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lec06-VelocityKinematicsII

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Deriving J

Now J

There are n columns, each is 3x1, thus J

is 3xn

| |

0

1

0

1 2

0

0 1

=

n n

z z z J

Deriving J

v

Linear velocity of the end effector:

Therefore we can simply write the i

th

column of J

v

as:

However, the linear velocity of the end effector can be due to the motion of

revolute and/or prismatic joints

Thus the end-effector velocity is a linear combination of the velocity due to

the motion of each joint

w/o L.O.G. we can assume all joint velocities are zero other than the i

th

joint

This allows us to examine the end-effector velocity due to the motion of either a

revolute or prismatic joint

=

n

i

i

i

n

n

q

q

o

o

1

0

0

i

n

v

q

o

J

i

=

0

The Interventional Centre

Deriving J

v

End-effector velocity due to prismatic joints

Assume all joints are fixed other than the prismatic joint d

i

The motion of the end-effector is pure translation along z

i-1

Therefore, we can write the i

th

column of the Jacobian:

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

=

(

(

(

=

i i i i n

z d R d o

0

1

=

i v

z J

i

The Interventional Centre

Deriving J

v

End-effector velocity due to revolute joints

Assume all joints are fixed other than the revolute joint

i

The motion of the end-effector is given by:

Where the term r is the distance from the

tool frame o

n

to the frame o

i-1

Thus we can write the i

th

column of J

v

:

r z r o

i i i i n

= =

0

1

0

, 1

0

( )

1

0

1

0

=

i n i i n

o o z o

( )

1

0

1

=

i n i v

o o z J

i

The Interventional Centre

The complete Jacobian

The i

th

column of J

v

is given by:

The i

th

column of J

is given by:

( )

prismatic for

revolute for

1

1 1

i z

i o o z

J

i

i n i

v

i

=

prismatic for 0

revolute for

1

i

i z

J

i

i

Example: two-link planar manipulator

Calculate J for the following manipulator:

Two joint angles, thus J is 6x2

Where:

( )

( ) ( )

(

=

0

1

0

0

1 2

0

1 0 2

0

0

z z

o o z o o z

q J

(

(

(

+

+

=

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

0

,

0

,

0

0

0

12 2 1 1

12 2 1 1

2 1 1

1 1

1 0

s a s a

c a c a

o s a

c a

o o

(

(

(

= =

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

z z

( )

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

=

1 1

0 0

0 0

0 0

12 2 12 2 1 1

12 2 12 2 1 1

c a c a c a

s a s a s a

q J

The Interventional Centre

Example: velocity of an arbitrary

point

We can also use the Jacobian to calculate the velocity of any arbitrary point

on the manipulator

This is identical to placing the tool

frame at any point of the manipulator

( )

( ) ( )

(

=

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1 0

0

0

z z

o o z o o z

q J

c c

The Interventional Centre

Example: Stanford manipulator

The configuration of the Stanford manipulator allows us to make the

following simplifications:

Where o is the common origin of the o

3

, o

4

, and o

5

frames

( )

( )

6 , 5 , 4 ,

0

2 , 1 ,

1

6 1

2

3

1

1 6 1

=

(

=

(

=

=

(

i

z

o o z

J

z

J

i

z

o o z

J

i

i

i

i

i i

i

The Interventional Centre

Example: Stanford manipulator

From the forward kinematics of the Stanford manipulator, we

calculated the homogeneous transformations for each joint:

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

=

1 0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0

0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0

0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0

0 0

1 0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0

0 1 0

0 0

0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0

0 0

6

6 6

6 6

6

5 5

5 5

5

4 4

4 4

4

3

3

2

2 2

2 2

2

1 1

1 1

1

d

c s

s c

A

c s

s c

A

c s

s c

A

d

A

d

c s

s c

A

c s

s c

A

, ,

, ,

The Interventional Centre

Example: Stanford manipulator

To complete the derivation of the Jacobian, we need the following quantities: z

0

, z

1

,

, z

5

, o

0

, o

1

, o

3

, o

6

o

3

is o and o

0

= [0 0 0]

T

We determine these quantities by noting the construction of the T matrices

o

j

is the first three elements of the last column of T

j

0

z

j

is R

j

0

k, or equivalently, the first three elements of the third column of T

j

0

Thus we can calculate the Jacobian by first determining the T

j

0

Thus the z

i

terms are given as follows:

(

(

(

+

+ +

+

=

(

(

(

+

=

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

5 2 5 4 2

5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1

5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1

5

4 2

4 1 4 2 1

4 1 4 2 1

4

2

2 1

2 1

3

2

2 1

2 1

2 1

1

1 0

, , , ,

0

,

1

0

0

c c s c s

c s s s s c s c c s

c s c s s s s c c c

z

s s

c c s c s

c s s c c

z

c

s s

s c

z

c

s s

s c

z c

s

z z

The Interventional Centre

Example: Stanford manipulator

And the o

i

terms are given as:

Finally, the Jacobian can be assembled as follows:

( )

( )

( ) (

(

(

+

+ + +

+ +

=

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

5 2 4 5 2 6 3 2

2 1 5 5 1 4 2 5 4 1 6 2 1 3 2 1

5 4 1 2 5 1 5 4 2 1 6 2 1 3 2 1

6

3 2

2 1 3 2 1

2 1 3 2 1

3

2

1 0

, , 0

0

,

0

0

0

s s c c c d d c

s s c s s c c s s c d d c d s s

s s s s c c s c c c d d s d s c

o

d c

d c d s s

d s d s c

o

d

o o

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

+

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

0

0

,

0

0

0

,

0

,

1

0

0

0

4 2

4 1 4 2 1

, 3 2 , 3 1 1

, 3 2 , 3 2 1

4

2

2 1

2 1

3

1

1

1 1

1

1

2 1

s s

c s s c c

o d c o d s c

o d c o d s s

J

c

s s

s c

J

c

s

d c d s

d s

d c

J

d

d

J

x x z z

y y z z

x y

z

z

x

y

The Interventional Centre

Example: Stanford manipulator

Finally, the Jacobian can be assembled as follows:

( )( ) ( )

( )( ) ( )

( )( ) ( )( )

( )( ) ( )( )

( )( ) ( )( )

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

+ +

+

+ +

+ + +

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

+ +

+

=

0

0

5 2 5 4 2

2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1

5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1

, 3 5 2 5 4 2 , 3 5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1

, 3 5 2 5 4 2 , 3 5 2 1 5 4 1 5 4 2 1

6

4 2

4 1 4 2 1

, 3 4 1 4 2 1 , 3 4 1 4 2 1

, 3 4 2 , 3 4 1 4 2 1

, 3 4 2 , 3 4 1 4 2 1

5

c c s c s

c s s s s c s c c s

c s c s s s s c c c

o d c c s c s o d c s c s s s s c c c

o d c c s c s o d c s s s s c s c c s

J

s s

c s c c c

o d c c s c s o d c s s c c

o d s s o d c s s c c

o d s s o d c c s c s

J

x x z z

y y y y

x x y y

x x z z

y y z z

The Interventional Centre

Example: SCARA manipulator

Jacobian will be a 6x4 matrix

Thus we will need to determine the following quantities: z

0

, z

1

, , z

3

, o

0

, o

1

,

o

2

, o

4

Since all the joint axes are parallel, we can see the following:

From the homogeneous transformation matrices we can determine the origins of

the coordinate frames

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

(

=

(

=

0

3

0

1

0

0

0

2 1 4

0

1 0 4

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

0

3 4

0

3

0

2 1 4

0

1 0 4

0

0

0

0

0

z z z

z o o z o o z

z z z

o o z z o o z o o z

J

k z z k z z

,

0

3

0

2

0

1

0

0

= = = =

The Interventional Centre

Example: SCARA manipulator

Thus o

0

, o

1

, o

2

, o

4

are given by:

Finally, we can assemble the Jacobian:

(

(

(

+

+

=

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

4 3

12 2 1 1

12 2 1 1

4 1 1

1 1

1 0

,

0

,

0

0

0

d d

s a s a

c a c a

o s a

c a

o o

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

=

1 0 1 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0

0 0

12 2 12 2 1 1

12 2 12 2 1 1

c a c a c a

s a s a s a

J

The Interventional Centre

Next class

Formal definition of singularities

Tool velocity

manipulability

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