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The Research of Lithium Battery

Characteristic and Charger Design

-1-

The Research of Lithium Battery


Characteristic and Charger Design

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/ 92 2

()

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( 92.6.17)

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E9103020

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93

21

1. ( http: //nr.stic.gov.tw/theses/html/authorize.html )

2. (106-36)
106 1702 (
:02-27377606 02-27377689)
3. 85 4 10 ()
89.11.21
4. 85.4.19 (85) 712

-4-

NI DAQ CARD
LABVIEW MATLAB

,
AC110220V , 250300mA ,
NT50 ,

DAQ CARDLABVIEWMATLAB

-5-

ABSTRACT
In view of the fact that the nowadays uses electronic products, for
example:cell phone, notebook, digiatal camera....And so on the product
all does take the li-ion battery as its energy originates, because the liion battery has the high energy density, the weight light, low internal
resistance, the cycle-index long, self-discharge rate is low and so on the
merit, because of initiates us to interest of the li-ion battery research.
This research is tests the li-ion battery the charge&discharge
characteristic, therefore in view of the battery voltage, the current, the
temperature and internal resistance four kind of parameters, penetrates
NI DAQ CARD to pick up the data, and to LABVIEW monitors each
kind of parameter, obtains the data, finally makes the numerical
analysis using MATLAB, Optimizes in order to .
The battery manages the monitor system mainly is different
monitors units by three the group to become, is battery voltage, the
current monitor units, another for temperature monitoring part. This
system slightly revises promptly may use to any battery controls and
monitors.
Then we each parameter which obtain in the basis, designs a input
voltage to be possible in AC110 220V, the charging current
approximately in during 250300 mA, simple also is cheap ( NT$50)
the li-ion handset battery charger, Is good after the actual test effect.
Key Words:LI-ION BATTERY, NI DAQ CADR,LABVIEW
-vi-

...

NSC-91-2213-E-270-006

-vii-

iii

iv

vi

vii

viii

xii

xiv

1-1
1-1-1
1-2

2
3

1-2-1

1-2-2

1-3

1-4

1-4-1

1-5

1-6

10

-viii-

1-6-1

12

1-6-2

13

1-7

14

1-8

15

1-9

16

1-9-1

17

1-9-2

17

1-10

18

1-10-1 OP1

20

1-10-2 OP2

20

1-10-3 OP3

21

1-11

21

LabView
2-1 LabView

23

2-2 LabView

24

2-3

27

2-3-1

27

2-3-2 / VIs

29

2-3-3 I / O VIs

30

2-3-4

31

2-3-5

32

MATLAB
3-1 MATLAB

36

3-2 MATLAB

36
-ix-

3-3

37

3-3-1

38

3-3-2

38

3-3-3

39

3-3-4

39

3-3-5

40

3-3-6

41

3-3-7 ()

41

3-3-8 ()

42


4-1

44

4-2

44

4-2-1

44

4-2-2

45

4-3

47

4-3-1 47
4-3-2 47
4-4

49

4-4-1

49

4-4-2

49

4-5

52

4-5-1

52

4-5-2

52

-x-

4-6

-xi-

54


1.1 2
1.2 (A)2
1.2 (B) 2
1.3 2
1.4 6
1.5 7
1.6 7
1.7 8
1.8 15
1.9 (a)LA25-NP 16
1.9 (b)LA25-NP 16
1.10 LA25-NP 16
1.11 17
1.12 18
1.13 AD590 19
1.14 AD590 19
2.1 26
2.2 27
2.3 31
2.4 31
2.5 32
2.6 32
-xii-

2.7 33
2.8 33
2.9 34
2.10 35
2.11 /35
3.1 Matlab 37
3.2 38
3.3 38
3.4 39
3.5 40
3.6 40
3.7 41
3.8 42
3.9 42
4.1 46
4.2 15V2A / 46
4.3 / 48
4.4 12V 50
4.5 50
4.6 15W 50
4.7 53
4.8 54
4.9 55
4.10 () 55
-xiii-


1.1 4
1.2 8
1.3 () 11

xiv


1-1 :

NotebookPDAMobile phonePDA

260~270 kWh/m

-1-

100
90
80
70
60
(%) 50
40
30
20
10
0

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

1.1

1-1-1 :

(A)
(B)
1.2 (A)(B)

1.3

-2-

:
1. electrode

2. electrolyte

3. film

4. shell

1-2 :

3 6.94 86
0.534

()
1%
-3-

3.6V
2.5V 7.2V 5V

z :
.
z :
.
z
z
z
z
z
z : Li-ion

1.

Li-ion
(V)

3.7

(Wh/L)

350

(Wh/kg)

120

(W/kg)

300

(cycles)

1000

-4-

1-2-1 :

1-2-2 :

IC

-5-

IC MOSFET
IC
MOSFET IC

1.4
MOSFET ONOFF
V+ e
IC b MOSFET

-6-

IC

1.5

V+()
e IC a
MOSFET

IC

1.6

1-3 :

500 500 80
-7-

4.14.2V 3.2V

0.5C1C 90%

1-4 :

()

Reserve

()

1.7

1-4-1 :
1.2

(Ni-Cd)

1.2V

-8-

100-200Wh/L
45-65Wh/Kg

(Ni-MH)

1.2V

3.6V
(Li-ion)

3.6V
(Li-polymer)

Notebook
PDA
Notebook

200-350Wh/L
50-80Wh/Kg
200-350Wh/L
90-150Wh/kg
200-350Wh/L
90-150Wh/kg

1-5 :

1. (Primary battery):

2. (Rechargeable battery):

3. (Nominal Capacity): mAH AH-

4. (Nominal Voltage):

.
5. :

6. (Open circuit voltage OCV):



7. (Over discharge):
-9-


8. (Over charge):

9. (Constant current CC):

10. (Constant current CV):

11. (Energy density):

1-6 :

1995
1.3

NB/PC ( )Cellular
Phone ( )Camcorder ( )MD Player (
)PDAPHS NB/PC ( )
50%Cellular Phone ( )
31%

- 10 -

1.3

2001

2002

2003

(%)

NB/PC

145286 166400 194480 51.1

PDA

2409

6854

13996

3.7

Cellular 106950 111540 118140 31.0


PHS

3840

3360

3000

0.8

Camcorder 19884

22275

24570

6.5

MD Player 17236

19958

23990

6.3

Others

2194

2243

2507

0.7

Total

297799 332630 380683 100.0

AGR

20.0%

11.7%

14.4%

NB/PC
18650 ( 18 mm 65 mm )

1996 Sony Energy Tech.


7.3%Matsushita 20%Moli Energy 33%
- 11 -

Sanyo 50%A&T Battery 75% Japan Storage


100%

10 mm

Sanyo
2003
2 1

1-6-1

- 12 -

LiPF6LiClO4
LiSO4LiBF4

1-6-2

1.

- 13 -


600~800
CoNiFeAl
Li2O H2ONa2CO3 Li2CO3
Li2CO3 LiCoO2
2.:

30min ~ 120min
80%

1-7

- 14 -


LA25 NP( Sensor)AD590( Sensor)

1.8

1-8

()

- 15 -

1-9

LA25-NP (1.9)
1A
0.5 1A0.5
5mA

1.9 (a)LA25-NP

(b)LA25-NP

1.10 LA25-NP

M
( M )
100025 1A 25mA
100
40
40 100 M I = V M
I 1/40
- 16 -

1-9-1

1879
Lorentz Force

(sensor)

1-9-2

1.11

Ic
1.11BFL

- 17 -

VH

1.12

1.12

B B= I*(u/l) ( )
I

1-10

AD590 IC 1A/k

100M

AD590
- 18 -

-55~150 C 4~30V

IC
AN6701S AD590

1.14 AD590

1.15

AD590

OP1(OP741)
- 19 -

OP2(OP741) 2.73V
OP3(OP741)

AD590 AD590 Sensor


1.15

1-10-1 OP1

1.15 AD590 1K 1
A 0 273.2K
0 273.2A OP1 buffer
9K 2K

25 0
273.2A + 25A = 298.2A 10K
2.982 V298.2A* 10K = 2.982V

1-10-2 OP2

1.15 0 OP1 2.732 V


- 20 -

1 0.01V OP2 20K


20K 0 2.732 V
20K 2.732V OP1
0 = 0V 25 0.25 V

1-10-3 OP3

1.15 OP2 0.01


OP3 10 0.1
LabVIEW 10
OP3 DAQ DAQ
( DAQ 6024E 10V10V)
DAQ OP3

1-11

:
a

- 21 -

RE
VE
VZ
I

- 22 -

LabView
2-1 LabView

LabVIEW(Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench)


National Instrument 1986
GLabVIEW
(Virtual Instrument)
DAQ(Data Acquisition)
(Image Acquisition)
LabVIEW C BASIC
LabVIEW
LabVIEW

LabVIEW
LabVIEW
CC++
LabVIEW

LabVIEW (Breakpoint)
(Single-Step)

(Auto Debugging)
LabVIEW
- 23 -


LabVIEW

Front Control Panel

2-2 LabView

LabVIEW

Front Panel( 2.1)


Block Diagram
( 2.2)Icon/Connector

Controls
Indicators

VI
- 24 -

LabVIEW
VI
Sub VISubroutine

Terminal Sub VI
Temperature VI

LabVIEW
VI

VI
VI
InputOutput

Sub VI

LabVIEW
- 25 -

(Block Diagram)LabVIEW

VIs

LabVIEW

2.1

- 26 -

2.2

2-3 :
2-3-1 :

: X Y

: X Y
true
false

: X Y 1
true false

- 27 -

: X 1 false 0
true

0: X 0
true
: for loop
1000
5000 5
:

:
- 28 -

2-3-2 / VIs

1. Write Characters To File

character string
*txt new fie path
append to file
True

2.Read Characters From File

- 29 -

2-3-3 I / 0 VIs

1.Write to Digital Port

Write to Digital Port 8bits


Device DAQ Pettern
Port Width

2.AI Acquire Wavefroms VIS

AI Acquire Wavefroms
Channels DAQ-BOX
Device DAQ Sample Rate
Number Waveform
data

- 30 -

2-3-4

( 2.3)

2.3

2.4
- 31 -

2-3-5

2.5

* (1)
(2)
(3)

2.6
- 32 -


59

BOX Digital

2.7

for loop
STOP
SUB VI

2.8

- 33 -

SUB VI
VI SUB VI
2.8
SUB VI
2.8 channels
file path() waveform() SUB VI

2.9

- 34 -

2.10

SUB VI

( 2.9) 2.10 2.10


(1)
VI

2.10(2) DAQ-BOX

(2)
(3)(1)
*txt

2.11 /
- 35 -

MATLAB
3-1 MATLAB

MATLAB
MATLAB
MATLAB matrix
laboratory

for...next
MATLAB
Math Works
1984 Cleve Moler Fortran
Jack Little C
MATLABMATLAB

MATLAB

3-2 MATLAB
MATLAB MATLAB

- 36 -

) MATLAB

MATLAB 3.1

3.1Matlab

View
>>
Enter
; MATLAB

3-3

- 37 -

3-3-1

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.1

3.9

3.8

3.7

50

100

150

200
250
300
t (unit 1 minute)

350

400

450

500

3.2

3.2

4.09V 450

3-3-2

400
350
300

I (m
A
)

250
200
150
100
50
0
-50

100

200

300
t (unit 1 minute)

3.3
- 38 -

400

500

600

3.3

353.59 mA 450

3-3-3

4.2

4.1

3.9

3.8

3.7

3.6

50

100
150
t (unit 3 minute)

200

250

3.4

3.4

3.53V 450

3-3-4
- 39 -


32

31

T( )

30

29

28

27

26

100

200

300
t (unit 1 minute)

400

500

600

3.5

(
3.5)

3-3-5

4.2

3.8

3.6

3.4

3.2

2.8

2.6

2.4

20

40

60

80
100
t (unit 1 minute)

3.6
- 40 -

120

140

160

180

3.6 ()()

0.6V 3.4V

3-3-6 ()

3.7

42Vcutoff
(
3.7)

3-3-7 ()
- 41 -

3.8

3.8
0.5 m

3-3-8 ()
4.5
1
1
2
2

3.5

Voltage (V)

2.5

1.5

0.5

20

40

60

80
100
time / 1 min

120

3.9
- 42 -

140

160

180

3.9

- 43 -


4-1

TOPSwitch TOPSwitch

4-2

4-2-1

- 44 -

1 7805
2 LM317

3 LM2937LM2991

0.1

4-2-2
4.1
TOP209 LM2937
LM2937
UIUO0.6V LM7805 1/61/3
LM2937 5V
0.5A VT1VT2C7R4R6
R5R6 VT2
85V 70V UI<70VVT2
R4 C7 C7 VT1
VT1 TOP209
C5 UI>70V VT2 C7
0V
- 45 -

=R4C7

4.1

4.2

15V2A /

- 46 -

PC

4-3

4-3-1

80

4-3-2
15V2A 4.2
4 TOP214Y
IC1PC816A IC2
TL431CIC3 LM358IC4 IC4a
IC4b
1 IC4bIC3VD5 R3R4
- 47 -

IC4aVD6 R6
2

3 NSB USB
UI UO

4.3 /

UO0.8V
4 TOP214Y 30W
5 R6
0.1 0.4W
6 UFB 46V PC816A
U(BR)CEO=70V>40V

IO 2A IC4a
UR6 UFY
R5R8 TL431C IC4a UR6 UFY
- 48 -

Ur2 VD5 R1
LED TOP214Y IOH
VD5 VD6

/ 4.3
U=Umin=85VACU=Umax=265VAC

4-4

4-4-1

IO
UO UOIO

IO

4-4-2

12V 4.4
TOP202Y VT1VT2R1R4

- 49 -

IC2 VT1 VT2

4.5 UO IO 3
ILM

4.4 12V

4.5

4.6 15W
- 50 -

1 IO<ILM VT2 UO UO=12V


VT1 VT2
R1 VT1
R2
VT1 US
IO R1 UR1 VT2
UBE2=UR1US<0.65VVT2

2 IOILM
IO UO UR10.3VUS0.57V
VT2 UBE2=UR1US>0.7V VT2 VDZ2
UO LED
VT2 VT2 IF
TOP202Y IC DIO
R3 UO UO
IR3USUBE2IFICDIO
IO

3 UO1.5V VT2
LED UF=1.2V
ISS2.2A

- 51 -

4-5

4-5-1

UO
IO IOUO
PO

4-5-2

TOP202Y 15V15W 4.6


15V 100UO 7.5V 50UO
10 VT1VT2VDZ3
VDZ5R1R7 VT1 VT1 VT2
3DK4B R1 VT2
R1 VT1VT2
5
1VDZ4R7R3
IC1

- 52 -

2VT1R2 VT2
UB1 UBE1 UBE2

3R1
4VDZ2R6R4 VT2 UBE2

5IC2VDZ2R5
UO
IO VT2 VDZ2
UO=15V VT2
UB2 UB2UR1=UBE2 VT2 VDZ2

UOIOUR1IFICDIO PO

7
UO=15V IO=1.02APO1=15V1.02A=15.3WUO=7.5V IO=2.07A
PO2=15.5WPO1PO2

4.7
- 53 -

4-6

Q2
NPN BCED13

VCC_CIRCLE
VCC_CIRCLE

110V ~ 220

2.49

24
R17

4148
R18

104

C1

R1
1k

R2
1k

10

NPN BCE

D8
1.21

3.20

4.32

R15
330k

D10
4007
C2

4007

DIODE Z ENER

102.9V

C5
472

Q3

4007
NPN EB13002

U2

4007

D1

9.28

D12

R14

9. 8

10.40

330

4007

5.48

1
2.49

8.96

D12

D11
D9

56k

R7

C358c

22u

6V8

+5.6V-

6.8k
431C

10.39.

R16
470

R3

1N4148
D14

4937

AC 11.4V
PNP BCE

0. 47k

R9

2
8

8550

9.93

R4

R8

8.97

T1

3. 3K

1.4

R6

0.22k
D3
4.32

22M

5.67

1K

LED

2.2k

R11

R12

0.9

TRAN_ISDN_06

2.2K
R13

5V
SW1

0.8

2. 27K

D2 2V7
DIODE Z ENER
R10

11

R5

1.5K
SW ON (8.24)

1.91

0.84
1. 91

D4
SW PUSHBUTTON

LED

D5

D6

LED

LED

D7

C3
+

LED

Dis

Li

CHG

100u

FULL

4.8

1N4007

VmC4
Vs(t) Vout(t) ()
Vout(t) Vs(t) Vs(t) Vm Vs(t)

110V C4
6.8V 5.6V EB 13002
- 54 -

220V C4
6.8V D14
6.8V 8050

4.9

4.10 ()

- 55 -


1. National Instruments,Labview Basics Course Manual,
1999.
2. National Instruments,DAQ 6023E/6024E/6025E User
Manual,1999.
3. ,LabVIEW,
,2002.
4. ,LabVIEW,
,1998.
5.,,, LabVIEW ,
,2001.
6.,, 126 ,86 6
.
7.,, 117
,85 9 .
8.,
, 126 ,86 6 .
9.,,,
66 ,81 6 .
10., 131 ,86 11
.
11.,,,, MATLAB 6.X ,

12.,, 138
- 56 -

,87 6 .
13.,MATLAB ,
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Energy Conversion Engineering Conference ,IEEE AES
systems magazine,pp.23-31,March,1998.
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Space Applications , Proceedings of the 32nd
Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,pp.
31-34,1997.
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Aerospace Applications , Proceedings of the 32nd
Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,pp.
35-48,1997.
19. Chuck Lurie,Evaluation of Lithium Ion Cells for Space
Applications , Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety
Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,pp.58-63,1997.
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Battery Performance for Potential Use in NASA
- 57 -

Mission ,Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy


Conversion Engineering Conference,pp.39-41,1997.
21. W. F. Bentley and D. K. Heacock,Battery Management
Consideration for Multichemistry System ,IEEE AES system
magazine,pp.23-26,May,1996.
22. M. Gonzlez, Miguel A. prrez, J. Daz and F.j. Ferrero,
Ni-Cd and Ni-MH Battery Optimized Fast-Charge method for
Portable Telecommunication Application ,Proceedings of
the Eighteenth Annual International Telecommunications
Energy Conference,pp.522-529,1996.
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Battery Charging: Neural-Fuzzy Approach , IEEE AES
system magazine,pp.26-29,May,1996.
24. Dele Stolitzka and William S. Dawson,When is It
Intelligent to Use a Smart Battery? , Proceedings of the
Ninth Annual Battery Conference on Applications and
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Battery State-of-Charge Indicator for Electric
Wheelchairs , IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol.39,
no.5,pp.398-409,October,1992.
26. L.Bowen,R. Zarr,and S. Denton,A microcontroller
controlled Battery fuel Gauge and Charger , Proceedings
of the Ninth Annual Battery Conference on Applications and
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Advances,pp.179-184.1994.
27. Hartmut Sumann,Genetic Optimization of Fuzzy System for
Charging Batteries , IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics,
vol.43,no.5,pp.398-409,October,1996.
28.Y. C. Liang and T. K. NG,Design of Battery Charging
System With Fuzzy Logic Controller ,International
Journal of Electronics,vol.75,no.1,pp.75-86,1993.
29. Assilian, p.,Artificial Intelligence in the control of
real dynamical systems,Ph.D.dissertation,London
University,1974.
30.Jeong Jun Song and Sunwon Park,A Fuzzy Dynamic Learning
Controller for Chemical Process Control , Fuzzy Sets and
Systems,vol.54,pp.121-133,1993.
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Advanced fuzzy logic control of model car in extreme
Situations , Fuzzy Sets and Systems,vol.48,pp.41-52,
1992.
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34. , , ,
29 ,pp.97-102,1993.
35.Power Integrations ,2000.
36., ,
- 59 -

,2000(12).
37., ,,2000(2)

- 60 -

COMPUTER
LABVIEW

MATLAB

MATLAB
Plot

NO

DD
Digital

Data

test

Digital Output

Digital

Take in

Error

Save

DATA

- 61 -

DAQ Card-6024E /

68
34
67
33
66
32
65
31
64
30
63
29
62
28
61
27
60
26
59
25
58
24
57
23

ACH0
ACH8
AIGND
ACH1
ACH9
AIGND
ACH2
ACH10
AIGND
ACH3
ACH11
AIGND
AISENSE
ACH4
ACH12
AIGND
ACH5
ACH13
AIGND
ACH6
ACH14
AIGND
ACH7
ACH15

12
46
13
47
14
48
15
49
16
50
17
51
18
52
19
53
20
54
21
55
22
56

DGND
SCANCLK
DGND
DIO3
+5V
DIO7
DGND
DIO2
DIO6
DGND
DIO1
DIO5
DGND
DIO0
DIO4
DGND
RESERVED
AOGND
DAC1OUT
AOGND
DAC0OUT
AIGND

- 62 -

1
FREQ_OUT
35
DGND
2
GPCTR0_OU
T
36
DGND
3
PFI9/GPCTR
0
_GATE
37
PFI8/GPCTR
0
_SOURCE
4
DGND
38
PFI7/STARTS
CAN
5
PFI6/WFTRI
G
39
DGND
6
PFI5/UPDAT
E
40
GPCTR1_OU
T
7
DGND
41
PFI4/GPCTR
1
_GATE
8
+5V
42
PFI3/GPCCT
R1
_SOURCE
9
DGND
43
PFI2/CONVE
RT
10
PFI1/TRIG2
44
DGND
11
PFI0/TRIG1
45
EXTSTROBE

DAQ BOX SCB-68 Board


AIGND
ACH<0~15>

AISENSE
DAC0OUT
DAC1OUT
AOGND
DGND

DIO<0~7>
+5V
SCANCLK
EXTSTROBE
PFI0/TRIG1

PFI1/TRIG2


(AIGND
AOGNDDGND)
ACH0~ACH15 16
ACH<i,i+8> (i=0~7)

0 0

1 1

AIGNDDGND

+5V AIGNDAOGND

DIO6 DIO7
01
+5V

PFI0/Trigger1
(PFIs)PFI

PFI2/Trigger2
PFIs
- 63 -


TRIG2
PFI2/CONVERT PFIs

/
PFI3/GPCTR1 PFI3/Counter1 Source PFIs
_SOURCE

1
PFI4/GPCTR1 PFI4/Counter1 Gate PFIs
_GATE

GPCTR_GATE
1
GPCTR1_OUT Counter1 Output 1

PFI5/UPDATE PFIs

6024E
6025E


PFI6/WFTRIG PFI6/Waveform Trigger PFIs

PFI7/STARTSCAN PFI7/Start of Scan PFIs

PFI8/GPCTR PFI8/Counter0 Source PFIs


_SOURCE

0
PFI9/GPCTR PFI9/Counter0 Gate PFIs
_GATE

- 64 -

GPCTR0_OUT
FREQ_OUT

0
Counter0 Output 0

Frequency Output

Measurement & Automation Explorer


Measurement & Automation Explorer
MAX MAX National Instruments (NI)
NI DAQ, GPIB, IMAQ, IVI,
Motion, VISA, and VXI





NI

- 65 -

DAQ BOX

DAQ BOX DAQ

My System Devices and Interfaces


DAQ, GPIB,
IMAQ, IVI, Motion, VISA, and VXI Devices and
Interfaces PCI-6024E
Test Panel DAQ BOX

Analog InputAnalog Output


Counter I/ODigital I/O
Analog Input 0~15

- 66 -

Channel
DAQ
Average Reading

- 67 -