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Chapter 4 : Momentum Equation

4.1 Momentum Principle in Steady Flow Consider a streamtube, RQ, crossing a control box (volume), ABCD, that is fixed in space. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and the flow to be steady. A particle at R moves to R’ and a particle at Q moves to Q’ in time δt. By implication the fluid in space R-Q will have moved to R’-Q’.
B u1δt Fw F=p2δA2 Q F=p1δA1 R A R’ D Q’ C u2δt

Fw is the internal reaction force between the streamtube and its neighbours. The other symbols have their usual meanings. For an ideal fluid apply Newton’s law of motion to the fluid quantity in respect of forces and velocities perpendicular to AB and CD, i.e. net force on a fluid is equal to the rate of change of momentum.
ΣF =

∂M ∂t


The net force is the sum of the forces on the streamtube ends and the force on the walls of the streamtube.
ΣF = p1δA1 − p2 δA2 + Fw

The change in momentum occurs when the fluid flows from R-Q to R’-Q’. It can be seen that there is a common momentum term in the fluid space R’-Q. Thus change in momentum is the difference in momentums between fluids in R-R’ and Q-Q’. Noting that momentum is mass times velocity, we have:
δM = ( ρu2δtδA2 ) u2 − ( ρu1δtδA1 ) u1

Thus from Newton’s law we have:
2 p1δA1 − p2 δA2 + Fw = ρu2 δA2 − ρu12δA1

Part I Fluids


these internal reactions cancel out (since action and reaction between bodies is equal). except where the fluid touches a body. Fw reduces to a net reaction. In this case.1 Impact of a Horizontal Jet on a Vertical Stationary Plate Part I Fluids 30 . it can be seen that by summing over all the streamtubes in ABCD. Fb. The general momentum equation therefore is: AB ∫ pδA − ∫ pδA + F CD b 2 2 = ρ ∫ u2 δA2 − ρ ∫ u1 δA1 CD AB (0) This equation states that the net pressure force on the boundaries of ABCD minus net reaction on any body within ABCD equals the flow of momentum across the control box boundaries.Chapter 4 : Momentum Equation With regard to Fw. Momentum 1 Fb Momentum 2 P1 P2 4.2.2 Applications of the Momentum Equation 4.

is given by: M = mv = ρAv 2 This momentum is lost to the wall. consider control box ABCD. Mass flow into the box. T: T = ρAv 2 (0) Part I Fluids 31 . is the net force or thrust on the wall. m: m = ρAv where A is the area of the jet. since velocity at the wall (in the horizontal direction) is zero.Chapter 4 : Momentum Equation B mv T C A D Take the case of a horizontal jet striking a vertical wall. M. Its momentum. The change in momentum.

∑F x  ( 0 − v cosθ ) = −T = m This can be re-written as:  cosθ = ρAv 2 cosθ T = mv For an ideal fluid.2.Chapter 4 : Momentum Equation 4.2 Impact of an Inclined Jet on a Vertical Stationary Wall from dh/boxer Consider the equilibrium of forces in the x-direction. In order to  find the 2m sin θ)flow rates. jet speed remains constant after impact. we need to invoke continuity and ( 1 +mass 1 =m 2 =m  ( 1 − sin θ) 2m Part I Fluids 32 .