Cooperative learning&Concept mapping

Dr Funda Ornek BTC, Spring 2012

• Course: TC2SCT 221 Enrollment key: tc2sct221.funda

• Cooperative learning as a teaching strategy which involves students participating in small group activities that promote specific learning outcomes and in the process, fosters synergistic interaction among group members .

• ensuring that students construct their own knowledge. • developing social and group skills necessary for success outside the classroom. • providing formative feedback.Cooperative Learning enhances student learning by: • providing a shared cognitive set of information between students. • motivating students to learn the material. and • promoting positive interaction between members of different cultural and socio-economic groups .

listening. computing. problemsolving. • it helps teacher to better manage hands-on science in the classroom .• Cooperative learning groups in classrooms goes beyond achievement. are valuable but of little use if the person cannot apply those skills in cooperative interaction with other people in career. family. etc. and positive attitudes • Being able to perform technical skills such as reading. speaking. writing. acceptance of differences.. and community settings.

NJ: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs. Johnson and Edythe Johnson Holubec. 1986 .Face Interaction Individual Accountability Interpersonal And Small Group Skills Group Processing Taken from: Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom (Revised Edition) D.W. R.T. Johnson.Basic Elements of Cooperative Learning Positive Interdependence Face-to.

Positive Interdependence Students must feel they need each other in order to complete the group’s task Mutual Goals Joint Rewards Shared Materials and Information Assigned Roles .

Face-to-Face Interaction Discussing Summarizing Explaining Elaborating Receiving Feedback .

Individual Accountability Teams succeed when: Every member has learned the material Every member has helped complete tasks Frequently teachers assess individual learning .

Interpersonal and Small Group Skills Communication Leadership Decision-making Conflict Management Active Listening Challenging Ideas Not People Compromising .

Group Processing Giving students the time and the procedures to analyze how well their teams are functioning with: Learning tasks Social skills Self-assessment .

or 6-person jigsaw groups. • Divide the day's lesson into 5-6 segments. • Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender. race.Some examples of cooperative learning strategies JIGSAW • Divide students into 5. ethnicity. • Assign each student to learn one segment. making sure students have direct access only to their own segment. . and ability. There is no need for them to memorize it.

• Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group.. • At the end of the session. Eventually. • Float from group to group. • Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups. a member is dominating or disruptive). Leaders can be trained by whispering an instruction on how to intervene.g. . Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their jigsaw group. until the leader gets the hang of it. it's best for the group leader to handle this task. give a quiz on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count. make an appropriate intervention. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification. If any group is having trouble (e. observing the process.• Form temporary "expert groups" by having one student from each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment.

or the entire group.• • • • Think-Pair-Share Involves a three step cooperative structure. Individuals pair up during the second step and exchange thoughts. other teams. In the third step. During the first step individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. the pairs share their responses with other pairs. .

summarize or brainstorm • Directions: State the problem. topic or issue Distribute one sheet of paper to each group Give a time limit and ask students to begin to write .• Objective: to get students to recall.

Round Table Each person at your table should write one thing he/she has learned about cooperative learning. .

or displayed. • Word Splash is a teaching strategy that makes vocabulary acquisition easier for elementary school students. a teacher will determine the most important vocabulary words for the topic. in the classroom at the start of the unit. • These words are then splashed. Before beginning a new unit of study. .• Primary science school teachers can motivate students to learn new words and definitions in science using the Word Splash vocabulary strategy.

they add pictures to the vocabulary words that represent their definitions. • Students can also create their own word splashes on the front of their folders or notebooks with definitions and illustrations of the vocabulary terms. . • As the students read and learn about the content area topic. their interest is peaked and they are motivated to learn what they mean and why they are there. • The teacher then invites them to try and read the words and guess what they mean.• When the students enter the classroom and see the new words. • The word splash can then be used as a study aid to help students interact with and recall the words. • These predictions help their brains to organize and assimilate the new vocabulary.

doc .Word_splash.

• The recorder writes down the answers of the group members." members of the team share responses with one another round robin style. • The person next to the recorder starts and each person in the group in order gives an answer until time is called.Round robin • Class is divided into small groups (4 to 6) with one person appointed as the recorder. • After the "think time. • A question is posed with many answers and students are given time to think about answers. .

3-step interview • Each member of a team chooses another member to be a partner. • During the second step partners reverse the roles. • For the final step. members share their partner's response with the team. . • During the first step individuals interview their partners by asking clarifying questions.

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Students can categorize information about the topic that they expect to use.KWL (Know .Want to Know – Learned) • K-W-L is an introductory strategy that provides a structure for recalling what students know about a topic. . and finally listing what has been learned and is yet to be learned. What is its purpose? • The K-W-L strategy allows students to take inventory of what they already know and what they want to know. noting what students want to know.

and charts that are found in the reading. on a handout. • Then have students predict what they might learn about the topic. This helps set their purpose for reading and focuses their attention on key ideas.How can I do it? • On the chalkboard. This helps generate their background knowledge. • Before reading. three columns should be drawn. Column 3 L. . • Label Column 1 K. or on students' individual clean sheets. pictures. Column 2 W. which might follow a quick glance at the topic headings. students fill in the Know column with everything they already know about the topic. on an overhead.

• Alternatively. students should fill in their new knowledge gained from reading the content. They can also clear up misperceptions about the topic which might have shown up in the Know column before they actually read anything. This is the stage of metacognition: did they get it or not? . you might have students put in the middle column what they want to learn about the topic. • After reading.

KWL chart sample.doc .

Advance organizer and concept mapping .

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utwente.htm .edte.nl/lanzing/cm_home.• Properties of materials: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Types of materials Uses of materials Natural materials Hardest materials • Some concept map computer tools • http://users.

• Concepts and sometimes links are labeled. . uni.or bi-directional. • Concepts and links may be categorised. specified or divided in categories such as causal or temporal relations. Networks consist of nodes (points/vertices) and links (arcs/edges). they can be simply associative. • Knowledge graphs are networks of concepts. • Links can be non-. • Nodes represent concepts and links represent the relations between concepts.• Concept mapping is a technique for representing knowledge in graphs.

pdf • http://cmap.). ▫ to communicate complex ideas. ▫ to assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding. ▫ to design a complex structure (long texts.us/download/ free concept map tool . large web sites. etc. hypermedia. • Example: concept maps in science.• Concept mapping can be done for for several purposes: ▫ to generate ideas (brain storming.ihmc. ▫ to aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge.). etc.

• • • • • • • • • SUMMARY Why use Cooperative Learning? Research has shown that cooperative learning techniques: promote student learning and academic achievement increase student retention enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience help students develop skills in oral communication develop students' social skills promote student self-esteem help to promote positive race relations .

TUTORIAL 1 • Students are to work in groups • Tutor assigns each group a topic in the primary science syllabus • Each group is to discuss how they would incorporate a suitable cooperative learning activity during teaching of that lesson • Each group is to present their findings to the others in the tutorial group • Others are to critique and provide feedback • Tutor is to provide summarizing comments • .

biological and earth sciences • Work in groups • Each group is to select one topic in different domains and discuss among themselves how they would go about drawing a concept map for the topic by reference to a textbook • Each group is to present their findings to the others in the tutorial group .TUTORIAL 2 • Choose a topic in the natural.

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