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47, 279–295, 2013
DESIGN BLUETOOTH AND NOTCHED-UWB E-SHAPE ANTENNA USING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES Ahmed M. Montaser1, * , Korany R. Mahmoud2 , Adel B. Abdel-Rahman3 , and Hamdy A. Elmikati4
University, Sohag, Egypt University, Helwan, Egypt University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt Valley University, Qena, Egypt
2 Helwan 3 South
Abstract—In this article, an optimized E-shaped patch antenna for Bluetooth (2.4–2.484 GHz) and UWB (3.1–10.6 GHz) applications with WLAN (5.15–5.825 GHz) band-notched characteristics is proposed. The dimensions of the E-shaped antenna structure in addition to the position of the slotted C-shape in the ground plane are optimized using recent optimization techniques such as Modiﬁed Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO), Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO), and Central Force Optimization (CFO). The optimization algorithms were implemented using MATLAB-software and linked to the CST Microwave Studio to simulate the antenna. Next, the eﬀects of the Laptop structure on the antenna radiation characteristics are considered. Finally, the antenna structures are simulated by the ﬁnite diﬀerence time domain method (FDTD) to validate the results. The measured results exhibit good agreement with the simulation from CST and the Finite Diﬀerence Time Domain (FDTD) program written with matlab. 1. INTRODUCTION The commercial usages of Ultra-Wideband (UWB) frequency band from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz was approved by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2002 . Recently, UWB technology has been widely used in various radars and has attracted much attention for communication systems . UWB antennas must cover FCC deﬁnition
Received 14 October 2012, Accepted 12 December 2012, Scheduled 4 January 2013 * Corresponding author: Ahmed M. Montaser (eng ahmed firstname.lastname@example.org).
Moreover. elliptical.825 GHz) cause interference with UWB systems.6–40 GHz). One simple way is to etch thin slots on the antenna surface. This maintains the computer physical outline without any aﬃx. such as U-shaped slot . the Bluetooth Special Interest Group selected the multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) version of the UWB to integrate with the current Bluetooth wireless technology. and hold a reasonable impedance match and omnidirectional radiation patterns over the entire band. and L-shaped slot . some existing narrow bands for other communication systems. it is desirable to design antennas with band-notched characteristic to minimize potential interference . Over past years. various types of planar UWB antennas have been developed with many various shaped planar elements. underneath the plastic. For embedded solutions the antennas are required to reside with the devices such as the laptop computer itself. In 2006. pentagonal and triangular geometries for UWB applications [3–7]. consumers usually prefer lighter and thinner products. such as WLAN (5.280 Montaser et al. Bluetooth has been widely used in portable devices such as mobile phones. PDAs and notebooks etc. However. T-shaped slot . One of the most widely studied antennas is the E-shaped antenna due to its broadband capability including 2–6 GHz wireless communication systems [8. However. To solve this problem. Furthermore. composite or metals covers. circular. for the indoor and handheld UWB applications. The embedded antennas usually do not perform as well as external ones due to greatly reduced space required for optimal designs. such as rectangular. In addition. With the development of UWB technology. the latest trend is to build these wireless systems into portable devices through various interfaces [20–22]. a planar integrated antenna working on both Bluetooth and UWB applications with WLAN band notched characteristics has been recently introduced for systems operating in those two communication systems [17–19]. being partially hidden within semi-conducting or conducting materials and .15–5. one has to suﬀer from the degraded performance of embedded antennas. and one of the solutions is to have a single antenna to work in both UWB and Bluetooth. 9]. The undesired frequencies can be rejected using diﬀerent techniques so that the system performance may be enhanced well. the E-shaped patch antenna is proposed in  for millimeter wave frequencies (31. have electrically small size. a new miniaturized E-shaped printed monopole antenna is designed for UWB applications . In  a wideband circularly polarized E-shaped patch antenna for wireless applications are proposed. and also reduces the possibility of accidental breakage. Recently. On the other hand.
In Section 2. To achieve acceptable performance of embedded antennas. the distance between the antenna and metal components should be as large as possible . To valid the results. In this study. The antenna parameters such as return loss.Progress In Electromagnetics Research B. Coli) bacteria present in the human intestine  . Vol. the performance of the designed ﬁlter is assessed using the Finite Diﬀerence Time Domain (FDTD) program written with MATLAB. The antenna is analyzed completely using CST Microwave Studio which linked with MATLAB to optimize the antenna via Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programs. Finally. 47. Many researchers have worked on improving PSO performance in various ways and developed many interesting variants. the optimization algorithms are brieﬂy presented. 2013 281 the proximity eﬀect of metallic cover and/or LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) panel. OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM Optimization is recognized as a challenging problem to solve. The paper is organized as follows. Section 4 present the degradation of the embedded E-shaped antenna in Laptop computer. In MPSO algorithm. an E-shaped patch antenna is optimized using recent optimization techniques such as Modiﬁed Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) and Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO) in addition to Central Force Optimization (CFO). An alternative method known as Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) that is based on the foraging behavior of Escherichia Coli (E. Among various Evolutionary Optimization (EO) techniques. The goal of any estimation or optimization technique is to formulate an eﬃcient method to navigate through a large parameter space in order to ﬁnd the best set values. the optimized E-shaped antenna will reside in a laptop computer to study the degradation performance of embedded antenna. Depending on the design of laptop computers and type of antennas. Section 3 describes the antenna design and numerical results. Then. Section 5 presents the conclusions 2. the commonly used method is to keep the antenna away from any metal component of a laptop computer. particle swarm optimization (PSO) has attracted a lot of attention since its introduction . every particle should know its personal best (pbest ) and the global best (gbest ) position vectors in addition to the neighbor best position vector . antenna gain and radiation patterns are discussed. Interchanging information between CST Microwave studio and Matlab allows the implementation of optimization algorithms not included in the Microwave studio environment itself . to update the velocity matrix at each iteration k .
a unit length direction of tumble behavior is randomly generated. coli bacteria governing their foraging process can be subdivided into four sections. (c) Back proﬁle. The applied BSO algorithm had been provided in details in . which are chemotaxis. (a) 3-D antenna structure. swarming. E-shaped antenna geometry structure. has already been in use to many engineering problems including antenna design and antenna arrays. (b) Front proﬁle. reproduction and elimination & dispersal. in the BSO.282 Montaser et al. the unit length random direction of tumble behavior is decided by the global best position and the best position of each bacterium. Some modiﬁcation of BFOA is done for faster convergence such as orienting the BFOA by PSO to combine both algorithms’ advantages which called Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO) algorithm . . (a) (b) (c) Figure 1. In BFOA. However. The control system of the E. random direction may lead to delay in reaching the global solution.
The ﬁrst step is to deﬁne the objective function focusing on the antenna return loss (S11 ) to be less than −10 dB at the required operating bands.8 mm. A partial ground plane with C-shape slot is considered for band notch characteristic from 5–6 GHz.6 GHz) The optimization algorithms programmed with MATLAB will generate antenna variables which will be sent to the CST simulator for calculating the ﬁtness value of each individual . Figure 1(c) shows the dimension parameters in ground plane such as L9 = 5 mm. As a result of this study. L7 the upper side of the partial ground plane.2 mm. depicts the front and back structure of the patch antenna. we focus on the following antenna parameters: L4 along the upper side in the E-shaped patch. where.1∼5 GHz) + max(S11 )(5∼6 GHz) + min(S11 )(6∼10.8 mm3 thick quartz-crystal substrate with permittivity constant εr = 3. A 50 Ω SMA is connected to the end of the feeding strip L1 and grounded to the edge of the ground plane.45 GHz) + min(S11 )(3. 47.8 mm. ﬁnally the position of the etched C-shape in the partial ground plane through L10 and L11 . According to these remarks the objective function is calculated by using the following simple equation: objective function = min(S11 )(2. The antenna dimensions are optimized to operate in the Bluetooth band in addition to UWB notched at the WLAN communication band (5–6 GHz) by appropriate adjustment of the antenna parameters. Table 1 shows the decision space for each variable and the best obtained value to achieve our goals from PSO integrated with CST . Concrete dimension parameters are shown in Figure 1(b). L6 the distance between the middle rib and lower rib. Vol. The dimensions of E-shaped patch is arranged on a 28 × 32 × 0. 3. ANTENNA DESIGN AND NUMERICAL RESULTS The schematic of the E-patch antenna structure is shown in Figure 1(a). and BSO algorithms will be considered to compare between their capabilities in antenna design. and line width wi = 2.Progress In Electromagnetics Research B. CFO algorithm was introduced as a new deterministic metaheuristic for multi-dimensional search and optimization based on the metaphor of gravitational kinematics . L3 = 10 mm. L1 = 14. 2013 283 Recently. L8 = 1 mm. The CFO algorithm considered in this paper is previously described in details . L2 = 3. CFO. In this paper the E-shape patch antenna dimensions are optimized ﬁrstly using the PSO algorithm integrated with the CST Microwave Studio package then other global optimization techniques such as MPSO. L5 along the middle side in the E-shaped patch.
it can be seen that CFO had signiﬁcantly better performance on the notched band. However.78 3. (a) Top view.8 6.46 5. it can be found that the BSO algorithm outperformed PSO and CFO algorithms and was comparable to the MPSO for this antenna design.75 2. The optimized E-shaped patch antenna is simulated. From the comparisons between CFO and the PSO.4 0 → 10 − L9 2 → L7 2 + L9 2 −0. (b) Bottom view.28 3.94 7.8 (a) (b) Figure 2.284 Montaser et al. Photograph of fabricated E-shaped antenna.37 9. Table 1. Figure 2 shows photographs of the fabricated structure.15 dB.611 5. the CFO algorithm yielded slightly worse results on the Bluetooth band compared to PSO.03 BSO 9.33 5.225 1. BSO.34 4. Decision space L4 (mm) L5 (mm) L6 (mm) L7 (mm) L10 (mm) L11 (mm) L7 2 Optimization Technique PSO Package MPSO CFO 8.18 8.7 dB compared to the notch obtained by BSO (4. Microwave Studio package and those obtained from MPSO. The simulated return loss results illustrate the ability of the proposed .88–6 GHz) with an S11 of −4.829 0 → 12.83 11.18 7. fabricated and measured.52 7.8 10.69 3 → 9.1 0 → 12. In summary.59 5.527 7. The return loss comparison between the measurements and those produced from diﬀerent optimization techniques are shown in Figure 3.19 −0. It is clearly seen that the BSO algorithm slightly outperformed the MPSO algorithm in the Bluetooth band.93 8.01–6 GHz) with a minimum S11 of −4.16 1.1 0 → 6. The decision space for each variable and the best obtained value for the proposed antenna using diﬀerent optimization techniques. approximately exact notch is obtained using MPSO (5. and CFO algorithms. However.
1 mm 0 -5 -10 S11 (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency (GHz) 9 10 L5 =1.1 mm L 7 = 6.5 mm 11 12 6 7 8 Frequency (GHz) 9 10 11 12 (c) (d) Figure 4. 47.95 mm L5 =4. Return loss curves for diﬀerent antenna parameters. 0 -5 -10 S 11 (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency (GHz) 9 10 L 4=2. .4 mm (b) 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 2 3 4 5 L 7 = 2.83 mm L 4=5. (d) The variation of L7 parameter on the return loss. MPSO. Return losses comparison for optimized E-shape antenna using PSO Package.58mm L5 =3.22 mm L 7 =9. (b) The variation of L5 parameter on the return loss.66 mm L 6 =6.1 mm L 7 = 4.93 mm L 6 = 4. (c) The variation of L6 parameter on the return loss.34 mm L 4=12. (a) The variation of L4 parameter on the return loss. antenna to cover the ISM2450 band and UWB respectively with a notched band from 5 to 6 GHz.67 mm L 4=8. and CFO algorithms and measurement results.42 mm L5 =10 mm 11 12 11 12 (a) 0 -5 -10 S 11 (dB) S 11 (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -352 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency (GHz) 9 10 L 6 =1 mm L 6 =2 mm L 6 =2. To investigate the parameters eﬀect on the antenna performance.Progress In Electromagnetics Research B.5 mm L 4=11. Vol. BSO.21 mm L 7 =8.75 mm L5 =8. 2013 285 Figure 3.
Figure 4(a) shows how the top rip strip length L4 strongly aﬀects the Bluetooth operating band. Also. Simulated current distributions of the optimized E-shaped patch antenna using BSO at diﬀerent frequencies. 4. (a) f = 2.45 GHz) than for high frequencies (4 and 9 GHz). Figure 4(d) shows that theupper side of partial ground plane L7 is a very critical parameter on the antenna performance where it is completely aﬀects the return loss curve. It can be noticed that the width L6 aﬀects the return loss at the Bluetooth and high frequency bands. One can observe that most current concentrated under the patch for low frequency (2. (c) f = 9 GHz. Figure 4(c) describes the return loss based on increasing and decreasing the width L6 . the eﬀect of varying the middle rip strip L5 on the antenna performance has been presented in Figure 4(b).45.286 Montaser et al. (b) f = 4 GHz. and 9 GHz. Figure 5 illustrates the simulated current distribution on the optimized antenna by BSO algorithm at 2. The electric currents are mainly concentrated around the feeding strip at . a parametric study was carried out. (a) (b) (c) Figure 5.45 GHz.
2013 287 xz-plane xy-plane (a) (b) (c) Eθ Eϕ Figure 6.45 GHz.Progress In Electromagnetics Research B. The simulated radiation patterns of the proposed Eshape antenna design in xz . . and xy -planes at diﬀerent frequencies. (c) f = 9 GHz. (a) f = 2. (b) f = 4 GHz. Vol. 47.
45. the UWB element appears more active and the Bluetooth element appears colder at 4 and 9 GHz. The overall dimensions of the laptop structure are: base unit (26 × 36 × 3 cm3 ) and screen (25 × 36 × 1. the antenna has approximately omnidirectional characteristics in the x-z plane. the top and middle rip strips are responsible to generate the Bluetooth band as indicated in Figures 5(a) and 5(b).288 Montaser et al. . Embedded E-shaped antenna Copper tap Figure 7. 4 GHz and 9 GHz are illustrated in Figures 6(a). EMBEDDED ANTENNA IN LAPTOP COMPUTER To perform the study of integration and packaging.5 cm3 ). It is found that. As shown in Figures 5(b) and 5(c). 0 -5 -10 S11 (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency (GHz) Antenna only (CST) Antenna only (FDTD) Embedded Antenna in Laptop(CST) Embedded Antenna in Laptop (FDTD) 9 10 11 12 Figure 8. Return losses comparison between the antenna only optimized by BSO algorithm and the embedded antenna in Laptop using FDTD method and the CST MWS. a generic model of a laptop computer is assumed. 4. 6(b) and 6(c) respectively. high frequencies. The gain patterns of the antenna in x-z plane and y -z plane at 2. It can be concluded that. Embedded E-shaped antenna in laptop structure.
.45 GHz. and xy -planes at diﬀerent frequencies. (a) f = 2. 2013 289 xz-plane xy-plane (a) (b) (c) Eθ Eϕ Figure 9. The simulated radiation patterns of the optimized Eshape antenna in xz . (c) f = 9 GHz. 47.Progress In Electromagnetics Research B. Vol. (b) f = 4 GHz.
33]. clad in copper tape across the base unit structure.6) body. the eﬀects of the laptop structure on the E-shaped antenna properties are studied numerically.1 ps [32. The angle between base unit and screen for laptop (α) of the computer to simulate actual operation is assumed to be 105◦ as shown in Figure 7.2 mm. A good agreement between the FDTD simulated results and those produced by CST Microwave Studio are achieved. a Finite Diﬀerence Time Domain (FDTD) program code written with MATLAB is used to simulate the optimized antenna by BSO algorithm either in free space or embedded in Laptop computer. The input matching and radiation pattern characteristics have been compared with the standalone antenna. . To validate the results. Return losses comparison for the embedded antenna in laptop with diﬀerent open angles. ∆y = 0.290 Montaser et al. The diﬀerences between the calculated results using the FDTD method and the CST MWS are due to the diﬀerent applied numerical techniques (FDTD and FEM). ∆z = 0. The computational domain was terminated with perfectly matched layer (PML) of 8 cells in all directions and a time step of 422. 0 -5 S11 (dB) -10 -15 α=105 o α = 90 o α= 120 o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency (GHz) 9 10 11 12 -20 -25 Figure 10.283 mm. The parameters for FDTD computation were set as follows: the domain was 180 × 200 × 43 cells with a cell size of ∆x = 0. The fabricated model consists of a Lucite (εr = 3. respectively. The optimized antenna using BSO algorithm is embedded in the center of the screen. In this section. Figure 8 shows a comparison between the return losses obtained from the antenna in free space and those embedded in the Laptop structure with CST MWS package. In addition. which is meant to mimic the compute’s internal shielding. Figures 8 shows a comparison between the simulated results with FDTD method and EM Simulator of CST Microwave Studio software for return loss in the range 2–12 GHz. It has been shown that the laptop structure slightly aﬀect the antenna input reﬂection coeﬃcient without disturbing the antenna resonant frequency and the impedance bandwidth.2 mm.
(c) f = 9 GHz. and xy -planes at diﬀerent frequencies. (b) f = 4 GHz. . (a) f = 2.45 GHz.Progress In Electromagnetics Research B. Vol. The simulated radiation patterns of the embedded Eshaped antenna in xz . 2013 291 xz-plane xy-plane (a) (b) (c) | E | at α=90 o | E | at α=105o | E | at α=120 o Figure 11. 47.
the (total power) radiation pattern is almost omnidirectional in both front and back hemispheres. and BSO for Bluetooth/notched UWB applications. the presence of the laptop structure aﬀects the antenna radiation pattern due to the interference of the reﬂected wave from the keyboard with the direct wave radiated from the antenna element. and then the prototype simulations have been carried out using the CST Microwave Studio simulator Order to obtain the best results. however the optimized antenna embedded in the screen of the laptop computer aﬀects the antenna radiation patterns. In the horizontal plane. encouragement. the eﬀects of changing the angle between base unit and screen for laptop (α) on the antenna characteristics are studied. . Figures 9(a).292 Montaser et al. The algorithms have been implemented with MATLAB. Finally. a slight change is observed due to changing the open angle without any eﬀect on the antenna omnidirectionality. Figure 10 shows the eﬀect of changing the angle between base unit and screen for laptop (α) on the return loss. It is found that. the antenna showed satisfactory characteristics with diﬀerent angles between base unit and screen for laptop (α). in spite of the presence of the keyboard structure. As shown in ﬁgure. 9(b) and 9(c) show the gain patterns of the antenna embedded in laptop in x-z plane and y -z plane at 2. CONCLUSIONS In this article. Microstrip Department for the support. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to acknowledge the Electronics Research Institute (ERI). 5. Finally. The eﬀect of changing the open angle on the radiation patterns are depicted in Figure 11. It is found that the BSO algorithm slightly outperforms MPSO and CFO. the return loss in the Bluetooth band is slightly improved as the angle between base unit and screen for laptop (α) increase. As expected. CFO. help and cooperation during simulation process of this research. In addition it aﬀects the UWB range by decreasing and increasing the high cutoﬀ frequency. In addition.45. the optimized antenna is embedded in laptop computer which slightly aﬀects the antenna return loss without disturbing the resonant frequency and the impedance bandwidth. 4 GHz and 9 GHz respectively. an E-shaped patch antenna is designed using recent optimization techniques such as MPSO.
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