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# The Interventional Centre

Deriving J

Now J

## can simply be written as follows:

There are n columns, each is 3x1, thus J

is 3xn
| |
0
1
0
1 2
0
0 1
=
n n
z z z J

## The Interventional Centre

Deriving J
v
Linear velocity of the end effector:
Therefore we can simply write the i
th
column of J
v
as:
However, the linear velocity of the end effector can be due to the motion of
revolute and/or prismatic joints
Thus the end-effector velocity is a linear combination of the velocity due to
the motion of each joint
w/o L.O.G. we can assume all joint velocities are zero other than the i
th
joint
This allows us to examine the end-effector velocity due to the motion of either a
revolute or prismatic joint

=
n
i
i
i
n
n
q
q
o
o
1
0
0

i
n
v
q
o
J
i

=
0
The Interventional Centre
Deriving J
v
End-effector velocity due to prismatic joints
Assume all joints are fixed other than the prismatic joint d
i
The motion of the end-effector is pure translation along z
i-1
Therefore, we can write the i
th
column of the Jacobian:
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0

=
(
(
(

=
i i i i n
z d R d o

0
1
=
i v
z J
i
The Interventional Centre
Deriving J
v
End-effector velocity due to revolute joints
Assume all joints are fixed other than the revolute joint
i
The motion of the end-effector is given by:
Where the term r is the distance from the
tool frame o
n
to the frame o
i-1
Thus we can write the i
th
column of J
v
:
r z r o
i i i i n
= =

0
1
0
, 1
0

( )
1
0
1
0

=
i n i i n
o o z o

( )
1
0
1
=
i n i v
o o z J
i
The Interventional Centre
The complete Jacobian
The i
th
column of J
v
is given by:
The i
th
column of J

is given by:
( )

prismatic for
revolute for
1
1 1
i z
i o o z
J
i
i n i
v
i

=

prismatic for 0
revolute for
1
i
i z
J
i
i

## The Interventional Centre

Calculate J for the following manipulator:
Two joint angles, thus J is 6x2
Where:
( )
( ) ( )
(

=
0
1
0
0
1 2
0
1 0 2
0
0
z z
o o z o o z
q J
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
0
,
0
,
0
0
0
12 2 1 1
12 2 1 1
2 1 1
1 1
1 0
s a s a
c a c a
o s a
c a
o o
(
(
(

= =
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
z z
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+

=
1 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
12 2 12 2 1 1
12 2 12 2 1 1
c a c a c a
s a s a s a
q J
The Interventional Centre
Example: velocity of an arbitrary
point
We can also use the Jacobian to calculate the velocity of any arbitrary point
on the manipulator
This is identical to placing the tool
frame at any point of the manipulator
( )
( ) ( )
(

=
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1 0
0
0
z z
o o z o o z
q J
c c
The Interventional Centre
Example: Stanford manipulator
The configuration of the Stanford manipulator allows us to make the
following simplifications:
Where o is the common origin of the o
3
, o
4
, and o
5
frames
( )
( )
6 , 5 , 4 ,
0
2 , 1 ,
1
6 1
2
3
1
1 6 1
=
(

=
(

=
=
(

i
z
o o z
J
z
J
i
z
o o z
J
i
i
i
i
i i
i
The Interventional Centre
Example: Stanford manipulator
From the forward kinematics of the Stanford manipulator, we
calculated the homogeneous transformations for each joint:
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0
0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0
0 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0
0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0
0 0
6
6 6
6 6
6
5 5
5 5
5
4 4
4 4
4
3
3
2
2 2
2 2
2
1 1
1 1
1
d
c s
s c
A
c s
s c
A
c s
s c
A
d
A
d
c s
s c
A
c s
s c
A
, ,
, ,
The Interventional Centre
Example: Stanford manipulator
To complete the derivation of the Jacobian, we need the following quantities: z
0
, z
1
,
, z
5
, o
0
, o
1
, o
3
, o
6
o
3
is o and o
0
= [0 0 0]
T
We determine these quantities by noting the construction of the T matrices
o
j
is the first three elements of the last column of T
j
0
z
j
is R
j
0
k, or equivalently, the first three elements of the third column of T
j
0
Thus we can calculate the Jacobian by first determining the T
j
0
Thus the z
i
terms are given as follows:
(
(
(

+
+ +
+
=
(
(
(

+

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
5 2 5 4 2
5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1
5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1
5
4 2
4 1 4 2 1
4 1 4 2 1
4
2
2 1
2 1
3
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
1
1 0
, , , ,
0
,
1
0
0
c c s c s
c s s s s c s c c s
c s c s s s s c c c
z
s s
c c s c s
c s s c c
z
c
s s
s c
z
c
s s
s c
z c
s
z z
The Interventional Centre
Example: Stanford manipulator
And the o
i
terms are given as:
Finally, the Jacobian can be assembled as follows:
( )
( )
( ) (
(
(

+
+ + +
+ +
=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
5 2 4 5 2 6 3 2
2 1 5 5 1 4 2 5 4 1 6 2 1 3 2 1
5 4 1 2 5 1 5 4 2 1 6 2 1 3 2 1
6
3 2
2 1 3 2 1
2 1 3 2 1
3
2
1 0
, , 0
0
,
0
0
0
s s c c c d d c
s s c s s c c s s c d d c d s s
s s s s c c s c c c d d s d s c
o
d c
d c d s s
d s d s c
o
d
o o
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
0
0
,
0
0
0
,
0
,
1
0
0
0
4 2
4 1 4 2 1
, 3 2 , 3 1 1
, 3 2 , 3 2 1
4
2
2 1
2 1
3
1
1
1 1
1
1
2 1
s s
c s s c c
o d c o d s c
o d c o d s s
J
c
s s
s c
J
c
s
d c d s
d s
d c
J
d
d
J
x x z z
y y z z
x y
z
z
x
y
The Interventional Centre
Example: Stanford manipulator
Finally, the Jacobian can be assembled as follows:
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+ +
+
+ +
+ + +
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+ +
+
=
0
0
5 2 5 4 2
2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1
5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1
, 3 5 2 5 4 2 , 3 5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1
, 3 5 2 5 4 2 , 3 5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1
6
4 2
4 1 4 2 1
, 3 4 1 4 2 1 , 3 4 1 4 2 1
, 3 4 2 , 3 4 1 4 2 1
, 3 4 2 , 3 4 1 4 2 1
5
c c s c s
c s s s s c s c c s
c s c s s s s c c c
o d c c s c s o d c s c s s s s c c c
o d c c s c s o d c s s s s c s c c s
J
s s
c s c c c
o d c c s c s o d c s s c c
o d s s o d c s s c c
o d s s o d c c s c s
J
x x z z
y y y y
x x y y
x x z z
y y z z
The Interventional Centre
Example: SCARA manipulator
Jacobian will be a 6x4 matrix
Thus we will need to determine the following quantities: z
0
, z
1
, , z
3
, o
0
, o
1
,
o
2
, o
4
Since all the joint axes are parallel, we can see the following:
From the homogeneous transformation matrices we can determine the origins of
the coordinate frames
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(

=
(

=
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
2 1 4
0
1 0 4
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
0
3 4
0
3
0
2 1 4
0
1 0 4
0
0
0
0
0
z z z
z o o z o o z
z z z
o o z z o o z o o z
J
k z z k z z

,

0
3
0
2
0
1
0
0
= = = =
The Interventional Centre
Example: SCARA manipulator
Thus o
0
, o
1
, o
2
, o
4
are given by:
Finally, we can assemble the Jacobian:
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
4 3
12 2 1 1
12 2 1 1
4 1 1
1 1
1 0
,
0
,
0
0
0
d d
s a s a
c a c a
o s a
c a
o o
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+

=
1 0 1 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
0 0
12 2 12 2 1 1
12 2 12 2 1 1
c a c a c a
s a s a s a
J
The Interventional Centre
Next class
Formal definition of singularities
Tool velocity
manipulability