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Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing • Resistance of a ship: RT = f (V , L, ρ ,ν , g ) – Total resistance • V Speed of the ship • L Length of the ship • ρ Density of the fluid • ν Kinematic viscosity of the fluid • g Acceleration of gravity

1

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing • Dimensional analysis – Total resistance coefficient CT = CT ( Rn , Fn )

T • Total resistance coefficient CT = 2 1 / 2 ρ V S (S = Wetted surface)

R

**• Reynolds number Rn = • Froude number
**

Fn =

VL

ν

V gL

2

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Flow similarity

**• Equal non-dimensional numbers. - Reynolds number: - Froude number:
**

Rns = Rnm ⇒ Vm =

Fns = Fnm ⇒ Vm =

Ls Vs Lm

Lm Vs Ls

(same fluid)

• Conclusion: it is impossible to satisfy simultaneously the equality of Reynolds and Froude numbers. • The model dimensions do not allow the equality of the Reynolds number for model testing.

3

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

• Resistance force is measured at model scale (model) and extrapolated for full scale (ship). • Measurements are performed with the equality of the Froude number at model and full scale (Froude scaling):

Vm = α −1 / 2V s

• α = Ls / Lm is the scale factor. • Model’s length Lm is determined by the geometrical properties of the towing tank.

4

– The precision of the measurements increases with the growth of the model. 5 . Resistance of a Ship 3.3.1 Model testing Resistance tests • The length of the model should try to minimize the difference in Reynolds number (maximum length) within the limits imposed by the towing tank dimensions. – Model dimensions are limited by the depth (h) and width (b) of the towing tank section to avoid a significant influence of the bottom and side walls.

6 . • At full scale. the flow is nearly “fully-turbulent” (region of laminar flow at the bow is negligible). model testing should avoid laminar flow. Resistance of a Ship 3.3. Therefore.1 Model testing Resistance tests • Typical model dimensions: h: depth Lm < b / 2 b: width Area of the model’s midsection < 1/200 bh Lm < h – With the reduction of the ship’s length it becomes difficult to avoid a significant region of laminar flow.

– Turbulence of the outer flow may be increased with the use of grids or bars in the incoming flow. These devices introduce an added resistance that has to be estimated to correct the measured resistance. Resistance of a Ship 3. 7 . transition to turbulence must be stimulated: – Trip wires.1 Model testing Resistance tests • For the typical Reynolds number of model testing (106 to 107).3. studs or roughness strips applied at the bow.

Resistance of a Ship 3. surge. pitch and roll.3. • The test is performed at different speeds. • The resistance force is measured. 8 .1 Model testing Resistance tests • The model is towed at a constant speed and it is generally free to heave.

Resistance of a Ship 3.3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 9 .

Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 10 .3.

3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 11 . Resistance of a Ship 3.

3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 12 . Resistance of a Ship 3.

1 Model testing Resistance tests 13 .3. Resistance of a Ship 3.

youtube.com/watch?v=MLc-NRKYqis&feature=related http://www.3.com/watch?v=RQfzXdTuceY&feature=related 14 .com/watch?v=Uc35JROubRM&feature=related http://www.com/watch?v=Odkc4ic6jds http://www.youtube.youtube.youtube.1 Model testing Resistance tests Examples: http://www. Resistance of a Ship 3.

Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 15 .3.

1 Model testing Resistance tests 16 .3. Resistance of a Ship 3.

1 Model testing Resistance tests 17 . Resistance of a Ship 3.3.

Resistance of a Ship 3.3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 18 .

Resistance of a Ship 3.3. (Shear-stress at the wall) – Pressure (residual) resistance.1 Model testing Resistance components • Resistance has two contributions: – Friction resistance. Fn ) 19 . Fn ) = C F ( Rn ) + C R ( Rn . (Pressure distribution on the ship surface) • Non-dimensional coefficients: CT ( Rn .

Resistance of a Ship 3. it depends only on the Froude number. – The residual resistance is independent of the Reynolds number.e. Froude’s hypothesis • Froude’s Hypothesis: – The friction resistance may be calculated from the flow over a flat plate with the same length of the ship (equality of Reynolds number) and the same wetted surface. CT ( Rn .1 Model testing Resistance components.3. All the rest is residual resistance. Fn ) = C F ( Rn ) + C R ( Fn ) 20 . i.

Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance components.3. Froude’s hypothesis • Model scale: – Total resistance coefficient: RTm CT m = 1 / 2 ρ mVm 2 S m – Friction resistance coefficient: C Fm = C F ( Rnm ) – Residual resistance coefficient: C Rm = CT m − C Fm 21 .

Froude’s hypothesis • Ship (full scale): – Residual resistance coefficient: C R s = C R m = CT m − C Fm – Friction resistance coefficient: C Fs = C F ( Rns ) – Total resistance coefficient: CTs = C R s + C Fs + ca • Correlation allowance. Resistance of a Ship 3.3. ca 22 .1 Model testing Resistance components.

075 (log10 Rn − 2) 2 23 .1 Model testing Extrapolation of the friction resistance • Schoenherr: 0.3. Resistance of a Ship 3.242 = log( Rn × C F ) CF • ITTC 1957: CF = 0.

1 Model testing Geosims Lucy Ashton 24 . Resistance of a Ship 3.3.

3.1 Model testing Geosims Simon Bolivar 25 . Resistance of a Ship 3.

Resistance of a Ship Resistance components Froude’s method CT 26 log Rn .3.

Resistance of a Ship Resistance components Viscous pressure resistance “Form drag” CT CR F>0 F=0 CF Resistência de forma log R CT = (1 + k )C F + C w Form (“viscous pressure”) resistance coefficient: kCF 1+k: Form factor 27 .3.

Resistance of a Ship Resistance components Hughes’s method CT log Rn 28 .3.

3.1 Model testing Deteremination of form factor Prohaska’s method • Wave resistance coefficient CT is proportional to Fn 4 CF • Total resistance coefficient: CT = (1 + k )C F + cFn 4 • Therefore. Resistance of a Ship 3. 4 CT Fn = (1 + k ) + c CF CF Fn 4 CF 29 .

Resistance of a Ship 3. ITTC line: C Fm = C F ( Rnm ) – Form factor 1+k.viscous resistance coefficient: CV = (1 + k )C Fm – Wave resistance coefficient: Cwm = CT m − (1 + k )C Fm 30 . ITTC method • Model scale: – Total resistance coefficient: RTm CTm = 1 / 2 ρ mVm 2 S m – Friction resistance coefficient.3.1 Model testing Extrapolation of the Resistance.

– Friction resistance coefficient. Resistance of a Ship 3. ITTC method • Ship (full scale): – Wave resistance coefficient: Cws = Cwm – Form factor 1+k independent of Reynolds number.3.1 Model testing Extrapolation of the Resistance. ITTC line: C Fs = C F ( Rns ) – Total resistance coefficient: CTs = (1 + k )C Fs + Cws + ca • Correlation allowance ca 31 .

3.1 Model testing Roughness effects • Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: – For typical roughness heights k s smaller than the thickness of the viscous sub-layer (region with negligible Reynolds stresses). ν τw uτ = ρ k ≡ + k s uτ <5 32 . Resistance of a Ship 3. hydrodynamically smooth wall. the wall shear-stress is not affected by the roughness of the wall.

the wall shear-stress becomes independent of the Reynolds number and essentially determined by the roughness height. Resistance of a Ship 3. k ≡ + k s uτ ν > 70 − 80 33 .1 Model testing Roughness effects • Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: – For typical roughness heights k s much larger than the thickness of the viscous sub-layer (region with negligible Reynolds stresses).3. fully-rough regime.

k sg . 34 . which is equivalent to 150µm for the average roughness height.3.1 Model testing Roughness effects • Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: – Equivalent sand-grain roughness height. Resistance of a Ship 3. This is a single parameter definition of roughness that is not easy to obtain for real ship surfaces. (the typical roughness height measured in shipyards). A recently painted ship has a typical value of ksg=30µm. kM. of a given surface is the height of an evenly distributed sand-grain roughned flat plate that produces the same resistance of the selected surface.

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Roughness effects • Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: – The non-dimensional parameter used to quantify roughness effects is the Reynolds number based on the roughness height Rk = Vk sg ν 35 .

Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Roughness effects 36 .3.

1 Model testing Roughness effects • Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: – Near-wall non-dimensional roughness parameter depends on the Reynolds number of the flow −0. – Full scale ships have rough surfaces.1 C u k k x k s 0.9 f + τ s s k = = RL ≈ 0. 37 . Resistance of a Ship 3.17 RL 2 L L ν L – Model testing is perfomed with “hydrodynamically smooth” surfaces.3.

Resistance of a Ship 3.00064 38 13 .ca .16 − 0.3. • Holtrop’s formula for the correlation allowance: ca = 0.006( Lwl + 100) −0. Each model basin uses its “know-how” to determine ca.105 L PP − 0. • The correlation allowance is not only a “roughness correction”.1 Model testing Roughness effects • Roughness effects are covered by the correlation allowance.00205 • Bowden and Davison formula: kM ca = 0.

In general. the local flow has a smaller Reynolds number than the ship flow. Resistance of a Ship 3.3. • The appendages contribute to the wetted surface of the ship. 39 . • The Reynolds number based on the ship length (and undisturbed velocity) is not representative of the local flow on the appendages. bilge keels.1 Model testing Appendage resistance • Resistance tests are frequently performed with the rudder and the remaining appendages (shaft brackets. etc). due to the smallest dimensions of the appendages. fins.

• Due to the small size of the appendages at model scale. it may be impossible to avoid laminar flow on the appendages for the lowest velocity tests. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Appendage resistance • The extrapolation of the resistance based on a friction resistance dependent on the Reynolds number and an equal form factor at model and full scale. may not be applicable to each appendage separately.3. 40 . At full scale. required to determine the form factor. the flow will be “fully-turbulent” on the appendages.

Resistance of a Ship 3. 41 .3. Assuming that the wave resistance is equal in both models and that the friction resistance component may be corrected according to the wetted surface of the two models.1 Model testing Appendage resistance • An alternative way to determine the viscous pressure resistance of the appendages (“form drag”) is to perform two model scale tests at high speed for a bare hull and a fully-appended model. the difference between the resistance of the two tests gives a measure of the viscous pressure resistance of the appendages.

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