11 views

Uploaded by Lynn Hollenbeck Breindel

calculus review

save

You are on page 1of 9

3.9

Differentials

Equation of the Tangent Line and Linear Approximation

http://www.analyzemath.com/calculus/applications/linear_approximations.html

http://www.jcmiras.net/jcm/item/81/

AP Calculus – Mrs. Shak

Objectives

Be able to define the equation of a tangent line of f(x) at x = c Understand the concept of a tangent line approximation (or linear approximation).

2

1

8/28/2011

**Equation of Tangent Line
**

How to define an equation of a line at a point?

y − y1 = m( x − x1 )

SO, the equation for the tangent line at the point (c, f(c)) is given by

y − f (c) = f '(c)( x − c)

The tangent line approximation (or linear approximation) of f at c is:

y = f (c) + f '(c)( x − c)

3

**Example 1 – Using a Tangent Line Approximation
**

Find the tangent line approximation of f(x) = 1 + sin x at the point (0, 1).Then compare the y-values of the tangent line with those of f(x) on an open interval containing x = 0. Solution: 1) Calculate Derivative: f’(x) = f’(0) = 2) Now, calculate equation of tangent line using pt-slope:

4

2

8/28/2011

Example 1 – Solution

cont'd

Notice that the closer x is to 0, the better the approximation is.

5

AP Question – 1969 AP Calculus AB/BC The approximate value of y = 4 + sin x at x = 0.12, obtained from the tangent to the graph at x = 0 is

(A) 2.00 (B) 2.03 (C) 2.06 (D) 2.12 (E) 2.24 Solution:

Answer = B

6

3

8/28/2011

AP Question – 1997 AP Calculus AB #14 Let f be a differentiable function such that f(3)=2 and f’(3) = 5. If the tangent line to the graph of f at x = 3 is used to find an approximation to a zero of f, that approximation is

(A) 0.4 Solution: (B) 0.5 (C) 2.6 (D) 3.4 (E) 5.5

Answer = C

7

Differentials

8

4

8/28/2011

Differentials

When the tangent line to the graph of f at the point (c, f(c)) y = f(c) + f'(c)(x – c) is used as an approximation of the graph of f, the quantity x – c is called the change in x, and is denoted by ∆x, as shown in Figure 3.66.

Figure 3.66

9

Differentials

When ∆x is small, the change in y (i.e. ∆y) can be approximated as shown.

∆y = f(c + ∆x) – f(c) ≈ f'(c)∆x

∆x is denoted by dx -> called differential of x. f'(x)dx is denoted by dy -> called differential of y.

10

5

8/28/2011

**Example 2 – Comparing ∆y and dy
**

Let y = x2. Find dy when x = 1 and dx = 0.01. Compare this value with ∆y for x = 1 and ∆x = 0.01. Solution: Because y = f(x) = x2, you have f'(x) = 2x, and the differential dy is given by dy = f'(x)dx = f'(1)(0.01) = 2(0.01) = 0.02. Now, using ∆x = 0.01, the change in y is ∆y = f(x + ∆x) – f(x) = f(1.01) – f(1) = (1.01)2 – 12 = 0.0201.

11

Example 2 – Solution

cont'd

Figure 3.67 shows the geometric comparison of dy and ∆y.

Figure 3.67

12

6

8/28/2011

Calculating Differentials

13

Calculating Differentials

Each of the differentiation rules can be written in differential form.

14

7

8/28/2011

Example 4 – Finding Differentials

The notation in Example 4 is called the Leibniz notation for derivatives and differentials, named after the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

15

Calculating Differentials

Differentials can be used to approximate function values. To do this for the function given by y = f(x), use the formula

which is derived from the approximation ∆y = f(x + ∆x) – f(x) ≈ dy. The key to using this formula is to choose a value for x that makes the calculations easier.

16

8

8/28/2011

**Example 7 – Approximating Function Values
**

Use differentials to approximate Solution: Using

you can write

Now, choosing x = 16 and dx = 0.5, you obtain the following approximation.

17

Example 7 – Solution

The tangent line approximation to line

cont'd

at x = 16 is the

For x-values near 16, the graphs of f and g are close together, as shown in Figure 3.69.

Figure 3.69

18

9

- calculus 09Uploaded byparvezalamkhan
- laplace 2.2Uploaded byDaphne Liew
- AP Calculus AB Course OutlineUploaded byTarun Sharma
- SB2.0Uploaded byMarvin Bryant Medina
- IIT JEE AdvancedUploaded byBharat Savajiyani
- GATE 2014 SyllabusUploaded byRohit Rumade
- IIT JAM 2014 Indian Institute TechnologyUploaded byMathews
- Calculus of P-metricUploaded bySalmanHussain
- Syllabus_WBJEEM-2015__25092014Uploaded byVishwajeet Kumar
- Yearly Plan Form 4 Additional MathematicsUploaded bymarmardhiah
- SAMPLE-introductory-mathematical-analysis.pdfUploaded bymoshe
- AP Concepts SheetUploaded byDylan Anthony Morrongiello
- AIEEE 2012 Mathematics SyllabusUploaded byAjay Singh Gurjar
- GATE-2016Uploaded bySujit Kangsabanik
- 13. ISC EconomicsUploaded bykrittika19
- Business MathematicsUploaded byMd. Mostafa Kamal
- 15.CSE FinalUploaded byPraveen Kumar
- HW_1_Fall2012_solnUploaded byjamieha22
- How to Model a Citrus Squeezer in SolidWorksUploaded byJeffrey Muchtar
- SPEC - 2014 Specialist Maths Course OutlineUploaded byCharles Hancin
- Differential CalculusUploaded byCresencio Genobiagon Jr
- Chapter8 DiffUploaded bydiktatorimhotep8800
- DeUploaded byAshish Mahajan
- Solutions of Assignment No_4Uploaded byElmer
- JB_W27_DPP61_63Uploaded byAAVANI
- SLecture3Uploaded bySumanth Nani Enugala
- Intro to First DerivativeUploaded byMrDubster
- Eng 6 EngineeringUploaded byMathew Freeman
- M53 Lec2.3.2 Local Linear Approx and Differentials.pdfUploaded byDanicaGuinid
- WolframAlpha--f_x___x_2_1___2x_2___Derivative____2017_05_03_10_11Uploaded byqugonjinn

- calculus 09Uploaded byparvezalamkhan
- laplace 2.2Uploaded byDaphne Liew
- AP Calculus AB Course OutlineUploaded byTarun Sharma
- SB2.0Uploaded byMarvin Bryant Medina
- IIT JEE AdvancedUploaded byBharat Savajiyani
- GATE 2014 SyllabusUploaded byRohit Rumade
- IIT JAM 2014 Indian Institute TechnologyUploaded byMathews
- Calculus of P-metricUploaded bySalmanHussain
- Syllabus_WBJEEM-2015__25092014Uploaded byVishwajeet Kumar
- Yearly Plan Form 4 Additional MathematicsUploaded bymarmardhiah
- SAMPLE-introductory-mathematical-analysis.pdfUploaded bymoshe
- AP Concepts SheetUploaded byDylan Anthony Morrongiello
- AIEEE 2012 Mathematics SyllabusUploaded byAjay Singh Gurjar
- GATE-2016Uploaded bySujit Kangsabanik
- 13. ISC EconomicsUploaded bykrittika19
- Business MathematicsUploaded byMd. Mostafa Kamal
- 15.CSE FinalUploaded byPraveen Kumar
- HW_1_Fall2012_solnUploaded byjamieha22
- How to Model a Citrus Squeezer in SolidWorksUploaded byJeffrey Muchtar
- SPEC - 2014 Specialist Maths Course OutlineUploaded byCharles Hancin
- Differential CalculusUploaded byCresencio Genobiagon Jr
- Chapter8 DiffUploaded bydiktatorimhotep8800
- DeUploaded byAshish Mahajan
- Solutions of Assignment No_4Uploaded byElmer
- JB_W27_DPP61_63Uploaded byAAVANI
- SLecture3Uploaded bySumanth Nani Enugala
- Intro to First DerivativeUploaded byMrDubster
- Eng 6 EngineeringUploaded byMathew Freeman
- M53 Lec2.3.2 Local Linear Approx and Differentials.pdfUploaded byDanicaGuinid
- WolframAlpha--f_x___x_2_1___2x_2___Derivative____2017_05_03_10_11Uploaded byqugonjinn
- VectorsUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- -Logarithms and ExponentialsUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Drift Velocity MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Conservation of Energy without Friction MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Elastic Potential Energy MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- E Fields in between Plates MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- ExponentsUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Percent Error and Percent DifferenceUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Definition of Capacitance MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Cyclotron MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Conservation of Energy without Friction MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Coulomb's Law MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Dielectrics MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- E & V Calculus MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Percent Error and Percent DifferenceUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Calculating Voltage MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Conservation of Energy with Friction MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- 1D Motion with Graphs.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Biot Savart MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Ampere's Law MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- 5-Vector-Calculus-Wikibook.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Capacitor Circuits MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Capacitor Circuits MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- B Force on a Wire MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- B Field due to Wire.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- meyerproject.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Angular Momentum MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- -Math53-Worksheet.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- B Force on a Moving Charge MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- math214notes.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel

- VectorsUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- -Logarithms and ExponentialsUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Drift Velocity MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Conservation of Energy without Friction MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Elastic Potential Energy MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- E Fields in between Plates MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- ExponentsUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Percent Error and Percent DifferenceUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Definition of Capacitance MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Cyclotron MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Conservation of Energy without Friction MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Coulomb's Law MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Dielectrics MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- E & V Calculus MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Percent Error and Percent DifferenceUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Calculating Voltage MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Conservation of Energy with Friction MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- 1D Motion with Graphs.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Biot Savart MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Ampere's Law MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- 5-Vector-Calculus-Wikibook.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Capacitor Circuits MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Capacitor Circuits MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- B Force on a Wire MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- B Field due to Wire.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- meyerproject.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- Angular Momentum MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- -Math53-Worksheet.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- B Force on a Moving Charge MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- math214notes.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel