IPFC

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IPFC

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K. R. Padiyar, Senior Member, IEEE, and Nagesh Prabhu

AbstractThe interline power-ow controller (IPFC) is a voltage-source-converter (VSC)-based exible ac transmission system (FACTS) controller for series compensation with the unique capability of power-ow management among the multiline transmission systems of a substation. The reactive voltage injected by individual VSCs can be maintained constant or controlled to regulate active power ow in the respective line. While one VSC regulates the dc voltage, the others control the reactive power ows in the lines by injecting series active voltage. This paper presents the modelling of IPFC with 12-pulse, three-level converters and investigates the subsynchronous-resonance (SSR) characteristics of IPFC for different operating modes. The analysis of SSR is carried out based on eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation of the detailed system. It is illustrated with the help of a case study on a system adapted from the IEEE Second Benchmark Model. The analysis uses both model (neglecting harmonics in the output voltages of VSCs) and the three-phase model of VSCs using switching functions. While the eigenvalue analysis and controller design is based on the model, the transient simulation considers both models. Index TermsEigenvalue analysis, exible ac transmission systems (FACTS), interline power-ow controller (IPFC), static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), subsynchronous resonance (SSR), transient simulation, voltage-source converters (VSCs).

I. INTRODUCTION HE increase of power transfer capability of long transmission lines can be achieved by reducing the effective line reactance, and/or providing dynamic voltage support by static var compensators. Series compensation of long lines is an economic solution to the problem of enhancing power transfer and improving system stability. However, series-compensated transmission lines connected to turbogenerators can result in subsynchronous resonance (SSR) due to the negative damping introduced by the electrical network. This can cause self excitation due to torsional interaction and induction generator effect. The reduction of damping at torsional frequencies can also result in the magnication of shaft torque oscillations caused by transient disturbances [1][4]. The static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) is an emerging controller based on VSC and has several advantages over the thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) [5]. The voltage injected by SSSC is predominantly reactive (voltage in

Manuscript received March 7, 2006; revised October 4, 2006. Paper no. TPWRD-00117-2006. K. R. Padiyar is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India (e-mail: krpyar@ee.iisc.ernet.in). N. Prabhu is with the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Vel S.R.S. College of Multimedia (Engineering), Chennai 600 062, India (e-mail: prabhunagesh@rediffmail.com). Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRD.2007.899544

quadrature with the current). The SSSC has only one degree of freedom (i.e, reactive voltage control) (unless an energy source is connected on the dc side of VSC which will allow for real power exchange) which is used to control active power ow in the line. The hybrid series compensation consisting of a suitable combination of passive elements and an active FACTS controller, such as TCSC or SSSC, can be used to mitigate SSR. A comparative study of the SSR characteristics of TCSC and SSSC [6] indicated that, while the vernier operation (with constant reactance control) is adequate for mitigating SSR in the case of TCSC, a properly designed subsynchronous damping controller (SSDC) [6] is required with SSSC for damping the critical torsional mode when the line resistance is low. When multiple SSSCs are used in adjacent lines connected to a substation, they can be linked together on the dc side. This conguration of multiple SSSC is termed as IPFC [7]. The schematic of the IPFC consisting of two series-connected voltage-source converters (VSC1 and VSC2) linked through a common dc link is shown in Fig. 1. and are the interfacing transformers of VSC1 and VSC2, respectively. The two converters of IPFC can generate/absorb reactive power independently and the two branches can exchange active power. The component of series injected voltage in phase and quadrature with the line current are called active voltage and reactive voltage, respectively. The injection of series reactive voltage provides active series compensation (to control the magnitude of current owing in the line) while the injection of series active voltage primarily controls the reactive power in the line. One VSC injects a controllable series voltage and is regarded as a prime system where the independent control of

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both active and reactive voltage (and, hence, control of reactive and active power) is desired. The other VSC is designated as a support system which can inject series reactive voltage independently [5], [7]. The capacitor voltage is regulated by dc voltage controller of the support VSC. The dc voltage controller regulates the capacitor voltage and maintains power balance between two converters. The power balance can be expressed mathematically as (1) The independent control variables with the IPFC using two VSCs are reactive voltage injections in two lines and active voltage injection in prime VSC (hence, three degrees of freedom for the system shown in Fig. 1). When the active voltage injection of prime VSC is zero, the IPFC works similar to independent SSSCs in steady state with losses supplied by the support VSC. In the case of the unied power-ow controller (UPFC), a signicant increase in the damping of torsional modes is achieved by emulating a positive resistance with the injection of series active voltage [8]. A major objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of active voltage injection by prime VSC of the IPFC controller on SSR damping for different operating modes. In this paper, the interline power-ow controller (IPFC) is realized by two three-level, 12-pulse VSCs. As there is no published work on the analysis of SSR with IPFC, it becomes essential to establish the validity of the models used. This is performed by using a detailed nonlinear three-phase system model (including the switching action within the VSC) for transient simulation which is also used to validate the models employed for the linear analysis. The study is carried out based on eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation. The modeling of the system neglecting VSC is detailed (including network transients) and can be expressed in variables or (three) phase variables. The modelling of VSC is based on 1) variables (neglecting harmonics in the output voltages of the converters) and 2) phase variables and the use of switching functions. The damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis, and the controller design is based on the model while the transient simulation considers both models of VSC. It is shown that series active voltage injection by IPFC in the resistance emulation mode can effectively be used as an SSR countermeasure. This paper is organized as follows. The modelling of the IPFC is described in Section II. The methods used for the analysis of SSR are described in Section III while a case study is presented in Section IV. Section V presents the conclusions. II. MODELLING OF IPFC WITH THREE-LEVEL VSC In the power circuit of an IPFC, the converter is usually either a multipulse and/or a multilevel conguration. The control of injected voltage magnitude by pulse-width modulation (PWM) with two-level topology demands higher switching frequency and leads to increased losses. The three-level converter topology can achieve the goal by varying dead angle with fundamental switching frequency [9]. The time period in a cycle during which the converter pole voltage is zero is given as [10]. The converters that allow the variation of both magnitude and the phase angle of converter output voltage are

classied as TYPE-1 converters [11]. Here, a combination of 12-pulse and a three-level conguration [10] is considered. The three-level converter topology greatly reduces the harmonic distortion on the ac side [5], [9]. The detailed three-phase model of IPFC is developed by modeling the converter operation by switching functions [10]. A. Mathematical Model in D-Q Frame of Reference When switching functions are approximated by their fundamental frequency componentsneglecting harmonics, IPFC can be modeled by transforming the three-phase voltages and currents into variables using Krons transformation [4], [12]. The equivalent circuit of a VSC viewed from the ac side is shown in Fig. 2. and are the resistance and reactance In Fig. 2, of the interfacing transformer of VSC- . The magnitude control is achieved by moduof the th converter output voltage of lating the conduction period affected by the dead angle individual converters. The output voltage of the th converter can be represented in the frame of reference as (2) (3) (4) where ; for a 12-pulse converter; transformation ratio of the interfacing transformer ; angle of the th line current; angle by which the fundamental component of the th converter output voltage leads the th line current . With the two converter IPFC , 2. The dc-side capacitor is described by the dynamical equation as (5) where ; ; and and components of line-1 current components of line-2 current ; .

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B. Converter Control Fig. 3 shows the schematic representation for converter control. In this controller, the magnitude, which is a function of (for a constant ) and phase angle of the converter voltage are used to control reactive and active voltage. The support VSC regulates the dc capacitor voltage at a constant value. The active voltage reference of support VSC is obtained from the dc voltage controller while for prime VSCs, it is obtained from constant resistance emulation. The reactive voltage reference of support and prime VSCs can be kept constant or obtained from the active power controller. In Fig. 3, and are calculated as (6)

A. Damping Torque Analysis Damping torque analysis is a frequency-domain method which can be used to screen the system conditions that give rise to potential SSR problems. The signicance of this approach is that it enables the planners to decide upon a suitable countermeasure for the mitigation of the detrimental effects of SSR. The damping torque method gives a quick check to determine the torsional mode stability. The system is assumed to be stable if the net damping torque at any of the torsional mode frequencies is positive [13]. The interaction between the electrical and mechanical system can be represented by the block diagram shown in Fig. 4. At any given oscillation frequency of the generator rotor, the in phase with the rotor component of electrical torque is called damping torque. speed The expression for the damping torque coefcient due to the external transmission network is derived in [4] as (10)

(7) We can dene the injected reactive ( component of the injected voltage in quadrature with line current) and the active ( component of injected voltage in phase with line current) voltages in terms of variables in the frame ( and ) as follows: (8) (9) Here, positive and positive implies that the VSC injects inductive voltage implies that it draws real power from the line. III. ANALYSIS OF SSR The two aspect of SSR are: 1) steady-state SSR [induction generator effect (IGE) and torsional interaction (TI)] and 2) transient torques [4]. The analysis of steady-state SSR can be performed by linearized models at the operating point and include damping torque analysis and eigenvalue analysis. The analysis of transient SSR requires a transient simulation of the nonlinear model of the system. For the analysis of SSR, it is adequate to model the transmission line by lumped resistance and inductance to consider the line transients. The generator stator transients are also considered along with a detailed (2.2) model of the generator [12]. The excitation system, including PSS, is also considered.

When the IGE is neglected (as it does not have a signicant effect on the prediction of torsional mode stability), the generator can be represented by the classical model [8]. When the mechanical damping is zero, the instability of th is determined from the criterion torsional mode frequency and the decrement factor can be approximately expressed as [4], [13] (11) where is the modal inertia for the th mode. It is observed, generally, that the damping torque introduced by the electrical system is at a negative peak at a frequency corresponding to the complement of the electrical resonance fre. The complement is dened as quency (12) where is the fundamental frequency.

B. Eigenvalue Analysis In this analysis, generator model (2.2) [12] is considered. The electromechanical system consists of the multimass mechanical system, the generator, the excitation system, power system

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Fig. 5. Schematic representation of IEEE SBM. (a) Electrical system. (b) Four mass mechanical system.

stabilizer (PSS), torsional lter, and the transmission line with IPFC. The IPFC equations (2)(9) along with the equations representing the rest of the electromechanical system [4], [12] (in variables) are linearized at the operating point and the eigenvalues of the system matrix are computed. The stability of the system is determined by the location of the eigenvalues of the system matrix. The system is stable if the eigenvalues have negative real parts. C. Transient Simulation The eigenvalue analysis uses equations in variables where the switching functions are approximated by their fundamental frequency components (converter switchings are neglected). To validate the results obtained from damping torque and eigenvalue analysis, transient simulation should be carried out using a detailed nonlinear three-phase model of IPFC which considers the switching action in the three-phase converters [10]. The transient simulation of the combined nonlinear system with a detailed three-phase model of the IPFC is carried out using MATLAB-SIMULINK [14]. IV. CASE STUDY The system under study is adapted from the IEEE SBM system-1 model [15] and is represented schematically in Fig. 5, which consists of a generator and parallel ac transmission line, one of which is series compensated by the capacitor. The generator, mechanical system, and transmission line data are adapted from IEEE SBM [4], [15]. The IPFC (shown in Fig. 1) is inserted in both lines. The modeling aspects of the electromechanical system are comprised of the generator (modeled with a 2.2 model), mechanical system, the excitation system, power system stabilizer (PSS) with torsional lter, and the transmission line. They are given in detail in [4] and [12]. The analysis is carried out on the test system based on the following initial operating conditions and assumptions. 1) The generator delivers 0.9-p.u. power to the transmission system. 2) The magnitude of the generator and innite bus voltages are set at 1.00 p.u.

3) The dynamics of the turbine-governor systems are neglected and the input mechanical power to the turbine are assumed constant. When the series compensation in line-1 is taken to be p.u. (52% of ) the complement of electrical resonance matches with the critical torsional mode-1 frequency of the IEEE SBM Sys-1 model and the system becomes unstable when the net damping is low. Hence, this operating mode is considered for the analysis without IPFC. The introduction of IPFC provides active series compensation for both of the parallel lines. The analysis with IPFC is carried out at practically the same operating point as that obtained for the case without IPFC. This is achieved by increasing the reactance of lines 1 and 2 to 1.25 times that of SBM data and compensated by the capacitive reactive voltage injection by IPFC. The operating values of compensating reactance ; positive for capacitive reactive voltage ( injection) due to IPFC for lines 1 and 2 are and , respectively. Now in line-1, we have hybrid compensation and line-2 is compensated by VSC2 of the IPFC. Hence, the total compensation in line-1 becomes p.u. The , injection of prime VSC is set to zero and active voltage IPFC behaves like two independent SSSCs in steady state. The IPFC controller parameters are selected by the parameter optimization method as described in [16]. A. Eigenvalue Analysis The following cases are considered for the eigenvalue analysis. 1) Without IPFC (compensation only by xed capacitor ). 2) With IPFC: Case 1) With prime VSC in line 2 and support VSC in line 1. Case 2) With prime VSC in line 1 and support VSC in line 2. Both prime and support VSCs inject constant reactive voltages. Since there are only two lines, power can be regulated only in one of the lines. However, this option was not considered as constant power control was found to increase the negative damping torque. The prime VSC injects active (real) voltage with resistance emulation while the support VSC regulates dc voltage. The eigenvalue results of IEEE SBM system-1 without IPFC 0.2496) are given in column 2 of Table I. It is (when to be noted that the network mode (sub) closely matches with torsional mode-1 of the IEEE SBM and the torsional mode-1 is unstable. The eigenvalues of system matrix, computed with IPFC (for are given in cases 1 and 2) when series real voltage Table I. It is observed that the frequency of the network subsynchronous mode is not much affected by the introduction of IPFC. This is primarily responsible for the instability of the rst torsional mode although the negative damping is reduced with IPFC. There are no appreciable differences in the results of Cases 1) and 2) except for the damping of torsional mode-1 and the network (subsynchronous) mode. Both of these modes

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are better damped for Case 2). This results from the fact that the loop resistance inserted by IPFC is more for Case 2). This point is explained in some detail later. The damping of other torsional modes (mode 2 and 3) is not signicantly affected by the operating modes of IPFC. Table I also gives the eigenvalues of the system for Case is reduced to 0.1776 (from the previous value of 1) when is increased to 0.192 to retain the same value 0.2496) while of hybrid compensation (0.3696 p.u.) (see last column). It is obis reduced served that the network resonance frequency which increases the frequency of the subsynchronous netwok to 177.16 rad/s (which does not coincide with mode any of the torsional modes) and the system is found to be stable. This suggests that it is possible to detune the network resonance frequency by the proper selection of the combination of xed capacitor and injected series reactive voltage for a given compensation level, when the line has hybrid compensation. This is also observed with the case studies considered for SSSC in [6], [10], and [17]. , it was observed that the results were not afFor is held fected by the absence of resistance emulation (and being not equal to zero, there are constant). However, for differences in the results as will be shown later. It is to be noted that the injection of positive real voltage in and, hence, positive ) causes the negline-2 (positive and, hence, ative real voltage injection in line-1 ( negative ). This is because the positive real voltage injection in line-2 causes active power to be fed to line-1 from line-2 in line-2 to maintain power balance in the dc link (Positive draws real power from line-2 and supplies it to line-1 via the dc link). Neglecting losses in the IPFC, we can express this behavior of IPFC from (1) as (13) (14) (15) The steady-state variation of with obtained by load ow for the study system is shown in Fig. 6 for case-1. The

Fig. 6. Variation of R

with R

operating points with , 0.015, 0.06, and 0.015 in per unit are shown in Fig. 6 as A, B, C, and D, respectively. , It is to be noted from Fig. 6 that for a given change in is small as the current in line-1 is higher coma change in gives a small pared to line-2. Hence, an increase in positive and the net loop resistance comprising increase in negative line-1 and 2 is increased. On the other hand, the negative resistance injection in line-2 causes the net loop resistance to be negative. Table II, column 2, gives the eigenvalues of the combined is set to 0.060 p.u. for system when series real voltage case-1 and the controller emulates (positive) resistance in series with line 2 of the prime system. All of the torsional modes are stable in this case. Comparing the results given in Tables I and II, it is observed that the damping of mode-1 is improved with real voltage injection, while the damping of mode-2 is marginally reduced. and the resistance It was observed that when emulation is disabled, the torsional mode 1 becomes unstable ). This shows that the (with the eigenvalues of resistance emulation is essential, in general, to damp the critical torsional mode when required.

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AND

X

Fig. 8. Simulation with a detailed D Q model of the IPFC for a pulse change = 0:06) for Case 1). in T (V

Fig. 7. Simulation with detailed three-phase model of IPFC for a pulse change in T (V = 0:00) for Case 1).

Table II, column-3, gives the eigenvalues of the combined system when series real voltage is set to 0.015 p.u. for case 1 and the controller emulates negative resistance in series with the line-2 of the prime system. It is observed that the damping of torsional mode 2 is increased (compared to the case ). The damping of the subynchronous network with mode is signicantly reduced in comparison with the eigenvalue or 0.060. It is observed that when results with , the subsynchronous network mode becomes unstable as the net loop resistance comprising lines 1 and 2 becomes large negative. However, these results are not given here. In all cases, the damping of mode-3 is practically constant as its modal inertia is very large. B. Transient Simulation The transient simulation of the combined nonlinear system with and the detailed three-phase model of the system is carried out using MATLAB-SIMULINK [14]. The simulation results for a 10% decrease in input mechanical applied at 0.5 s and removed at 1 s with case-1 (for torque ) using the three-phase model of IPFC is shown in Fig. 7. The simulation results for case-1 with the model and with the three-phase model of IPFC are shown in Figs. 8 and

Fig. 9. Simulation with a detailed three-phase model of the IPFC for a pulse change in T (V = 0:06) for Case 1).

9, respectively, for 0.06. It is observed that the system is stable (as predicted from the eigenvalue analysis). It is to be noted that there is a good match between the simulation results and LPGEN section torques) ob(variation of rotor angle tained with and three-phase models of IPFC. C. Discussion It was shown in [8] that the emulation of positive resistance by the series connected VSC in a UPFC improves the damping of the critical torsional mode. Similar results are expected in the case of IPFC also. However, the problem is complicated by the fact that, with IPFC connected in two parallel lines, the injection of positive series resistance in the prime line is accompanied by the injection of negative resistance in the parallel line in which support VSC is connected. Since the net resistance determines the damping, it is necessary to select the prime line with the smaller operating current such that, the loop resistance is increased. The results of the case study prove this assertion as in example considered, the line 2 which carries about half the

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V. CONCLUSION In this paper, we have presented the analysis and simulation of SSR with an IPFC-compensated system which is reported for the rst time. The application of the model is validated by the transient simulation of the three-phase model of IPFC. It is observed that the model is quite accurate in predicting the system performance. The effectiveness of various operating modes of the two VSCs comprising IPFC in damping SSR has been investigated. There is no appreciable difference in the resonance frequency of the electrical network as the total series compensation (in a hybrid compensation scheme) is increased by increasing the series reactive voltage injected instead of the series capacitor. This reduces the risk of SSR since the xed capacitor can be chosen such that the electrical resonance frequency does not coincide with the complement of the torsional modal frequency (which is practically independent of the electrical network). This indicates the possibility of detuning SSR by adjusting the series reactive voltage wherever feasible. In addition, the injection of series real voltage by IPFC (to emulate positive resistance in the transmission loop) as a SSR countermeasure is a novel technique and improves the damping of the critical torsional mode. APPENDIX SYSTEM DATA The data for the electromechanical system pertaining to IEEE SBM model [15] is based on a 600-MVA and 500-kV base. All of the data given below are in per unit (p.u.) based on previously mentioned base values. IPFC controller (rating of each VSC is 100 MVA) , . , Constant resistance emulation controller . DC voltage controller , . The impedance of interfacing transformers is merged with the line impedances. REFERENCES

[1] M. C. Hall and D. A. Hodges, Experience with 500 kV subsynchronous resonance and resulting turbine generator shaft damage at Mohave generating station, Analysis and Control of Subsynchronous Resonance 1976, IEEE Publ. 76 CH 1066-O-PWR. [2] C. E. J. Bowler, D. N. Ewart, and C. Concordia, Self excited torsional frequency oscillations with series capacitors, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-92, no. 5, pp. 16881695, Sep. 1973. [3] L. A. Kilgore, D. G. Ramey, and M. C. Hall, Simplied transmission and generation system analysis procedures for subsynchronous resonance problems, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-96, no. 6, pp. 18401846, Nov./Dec. 1977. [4] K. R. Padiyar, Analysis of Subsynchronous Resonance in Power Systems. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1999. [5] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2000. [6] K. R. Padiyar and N. Prabhu, A comparative study of SSR characteristics of TCSC and SSSC, presented at the PSCC Conf., Liege, Belgium, Aug. 2005. [7] L. Gyugyi, K. K. Sen, and C. D. Schauder, The interline power ow controller concept: A new approach to power ow management in transmission systems, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 11151122, Jul. 1999. [8] K. R. Padiyar and N. Prabhu, Investigation of SSR characteristics of unied power ow controller, Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 74, pp. 211221, May 2005.

current in line 1, is suited for the prime VSC with positive real voltage injection. If prime VSC is connected in line 1, it must operate with negative real voltage injection. It was shown in [6] and [8] that the injection of constant reactive voltage by series-connected VSC has no appreciable effect on the electrical resonance frequency in the network with hybrid compensation with xed series capacitors. This observation can be utilized to reduce the risk of SSR by appropriately selecting the value of the series capacitor and making up for the required (total) compensation by injecting constant reactive voltage. By ensuring that the torsional mode frequency (which is unaffected by the electrical network) does not lie close to the complement of the electrical resonance frequency, the risk of SSR is avoided. Although less accurate, the damping torque method can be used to predict the potential SSR problems under various system operating conditions. The variation of damping torque with torsional frequency for case-1 is shown in Fig. 10 for various values of . Referring to Fig. 10, peak negative damping is reduced substantially with positive real voltage injection , in the line-2. However, negative real voltage injection increases the peak negative damping. Although the peak negative damping is decreased with positive resistance emulation, the damping at higher frequencies is reduced whereas it is increased at lower frequencies. These results are in agreement with eigenvalue results. Referring to (15), it should be noted that when the current of two parallel transmission lines is nearly same, the injection of positive active voltage in a line causes nearly equal negative real voltage injection in the other line and there is not much increase in the net loop resistance comprising the two lines. However, it is possible to obtain a difference in the line currents by control over the injected series reactive voltages. Thus, an increase of net loop resistance of the transmission lines can be achieved and is found to be effective in the damping of SSR. The choice of the prime converter is based on the operating currents in the two lines. The converter connected to the line carrying lesser current should be operated as a prime converter with positive resistance emulation [see (15)].

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[9] K. K. Sen and E. J. Stacy, UPFCUnied power ow controller: Theory, modelling and applications, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 14531460, Oct. 1998. [10] K. R. Padiyar and N. Prabhu, Analysis of subsynchronous resonance with three level twelve-pulse VSC based SSSC, in Proc. IEEE TENCON, Oct. 1417, 2003, pp. 7680. [11] C. Schauder and H. Mehta, Vector analysis and control of advanced static VAR compensators, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. C, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 299306, Jul. 1993. [12] K. R. Padiyar, Power System DynamicsStability and ControlSecond Edition. Hyderabad, India: B. S. Publications, 2002. [13] I. M. Canay, A novel approach to the torsional interactions and electrical damping of the synchronous machine, Part-I: Theory, Part-II: Application to an arbitrary network, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-101, no. 10, pp. 36303647, Oct. 1982. [14] Using MATLAB-SIMULINK. Natick, MA: Math Works, Inc., 1999. [15] IEEE SSR working group, Second benchmark model for computer simulation of subsynchronous resonance, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-104, no. 5, pp. 10571066, May 1985. [16] K. R. Padiyar and N. Prabhu, Modelling, control design and analysis of VSC based HVDC transmission systems, presented at the IEEE POWERCON, Singapore, Nov. 2124, 2004. [17] N. Prabhu, Analysis of subsynchronous resonance with voltage source converter based FACTS and HVDC controllers, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Indian Inst. Sci., Bangalore, India, Sep. 2004.

K. R. Padiyar (SM91) received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from Poona University, Poona, India, in 1962, the M.E. degree from the Indian Institute of Science (I.I.Sc.), Bangalore, in 1964, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, in 1972. Currently, he is an Honorary Professor of Electrical Engineering at the I.I.Sc. He was with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, from 1976 to 1987, prior to joining I.I.Sc. His research interests are in the area of HVDC and FACTS, system dynamics, and control. He has authored three books and many papers. Dr. Padiyar is a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering.

Nagesh Prabhu received the Dipl. Elect. Engg. degree from Karnataka Polytechnic, Mangalore, India, in 1986, the M.Tech. degree in power and energy systems from N.I.T. Karnataka, Surathkal, India (formerly Karnataka Regional Engineering College) in 1995, and the Ph.D. degree from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, in 2005. Currently, he is Professor of Electronics and Communication Engineering at the VEL S.R.S. College of Multimedia (Engineering), Chennai. He was with the N.M.A.M Institute of Technology, Nitte, from 1986 to 1998 and with J.N.N. College of Engineering, Shimoga, from 1998 to 2006, prior to joining Vel S.R.S. College of Multimedia. His research interests are power system dynamics and control, HVDC and FACTS, and custom power controllers.

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