be taken from the cause of pleading.

speeches are always to be taken according to the subject matter.168 Sententla contra matrimonium nunquam transit in rem judicatam. Sententia facit jus . Sequi debet potentia justitiam. never passes into a matter decided. definitiva non potest. and the condition of persons. et res pro veritate accipitur. An opinion against marriage. Serville est expilationis crimen. non praecedere. The crime of pilfering is base. void. A sentence makes law. et conditionum personarum. Sermones semper accipiendi sunt secundum subjectam materiam. and the matter is received for truth. and the interpretation of the law obtains the force of the law. Speech is the index of the mind. . is An opinion given against a minor undefended. but a definitive one cannot. Sententia contra minorem indefensum lata nulla est. Sententia facit jus. A sentence makes law. Power ought to follow justice. Sententia interlocutoria revocari potest. Sermo index animi. et legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. not to precede it. An interlocutory sentence can be recalled.

169 Si duo in testamento pugnantia reperientur. so that both the accused person. nihil nocere quo minus et reus et fidejussor teneatur. So use your own property. Sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas. ultimum est ratum. nupserit ignobili. may not be bound. marries an ignoble ceases to person. she be noble. nor do individuals owe what owed by an Si suggestio non sit vera. If two points repugnant are found in a testament) the last is established Si librarius in transcribendis stipulationis verbi errasset. Si mulier. If a woman. that you may not hurt Sicut poena ex delicto defuncti haeres teneri non debet. If a suggestion be not true. enobled by matrimony. the heir ought not to be punished in consequence of the transgression of the deceased. and his security. if any advantage had come to liim. is it is any thing be owing not due to individuals. so neither ought he to make gain. neque quod debet If universitas singuli debent. desinit esse nobilis. If the transcriber hath erred in transcribing the it is words of a contract. letters patent are void. As si quid ad eum pervenisset. another's. entire body. to an entire body. literae patentes vacuaB sunt. ita nee lucrum facere. per matrimonium nobilis. proper that it should have no bad effect. Si quid universitati debetur singulis non debetur. Z .

Solemnitates juris sunt obeervandae. so diflferent between is themselves. . the similar relation of cases. casuum diversorum . Legal similitude is Dissimilium. what in the other. Similitude legalis est. the relation likewise dissimilar. similis ratio quod in uno similium valebit in altero. Sodales legem quam volent. violence and fraud are most odious: subtility is too much suspected. dum ne quid ex sibi ferunto. is a friend to the laws. inter se collavalet. valid in one of the similar cases. Solo innocentia libera. will be valid is If dissimilar. - The solemnities of the law are to be observed. Innocence alone Is free. .170 Simplicitas est legibus arnica . Simplicity ie a friend to the laws. provided they do not abuse any thing of the public law. et nimia subtilitas in jure reprobatur. mens my socius non is est. Simplicitas est legibus arnica . torum. Socii mei socius. vis et fraus invisissima nimia Simplicity subtilitas suspecta. dissimilis est ratio. The companion of companion not my companion. and too much subtility is reprobat* cd in law. publica lege corrumpant Let companions make to themselves what law they please.

Solutio pretu. but the purpose general. when the words of the statute are special. Spoliatus debet ante omnia restitui. \4 Stabitur praesumptioni donee probetur in contrarium. God alone makes heits. emptionis loco habetur. generaliter est intelligendum. A special statute does not derogate . Statutum affirmativum non derogat communi legi. Statutum. is We must abide by presumption. Spoliation of all things ought to be restored. a^special statute. quando verba statuti sunt specialia. The payment of the price is held as a purchase. that they may not hurt the innocent. A statute is to be understood generally. until the contrary proved. Statutum speciale statuto special! from non derogat. Stabit praesumptio donee probetur in contrarium. An affirmative statute does not derogate from the common law.171 Solus Deus haeredes facet. Statutes are so to be interpreted. Statuta ita interpretanda ut innoxiis ne obsint. non homo. ratio autem generalis. not man. Presumption shall stand until the contrary is proved.

the state Sub clypeo No body is legis nemo decipitur. (i. It is the highest reason that makes with e. Summa The charitas est facere justitiam singulis et omnibus omni tempore. Summa It is charitas est facere justitiam singulis et omni tem- pore quando est necesse. castle. . at all times. falls.172 2^ Sua cuique domus arx esto. when • necessary. Substantia prior et dignior est accidente. Subsequens matrimonium toUit peccatum precedens. supports reli> gion. and more worthy than what is eventual. When respect due to magistrates is taken away. and all. Let every man's house be his Sublata veneratione magistratuum. Subsequent marriage takes away the preceding sin. religion. is The goodness of every highest person a common refuge to all. and at it is all times. Summa ratio est quae cum religione facit. The substance is prior. greatest charity is to do justice to each. deceived under the protection of the law.) Summi cuj usque bonitas commune perfugium omnibus. respublica ruit. the greatest charity to do justice to each.

Such an interpretation inconveuience illusroy. Superfluous things oppose. defective Suppressio The facti toUit aequitatem. to give to the tenant. takes away equity. protection and Terra Land transit is cum onere. transferred with burdens. that an absurdity and avoided. Talis interpretatio semper fienda est. Superflua obstant . et dominus invicem tenenti protectionem jura sua omnia. suppression of a fact. defectiva perimunt. Goods are worth much. ut evitetur absur- dum et inconveniens.173 Summum jus summa Law carried to extremes. . in his turn. and that judgment may be may not be / Tantum bona valent. always to be made. is bound to make good his faith is and due services to his mas- and the master all his rights. A tenant ter. injuria. et is ne judicium sit illusorium. is the height of injustice. thitigs destroy. as quantum vendi possunt. et debita servitia tenetur. for. T. as they can be sold Tenens domino fidem et praestare.

although the usual words are wanting. Testimonies are to be weighed. Testaments ought to have the broadest interpretation. the last valid . non numeranda. in una Lease and feu are inconsistent in the same person with the same right. are to be interpreted according to the mind of the testator. Testamentum nisi post mortem till testatoris vim non habet. so it is when two another in the same deed. cum duo inter se pugeodem testamento. ultimum ratum est. after the death of the testator. more witnesses cannot be found. clauses are found contradictory to one nantia reperiuntur in When two testaments is are found contradictory to one another. Testium numerus If si non adjicitur. duo sufficiunt. two are sufficient. Testamenta propter inopiam interpretanda etsi consilii ad mentem testatoris verba solemnia desint. A testament has no force. Testaments. Testamenta. cum duo inter se pugnantia reperiuntur. on account of the want of counsel. . Sic est. Testimonia ponderanda sunt.174 Terminus ' et feodum non possunt constare simul eademque persona eodem jure. Testamenta latissimam interpretationem habere debent. not to be numbered.

The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled. Testis should he able to say from his heart. nor do I care which of the provided justice be done. . nee euro de victoria. according to its true inten- tion. When witnesses give their depositions in equal number. Traditione pacta firmantur. Testes qui postulat. pa. He who demands witnesses.175 Testatoris ultima voluntas est perimplenda secundum verum mtentionem suam. Traditio loqui facit chartam. Agreements are confirmed by delivery. Testis oculatus unus plus valet quam auriti decem. . Testis nemo in sua causa esse potest No body can be a witness in his own cause.. dignioribus est credendum. nor instructed. debet dare eis sumptus competentes. we must be- lieve the more worthy. Delivery makes a paper to speak. ministretur justitia. ought to give competent expenses to them.A witness should be able to say from his heart. Testibus deponentibus in pari numero.ties be successful. I sum modo am not informed. One eye witness is worth more than ten ear witnesses. non doctus nee instructus.

Tria sequuntur defamatorem famosum : praevitatio incre- mentum mentum. est viro. The union of three witnesses always ought to happen. The rights of superiority are not transferred by bare deliveries and enjoyments. loss of conscience. increase of avoiding. *S'. which he is It is a shameful thing for a to be ignorant of that in daily engaged. Bate peopU ate driven away from the tribunal*. Triatio ibi semper debet fieri. decrease of purse. Turpes tribunalibus arcentur. Turpe An impossibile. is impossibility shameful. by long continued and peaceful possession. viz. per usu- per longam continuam et pacificam possessionem.176 Traditionibus et usucapionibus non nudis transferuntur rerum domina. titulo et traditione. ubi juratores meliorem possunt habere notitiam. Transferuntur dominiae sine captionem. . Turpe . when the jurors can have better information. id in quo quotidie versatur man ignorare. The rights of superiority are transferred without title and delivery by long possession. : bursas decrementum : conscientise detri- Three things follow the infamous defamer.

ibi is. first things meet in a charter. let the be est*- A . fault there punishment ought to be. Ubi concurrent commune jus jure stand um. et jus scriptum communi Where common law and common law. then we have recourse to an extra- ordinary. Where two repugnant blished. poena subesse debet. debet. it is the same as if it in different persons.177 U. When an ordinary remedy ceases. rights concur in the When two were same person. 2t prius ratum esto. the loser ought to be condemned to pay the expense of the gainer. idem est ac esset in diversis. Ubi damna dantur. Ubi cessat remedium ordinarium. Ubi duo pugnantia in charta concurrunt. ibi decurritur ad ex- traordinarium. victus victori in expensis condemnari Where damages are given. Ubi duo jura concurrunt si in eadem persona. written law agree. we must stand by the Ubi culpa Where est.

is the reason the same. Ubi eadem Where ratio ibi is idem lex.a 178 Ubi duo sensus occurrunt. though the night hath not yet come. necesse est quod causa Where sit justa et legitima. shew cause. or a prohibition made to an accused person of any nation. Ubi cadem Where est ratio is idem est jus. Where a grant is given. by a positive law. abide we must by the milder. Where the day hath ceased. Where there is ibi fortia nulla. . Ubi ex jure positivo alicujus gentis reo conceditur. Ubi lex cogit aliquem ostendere causam. eo jure venisse praesumitur quod fortius ac melius sit Where any one right. there is no strong argument. he is could have come to the same thing by a different presumed to have come to it by that right which may be stronger^and better. Ubi factum nullum. the law the same. Ubi dies cessit. no fact. Where two meanings occur. the laws of England regard the law of that nation in the trial where the action rose. licet nondum venerit. mitiori standunt. jus ejus gentis in judicio respiciunt ubi actio accrevit. is the reason the same. the right the same. vel prohibetur leges Angliae. it the law compels any one to is neceuai:. that there be » just and lawful cause. Ubi diverso jure in eandem rem venire quis potuit.

Ubi quid generaliter cenceditur. inest haec exceptio. but does not mean differently. et ratio ejus generalis. no annual renewal. there no transgression. it is the law compels any one to necessary that there be a just and lawful cause. sit is si non aliquid Where any thing contra jus fasque. it is to be taken in general. Where common law and equity are engaged in the same thing. shew cause. touching the world. . there is no obligation to obey. is ^. Ubi non est annua renovatio. is quoad mundum. necesse est quod causa Where sit justa atque Jegitima. aequitas alia via agit sed non aliter sentit. Ubi lex communis et aequitas in eadem re versantur. Ubi non Where est lex ibi is non est transgressio.17» Ubi lex cogit aliquem ostendere causam. generaliter accipienda est. and the reason of it general.. there is no authority to command. Where the law special. is this granted in general. equity 2cts in another way. Where there is ibi decimae non debent tithes solvi. ibi non est parendi necessitas. ihere no law. there exception in it if there be not any thing contrary to justice and religion. Ubi lex est specialis. there ought not to be paid. Ubi non Where est condendi authoritas.

only unless the law of the church be preserved in the words themselves. the renewed. renatum est testamentum. poena in discre- tione judicis est. will is When you have taken away the power of revoking. it is sufficient that one or other alternate be complied with. Ubi sustuleris revocationem. the punishment in the discretion of the judge . Ubi verba conjuncta non factum. Where a substitute can be substituted. Where the law forbids any thing.180 Ubi quis delinquit ibi punietur. the jurisdiction of that matter granted to the secular courts. let him person. sed si substituere velit inveniat ido- neum. Where is a remedy Is in the secular court. . and hath not determined a punishis ment. no one is to be compelled to find a fit substitute J but if he wishes to substitute. nisi servato jure ecclesiae ipsis verbis. sunt. Ubi remedium in foro seculari ejus rei jurisdictio curiis secularibus tantum datur. Ubi substitui vicarius potest non est cogendus quis ad substituendum. transgresses. sufficit alter uterum esse When words are not joined. there shall he Where any one be punished. Ubi vetat quid lex neque poenam statuit.

One person can Uni diverso jure in eandem rem venire quis potuit eo sit. Ultima voluntas testatoris est perimplenda secundum veram intentionem suam. Unumquaeque gleba Each glebe is servit. jure venisse praesumitur quod fortius ac melius Whenever any one has been cause.181 Ubicunque Wherever est injuria ibi is damnum sequitur. dissolved in the same way in which it was bound.tenetur succurrere. The last will of the testator is to be followed. there a loss follows. is liable to difFerent laws for the same is presumed to have come under that law which best. One day is a complete term» in law. Una persona vix potest supplere vices duarum. the most efficient. there injury. according to his true intention. subject to one person. Unusquisque paci Every one is et justitiae publicae. . Unumquodque eadem modo Every thing is dissolvitur qui colligatur. and the Universus terminus in lege dies unus. to support peace bound and public justice. scarcely supply the place of two.

An outlawed person cannot make a will. is nut liable in the lesser cases of accusation rt is otherwise in the greater cases. A useful thing -f- is not to be vitiated by a useless thing. as she is under the power of her husband. Uxor ' et maritus unum in lege. we must take Utile per inutile non vitiatur. et jus scriptum communi by the com- When common and mon law. Utlagatus non potest placitare. Wife and husband are one Uxor in mariti potestate cum . others follow. to all. Ut ne We quid nimis cavendum . That fear may have come punishment to a few. in law. . must take care that nothing be carried to excess double care that nothing be deficient. The wife. J . ut ne quid deficiens duplo cavendum. sit non obnoxia est itt causis reatus minoribus aliter in majoribus prodi- tione et homocidio. One absurd Urbi concurrent commune jus juri stand um. such as treason and homicide. . thing being granted. poena ad paucos pervenerit. written law disagree. we must stand Ut metus ad omnes.182 Uno absurdo dato sequuntur.

and those placed in a doubtful sense. Vassalo faciendo superiori quod de jure facere oportet.—ut sortiantur tum. A wife is under the power of her husband. that they may have'their effect. the duty which he law- fully owes to him. which do not fall upon a firm man. Venia privatim The pardon the law. Pardon cannot come before the transgression. Words are to be received eiFec- with effect. . Vani timores sunt aestimandi. Fears are to be estimated as vain. intelliguntur digniori et potentiori sensu. Equivocal words. A vassal is bound to perform to his superior. qui non cadunt in constan- tem virum. Verba sequivoca ac in dubio sensu posita. are understood in a more worthy and powerful sense. laesi non sufficit legibus. privately given by an offended person. does not satisfy Venia non potest ante venire delictum. Verba accipienda sunt cum efiectu.183 Uxor sub potestate viri.

Words do not excuse homicide. Verba legis non ex vulgari sensu sed ex et legis sensu. The words mark the time of payment of current money.184* Verba chartarum The wordi of a sing them. Verba homicidium non excusant. fortius accipiuntur contra proferentem. Verba ita sunt intelligenda. but one certain and positive by the laws. ut res magis valeat quam pe reat. but in the sense of the law. rei vel General words are restricted to the ability of the thing or person. The words of the law. not in a vulgar sense. are understood Words more strongly against the person uttering t hem Verba currentis monetae tempus solutionis designant. do not require a lax and precarious interpretation. that the matter may rather prosper than perish. neet legibus prae- que laxam precariam sed certam finitam interpretationem requirunt. Verba intelligenda secundum subjectam materiem. Verba generalia restringuuntur ad habilitatem personae. Words are to be understood according to the subject matter. chaiter are taken more strongly against a person expres- Verba fortius accipiuntur contra preferentem. Words are to be so understood. .

the mother of justice. takes away the mistake of a name. Truth spoken by any one. a quocunque dicitur. A verdict in law is opposed to equity. Veritas nihil veretur nisi abscondi. Veritas demonstrationis toUit errorem nominis. is a Deo est. Truth which is by no means defended. Verba temere prolata parum curat The law pays little lex.185 Verba relata id related. from God. 2 B i . Veredictum in lege aequitati objicitur. Verba semper accipienda sunt in mitiore sensu. Words have that they seem to exist in reality. regard to words rashly uttered. Truth dreads nothing^. and he who does not disapprove. approves 'T Veritas est Truth is justitiae mater. Veritas quae minime defensatur. Veritas. opprimitur . unless to be hidden. et qui non improbat. approbat. that inesse videatur. is oppressed . maxime operantur ut effect. it. The truth of a demonstration. Words are always to be understood in the milder sense.

Vir et uxor censentur in lege una persona. without blame. Laws assist waking. A strong presumption. A neighbour is presumed to koow the actions of his neighbour. is sometimes a full proof. Violenta prassumptio aliquando est plena probatio. is the betrayer of truth. A person may.186 Veritatem qui non libere pronunciat. The law serves waking. Vigilantibus et non dormientibus jura subvenient. proditor est tatis. Vicinus facta vicini prgesumitur scire. The laws assist Vigilantibus non dormientibus servit lex. Vigilantibus non dormientibus jura subveniunt. by force. waking. not sleeping people. but not sleeping persons. Vis legibus est inimica. but not sleeping people. . Vim vi repellere licet modo cum moderamine repel force inculpatae. Power is inimical to the lawf. veri- He who does nob speak the truth freely. Husband and wife are judged in law to be one person.

. even to the last term of his life. Voluntas ultima testatoris est perimplenda secundum ve- ram intentionem suam.187 . Peace is the life of the state. Voluntas testatoris liabet interpretationem latam et benig- nam. The will of the testator has a broad and favourable interpretation. liberty the boul. issue. not done to a willing person. is The will of the testator cancellable. The will shall be considered as the deed. is to be fulfilled according to its true in- tention. Voluntas reputabitur pro facto./ Vita reipublicas pax et animus libertas et corpus leges. non exitis spectatur. not the Volenti non Injury is fit injuria. The last will of a testator. and the iaws. Voluntas testatoris est ambulatoria usque ad extremum vitae exitum. regarded in transgressions. I'at: '^o -J/ Voluntas in The will is delictis.

If€ .

from 40 to they 50 most eminent and distinguished authorities . in their order. . the appendix^ refers to the pages of the book. and that may be easily found.EXPLANATORY NOTE op the MAXIMS & RULES. and it was not till after the printing was far advanced. from the top downwards. that this work is alphabetically arranged. It will be observed. to make out the exten- sive appendix of reference in the end of the work. with great labour. that he formed that resolution: but this obliged him. consisting of ten close pages. as will be seen. and embracing. and the numbers of each page. At first the author did not intend to refer to the authorities of the Maxims and Rules.

lii'fh^. itsodfA .

Inst UIp b 35—10. No 1. 279Cas 45. 375— Co. 536— Page 2. 11 Co.5. Lib— 4. 7 Co 16—3. 18. Ersk. 9 Co 56—9. 25 —6. Co. Lit. Lit. No. Jenk Cent fol 16—7... lb 497— 8. Hard.5 Co 40. Page Page 11. lb. 5 Co. 387— 9. 503—7. 12 Co. lb. —Wing. 10 Co 59— 3. 4 Inst. lb 374 —6. Loft 460. Plow. §30—9. lb 637—3. 5. Homes L. Lit. Loft 499—11 Ibid. lb. b t— 5. Inst UIp b 76 Lit 141—6. 1. Co Lit 304. Loft. 1 1. No. 179 — M'D—6. Page 8. lb. Hob. Loft. Ibid. 756—10. 102. lb. Loft Loft 641—3. Page I. § 9. lb. Loft. 103—6. 369—8. Cenf. Page 9. No. 236—5. Inst Loft 207— S. 611—2. 139. Chan Nol. Hob. 496. 1.— 3. 386— 9.. 5 Co 106. 227. 24. 379—7. 3 Inst. Loft. 224. Loft 500—2.— 2. Ibid. 10. Hob. 11. Loft 536—2. Loft 248- 5 12. lb.-9. 390— 10. 84.. 498—3.-6 Loft. Jenk. lb 380—5. Loft 482—9. Loft. 385—11 lb. lb 373— 10. 8. 201—10. Loft. 535 3. d ofF Prxs— 4. No 1. Paul b 5—2. Hob. 24.— 7. Lof 451—7. Moor 817—2. 8. 69—7.j 1. 8. 495». Ibid. No. Co Lit 177. lb. Co.. No 1. 202—6. Lit. 382. 2 Inst 533. lb.Cent. 626—7.b.. Gilb 136. Ibid 177 Vinn. 10 Page 10. Lof. 2. Lof. Co. 1. 1.— 4. Wing. No. Co. Ibid.APPENDIX OF REFERENCES TO THE PAGES AND NUMBERS. Ibid. No. p. lb. Loft. 1. Ibid — 2 Inst. L 1 9. 478—3. 232— 4. 6—7.4. lb.Ibid. 378—6. Com. 37— 8. 265—3. 368—5. 278 8. T. 137 5. No 8. Buls 67—5. Bacon— 6. lb. 139—10. Stair of obll. lb. . b. Jenk. 72 11. 1. 163—4. 623—4 Ersk. 388 10. 9. 48— 20— 362 Page 6. Fortese c 42—2. lb.. 152. 146—5. Loft. Lit. 153. Page 4. Loft 249—7 M'D— 8. 375—3. lb. Bacon Loft. 583— 5. Loft 363—11. 4. 393. 479—7.3 Inst. t 7.. lb. Co Lit 303. Loft. Pag« 5.-4. 3 Inst. 397—4. — 391. 5. 46—5. Lit. Page 7. 376—4. 1. 18. lb 502—4. 458—8. Lof 422—6. Co. 103— 9. V* . Loft 372—2. 392—2. 501— 6. 2 Buls 794 Inst 274. Loft. 365Co. Loft 39—8. -2. — Page 3. No. t. lb. 1. 80—2 Co 172. . Bac Loft 609—7. Hob. or THE PRECEDING MAXIMS AKO RULES. 116—2. M'D.

.CoLit36— 6. L. Jenk Cent 279—7.. No 1. Loft . Co Lit 295—7. Jenk Cent 102—2. Co Lit Wing 74C— Bacon— 5. lb 490— 5. Loft 448. Left 328—3. Page 20. t 7. 1 Co 99—8 Loft 326 —9. Co Lit 201. 16. H de-cond furt— 2.. Loft 502—6. Page 22. 11 Co 52. Loft 335—2.4 Co 18—6. 2 Inst 574. Loft 297—2. Co Lit 258 Page Page 15. Hob 99—4. No 1.-7. t S. No 1. t 4. 8 Co 90— 5. Gal b 18. Loft 630—3. No 1. No 1. § 57—4. Wing 29.2. 57. Loft 434 8. Moor 764—6. 3 Inst 252—6 Loft 522—7. 4 60. Hob 59. 26. 274—9. No 1. lb Page 24. .508. Jenk Cent 273—4. 518—5 No 1. Wing Lit 254—6. § 37—5.. No l. lb 428—6. Chan Prie 329—6. 645. 5 Inst 181—3. Jenk Cent 28—6. 5 Co 37—5. Page 18. t 1. Loft 69—6. St Tit 11. 4 Co 15. lb. 8 Co 127—4. 632—5. Loft 511—2. Loft 220. Co Lit 260. lb £99.3. 9 Co 53—3. Co Lit 395—2. 2 1 1 285—5. No 1. Dav 33. § 5—2. Co Lit 191—5. 6 Co Page 14. Loft 243—4. Hob 167. lb 341—4. Co Lit 201—3. H Co 30—3. Co Lit 303—5. lb 633 No J. lb S24— 9. 4 Co 66—3. 295— 2.6 4 2 190 Page 13. Hob 148— 7. 2 Inst 18—5. Bac Loft 612. Page 27. Page 21. Jenk Cent. Loft 336—8. Co Lit. 5 Loft 517. Co —8. 161—4. Loft 234. Jenk Cent 168—3. Loft 492—7. No 1. No 1. Loft 510. Loft 443—8. Page 19. Lof 488— 6.. No ]. Loft 49—7. t 4 Conj ob p 31 Loft — Co 80—7. 2 Inst 479— 4 Loft 452—5. 6 Co 22—4. Loft 514. 3 Co 81—8. § 14—2. Hob 144. Loft 510—4. Jenk Cent 281— Co Lit 92—7. —4. 10 Co 48—4. 8. 4 Inst 240.2.6 Co 67—7. Loft 513—4. Loft 540—2. Ersk b 2. 491—6. b t— 4. Page 29. lb 357-5.. Hob 155. lb 51 Inst —6. 6. Loft 277—6. Co. 250—5. Co Lit. lb 483—5..L47 fFt— 9. Loft 509—5. 1. No 1. Co Lit 113— 5. Loft 419—5. 2 Inst 11 Page 30. 11 Co 49. lb— 6. Co Lit 34—4. Loft 489. Loft 62—9. 7. Lof 539. Lit Sect 169—5. Co Lit 113—7. Ersk b 1. § 105—7. Loft 73— 2. Jenk Cent 52—7. 9 Co 47. Ersk b 3. Co Lit 183—4. . Loft 511— 4. Just Gajus b 26—5. Stair 481.— 6. Loft 35 —3. No 1. 4 Co 15 Loft 49—3.Loft 119—2. Page 31. Co 26. t 4 § 30—5. Hob 343--^. No 5. Co Lit 289—2. Page 17. Co Lit 70. Page 23. Domat 18—2. No 1. 5 Co 57. Lit 264—4 Ersk b 4. t 8. Loft 516—2. Page Page 25. 2 Inst 304. No 1. Jenk Cent. lb 519—3.. Page 32. Jenk Cent 119-7. Ersk b 4. Lof 436-. Loft lb 338—6. lb 505—7.3. Loft 523—2. Libera p 157— Ersk b 3. 515— No 1. § 2. Loft 308—2. No 1.2. 11 Co 68—5. 295—3. lb I 29—4. Wing Co Lit 126. . Jenk Cent 132—3. Been 1 28— 3. Page 28.

Loft 257—2. L 195 b t— 6. Co 210—6.5 Lit 43. 1 Vera 240 Loft 544—5. Loft 531—2. Loft 404—6. Erskb 4 t 1 § 69—5. 2 ulst— 7. . 3 Inst 14 Loft 83—5. Jenk Cent 109—8. Co 493. lb 199—9. Ersk b 4 t 4 § 108. 1 Co 71 et Lof 273. 3 Inst 55—2. Lofts 354—5. S Inst 212 Loft 135—5. Paul lib 6— 5. Loft 462—4. L 82— 6. Page 38. Inst Hermos b 3 3. Pi Com 305 Loft 185—4. lb 531—3. Lof 604— 4.. Loft 485—3. Dom 1 19—5. Dem 1 1 § 2—8. lb Inst 49— 6. Loft 90—6. Inst Ulp b 3 8 No 1. lb 577—5. lb 2—8. Loft 441—4. L 61. Inst Ulp Page 42. .. 2. Loft 370 lb 603— 5. Wing 226 7. Just Pomb b 34—5. . . lb 204 309—6. Loft 153 3. No 1. lb 529 lb 91—6 lb 67—7. Noy Wing 66— 3. No Lit Loft 271—2.. No 1. Loft 473 Page 48. lb— 3. — — — — Page 39.4..5. Page 45. 2 Inst 208 36 b t— 3. Inst 76. lb 334 No I. Loft 540 2.191 Page 33.. Loft 89—8. L 20 de accus— 8. Loft351—6. lb 535— 4. Just Paul b 3 Page 47. L 125 b t— 6. 2 Jnst 597. 3 49. Page 35. Ersk b 1 t 7 § 36—3. 4 Inst 50—3. L 108 iii b t— 8. Loft 213— 6. Ersk b 3 t 3 § 93 1..Ll40 § 2 fFde verb oblig— 4. No l. 3. Dom 1 126 § 2 V inf b 98—6. Page 51. No 1. Lofl — 456—8 Page No 1. Loft 572—2. Br—2. 2 Inst 493 No 1. 3 Co 81 Loft 533 —5. Co Lit 210 Loft 537—8.-8. 3 Co 78 Loft 116—7.7. No 11 230—5. 6 Co 53—2. — — b23 No 1. Reg Jur Civ Gilb 14—7. Loft 24—2. Loft 527 2. 10. 4 Inst 279—2. Ibid No 1.. Dom L 67. Cro Car 550—6. Page 34. Loft 306—4. No 1. lb 364—4. No —5.. Davis 75 b Loft 134 Page 41. lb 262 3. Page 56.Ib 4. Loft 545 Page 50. 5. 2 Inst 161 Loft 122—3 Ersk b 2 t 1 § 1 4. 1. Bacon's law tracts 93. Page 37. Loft 635 4.. . Loft 538—7. Co Lit 368—5. Loft 525—5. Loft 181. Ersk b 1 t vi § 16 Page 46. Loft 110-2 1 Dom 1 2—3.Leon 243.. 1 Loft— 6. Loft 96— 2. Inst 173. lb 226—3. Lofr 321—2. Page 43. L 50 b t— 2. No 1. L 178 b t 7 Loft 494—8. 9 Co 48— 3. Loft 48(^—2. Doct et stud c 40—6. Just L 2? § b 1 t.. No 1. lb 624—3.. 2 Buls 189—3. Loft 333 2. Dom 1 4 § I 44. lb 423—7. No 1. Loft 541—4 lb 542—5. 3 lust 76Loft— 7. lb 559— 7. Stair Tit 13 Repara p 95—8 Loft 532— 9. L 2 b t— 7. Dav 69—8. 9. lb 63— 8. Ersk b 2 t 1 § 4 Page 40.. Loft 563 —4. Loft 6.. 2 — — 6. Loft 138— 6. Loft 526—7.. Videmerito Loft 143—2. Reg Papini b 31. No 1. No 1. Dom 163—7. Dom L 64 5. Co Lit 810—7. Just Papi 1 32—9. 1 Buls lb 112—6. 6—4. lb 53—4. Jenk Cent 120—3.. 7.4. — Loft — — — — Loft 469 Page Co 41. Bacon— 8. 1. b t— 4. lb 532—7.. 10 Co 140 7. Loft 530—9.

C. Jur Civ Cro Car 51. L 12 b t— 5. Loft 643—3. . Co Lit 141. Ersk b 2 t 2 § 12—4.. P. Loft 307—8. 37—4. Just Pomp b 22 5. Jenk Cent 75—8. 1 3 Inst 210 Loft 133—4. Loft 97—7. 3 Co 40—5. Just Paul b 6 2. 1. Just Meiscian b 12 — 2. 3 Inst 147-^. No 4. 2 Inst 286 6. 2 Inst 3—7. Co Lit 7 b 7. Jenk Cent 31 Wing 501—5. No 1. Co Lit 305 Loft 74—7. Loft 180—4. lb 45—6. t — 3. 5 Inst 158—6. No 1. 7 Co 1—6. No 1. Page 6L No Page 62. 1. No 1. 11 Co 29 Left 605—3. lb 557—5. Page 72.-5. L 5 b t— 6. No 1. 2 Inst 442—7.Dom 1 2—7. Dav 53 Loft 555. H. 2 Rol Rep 89 Loft 433.54— 2.7.6. Page 65. Dom I 24— 6. Page 54. Loft 174. Jenk'Cent 40— 5.-4. 12 Co 13—4. Wing 13—6. No 1. lb 487—4. Page 66. 9 Co 47. No 1. Loft 125—5. 106— 5. 547—6. 638—7 Page 59. Stair Tit 12 Real Rights p 201.. Dom 172—3. 5 Co 67— 6. No 1. 3 Inst 181—3. Page 64. Dom L62 3. 177—3. No 1. Jenk Cent 214 Loft 355—2. Cro Car 64—2.im Page Page 52. 5 Co 109—2. Loft 631—4. No 1. Vide Nemo ex Dolo. Jur Civ Co lit 237.2 Inst 589— 8. lb 134—4. No 1.. 1 Co 177—5. Co Lit 164— 3. 9 Co -iS— £'. 549— 353—2. Hard 65—7. L 90 b t— 6. Page 57. 1 Vern 19 2. Loft — Co Lit 22 Loft — — . Page 68. p 73. Loft 202—3. 2 Inst 591 Loft 77—4.3. 4 lb 279—4. L 69 b t -'-5. lb 520—8. Just Paul b 40. lb 5 Co Lit 9—6. &c— 6. lb Page 60. lb 399—6. Just Paul b 4—5. . L 114 b t. Co Lit 112—2.10 Co 101 — Loft 150. Jenk Cent 58—5. No 1 Loft 461—2.. Loft 484. Page 56. Vide Designatio— 7. lb 418—4. 12 Co 115— 5. Bacon — — — 4. Loft 558—6. 9 Co 53—4. M'D— 5. No 1. 4 Co 31 Loft 57—7. Just Paul b 70—7. 2 Inst 178 Loft 76—7. L 169 b t— 2. H. Loft 552—6. Dom 1 1 155 § 2—3. Page 58..4. Co Lit 29. 1 11 b t— 4. 1 Co.. Hob 123—2. Jenk Cent 207.. 3 Inst 359 Loft 41—6. Co Lit 386—2. Co Lit 124 Loft 144—6. lb 10—7. L 14 b t 5. Dom I 38—3. No 1. Loft 561. No 1.2. Co Lit 232— 5. 10 Co 61. — i — — . 1 Co 177—8. Jenk Cent 152 8. Page 71. Inst Pomp b 32 3. 7 Co 87. Just Ulp 59 B 3 Desput— 3. Loft 150—3. lb 556—4. Loft 1. . Co Lit 352 5.. 3 Inst No 1. Loft 162 2. Co Lit 385—2. Jenk Cent 198—4. Loft 274. Page 63. 8 Co 169—3. lb 132—5. Wing 13—6. Page 55. lb 256 Page 69. No 1. Loft 521—2. Loft 229—7. Dom L 80—7. Loft 194—2. No 8. Bacon. 6 Co 57 Loft 183. No 1. L 185 b t— 3. Cro Car 64 Loft 504—5.Loft 228—3.6. Page 67. Page 70. Inst Gaj b 7—4. Goob Dom L 41 § 1 5. 9 Co 9—2. lb 304—3. lb 515—6. Dom L 128 v inf L 54—7.. lb 429— 4. 11 Co 85. Plow 296—5 53. Ersk b 2 t 1 § 24 Loft — — — 436.

Jenk Cent 53—2. lb 426—7.. lb 395—4. 2 Inst 573-^-4. 1. Lit Sect 212— 8-.193 Page Page 73. 9 Go 22—8. 2 Rol Rep 410 ll Co 62 B 63 A—4. lb 173—7.. 4 Co 72—6. Page 90.3 InstEpil. No 1.. Page 86. Page 92. 10 Co 61—4. Lof 457—5. Lit Co 337—6. Bacon— 3. ..2 Inst 587 Loft 101—3. 5 Bui 143. Dom 1 38—5. Loft 346. Dom 8. lb 67 Col3— 4. 11 Co 86. 526.. lb— 5. lb 17. 7 Co 40—3. 8—5. No 1. 4 Inst 384—7. . Loft 617^3. No 1. Loft 47. lb 35—4. Co Lit 130.— U. Civ— 3.. Loift 560—2. lb 129— 5. 2 Inst 618—9. 2. Ersk b 1 t 6 § 32—3m. Loft 247—6. 5 Dyer 12—6.. Co Lit 319 b— 2. 279— 6.3. lb 224» Page 83. Loft 565 4. Co 1.Dom Loft 332—2. 2 Inst 689 Loft 232. No I. lb 12—3.9. Loft 440 Page 88. lb 574—8. L 8 b 14 Superior p 301 Ersk B 2 f 7 sect 3. Loft 620—2. 2 Inst 53—6. Dom I 7—6. Jenk Cent 36—10. No 1. 8 Co 97—2.6. Dom 1 10— 5. Co Lit 365— Wing 748—4.A. lb 276. No 1. No 1. 2 Inst 78. Jenk 206—7. Cl^ Car 117— No 1. 4 Co 45— 2. Bacon Loft 259—7. Loft 563—9. Jenk Cent 284—3. No 1. lb 280—6. 22.. Jenk Cent.. Ersk b 1 t 7 § 43—7. No 1. 3 Co 59—8. 2 Inst 341—3. Jenk Cent 66-. Loft 642—7. Co Lit 78—5. Hob 144 Loft lis— 2. Loft 63-^. Loft 430. lb 156—5. — Page No 1. lb Co 90—6. Co Lit 116— 3. Hob 96—2. lb 578—9. Loft 147—1.^Jtfc. No 1. . Loft 42—5. No 5. No 1. No 1. 2 Inst 219 Loft 71—3. Hob 144*-^' Co Lit 79—6. lb 581-. Inst 122 Gaj Lib 5 Page 84. Buls 199—6 24— 6. Loft 621. Ersk b 3 t 2 § 40—3. Loft 231—4. Loft 131—4. 2 Inst 326. Page 87. Ib85—5. No 1. 4 Inst 279—2. No 1. Page 82. Jur Civ— 6. No 1. Co Lit 337 Loft 313—2. Page 79.. Loft 546. lb S3I 1—3. Loft 342—2. Loft 51—3. Ersk b 2 tit 1 § 26—7.2. H H P C 54—8. Stair Dom t 1 t Loft 315—4. Ersk b 1 t 6 § 3—5. Page 89. 11 5. lb 562— 7. 1 Co 87—4. 2 1 Inst 380—5. b—3. 4 Inst 76. Co 73 Loft 296 —8. Plow 18— 6. lb 580-*-4. Loft 18—4. 13 Co 14—8.. Jur Loft 334—6. 5 Inst 24 Loft 146—5. Page 93. Loft 51—7.7. lb 98—8. 7. Loft 117—2.8. Prov— 6. lb 352. Loft 82—7. Co Lit 115—4. 2 Inst 479—2. 9 Cd 54—5. 4 Inst 180— 8. Inst Pomp b 28—2. Loft 317—6. 2 Inst 56 Loft 88—3. Page Page 75. Lit Epilogue— 2. Loft 269—6. Loft 610—2. 1. lb 61—7. 9 Co 48—2. Jenk Cent 7—7.-5. Loft 570—7. lb 87—3. 74. 4 Co ad Lect—S... Loft 281«-5. Loft 123—3. Page 85. 5 Co 21 Wing 600 9. Pige 91.. Loft 629. 2! c -. IbSlg-3.4. Just Paul b 2^*-4 Loft 345— Page 80. Loft 569—10. Page 77. Jenk Cent 51—2. Co Lit 183—5. lb 155—6. No No Lit 1. Co lit lH Loft 579. lb 181 Cent 68—5. 7 Co 12—4. No 1. lb 573—4. Page 81. Loft 427—6.

Loft 439—2. 4 Co 45—7. lb 465—8. Loft 437— 4. Ersk b 2 t 9 § 37 L 35 b t— 5. Loft 6l3— 4. Wing 486 Loft 361—7. l Rol Rep 226—3. [L 55 b t— 3. No 1. No 1. Inst UIp b 19—3. 3 Inst 138. Jur Civ— 8. Pag* 101. 1 t 7 § 33—3. Ersk b 2 1. lb 614—3. Loft 584—2. M'D— 3. Just UIp b 15— 2. Loft 466. Loft 467—2. 4 Inst 275—3. Jenk Cent 8 8. Dom 151— 5... lb 64—6. Loft 130—4. Loft 53—3. lb 26—5. 5 Co 60. L 30 b Co t Jur Civ Co Lit 53—2. L 85 b t. Ersk. Page 96. Loft 93—6. Inst Paul b^5— 7. Page 108. Loft 618—2. Dom 1 41—7. Loft 59—7.5. Page 113. Co Lit 317—4. lb 30—3. L 35 b t. Just UIp b 44—2. 1. 11 Co 21—4. — Page 112. Co Lit 222. 10 Co 42. Inst UIp b 13—6. lb 92—5. lb 329—6. L 74 b t— 5. No § t 1. Co Lit 263 Wing 592 —4. Page lia No 1. lb 11—6. lb 142—7. Inst Paul b 8— 6 Page 102. Co Lit 243— 4. lb 472—7. 12 Co 113—2. Inst 116 UIp 1 11—7. Loft 608—3. Ersk b 3 t 7 § 12 4 Inst 84 Loft 268 No 3. Jur Civ—3. Page 100. lb 394—7. Co Lit 37 5—7 .1b b 4 t 4 § 94—6. Dom 1 75 b t— Loft. Gilb Ten 142—9. 3 Bui 173— 7. b t—5. L 1 71 b Dom 1 4—7. Just L 575 § 30. lb. Page 106. Wing 665—4.3.. Page 105. Jenk Cent 4—3. 3. —8. 1 197— 2.4 Co 93—5. Co Lit 78 i . No 1. Ersk b 4 t 1 § 52— 5. Ersk b 3 t 4 § 93—2. Loft 582—6. Loft 454—6. 9 Co 9—2. Dom 1 10. No 1. Page 111.4 Co'. lb 311—8. 1 Co 100—3. I I 1. lb 16 —6. 2 Inst 66 Loft 322—4. 2 Inst 359—2. UIp b 1—2. Jenk Cent 237. s Inst 217—7. Loft 182—6.5—6. Co Lit 394—3. lb 95 Page 104.71— 2. Loft 29—7. Just UIp b 6—5. 287— 4. Loft 244—2. Loft 597—5. No 1. Dom L 37.. No 1. 134 § 1—2. Dom Loft 1 5. No 1. Ersk b 4 t 2 § 24— 11 100.194 No 1. Co Lit 148—8. Loft 36—8.Ersk b L Page 98. Page 103. Page 109.4m. L 81 b t. lb 258—3.Loft 55— 2. lb 275—4. Wing 336. lb— 5. InsL 175 Paul b 11—4. L. Dom 1 145 Page 99. L 158 t—5. Co Lit 97—4. 5 Co 61. Just 54 b t— 6. lb 245—5. 4 h 7 4—2. lb 343—4. Co Lit 392—6. L 21 b t 6. Loft 11--5. Just Papian b 2—6. No l. Page 107. Just Gaj b 15—5. b 2 t 8 § O—S. No 1. Lit 116 § 1 b t. lb 225—7. Page 95. Jenk C«nt 250—6. Ersk b 4 t 4 § 85—4. 2 Inst 63—4. I 43 b t. — t— FsLge 97. No 1. 2 Inst 273 Jenk Cent 8«— 7. Loft 223—3. L 176 b t— 2. Paul b 12—5. Loft 4Sl— 2. No 1. b 1. Co Lit 309 Wing 56—7. No No No 4. 4 Inst 84—6.. Page 94. Loft 201—4. Plow 309—* Co Lit 78—5. No 1. Co Lit 304 Wing 479—5. No —8..

Loft 590—4. Loft 198—7. 2 Inst § 1 19— 4. Co Lit 166— 5. Loft 401—2. 4 Inst 64—2. Co Lit 207. No 1. Loft 416. 3 Inst 220—6. No 1. 12 49—2. lb 449 Page 120. No 1. Lof 7 1 t Page 130..-2.. Loft 6. Loft 139—3.. lb 415—4. 1 Loft 266—2.Loft 288—2. Loft 206—4. Loft 105—7. Loft 4—2. lb 588— 1 t 1 Erskb 1. lb 113—7. Loft 267—6.Bac l. lb 118—5 L 138 b t— 6. Loft 209 1. Fortescus cap 42—3. Co §31. Loft 319—6. Ersk b 3 t 1^ 1. L 202 b t Page 117.. Wiag 728—8. Ersk b 3 Co 40—6. lb. Ersk b 3 t 8 § 10— 6. L 45 b t— 3. Stair t 7 Rest p 79 Office of exec Inst lib 2 1 20 text— 8. 10 Co 88. No No Jenk Cent 138—2. § 19. lb 192—3. No 1. 1. Ersk b 2 t 6 § 50—4. Bacon— 4. 3 Co 59—4. No 1. Loft 264—6. Ersk b 2 t 1 § 14 4. Co Lit — — 18. 129. Ersk b 4 t 4 § 90—5. Ersk b 2 t 3 § 27—5. Page 133. Jenk Cent 221—4. Page 122. 3 Inst 20—7. lb 290—6... Co Lit 283 Loft 140 166—6. No 1. Co Lit 247— Loft 205—4. Page 119. No 1. Loft 237 Page 118. Inst Ulp b 1 Page 116. 2 § 27—3. lb 413—7.. 8. 3 Co 29—6. Loft 348 Page 124. Page 127. Co Lit 344—3.5. 2 Inst 198.3 Buls 199—5. Co Lit 379 Loft 56. Loft 35G— 5. lb 56 8. Loft 128—3. lb 104—5. Ersk b 1 t 6 § 29— 4. Bac— 5. Just Pomp b 11—3. 2 Inst 123—6. Co Lit 6—4. Inst Gaj b J— 2. Jenk Cent 136—6. Loft 570—5. lb 17—3. 4 Inst 64 Page 121. Dom L 6 § 7. Loft 528—2.. 4 Inst 50—6. Loft 152—7. Loft 46—2. Page 123.^_Jenk Cent 56—7. No 1. No 1.. Co Lit 113 Loft 425—7. Loft 389—5. No No Loft 19—2. Bacon— 3. Co Lit 226—5. Loft 121—2. lb 417—3. lb 410 Page 125. Jur Civ—3. Ersk b 1 t 7 § 32—2. 5. 8 Co 169—2. 3 Inst 166 5. No 1. Page 115. 7 Co 23 Loft 585—6 . lb 265—4. Co Lit 123 Ersk b 1 t 6 § 49-5. Page 126. No 1. 4 Inst 160—2. Ersk b 2 t 11 ^65 Loft 75—4.7.. Loft 193—2. 4 Co 14—3. lb 15—5. Co 99— 6. Loft 366— 4. Page Page 128. No 1. No 1. 5 Co 99—7. 232— 7. 1. Co Lit 16—7. Loft 172—7 lb 282 Co 127—2. lb 120—4. 2 Inst 282— 3» 4 Inst 75—4. lb 435—7. Co Lit 112-^. Stair—3. 2 Buls 358—3. Lit § 386—5. lb 175—5. No 6. Co Lit 65 Loft 156—7 No 5. Loft 126—2. lb Co 75—6 L 81 b t 5 Co 29— . lb 414 —6. No 8 lb 107—6. Loft 190—7. Lit 293—4. 5. Loft 222—3. 4 Inst 279 Loft 111—8.2 Buls 312—2. Hob 154—8. lb 398—5. Page 132.— 195 Page 114. Loft 215— 4. Jenk Cent 85— 4. 9 Co Lit—3.. Page^lSl. .

L 18 b t— 6. 1. 10 Co 101—2. Loft 305. Loft 402 No 1. Loft 644—6. Loft 639—4. Co Lit 158 Cro Car 317—2. Jenk Cent 271—2. Loft 166—3. Co Lit 295—3. 138. No 1. lb 137 L 63. Pa^e 151. Ersk b 4 t 1 § 15—4. Loft 591—5. —5. 10 Co 113—7. 3 t 3 § 47—7. Loft 202—7. Loft 211—3. Loft 124—7. 4 Co 78—4. 10 Co 51 Inst 5. lb 593—4. lb b 1 t 7 § 32—7. 2 Inst 470—2. 6 Co 52—4. 4 Co 31— 2. 2 Inst 505 4. Reg Co 27 Page 144. lb 79—4. lb 200—4. Loft 171-r. 4 lust Epil Loft 141—6. Loft525— 2. 2 Inst 173—2. No c 13 b 9 Mod 38—3. Loft 178—2. 2 Inst 146 Loft 170—8. L 75 perb t No 1. No 1. 7 Co 9— 5. Finch 74—5. — 3. 140. 2 Rol Rep 21—7. Co Lit 161—7.6.5.. lb 407—6. 8 Co 154—2. lb 279—3. Ersk b 3 t 1 § 25—6.. 3 Inst 27—4. Lofts 210—4. Page Pago 139. Loft 27—2. Loft 445 Wing 618— 5. Page 145.. Page 150. lb 360—6. Page Page 152. 2 Inst 326 Hob 234—4. Inst Paul b 22—2.. Jenk Cent 76— 5. Stair t 13 Infeft p 242—6. lb 54—6. 4 Co 2—2. H Page 149. 3. b t— Page 148. 1. 12 Co 59—7. Co Lit 183—4. 2 Inst 564 No 1. Loft 196—3. Co Lit 161 No 1.196 Page 154. 1. Co Lit 158 b Loft 159—7. Co Lit 344—5. 3 7 t 8 § 26—3.. 2 83—5. 3 Co 78— 6. Loft Page 146. Hob 336—3. Loft 592—3. Page Page Page J 41. Loft 463—8. b— 6. 5 Co 38 Loft 191—8. 155. Loft 409—5. No 5. Jenk 1. Cary's Rep 135— 4. Loft 475—3. Jur Civ— 2. Co Lit 14 Loft 58—8. Dom 1 32—5. No Jur L 42 b t— 2. Ersk b . Co Lit 283 Loft 44 1. 5 Co 47—3.. 3 Inst 220— Page Page 137. L 29 b t— 4. Loft 283 No 1. Dom L 73 § 3—4. 2 Inst 81 Loft 520—8. Loft 310—5. Loft 459—2.Gilb 85—7. Loft 565—7. Co Lit 178—4. lb 447— Co Lit 258 Loft 163—6..2 Rol Rep 502—3. 2 Inst 662—4. 2 Inft 107 1. lb 371—3. 143. No 5. 6 Jur Civ— 7. Loft 99—3. No 550 1. Loft 387—5. lb 359 No 1. 66—2. lb 640—4.. lb 84—7.. Jeuk Cent 29 Page 135. Co Lit 223 b 142. Co 258— 5. Lofi 625—7. No 1. Loft 34—5. 2 Inst 689 Page 136. Dom 1 24 —6. 6 Co Lit— 6.2 Inst 48 No 1. 20 Cent 58—4. 8 Co 59 Wo Page 147. Loft 161—4. Loft 622. No 1. Co Lit 205—2. 4 Inst 330—2. 2 Inst 303 Loft 168—3. Loft 324 No 4 Inst 10 Co 70—6. Ersk b Civ— 5. 6. No 1. 3 Inst 26—6. 2 Inst 183 Wing 483 Loft 294—3. lb 408— 5. 3 Buls 132—2.. 3 Buls 227—3. Jenk Cent 126—3. No 1. Jenk Cent 32—2.

13 Co 139—9. Jenk Cent 119.2. lb 298—6. No 1. 21 D . lb —5. 2 Inst 714 Loft 449—4. Hob 297 Wing 712—5.. —5. lb 3—5. Reg Jur —5. 5 Co 118—8. 4 Inst 1—2. lb 20—7. Co Lit 147 Wing 24. Loft 282 — Loft 270—3.3 Inst 182—6. L 56 b t—5. Co Lit 191 5. Page Page 163. Jenk Cent 13. No 1. 1. Ersk b 3 t 4 § 16 7. Bacon— 6. No 1. Dom 1 147—4. Jenk Cent 56—3. Loft 208—7. Inst Pomp b 11— 1 Page 158. — 111. Loft 94—3. Loft 251—2. Inst Paul b 3—3. lb 606—7. 171.. 3 Inst 220—2. Jenk Cent 24—8. No 1. 1 Loft ees-S. UIp b 87—5. 4 Inst 4—5. lb 564—8. 4 lust 84—8. Loft 647. lb 569— 7. Ellesm Pot 55—4. Dom b 47—J. Loft 477—6. 4 Inst 320—3. Loft 1D9— 3. No 1.— 197 Page 154. Pago 162. 168. Loft 539—2. Reg Civ Just— 8. Co Lit 223—4. No 1. Hob 99—3. Ersk b 1 t 6 § 32. No — Loft No 1. Loft 214. lb b 2 1 —7. 2 Salk 512—5. I 22 b t— 4. 3 Co 28—5. 5 Co 2 No 5. Dom 29—4. Page 161. Loft 300 59—7. Sect— 2. Hob 143—7. Page 159. 7 Co 7—2. Loft 327—4. Co 4. Jenk Cent 17—7. L 34 b t— 6. Just UIp b 15No 1. 8. No 17 1. Erskb 1 1 1 § 29. Co Lit 49 Loft 284— 5» 6. No L Loft 453—2. Ersk b 1 t 7 § 45—6. lb 305—4. Dom i 17 Pand i De digit. lb 141. Co Lit 99 LofL 6^6. Loft 167—4. Loft 43. No 2 Inst 590—2. Page 165. Loft 649 —5. 1 § 9 Stair t 7 Restit p 76 Page 155.. Dom 13 v 27—2. lb 23—6. Jenk Cent 43—3. lb 9. —5. lb 616. 10 Co 113—6. L 38 b t. !b 149—4. No 1. Loft 108—6. L 1 fFde regulis. No 1.4 Co 1^ 1. 4 Co Ad. Page Page Page 169. lb 21— a lb 148—4. 9 Co 170. Ersk b 2 t 1 § 12—6. Page 160. Loft 160—7. Ersk b 1 t 7 § 39—8.4 Co 14—6. Co Lit 152—2. Cr*^ Car 317—4. lb 619. Loft 80—4. lb 165—3. No 1. No 1. Loft 169—2. Loft 240—9. 4 Co 8—3. lb 23—5. Loft 357—4. Page 166. Loft 22 2. 4 Co 14 -*9. Ersk b 1 t 7 § 15—3.. Page 156. 7 To 4. L 85 § 1—3. 4 Inst Loft 106—3. 1. Loft 306—3. 4 Tn»t 163 Loft 270—6. lb 14—5. Jur Civ— 8.'^^2. lb 214—7. L 203 b t-^5. Stair t 1 com prin p 2 Dom 1. 10 Co 101—9. 164. No 1. Page 172. No 8. Loft 295—2. Inst 454 Loft 50— 7. Just UIp b 10—2. Page Page 167. Jenk Cent 14—4. Loft 81—2. Ersk b 2 t 1 1 § 14—3. Loft 358 I Page 157. lb 203—9. Bacon Loft 127—6. L92 b t— 3. Loft 567—8. Jenk Cent 168—4. 2 Hoi Rep 296—7. M'D— 6. Co Lit 101—4. 4 Co 107—2. No 1. juris antiqui— 3. Loft 301—6. Loft 554^2. Inst Lit 142. Reg Jur Civ— 6. Co Lit 30 Loft 32—4.

Co Lit 112—3. Co Lit 118—3. Loft 602—3. Page 185. Loft 599— 4. lb 601—5. No 1. 4 Tnst 279—4. M*D— 4. James's Court. Loft 471—5. lb— 4. 177. Plow 501 Wing 482 Ersk b 2 t 5 § 5—4.s 4 Co 61—6. lb 242. No 1. Loft 164—7. 1 Co 52—5. 4 Co 16 Loft 514—8. 2 Inst 45 Loft 238—5. Jenk Cent 81—5. lb 58. 6. Ersk b 2 t 9 § 34—7. Loft 158—9. 4 Inst Epil— 2. No 1. 6 Co 20. lb 476 No Page 184.. lb 486—6. lb 188. 2 Inst 289 Loft 100—5. Page Page Page 176. Loft 254—5. Loft 219—2. Loft 312—3. Loft 636-^2. 4 Co 93—2.. lb 316. Co Lit 322—3. 2 Inst 269—2. lb 253—5.3 Inst 305—6. lb 377—4. 1 No 174. lb 380.. Bacon— 8. lb 285. Loft 421—2. Ersk b 2 t 1 § 18 Dom 1 20 C de Pactis— 2. 2 Rol Rep 39 Ersk b 3 t 4§ 9—8 No 1. . Printer. 4 Inst 279—5. Just 1 10 Paul b 6 Edict— 6. 7 Co 1—5. Loft 464. Loft 598—8. Ersk b 3 t 7 § 79—4. Loft 650—2. Dav 69—7. Co 20. lb 468—6 7. Loft 405—3. Loft 152. Loft 250—6. Page 187. 7 Co 27—3. Co Lit 322 Loft 250— 2. 4 Inst 279—7. 3 Inst 27—8. Jenk Cent 325—4. Ersk b 4 t 2 § 26—7. Page 179. No 1. 7 Co 18—6. Page 175. Loft 350—4. Page 186. Loft 45—2. Co Lit 322. lb 403—7. 3 Inst 03. No i. 6 Co 47—2. 1. No 1. Page 182 Page 183. No l. Loft 648 5. Loft 25—7. M'D—4. 4 Co 118—4. Loft 291—6. 3 Inst 176—8. lb— 6. lb 286. 10 Co 116—2.|Ib 412— S. lb 602—3. 1 Ld Laym 303—7. Lof 615-9. Inst 57—3.198 Page Page 173. —6. Wm. lb 31. Jenk Cent 260—7. No 1. lb 474—7. Loft 450— 2. Loft 241—3. Page 181. 1. THE £KJ>. No 1. No 1. No 1. 4 Co 17—3. Loft 246.— 4. 10 Co 78. Cro Jac 42—6. Reg Jur Civ— 3. lb 455—4. Co Lit c b— 6. Ersk b 3 t 6 § 9—3. Jenk Cei^t 27—7. 178. Loft 411—5. lb 349—6. Co Lit 36—2. Loft 607—2. Hob 347 Wing 672 Stair t Reparap 101—^. lb 216—8. Page 180. Loft 115—7. BAYKE. Loft 648—4. Hob 347 Wing 672—5. lb 60 —5. Edinburgh. 5 Co 126—4. No 1. lb 212—6.

......... devisible after pass trial against heirs servis must take place. three witnesses maybe brought concedentur repetition! servus considentur repetitione 3 4 4 67 69 75 ... 3 6 1 dictur sanguinis quaesitum permittere iEnglije JEquitatJE certa placitare dicitur 3 5 2 8 For haberit dele to himself insiderint or haberet incederint consensus JEnglise 5 3 5 8 5 4 7 consersus JEnglx dele not ubi valit peccare judicii r'^ ubivalit peccari judici injure in jure 118 126 133 1S6 . 2 3 2 1 viz...ERRATi^ Pages 5 7 15 18 31 ••• .... 147 151 2 160 163 170 171 3 3 1 perceived feels— feels consensus intended reaps—bear Consensu empire dominatur solo facet S. umpire ubi domiDatar sola facit 6 1 176 ..... qui claim est quia clause ut a private right aliquis 3 2 7 7 .. 6 5 bono poena sequarari bonos pcenae separari quae qualibet sensisse 3 2 4 1 . qua qualibet senisse 137 ... private rights aliqui 76 .. 78 . ^quita certe pacitare 88 90 95 97 98 100 102 104 105 112 113 116 . 5 7 1 sanguinus questium permitere -^nglae 79 . 177 178 181 . pravitatio pravitatis 4 6 7 2 agree standunt uni disagree etandum ubi unumquaque eadem »rbi unumquacque eodem ubi 382 . No 2 for accuse intuo 9 altum 7 1 inducitor reorf excuie in tuo ' sunt inducitur deposition! private in eodem less 5 3 de positioni after of 4 8 2 9 7 6 2 7 ineodem lest 32 34 37 afttr that with divisible 44 54 57 62 65 .

I .

.

.

^ .