Pre-Excavation Grouting in Rock Tunneling

Knut F. Garshol
M.Sc. Engineering Geology

Pre-Excavation Grouting in Tunneling
Knut F. Garshol M.Sc Engineering Geology

Acknowledgement
The author wishes to thank colleagues within MBT Underground Construction (a Division of Degussa Construction Chemicals) for their assistance and support in the preparation of this publication. Special thanks are due to Hans Olav Hognestad for his valuable input and corrections based on his extensive hands-on experience; to Sam Spearing (now with a new employer) for his polite and necessary language corrections and general content suggestions; to Tom Melbye for approving the project, proof reading and other suggestions and his continuous push to move forward to printing. A number of external friends and contacts have also contributed in many ways to the final product.

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Copyright MBT International Underground Construction Group, Division of MBT (Switzerland) Ltd., 2003

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2. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Reasons for grouting in tunneling 1.5 Measurement of water ingress tot he tunnel CEMENT-BASED GROUTS 4.4 Traditional cement based grouting technology 1.Index 1. 3 .6 Some comments on Post-grouting 1.1.1.1.4 Pressure stability of cement grouts 4.2 Stable grout of micro-cement using dual stop criteria 2.2.2 Durability of cement injection in rock 4.5 Practical basis for injection works in tunnelling 2.3 Special cases 3.2 Handling of rock conductivity contrast 2.2.2.3 Comparison of the two procedures 2.1 Calculation of water ingress to tunnels and tightness of grouted zone 3.5 Rationale for the increase in the use of pressure grouting 1.4 Requirements and ground water control during construction phase 3.6 Grout setting characteristics 4.1 Basic properties of cement grouts 4.1. 3.2 Short explanation of the subject 1.1.3 Scope of the book 1.3 “Design” of grouting in rock tunnels 2.2 Conditions inside the tunnel 3.3 Accelerators for cement injection 9 9 9 10 11 12 14 15 17 17 21 21 22 22 23 25 27 29 31 31 33 34 36 37 38 39 39 39 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 2.5 Use of high injection pressure 4.1 Particular features of rock (compared to soil) 2.6 Grout quantity prognosis FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 3.2 Bentonite 4.1 Cement particle size.1. fineness 4. 4.3 Rheological behavior of cement grouts 4.7 New time-saving methods and materials technology GROUTING INTO ROCK 2.1 Influence of tunnelling on the surroundings 3.4 Fluid transport in rock 2.1 Description of typical grout to refusal procedure 2.

5.1.4 Choice of injection materials 6.1 MBT acrylic products 5.2 Down the hole drilling machines 6.8.5.5 Mix design for Rheocem grouting 6.2 Silicate grouts 5.3 Water pressure testing 6.1.5.8 Special measures 6.2 Packer placement 6.PU products 5.5.3 MBT colloidal silica 5.2 The Hong-Kong sewage tunnel system 6.5.11 Cement hydration 6.2 Disposable packers 6.5.5.1 The Oslo sewage tunnel system 6.8.10 Injection records 6. CHEMICAL GROUTS 5.4.6 Accelerated cement grout 6.5.1 Top hammer percussive drilling 6.3 Pumping equipment 5.4 Standpipes techniques 6.8.4 Rotary high speed core drilling 6.8.6.5.1 Mechanical packers (expanders) 6.4 Acrylic grouts 5.6 Combined systems of silicate and acrylic materials 5.5 Tube-a-manchet 4 50 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 55 56 56 56 59 59 61 62 62 62 63 64 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 67 68 69 69 71 71 72 74 74 76 77 78 79 6.9 Injection procedure 6.1 Drilling of injection holes 6. .8 Packers 6.5.1.5.3 Hydraulic packers 6.3 Rotary low speed drilling 6.6.5 Example solution for drill and blast excavation (tunnels and shaft) 6.5 Epoxy resins 5.2 MBT .1 Polyurethane grouts 5.1 General 5.8.6.6 Solutions for TBM excavation 6.5.7 Cleaning of holes 6.7 Injection pressure 6.7 Bitumen (asphalt) BORE HOLES IN ROCK 6.5.12 Other relevant issues 6.3 Comments on drilling and injection equipment 6.

9.9 Examples 7.3 Use of an accelerator in the grout 9.2.9.4 Special issues 7.9.1. HIGH PRESSURE GROUND WATER CONDITIONS 7.3 Injection 7. hole direction 9.9.5 Placing of packers 9.2.1 Kjela Hydropower Scheme (south-central Norway) 7.2 Probe drilling 7.2. .6 Injection records 5 8.8 Equipment 7. 9.6.1.2 Flushing of boreholes for injection 9.5 Methods 7.2.6.2.1 General 9.3 Consequences for the contractor 7.3 Complete systems 8.1 Normal approach 6.1.2.3 Length of boreholes 9.4 Consequences for the owner 7.4 Number of holes.2 Injection 9.9.2 Ulla Forre Hydropower Scheme (south-west Norway) 7.2 Features that add to the problem 7.5 Injection procedure 9.1.1 Mixing equipment 8.4 Recording of grouting data OUTLINE METHOD STATEMENT FOR PRE-GROUTING IN ROCK 9.6.7 Practical aspects 7.2 Grout pumps 8.1 General 9.1 Pumping system 7.1 Basic problem 7.3 Holen Hydropower Scheme (south-central Norway) 7.6.2 Mixing procedure 9.10 Summary of lessons learned EQUIPMENT FOR CEMENT INJECTION 8.1.4 Injection pressure 9.6.1 Drilling 9.2 Computer supported logging 80 81 82 85 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 88 88 88 89 90 90 90 91 91 92 94 94 97 98 99 101 101 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 103 104 106 106 107 7.9 Probing ahead of the face 6.6 Practical procedure in high risk areas 7.

6.2 The problem 10. Norway 10.10.1 General 10.9.1 The project 10.8. time until next activity Drilling of control holes Measuring of water ingress in excavated parts of the tunnel Decision making flowchart.5 Bekkestua Road Tunnel.3 The solution 10.4 The results 6 .9.4 Results 10.8.1 Some shallow hard rock tunnels in Sweden 10.1 The project 10.9.3 Deep situated tunnels 10.1 The project 10.2 Tunnel data 10. Ireland 10. example criteria (Figure 9.2 What is achievable 10.4 Sedrun access tunnel Alp Transit project. EXAMPLES OF RESULTS ACHIEVED 10.3 Comparing shallow and deep tunnels 10.8 Limerick main drainage water tunnel.3 Some general information 10.10 West Process Propane Cavern project (WPPC).5 9.8.7.9 The Kilkenny main drainage tunnel.5.7. Sweden 10.3 The solution 10.10.10. Switzerland 10.7 The Orment Project (the snake) Stockholm.6 Setting of grout.1 The project 10.3.3 9.1 The project 10.9.7.6 The Bjoroy sub-sea road tunnel 10.6.6. Ireland 10.3 The solution 10.4 9.10.9.3.3 The solution 10.2 The problem 10.2 Some shallow tunnels in the Oslo area 10.2 The problem 10.4 Results 10.6.4 Results 10.1 Practical execution in the Bekkestua Tunnel 10.2 The problem 10.1) 107 108 108 108 111 111 111 112 112 114 115 115 116 116 117 117 117 118 119 120 120 120 121 121 121 121 122 122 123 123 123 123 124 124 124 125 125 125 10.8.3. Oslo Norway 10.

2.1 MEYCO MP 355 1K 11.4 Special product on silica basis 11.1 MEYCO MP 301 11.3 Acrylate resin grouts 11.3.11.2.2 MEYCO MP 355 A3 11.4. REFERENCES 126 126 129 129 130 131 131 132 132 136 7 . MBT INJECTION MATERIALS 11.2 Polyurethane grouts 11.1 MEYCO MP 320 Colloidal Silica 12.1 The Rheocem range of tunnel grouting cements 11.

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connecting a grout conveying hose or pipe between a pump and the packer and pumping a prepared grout by overpressure into the cracks and joints of the rock surrounding the boreholes.1.1 INTRODUCTION Reasons for grouting in tunneling Tunnel excavation involves a certain risk of encountering unexpected ground conditions. before advancing the tunnel face through the injected and sealed rock volume. Sometimes such preexcavation grouting can be executed from the ground surface. Post-grouting.1 Pre-excavation grouting and post-grouting 9 . 1. Also smaller levels of ground water ingress can cause problems in the tunnel or in the surroundings. where the drilling for grout holes and pumping in of the grout material take place somewhere along the already excavated part of the tunnel. In tunnel grouting. or pre-grouting. where the boreholes are drilled from the tunnel excavation face into the virgin rock in front of the face and the grout is pumped in and allowed to set. placing packers near the borehole opening (or some other means of providing a pressure tight connection to the borehole). Rock or soil conditions causing stability problems for the tunnel excavation is another reason for grouting. Poor and unstable ground can be improved by filling discontinuities with a grout material with sufficient strength and adhesion. 1.2 Short explanation of the Subject Pressure grouting in rock is executed by drilling boreholes of suitable diameter. • Figure 1. One of the risks is the chance of hitting large quantities of high pressure ground water. there are two fundamentally different situations to be aware of: • Pre-excavation grouting. Ground water ingress can be controlled or handled by drainage. pre-excavation grouting and post-excavation grouting. length and direction into the rock material. because of unacceptable water ingress. Water is the most frequent reason for grouting in tunnels. primarily for shallow tunnels with access to the ground surface area above the tunnel.

earlier techniques are described to illustrate the advantages of the new methods. as well as in shallow urban tunnels. but there are also a number of useful chemical grouts available. is dealing with soil grouting. Improvement of ground stability may sometimes be the main purpose. Cement based grouts are clearly used more often than any other grout in tunnel injection. The practical focus is supported by theory. [1. 1. The effect of carrying out grouting works ranges from close to drip free tunnels (around 1 l/min per 100 m of tunnel. foundation grouting and a range of post-grouting techniques for repair and water ingress control. [1. When studying available literature about grouting the somewhat arbitrary feeling is that 90% if not more. Pressure injection has been successfully carried out in a range of rock types. has received 10 . is a technique that has existed for more than 50 years. using cement based grouts and a range of chemical grouts.3 Scope of the book The scope of this book is pressure grouting around tunnels in rock. The aim of this book is to present a guide on how to do it. Such injection can be required for a number of different reasons. To explain why and how things have changed compared to traditional technique. The latest technical developments are linked to improvements in materials technology and to better equipment and improved practical procedures. based on the latest state of the art. This important aspect of tunnel grouting will be explained later in this Chapter. if different manufacturer’s products were to be covered in parallel.1] and [10. Practical experience and case studies are therefore extensively used and complex theory is deliberately avoided.4]).The purpose of tunnel grouting in a majority of the cases is ground water in-flow control. Pressure grouting (injection) into the rock mass surrounding a tunnel. when this is found to be appropriate. Much of the development into a high-efficiency economic procedure has taken place in Scandinavia. when this is a possible option. but will more often be a valued side effect of grouting for ground water control. It must be emphasised already at this stage that post-injection in this context is only a supplement to pre-injection. or by mechanical excavation. from weak sedimentary rocks to granitic gneisses and has been used against very high hydrostatic head (500 m water head). and it has developed rapidly during the last 15 to 20 years. The very important advantages of pre-grouting.2]). The presented materials technology is primarily based upon MBT UGC International products. The book presents practical application techniques of pressure grouting ahead of the tunnel or shaft face and around already excavated tunnel sections. excavated by drill and blast. to ground water ingress reduction dictated by practical and economical considerations (like specified acceptable remaining ingress in the order of 30 l/min per 100 m. This is because of the extreme complexity that would result.

to reduce separation (also called bleeding) and to lubricate delivery lines. Use of Bentonite in the grout. 11 • • .5 m). for the mapping of rock conditions and water conductivity (Figure 1. Use of stage injection (in terms of depth from surface).2 Water pressure testing of borehole • Use of variable and mostly very high w/c-ratio grouts (up to 4. As a result grouting was mostly a separate task. The results were used for decision making regarding cement suspension mix design like water/cement ratio (w/c-ratio by weight). low injection pressure and split spacing techniques (new holes drilled in the middle between previous holes).e.0) and “grout to refusal” procedures. and to choose between using cement or chemical grouts. which sections of the borehole are watertight and which sections allow the water to escape.very little attention and is almost completely missing in the literature. One way of stage injection involves drilling to a certain depth and then injecting the grout and next to re-drill and deepen the same hole and repeating the process. The traditional cement injection techniques were therefore applicable without too much of a disadvantage.4 Traditional cement based grouting technology Pressure grouting into rock was initially developed primarily for hydro power dam foundations and partly for general ground stabilisation purposes. Split spacing as described above is also a form of stage injection. This process involves carrying out water pressure tests at regular intervals along the borehole to see what the overall water loss situation is i. 1. Water Pressure Testing WPT 10 bar Packer Packer 1 Lugeon = 1.2). This book attempts to fill some of this information gap.0 liter/minute per meter borehole at 10 bar net pressure Figure 1. The characteristic way of execution was: • Extensive use of Water Pressure Testing (WPT) on short sections of boreholes (3 . For such works there is normally few practical constraints on the available working space. the latter expression meaning that grout is pumped into the rock until the maximum pre-determined pressure is reached and no more goes in. and could be carried out without affecting or being affected by other site activities.

See Figure 1. has become an important technique in modern tunnelling works. pumping grout until the rock would take no more) causing unnecessary spread of grout.e.3] (Typical for dams and other foundation grouting) In conclusion: The traditional cement injection technique. 1.WPT every 5 m. where the rock cover and limited free surface area allow the use of fairly high pressure without the same risk of damage. reduced the efficiency of the individual grouting stages leading to more drilling and injection steps. it all added up to a long execution time. pressure grouting ahead of the face in tunnels (referred to as pre-grouting. due to environmental protection and 12 .3 Relation between rock cover and admissible grouting pressure [1. pumping of a lot of water for a given quantity of cement. This is especially the case when considering working from a tunnel face.The typical effect of the above basic approach was that injection operations were quite time consuming . the need for counter pressure (i. There are a number of reasons for this: • Limits on permitted ground water drainage into tunnels are now frequently imposed by the local authorities. The low maximum pressure normally allowed to avoid any prospect of ‘lifting’ the ground in which the grouting was being carried out (typically less than 5 bar. is rather inefficient when considering the time necessary and the resources spent in reaching a specified sealing effect. to reach the required sealing effect. holding of constant end pressure over some time (say for 10 minutes) to compact the grout and squeeze out surplus water. or with a relation to rock cover at the packer placement point). Figure 1. as described above and for the reasons given.5 Rationale for the increase in the use of pressure grouting In the last 20 years.3. slow strength development and complicated work procedures. or pre-injection).

The savings potential in construction cost and time is substantial. being an integral part of the pre-grouting technology). • • • With modern tunnelling drill jumbos even very hard rock can be penetrated at a rate of 2. It should be noted that if the excavation process hits a major water feature (because it was not detected and not pre-grouted). In other words.sometimes to avoid settlement above the tunnel.0 m/min. This improves the face area stable standup time.g.5 to 3. roads. At the same time it should 13 . and ground water ingress control by pregrouting might become necessary. Poor ground ahead of the face can be substantially improved and stabilised before exposing it by excavation. Risk of pollution from tunnels transporting sewage. Settlement may cause damage on the surface. Such linings cannot be produced with satisfactory quality under wet (running water) conditions. the cost of probe drilling to guard against sudden catastrophic water inflows is now low. can be avoided or limited. it can be close to impossible to succeed. This is because once the ground has been treated by pre-injection it becomes less permeable so such hazardous materials cannot freely egress from the tunnel. Permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings are increasingly being installed. then water ingress has to be sealed in a post-grouting situation. thus reducing the risk of uncontrolled collapse in areas of poor ground. This process is not only time consuming and expensive.4.4 Northern Puttjern drained by Romeriksporten Tunnel in Oslo (Photo SCANPIX) • The risk of major water inrushes. or of unexpectedly running into extremely poor ground. Figure 1. drainage pipes. being the main reason for the increased interest in permanent lining shotcrete technology. to infrastructure like buildings. or other hazardous materials. but also far less effective than pre-grouting or pre-injection. e. supply lines and cable ducts. can be virtually eliminated (due to systematic probe drilling ahead of the face. See example in Figure 1. In difficult situations.

This will be especially necessary if the pre-grouting has not produced the required average tightness within a given section of the tunnel.8 18. R. Such events are extremely expensive and time consuming.C Japan Austria Switzerland Iceland Japan Taiwan. when the same area has already been pre-injected. to seal off remaining spot leakages if necessary.1.O.8 10 Ingress m3/min 10. whereas with post-grouting the water has started to flow into the tunnel and the joints have to be blocked with the water flowing through them. A list of examples could be made long. This is especially so.C Taiwan. R. without really sealing them off.O.4 8 53. is mostly avoided.O. Table 1. Flottene 15 40 23 1. The normal problem of leakage points shifting from one tunnel location to another. R.8 4.be noted that a large number of projects experience such catastrophic situations and are often stopped for months.C Taiwan. (expanded by the author based on Fu et al. when considering that if such conditions are identified ahead of the tunnel face. they can be treated successfully at a fraction of the cost and time spent if blasting into it. It is interesting to observe that post-grouting becomes far more effective. and some are shown in Table 1. This is because this process seals the open joints in the rock before the water starts to flow.8 10 5. One of the problems that has to 14 . 2001).8 21 24 150-180 180 81 72 5 GW head (bar) 20 35 Location Taiwan. When a certain level of tightness is specified. it cannot be overemphasised that pre-injection has to be carried out. It has been repeatedly experienced in a number of projects that post-grouting alone seldom can produce the targeted result.O.8 67. should normally be used in tunnelling as a supplement to pre-grouting.5 9 4.4] Project Name Pinglin Yung-Chuen Central (East Portal) Seikan Semmering pilot Gotthard Piora pilot Isafjordur Abou Lungchien tailrace NorthWest Himalaya Access Oyestol Length (km) 12. R.1 Some examples of water inrushes at the tunnel face [1.6 . or only after prohibitive use of resources. to avoid the consequences of future possible huge water inrushes.C India (flow in 1 borehole) Norway Norway Norway 90 6-12 22 50 Kjela (Bordalsvann) Ulla Forre. It is then quite strange that the low insurance premium of limited probe drilling is not paid.6 67.6 Some comments on Post-grouting Grouting behind the tunnel face (post-grouting).

Furthermore. may be 30 to 60 times higher than by pre-grouting [1. A translation from Norwegian of the two last sentences of page 3 of this reference reads: “However. This 15 . Based on experience the cost of stopping water ingress by post-injection is 30 – 60 times higher than that of using pre-injection. Time spent for pre-injection will normally have to be deducted from this available excavation time. like 2 –10 times more. causing high equipment capital cost.” Other experienced engineers may be using different figures to illustrate the extra cost of using post-grouting exclusively.be faced with post-grouting is grout ‘wash-out’. When pumping a grout into rock. One hour of face time typically has a value of more than US $1000 and it is evident that the efficient conduct of all activities at the tunnel face is a priority. Added to this is the fact that the limited working space at the tunnel face normally allows only one work operation to take place at a time. backflow has to be stopped first. it is recommended in cases where large water inrushes can be expected and especially at high ground water head. The face advance rate is decided by the number of hours available for actual excavation works (other factors kept constant). Figure 1. The more water.5]. These are the very reasons for the dramatic cost difference presented in reference [1.5 Very difficult to seal by post-injection (Photo: Peter Town) 1.7 New time saving methods and materials technology The characteristic situation in all modern tunnelling is that the speed of tunnel advance is decisive for the overall economy. the flow of the grout is governed by the principle of least resistance. the more difficult it will be to seal them off.5].5. to carry out probe drilling ahead of the face and to carry out pre-grouting if large water flow is detected. is very often leading back into the tunnel. From this. it can be seen that injection in a tunnelling environment is fundamentally different from injection for dam foundations and ground treatment from the surface. An accurate figure does not exist so the important point to note is the general agreement that post-grouting is extremely expensive and complicated. if a potential backflow path also carries flowing water. obviously the injected grout will suffer dilution and wash-out effects. To achieve spread of grout into the rock volume. This fact is closely linked to the very high investment in tunnelling equipment. offering least resistance. The shortest flow path in post-grouting. See also Figure 1. A study summing up some Norwegian projects indicates that the time and cost of reaching a specified result by post-grouting. the higher pressure and the larger the flow channels are.

technical specifications for routine tunnel grouting cannot be loaded with tests and investigative techniques. soft Waterglass. water reactive. they are still very competitive. these cements are combined with admixtures or additives to provide entirely new cement grout properties and substantially improved penetration into cracks. if core drilling is made part of the routine drilling from the face.. 16 Wgl H MP307 MP320 SR . and all this is linked to a complicated system of decision-making during execution of grouting. if joint orientation and crack openings have to be checked by camera etc. availability. micro cement Rheocem 900. especially when the tightness requirements are strict. foaming Waterglass. these cements are ground much finer and may offer more suited setting and hardening characteristics.6 Relative material volume cost of various injection products Cement based grouts remain the material of first choice for pressure grouting in tunnelling. compared to most traditional chemical grouts (refer to Figure 1. In most cases. Such research related activities can not be made part of the routine grouting works if cost and efficiency has any priority.5 kg/litre) Polyurethane expansion factor used: 5x Rapid: SR: Rhc650: Rhc900: PUR: Wgl S: Wgl H: MP307: MP320: Rapid hardening Portland cement Sulphate resistant Portland cement Rheocem 650. This is due to the low volume cost. 3335 3335 2000 US $ / m3 1800 Cost of grout ready for injection Cement grouts: w/c-ratio = 1. well documented properties and experience and environmental acceptability. the wide range of available chemical grouts offers a useful supplement to cement grouts. (gives 1.6).is the main reason why the technical development in tunnel injection has been different to other types of rock injection. hard Acrylic grout (no acrylamide) Colloidal silica 1300 Rapid 180 225 500 PUR 870 Rhc650 Rhc900 Wgl S Figure 1. If it is required to carry out extensive water pressure testing in stages in all holes. Even though these new cement products are more expensive than standard Portland cements.0. The last 15 years has led to the development of a number of new cement based products for injection. micro cement ultra fine Polyurethane. However. Typically. Because of the need to save time (and therefore cost). The additional down-side is that such over-zealous procedures will probably not improve the end result at all. Chemical grouts can penetrate and seal cracks that cementitious grouts will not enter. When combined with working procedures that are adapted to the new materials properties the efficiency increase is substantial. the sum may be termed overkill.

2. compaction. to be able to correctly evaluate all aspects of pressure grouting in rock tunnelling and to understand why the approach has to be different to soil injection techniques. Between discontinuities. If the conditions within a whole mountain are considered. on the other hand. Soils possess a wide variation in particle sizes. the average “permeability” would be the same. therefore can be highly misleading. Leakage and conductivity is therefore linked exclusively to discontinuities within the rock mass. as an example. the average “permeability” of the rock mass can be measured and evaluated by the same methods as are normally used for soils (a similarity). In comparison. the two situations are certainly totally different in practical terms if looking for water sealing solutions. In a perfectly homogeneous sand volume of a given permeability one could. calculate 300 l/min water ingress into a 100 m tunnel length. However. permeability and a number of other parameters. the pipe used to feed 300 l/min of water (which could be an illustration of the hard rock water conducting channel situation). To use the term permeability in the same sense as for soils.1 GROUTING INTO ROCK Particular features of rock (compared to soil) Rock materials and soils are fundamentally different in terms of the behaviour of water flow and the effect of injecting any kind of grout into the ground. When comparing rock and soil. It is important to understand and take account of the effects of scale to reach correct solutions and answers. when considering the rock volume for the first few meters around a tunnel and along a few meters of its length. porosity. are practically impermeable for water and grouts. However. most rock materials. the similarities and differences are primarily governed by how scale is being treated. 2. single joints and channels will govern and dominate the pattern of water conductivity and grout take. at basic level soils consist of particles and permeability is directly linked to the pores (spaces or voids) between the particles. In such a randomly chosen limited rock volume. If mentally assuming that the sand is impermeable but with an inserted steel pipe through the sand into the same tunnel. The reason for this is that the overall rock mass fragmentation creates very small block sizes (similar to particles in the soil case) compared to the whole mountain volume under consideration and the whole mass can be treated with a reasonable approximation as being homogeneous. 17 . the joints and channels can show water conductivity many orders of magnitude different to the “mountain” average permeability (a difference). layering. It is necessary to understand and accept this important difference between soil and rock.

However. With WPT results in boreholes as basis for calculation of permeability in rock even section lengths as short as one meter could easily indicate permeability between one and three orders of magnitude too low. some examples can be given to illustrate the importance of the subject and to draw the attention to some effects of typical conditions found in rock. In a rockmass it is evident that the characteristics of jointing will be of major importance for any grouting program. Even when the channel has a typical diameter of only one meter. on a detailed level in hard rock.The permeability term is being used to estimate and illustrate ground water flow conditions on an overview level also in hard rock (large scale average). However. the term permeability is not applicable and practical decisions made based on an assumed “permeability” will mostly turn out to be totally wrong. The variation of joint properties and water conductivity in different types of rock is actually extreme and a discussion of this subject is outside the scope of this book. the above guidelines will not be applicable in most rock materials. For injection in soils the following indications have been given by Karol [2.1]: k = 10-6 or less k = 10-5 to 10-6 k = 10-3 to 10-5 k = 10-1 to 10-3 k = 10-1 or more not groutable groutable with difficulty by grouts under 5 cP viscosity and not groutable for higher viscosities groutable by low-viscosity grouts but with difficulty when viscosity is more than 10 cP groutable with all commonly used chemical grouts groutable by suspended solids grout Based on the previously mentioned differences between soil and rock. where “carst” features occur. the water flow conditions into a tunnel intersecting it would be catastrophic. 18 . These are solution channels in limestone formations that can create huge caverns and literally allow a subterranean river. which is an acceptable approximation for this situation. Perhaps the most extreme water conductivity situation that can be found is in limestone. In addition. the fact that rock injection in tunnelling allows the use of much higher injection pressure (often 10 times more) will change the practical limits of what is groutable and not.

Figure 2. that may result in a substantial total leakage potential. but if there are local water bearing channels.1 Average permeability of soil and rock Hard rock materials like gneisses. See Figure 2.1. A high number of water bearing small cracks may in total produce substantial leakage. Such jointing can be quite easy to inject and seal. Such zones will often show no leakage at all due to the fines. Such joint fillings tend to inhibit grout penetration and distribution and the fill materials are sometimes squeezed around by the grout being injected. resulting in increasing flow over time. mudstones. A complication for a successful injection program in such rock conditions. Such effects also depend on the ground water pressure. limestones.2 Effect of conductivity contrast on grout flow into open joints 19 . Uncontrolled running water in such channels may lead to flushing out of fine materials from the zone. they may be difficult to find and complicated to seal off. will often show unweathered jointing patterns at depth. is often the wide variety of joint filling materials that can be found. Local fault areas. Figure 2. sandstones and some metamorphic rocks are often jointed and layered to a considerable degree. may contain a lot of fine material and clay gouge. Weaker beds like shales. granites and quartzites. especially major shear zones in the same kind of bedrock.

At the same time. drilling can be performed to cut through the joint plane at a suitable depth and angle.In most rockmasses. it is of course much more difficult to hit a pipe than a plane. more than 90% of this inrush came from one concentrated channel located within a shear zone. As could be clearly seen in the tunnel. the tunnel hit a water inrush of 15’000 l/min. in most cases. to a distance much greater than expected and beyond what is effective. Any fluid pumped into such a borehole will inevitably follow the path of least resistance. may follow a very conductive opening at fairly low pressure. Often. Observation of the nature of water ingress in TBM excavated tunnels (where additional blasting cracks are not obscuring the natural conditions). between water-tight sections. direction Bordalsvann. At tunneling length 1800 m from access Tyrvelid. at 23 bar pressure. this is only partly going to occur. In a borehole of some meters length there will. that can be observed crossing the tunnel periphery.2 above. When a water flow clearly is originating from an identified joint plane. The effect of this is that a given volume of grouting material. due to increased number of grouting stages and too high material consumption to achieve the required result. clearly demonstrates that channels within joint planes are the typical situation. 20 . See Figure 2. the main problem for pressure grouting is the non-uniform conditions caused by localised geological features. In a rock type with only one clearly dominating joint set. a number of holes need to be drilled across the joint plane. and/or increased cost. to actually hit the water leakage. The reason is obvious . An example can be given from the Norwegian hydro power project Kjela (1977). where one would expect water leakage and grout penetration to generally flow along these joint planes. cracks and channels. with the purpose of getting direct contact to the water flow. When drilling for water flow contact. be a mixture of joints. This is well demonstrated by leakages appearing as concentrated point ‘jets’ from somewhere along the joint intersection with the tunnel periphery. Experience from post-grouting in tunnels further supports the idea of channel leakage and channel conductivity as the normal mechanism of water transmission in jointed hard rock. there will be very limited penetration into other openings (due to low pressure and material “lost” into the main channel).most of the joint plane is dry and the water flows through a limited channel within the plane. This problem can and very often does lead to unsatisfactory grouting results.

One may assume that after 3. sometimes this contrast may be extreme.3. The problem is that chemical grouts will flow into on the large openings at low pressure doing nothing to seal smaller openings.2.2 Handling of rock conductivity contrast Ground surface Injection Packer Figure 2. Cement grouts will have the same tendency and grout to refusal gives excess material consumption. With a large conductivity contrast and grout flow in direction of least resistance it is necessary to take steps to reduce the negative effects of this normal situation.2.5 hours spent injecting say 4000 kg of cement and reaching the maximum allowed pressure (for the specific conditions). Stable cement grout and suitable procedures can counteract the problem to a large extent and increase efficiency. 21 . treated with traditional grout to refusal technique and alternatively with stable cement grout and dual stop criteria.3). the following situation has been reached: • cement has travelled in the largest channel to a maximum distance of 350 m from the borehole (which is far beyond the useful spread). Standard procedure is to reduce the w/c-ratio in steps when the pressure is not increasing. 2.1 Description of typical Grout to refusal procedure Start of grouting with a w/c-ratio 3. The best way of illustrating how to deal with conductivity contrast is by using an example situation (Figure 2.3 Large conductivity contrast For reasons of time-related cost and adequate cover tunnel pre-injection requires relatively long boreholes (10 to 30 m) and injection through one packer placement near the opening. In such length of borehole there will normally be conductivity contrast along the hole. See Figure 2. high grout flow at very low pressure and assuming that 90% of the flow goes in the largest channel.0.

5 hours 4000 kg OPC 1 stage. It can be assumed that it takes 30 minutes to inject 500 kg cement when the allowed maximum pressure has been reached.0 w/c-ratio and a low viscosity of 32 s Marsh cone flow time. Also in this case 90% will flow into the largest channel at very low pressure.2. See also next bullet point. This shorter distance is primarily caused by less cement being pumped. Also. grout permeation into medium and small cracks is only in mm-scale. This would take about 5 to 10 minutes with modern drilling equipment.8 and later to 0. After one hour of injection time the stop criterion of 1500 kg per hole has been reached (pressure still low). 2. before changing to 0. • 2.• • the grout pressure increased gradually. The established situation may be assumed to be as follows: • micro cement has travelled on the largest channel to a maximum distance of 125 m from the borehole (which is also beyond the useful spread). low grout viscosity and smaller particle size • If assuming that the hole length used was 12 m.2.6. when the pressure finally increases the grout used has a low w/c-ratio and higher viscosity and so would not permeate that easily. the next step would be to drill a new neighbour hole with the same length. some penetration has been achieved into medium and small cracks due to the grout stability. some of the injected grout has separated. This will not change the described examples other than in making the micro cement alternative work even better). leaving residual openings and conductivity.3 Comparison of the two procedures Traditional OPC grouting Time spent Materials spent Injected Result 3. especially during the last part of the injection time. This is caused by a long period under low pressure and clogging of the cracks by filter cake development.0 like 250 litres. (In most practical cases like this the micro cement procedure would utilize a limited volume at w/c-ratio 1. Injection can now be done into the same area (large channel blocked by first stage injection) and penetration will therefore be into medium and small cracks at a higher injection pressure. large and small cracks mainly effective 22 . using a thixotropic grout. basically one crack ineffective Stable micro-cement grouting 1 hour 40 minutes 2000 kg micro cement 2 stages.2 Stable grout of micro cement using dual stop criteria The whole injection can be executed with a fixed 1.

geologists or specialists and which are varied according to local actual conditions in the tunnel. The outcome cannot be accurately predicted because of the nature of the technique and the lack of details about ground conditions. 2.The micro cement alternative using half the material and less than half the execution time. GW and rock parameters variation in cm-scale 23 .3 “Design” of grouting in rock tunnels Design of grouting in rock tunnels means essentially the development and specification of drilling patterns. extra time will normally cause substantially higher overall cost for a poorer result. the achieved rock tightness in the first few meters around the holes is much better. Other reasons for better tightness are the fact that the grout viscosity was always very low. the grout materials to be used and the methods and procedures to be applied during execution. using an OPC and grout to refusal technique. The grout durability and strength is substantially better because of the lower w/c-ratio and no use of Bentonite in the mix • It would be an option to also execute two stages using OPC and then the result could of course be improved. with the purpose of achieving a specified result. has achieved the following result improvements compared to the OPC procedure: • Since two grouting stages have been executed. this would then again take additional grout and additional time and experience shows that the result would be poorer. These are the variables which can be controlled by engineers. other than the indirect signs and effects on water ingress and by inspection after excavating through the grouted rock volume. Figure 2. Nobody can directly observe what happens in the ground during injection. the grout was stable (so no re-creation of channels due to bleeding) and the maximum cement particle size would typically be 1/4th of the OPC.4 Overall situation in km-scale. However. The cost of extra cement and even more important.

The pre-investigations for rock tunnel projects can never give sufficient details about the rock material and the hydrogeological situation for the full length of the tunnel. The whole analysis has to be based on the given physical surroundings. execution procedures covering all aspects of the operation and the materials specification. Design of a bridge or a high-rise building will include the necessary drawings. accurately quantified and input to such a model. drawings showing matters such as the depth. the load bearing capacity. See Figure 2. iterative observational design-feedback basis (monitoring of results) as described below: 24 . so as to aim at satisfying the required water tightness of the tunnel. The basic design for the grouting operation as referred to above has to be applied in practice on an empirical.Even the evaluation of carefully controlled full scale tests can be difficult. In the case of a tunnel grouting operation many will expect the above principles to be applicable so far as the “design” process is concerned. However. the foundations and the general layout of the object to be built. To further compound the problem it must also be admitted that even if assuming that a mathematical model would be available there is no chance that all the materials parameters could be measured. the owner ’s requirements regarding service loads. materials specifications and structural calculations to define the dimensions. Furthermore. service life expectancy and other features or limitations that are applicable. The design of tunnel grouting operations is based upon the best estimates of the average “permeability” of the rock through which the tunnel is to be driven. However. There is no question of drawings being produced showing what the finished job will look like or to give accurate dimensions for the result. the reality is that it is not possible to design the work with precision in advance of it being carried out so it is nothing like the “design” process referred to in the previous paragraph. The design will usually include calculations of the likely water ingress. angle and pattern of the intended drilling. so as to allow a “bridge design” approach. most of the principles of pre-grouting have been developed through and are supported by the results of several thousand tons of grout injection in tunnelling and the understanding of the principles is not so much guesswork as it is sometimes claimed to be. the calculation methods available are not refined enough to accurately analyse the link between the required result and the necessary steps to produce it. The uncertainty about unforeseen changes in ground conditions from one test location to the next cannot be accurately quantified. the geometry.4. The word “design” probably needs to be commented upon to clarify what it means in the context of tunnel grouting. The need for such a clarification arises from the difference to the normal understanding of the term when used in structural design.

Excavated tunnel sections which do not meet the requirements of the specification will have to be locally post-grouted until the overall result for such sections are acceptable unless it is possible to compromise on the water tightness requirements. Based on empirical data (previous pre-injection tunnel project experience) a complete pre-grouting method statement can then be compiled.• once the “watertightness” requirements are defined. The coefficient of permeability can be measured in the laboratory. If the results are satisfactory. and then only when the volume being considered is big enough. during excavation the resulting tightness in terms of water ingress achieved can be measured quite accurately. or even better conductivity should be used.4 Fluid transport in rock The permeability of a material expresses how readily a liquid or a gas can be transported through the material. Darcy‘s Law is based on laminar flow. This may have to be executed in stages. the work will continue without changes. the project data and all available information about rock conditions and hydrogeology can be analysed and compared with those requirements. This means that it is possible to move to a quantitative comparison between targeted water ingress and the actual result and accurately pinpoint if the situation is satisfactory or not. what sequence of steps to take to meet the required tightness of the excavated tunnel.2]: v=ki v = flow velocity k = coefficient of permeability i = hydraulic gradient where The requirement of a homogenous material is never satisfied for jointed rock materials. and only a continued verification by ingress measurements will be necessary. irrespective of how elaborate this method statement (or “design”) is and whatever tools and calculations are employed to produce it. Normally. This often includes indicative calculations of potential ground water ingress under different typical situations. • • 2. If the measured water ingress rate is too high. an incompressible liquid with a given viscosity and is valid for a homogenous material [2. the term joint permeability. it will not be more than a prognosis. this information will be used to decide on how to modify the “design” to ensure satisfactory results compared to the requirements for the remaining tunnel excavation. However. This prognosis will express how to execute the pregrouting (under the expected range of ground conditions). using the 25 . until satisfactory results are achieved.

This means. To avoid possible extreme differences between Lugeon values resulting from a single measurement over a long bore hole (10 to 30 m) and the real value over shorter segments (like 1 m). then there is in principle. The Lugeon value needs interpretation and cannot be considered in isolation. that if the same borehole had been measured in 0. for liquids of varying viscosity. the unit Lugeon is the most frequently used. always the chance that all the water has escaped through a single leakage location. technical specifications sometimes requires that the Lugeon value calculation length is set to 5 m for all borehole measuring lengths longer than 5 m. The following table illustrates the different units discussed above: Materials \ Units Fine sand Jointed granite Lugeon 100 0.2).above given formula of Darcy: q = kAi q = liquid flow rate (m3/s) k = coefficient of permeability (m/s) A = area of sample across flow path (m2) i = hydraulic gradient where The absolute permeability of a material.5 m increments. while one would be 20 times the above measured average.1 k (m/s) 10-5 10-8 K (m2) 10-12 10-15 26 .81 m/s2 g = volume weight of the liquid (N/m3) where For testing of rock mass conductivity through bore holes. Lugeon (L) is defined as the volume of water in litres that can be injected per minute and meter of borehole at a net over-pressure of 10 bar (see Figure 1. can be found according to the following formula: K = k (m/g) = k (n/g) K = absolute permeability (m2) k = coefficient of permeability (m/s) m = dynamic viscosity (mPa s) or cP n = kinematic viscosity (m2/s) g = 9. nineteen of these would have had a L-value of zero. If measurement has taken place over a bore hole length of say 10 m.

To keep the cycle time short and the rate of tunnel face advance high. One example of such data is shown in Figure 2. On the other hand. Figure 2. If such a tendency is not checked this can generate very complicated and time consuming decision procedures. practical facts of common nature when at a tunnel face that must be part of any pre-injection planning and execution. working operations at the face are sequential and very little can be executed in parallel.5 Practical basis for injection works in tunnelling Pre-injection in tunnelling may have various purposes and may be carried out under quite variable geological. typically there is limited working space and the logistics may be an added problem. It is very easy to end up in a situation where the good technical intentions in the end are detrimental to the purpose of the exercise. this is decisive for the cost of the tunnel. All these factors will strongly influence how to execute pre-injection in a given case. Pre-investigations may have yielded a lot of general information.5. All such efforts that the author has come across are similar to what is shown in this figure. with as small disturbance and variation as possible and with a smooth change from one operation to the next. However. Plotting of experience data to check on the possible correlation between grout take and originally measured Lugeon value will be very disappointing.3] 27 . The temptation on the part of planners and designers to create very elaborate working procedures. or not. Elaborate WPT procedures with the purpose of choosing the type of grout are frequently relied upon far beyond the technical merit of the procedure.5 Correlation between measured L-value and grout consumption [2. Of course. but very little on a detailed level. lots of tests. At a tunnel face. a lot of specific and detailed information is generated during drilling of holes and during execution of the injection itself. there are a few basic. Lots of detailed information must be processed with clear lines of authority and decisions must be made regarding the influence on further future work operations. One very important aspect of tunnel face injection activity must be emphasised. since the time related expenses are running whether there is face advance. voluminous record keeping and tight supervision is therefore very strong.and hydrogeological conditions. Mostly. In general. injection into jointed rock materials is not an easily pre-planned activity. it is extremely important that all work sequences are as rapid as possible.2.

6). experience shows a wide result variation around the target value.Another basic aspect of pre-injection must be kept as a part of planning and operation. it is not possible to accurately hit the targeted leakage rate (see “Design” of grouting in rock tunnels). Because of the actions described in the above bullet point. it will often be best to simply decide on pre-injection as a routine systematic activity using a double cover approach (see Figure 2. as long as it has to do with water leakage control. In those areas where the criteria are not met. or ten or twenty times this. This information and its evaluation can be continuously fed back to the at-face execution for necessary correction of procedures. Also. The rationale is that if probe 28 . There are therefore clear limitations to what volume of refinements and sophistication that are reasonable and productive to undertake in the injection procedures. When requirements are tight and the potential consequences of not meeting criteria are serious. There is no known. normally starting with the highest-yield leakage points. under what conditions and resulting from which resource allocation already used in probe drilling and pre-injection. This may seem negative and may be understood as a complete lack of control of the injection process. It is not. and 100 m tunnel). The same goes for the tunnel sections with satisfactory results. because of two main factors: • Water ingress measurements in already excavated tunnel parts will tell where the criteria are not met.6 Double and single cover grouting Since it is generally so much more efficient to execute pre-injection it is also better to start out a little on the conservative side with the works procedures and later to relax the approach if appropriate as experience is gained. feasible way of substantially improving this lack of accuracy. how much off the results are. when the requirement is expressed as some pre-defined rest leakage level in the excavated tunnel. the need for post injection is quickly reduced and the final result will meet specified requirements. This technique is very efficient when pre-injection has already been carried out (otherwise. post injection can be undertaken. • Figure 2. leakage would normally just be moved around). Whether applying very strict requirements (like 2 l/min. 100% water cut off is not realistic or cost effective. Experience shows that the target results will then be more closely reached and with a more optimal use of resources. Regardless of the reason for the pre-injection.

tunnel cross section and even the type of cement and injection methodology applied. Three different figures can be used to illustrate the experience data available from Norwegian sub-sea road tunneling: 1. static head of ground water. Minimum average consumption. However. a limited overlap of typically 5 m per 20 m probing length (25%) can be used. As an extreme case the Bjoroy sub-sea road tunnel stands out with a section of about 500 m tunnel length consuming 2000 kg/m. When evaluating empirical data covering such a wide range it can be useful to view the data on a probability basis. to illustrate typical consumption. chemical grouts may become necessary as a supplement.g. see Figure 2. with 5% probability that the average will be lower than this figure The probable average consumption 29 . From sub-sea tunnelling with systematic probe drilling and partly with systematic pre-grouting there are average consumption values from quite variable Scandinavian conditions between less than 20 kg/m tunnel to more than 250 kg/m.6. Sections of the tunnel that are relatively dry without injection will then be passed through using probing alone. in the case of cement injection this can be done. where a limited number of large open channels will tend to require more cement than cm-scale joint spacing producing frequent drips (distributed “rain” in the tunnel). The main influence factor is the rock conditions (properties of the jointing). In this type of case normally probe drilling will be used to provide basis for decision about where to actually execute pre-injection.6 Grout quantity prognosis Practically all pre-grouting in hard rock tunnelling is based on the use of cement (OPC or micro-cement). Also in the case of cement only grouting. 2. There is no experience basis available for the use of predominantly chemical grout. with maximum allowed final water ingress of 30 l/min in 100 m tunnel and no consequences in the surroundings of the tunnel. In less strict situations e. 2. Other important factors are required tightness. like in ground conditions with clay and other fine materials on the jointing planes and/or when the required tightness cannot be reached with cement only. Target water ingress level was typically 30 l/min per 100 m tunnel. then this separate activity and decision-making can be saved thus simplifying the procedures and increasing the efficiency. In special cases. the required quantity will depend on a large number of factors and any estimate made in advance will be inaccurate. Where injection has to be done this can be the so-called single cover approach.drilling in most cases will lead to pre-injection.

These values are roughly representative of predominantly hard rock types (but not only granitic rock materials) and the tunnel length would have to be 1000 m or more to yield a reasonable average. 30 . Obviously. such figures can only be taken as an illustration of what has been experienced before and they can not be transferred directly and accurately to new projects in other ground conditions.3. It must be mentioned for clarity that the figures are averages including tunnel sections that needed no grouting at all. probable value is 50 kg/m and the maximum average is 500 kg/m. with 5% probability that the average will be higher than this figure The minimum can be expressed as 15 kg/m tunnel. Maximum average consumption.

Figure 3.1. rivers and ground water level.3. such influence could cause problems. To produce actually water tight tunnel linings is very complicated and costly. environment. type of tunnelling ground. Requirements and limitations for the construction phase as well as for the permanent use of the tunnel. especially in relation to other infrastructure. hydrogeological conditions etc. Hydro power pressure conduits will loose water and electricity production and sewage may cause pollution. lakes. Most linings are drained. water conductivity of the ground. Possible consequences of in. See Figure 3. other excavations. Most tunnels are below the local ground water level. 3. Rock and soil cover. even if there is a horse-shoe umbrella installed to prevent water from dripping on the road or on installations in under ground facilities. Depending on the location of the tunnel and its design and purpose.. especially if the ground water head is high. safety and health. 31 • • • . The main issues that need evaluation can be listed as follows: • Purpose of the tunnel and the requirements of lining design (drained or water tight). ground conditions. which may be different.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS Influence of tunnelling on the surroundings Any tunnel excavated will influence the immediate surroundings to some extent. drained solution • Location of the tunnel.and out leakages on economy.1 Typical water proofing. Out-leakage can be as much of a problem as the other way around.

Ground water resources like springs and wells may be influenced. Earth pressure on sewage lines. gases etc. See Figure 3. vegetation may dry out and farming activities may be damaged.2. Ingress of oxygen to wood foundations will cause rotting.2 Particularly sensitive situation. This is typically a problem where clay deposits loose their pore pressure. 32 • • . What can be accepted. per 100 m tunnel. poisonous liquids. With buildings and other structures founded on clay... Tunnel drainage effect Very small water ingress to the tunnel => several meter pressure drop in the sand => pore pressure loss and settlement in the clay Figure 3. Some rocks. like alum shale may swell due to the creation of gypsum. Such problems may occur already at ingress levels of 1 to 5 l/min. Contaminated water like sewage. causing damage to foundations and other structures. Water may cause splitting. jacking or washing out effects at high head and water influx at unwanted locations also at lower head. may be listed as follows: • Ground water ingress may cause settlement of soil deposits above the tunnel. severe damage may arise. will increase. or lost.The possible consequences of tunnel excavation on the surroundings. Examples of several dm settlement • Lowering of the general ground water level can have a number of effects. will in most cases cause severe environmental problems in the surroundings. Out-leakage consequences will very much depend on what liquid and components in the liquid that is leaking out and the hydrostatic head. hydrocarbon liquids. cable ducts etc. depends very much on climatic conditions and relation between surface run-off and remaining water quantity actually going into the ground.

during the operation phase tunnels will have technical installations of different kind. The acceptable quantities are smaller for a TBM excavation (where less than 0. the problems are primarily of a practical nature. Water ingress can behave in quite a number of different ways. Depending on rock type and quality. may cause flooding and severe problems and time loss (refer to the example mentioned in Chapter 2. electricity supply and operation systems in metro tunnels. In the permanent use of the tunnel. construction phase dewatering and drainage. In a traffic tunnel. concrete works. rock swelling and washing out. than for drill and blast (D&B) (where 2. will cause problems). but with access through a shaft or a decline. causing a very poor working environment and it may contain salt. Also distributed water ingress and generally wet conditions will cause problems. These consequences are different in the construction phase. Salt water produces corrosion and problems with all electric equipment underground. construction road works. like the permanent ventilation system. Humid conditions will over time cause corrosion. can turn into serious problems when the frost volume is high enough. rock decomposition. Concentrated high volume and high pressure in-rush. The maintenance and repair cost may become high.5 m3/min may be handled reasonably easily) and will also depend on a number of other factors. • • • • 33 . wet conditions will produce similar problems as mentioned above.3. Typically. will require constant pumping. pumping of water may become an important cost factor. water ingress will also have consequences. Kjela). even local minor drips (less than 1 l/min. water can create instability. water runs to the face and has to be pumped out. per 100 m tunnel) of minor or no concern above the freezing point. Naturally. Tunnels actually being driven on an incline. In most cases this cannot be permitted and has to be taken care of if it occurs. unstable railway etc. When excavating on a decline. like poor conditions for shotcrete application. compared to during the operation: • In the tunnel construction phase.2 Conditions inside the tunnel Inside the tunnel. electric failures and the like. at high volumes or high pumping head. In cold climate and ventilated tunnels.0 to 2. water ingress can cause ice buildup.5 m3/min. at the face. Water may have a high or a low temperature.

34 .2. A typical situation for an urban tunnel at shallow depth: In critical bedrock low points. then hw in the above formula must be replaced by (hw + hs).4. then hr has to be expressed as the sum of the tunnel radius r and the thickness of the injected zone.3. See [3. including the formula to be used. if the soil is at least as tight as the rock. When injection has been carried out around the tunnel and the injected zone is substantially less permeable than the surrounding rock mass. The physical significance of the parameters will depend on the actual situation. Figure 3. while hw will be replaced by the sum of hw + hs+ thickness of not injected rock mass.1].1 Calculation of water ingress to tunnels and tightness of grouted zone Parameter list: q ground water ingress flow rate m3/s per m of tunnel m hs thickness of soil above the tunnel hw height of water m hr thickness of rock above the tunnel m r tunnel radius m k coefficient of permeability m/s Figure 3. It is important to note that hr and k represent the thickness of ground where the main part of the potential-reduction takes place (energy dissipation or pressure loss). then hr must be replaced by (hr + hs).3 shows an example situation with the parameters necessary for the calculation of ground water flow rate into a tunnel. On the other hand.3 Ground water ingress formula When the soil permeability is much higher than in rock. a set of assumed example dimensions are shown in figure 3. filled with sand and marine clay and with buildings on top.

this would give a water ingress rate of 24. With the dimensions shown in Figure 3.4 and an assumed injected zone thickness of 15 m the required permeability of the injected rock would be: hr = 1.75 + 15 = 16.44•10-6 m3/s and m = 20.Figure 3.5.6 l/min per 100 m 35 .75 m 15 m To achieve a reduction of the water ingress rate to about 1/5th the grouted zone permeability must be reduced to about 1/8th.2 l/min per 100 m tunnel (using the above formula).75 m hw = 30 + 85 = 115 m and input in the formula: q = 3.4 is k = 10-7 m/s.4 Shallow tunnel with soil and rock cover If the average rock mass permeability in Figure 3. A typical deep situated tunnel: Figure 3.5 Deep situated sub-sea tunnel with soil and bedrock cover The assumed dimensions are shown in Figure 3.23•10-8 m/s 16. If we assume that the injected zone has the same thickness of 15 m as in the shallow case and that the resulting permeability after injection is also the same.33•10-7 m3/s and m.75 + 15 = hw = 10 + 5 = and input in the formula: k = 1. A typical tightness requirement for such a tunnel to avoid settlement and surface damage could be 5 l/min per 100 m of tunnel. then the increased hydrostatic head under the shown geometry would produce a ground water ingress of: hr = 1. which corresponds to q = 8.

36 . Probe drilling and some grouting is normal Special situations can be found around the start of a steel lined underground penstock and around concrete plugs for the sealing off of an adit to a pressure tunnel. but the risk of another fracturing somewhere along the tunnel (or shaft) is quite high. In such a situation. The minimum principal rock stress must be larger than the water pressure in all locations otherwise the water will find its way out on cracks and joints in the rock mass and hydraulic fracturing is very likely to occur. Parallel chambers may be located quite close to each other and the pressure gradient from a chamber in use to one that is empty can be very high. See Figure 3. Even pressure tunnels and pressure shafts may be designed as drained (unlined) conveyors when the rock conditions and the rock stresses allow such a solution. gas and oil storage caverns underground and caverns for public utilities. water transfer tunnels are often constructed as drained structures. when switching between operation and emptying for sediment removal. to limit the loss of pressurised water and thereby electricity production.-The salt water ingress and 2.6 Typical layout of a sub sea road tunnel. Even more of a special nature are compressed air surge chambers underground. there will be local areas where injection has to be carried out. In pressurised unlined water conduits (where the rock has to sustain the water pressure) there is one pre-requisite to be aware of. Sub-sea tunnels are special in at least two respects: 1. the option of grouting as a method of repair is ruled out.3 Special cases In hydro power tunnel construction.6.-The water reservoir above the tunnel is unlimited. civil defence and storage of goods. normally leading to substantial loss of water. Naturally.3. Desilting chambers experience frequent water head changes. Figure 3. The grouting may temporarily help reducing the flow.

even with waterstop in the construction joints. The only available tunnelling technique that can keep the ground water in-leakage near zero.2]. Without pre-injection the leakage volume could locally become far too large. achieving about the same final result 37 . If the tunnel will be constructed in an urban area and ground water lowering could cause settlement damage to infrastructure on surface. then it is not enough to plan for a final water tight permanent stage lining. lowering the ground water level. [3. In hard rock tunnelling this alternative is not available. It may take weeks and months between the time of exposing the ground at the face. substantial volumes of water may have entered the tunnel. The difficult problem to solve is how to satisfy the requirements during all stages of construction and operation of the tunnel. is the Earth Pressure Balance Machine (EPBM). but was also not completely water tight. between the time of exposure and the time of segment erection and efficient annular space backfilling. One requirement that is frequently overlooked. A concrete lining will frequently be in place too late to prevent permanent damage on surface Concrete lining with contact grouting or PVC membrane will typically cost more than an extensive pre-grouting operation. such segment handling and grouting would also be very difficult.3. as shown by ingress levels of 10 to 40 l/min per 100 m tunnel. Concrete lining with careful high pressure grouting of the interface to the rock was still quite successful. With a serious local water inrush at hand.4 Requirements and ground water control during construction phase Based on the above evaluations on the functional requirements for the tunnel. has hardly any influence on the water ingress level. Frequently it is too late to prevent settlement and damage. Concrete lining with PVC membrane gave acceptable result.2]. Meanwhile. 2. The situation illustrated in Figure 3. if the ground water level comes up to normal again some months later. [3. until the water tight lining has been established in the same location. the tunnel design and execution and its relation to the surroundings. Such machines are for soil excavation and are limited to shallow depths (typically less than 15 meters). Two important conclusions can be drawn: 1. even if a TBM and concrete segments are used for the excavation and support.2 is such a case. a number of issues have to be decided regarding the ground water control program. In the Oslo area this is typically the ingress rate for an unlined and not pre-injected tunnel. is the water ingress rate during the construction phase of a project. Ordinary in-situ concrete lining. full face mechanical excavation using a pressurised shield and gasketed concrete segment installation.

the diagram in Figure 3.0 8.5 Measurement of water ingress to the tunnel As described under “Design” of grouting in rock tunnels. tunnel lengths could be 10 m.Therefore.5 300 Height: h in mm 200 100 0.8 1.4 0. 100 m or even more.0 4.7 Measuring water flow rate by V-notch overflow 38 .0 2.2 0. To be able to accurately determine what is the water ingress result after injection.5 where q is flow of water in l/s. Depending on the requirements and the necessary accuracy of these measurements.6 0. corrected if necessary by doing postinjection as needed and by correcting the way the pre-grouting is being executed. The normal way of measurement is by dams in the tunnel floor (especially prepared and sealed to avoid wrong results) equipped with an overflow V-notch (or any other defined shape that can be used to calculate the flow rate). h is the water height in mm above the bottom of the V-notch. One alternative is the 90° V-notch where the height of water above the bottom of the notch can be used in the formula: q = 43 • 10-6 • h2. The result has to be monitored. there are situations where probe drilling and pre-grouting has to be executed to meet the requirements of ground water control during the construction phase. this has to be measured for pre-defined tunnel lengths.7 can be used. there is no way of directly and accurately linking the grouting works effort and the final water ingress result. 3.0 6.1 0. For quick reference. 90 h q = 43 x 10 -6 x h 2.0 10 20 40 60 80 100 Log scale: q in l/s Figure 3.

since the table is based on single measurements. can only be used to fill bigger openings. The average particle size can be expressed as the specific surface of all cement particles in a given quantity.1 Cement particle size. the remaining 5% of the particle population is larger than this dimension. For a given Blaine value. to avoid premature blockage of fine openings. 39 .1. 4. without asking for special cement qualities are shown in Table 4.2 gives an example of particle size distribution of cements commonly used for pressure injection.4. fineness Any type of cement may be used for injection purposes. Table 4.1 CEMENT BASED GROUTS Basic properties of cement grouts 4. or as often expressed the d95.1. The finer the grinding. Two important parameters governing the permeation capability of cement. caused by jamming of the coarsest particles and filter creation in narrow spots. the higher is the specific surface. or Blaine value (m2/kg). The d95 gives the sieve dimension where 95% of the cement particles will pass through (and conversely. due to more fine grinding.1 Fineness of normal cement types (largest particle size 40 to 150 µm) Cement type \ Specific surface Low heat cement for massive structures Standard Portland cement (CEM 42. the particle size distribution may vary and the important factor is the maximum particle size. Please note that the actual figures are only indications. from single cement samples. The maximum particle size should be small. The typical cement types available from most manufacturers. but coarse cements with relatively large particle size.5) Extra fine rapid hardening cement (limited availability) Blaine (m2/kg) 250 300-350 400-450 550 The cements with the highest Blaine value will normally be the most expensive.5) Rapid hardening Portland cement (CEM 52. Table 4. are the particle size and particle size distribution.

From an injection viewpoint.1 31.0 22.0 27.8 86.6 99.8 31.6 100.0 mm 1 3 5 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 90%< 10%< Average particle size Norwegian rapid hardening (RP38) 7. 40 . these cements will have the following basic properties: • A highly ground cement with small particle size.9 59. but causes also the disadvantage of shorter open time in the equipment.9 90.3 100.3 10.8 2. This is normally an advantage. and hence even quicker setting.7 65.6 0.5 55.2. The finer cements have a quicker hydration and a higher final strength. will bind more water than a coarse cement. High temperatures will increase the potential problems of clogging of lines and valves.5 98. Particle size of some frequently used injection cements Percent passing Spinor A12 W650 Blue Ciments Circle d’Origny 12.6 30.6 76.5 99.4 40.0 9.1 100.4 66.6 1.0 50. The intensive mixing required for fine cements.0 Swedish Injection cement Degerhamn 12.2 68.8 80.3 95.9 86. must be closely controlled. to avoid heat development caused by the friction in the high shear mixer.9 mm 6.0 32.5 95.4 97.9 The finer cements will give better penetration into fine cracks and openings.1 99.5 16.2 45.5 5.6 73.0 82. The risk of bleeding (water separation) in a suspension created from a fine cement is therefore lower and a filled opening will remain more completely filled. • Table 4.3 1.4 0.9 7.

30 mm. the following suggestion can be used: Cement with a Blaine value > 600 m2/kg and minimum 99% having particle size < 40 µm. The effect of water reducing admixture (or dispersing admixture) when mixing a micro cement suspension can be seen in Figure 4. With admixture the same result could be obtained in a soil with d15 > 0. there is a tendency of particle flocculation after mixing. especially with finer cements.22 mm. steep particle size distribution. It is commonly said that the finest crack injectable. a good injection result with this cement without admixture could be achieved in a soil with d15 > 0. while the finest micro cements may enter openings of 0. It is quite evident that the reduction of d85 by the use of a dispersing admixture from about 9 µm to 5 µm will strongly influence the penetration of the suspension into the ground.06 mm. 41 . Also in rock injection the effect would be significant.3]. what is the definition of microcement. In a pure cement and water suspension. The question is sometimes raised. If these figures are put into the soil injection criteria of Mitchell [4.12 mm. and this is counter-productive. The above “definition” fits quite well with the International Society for Rock Mechanics reference [4. this means openings down to about 0. For standard cements. is about 3x the maximum particle size (including the size of flocculates).” An example of a micro cement just satisfying the superfine “definition” can be found in Chapter MBT Injection Materials.1]: “Superfine cement is made of the same materials as ordinary cement. this question cannot be answered based on any kind of internationally accepted agreed definition and it is left to common practice and case by case identification. As an informative indication of a minimum requirement to apply the term micro cement.This advantage will only be realized as long as the mixing process is efficient enough to separate the individual particles and properly wet them. The Rheocem© 650 has a Blaine value of 650 m2/kg and the particle distribution shows 94% < 15 mm.2]. It is characterised by a greater fineness (d95 < 16 µm) and an even. Unfortunately.1 [4.

1 Dispersing effect of an admixture when using micro-cement [4. More important in cases with even higher water content is that the permeability is pretty high and the strength is so low that if any water flow takes place.Another important effect of water reducing admixtures is the lowered viscosity at a fixed w/c-ratio.3 (which will be far too stiff to be used for normal injection). but more important is lower permeability and better chemical stability. Figure 4. The compressive strength of a pure water and cement mix using a standard OPC is about 90 MPa at w/c-ratio of 0.0 MPa and less. it can lead to mechanical erosion and chemical leaching out of hydroxides (hydration products from cement reacting with water).5% admixture reaches 10 MPa compressive strength after 28 days). Already at a w/c-ratio of 0.0 the strength is finally in the range of 1. (Rheocem® 650 microcement with 1.6 the strength will drop to 35 MPa and when using grout mixes with w/c-ratio above 1. The effect of lower water content is improved final strength of the grout.2] 42 .

The reason to do so was the strong tendency of standard cement to separate when suspended in water. The particles also sink very slowly within the suspension because of the shape. without sacrificing stability or penetration.4. at high ground water head. However. There are two main types: • • Sodium-bentonite (Na-) Calcium-bentonite (Ca-) Mostly the sodium-Bentonite is used as an additive in cement grouts. because it swells to between 10 and 25 times the original dry volume when mixed in water.2 Idealised structure of Bentonite clay after dispersion in water. The final strength of the grout is not important in most cases. The shape of the particles are also a negative property in this respect. Bentonite can be used to reduce the bleeding in such grouts and a standard dosage of 3 to 5% of the cement weight has a strong stabilising effect.0. Fig 4. However. in combination with micro-cements it is normally not necessary and will mostly be of disadvantage. Bentonite is a natural clay from volcanic ashes and the main mineral is montmorillonite. Modern micro-cement grouts can be made with very low viscosity and limited or no bleeding if combined with chemical admixtures and the Bentonite use is therefore unnecessary and negative for the result. 43 . See Figure 4. the use of Bentonite at normal dosage will reduce the grout strength by 50% and more. This is avoided when using modern admixtures in micro-cement grouts. enhanced by the normal use of water cement ratio > 1. The particles resemble the shape of playing cards and will adsorb water on the particle surfaces.2. With the traditional cement grouting methods and materials Bentonite had its place.1. This is two to three times larger than what is found in good micro-cements and will reduce the penetration achievable by a given cement. thus stabilising the grout mix. One reason is that a typical d95 particle size of Bentonite clay is around 60 µm.2 Bentonite Bentonite has traditionally been used on a routine basis in combination with cement for grouting of soil and rock. or when a ground stabilisation effect is valuable.

A cement suspension or paste. but at a lower velocity.1. as soon as there is an inclination. or as a stable paste (in terms of water separation). the grout may also have an internal friction. the paste will thereafter behave in a similar manner as a liquid.3 Rheological behaviour of cement grouts Cement mixed in water as an unstable suspension. A liquid with a higher viscosity than water will also flow. or when ground mineral powder or fine sand has been added. Water in a pipe will start flowing. The rheological parameters of cement suspensions can be 44 . If the internal friction is negligible. Lombardi has proposed the following rheological formula [4.4]: t = c + h dv/dx + p tanj where: p = internal pressure within the grout j = angle of internal friction of the grout A true liquid will flow as soon as there is a force creating a shear stress. behaves according to Bingham‘s Law.3 Bingham‘s Law: Newton‘s Law: where: t = c + h dv/dx t = h dv/dx t = flow shear resistance (Pa) h = viscosity (Pa s) dv/dx = shear velocity (s-1) c = cohesion (Pa) Figure 4. Water and true liquids have flow behaviour according to Newton‘s Law.3 Rheological behaviour of Newton and Bingham fluids When a stable grout has a very low w/c-ratio. will demonstrate some cohesion. These laws are as follows: See Figure 4. The difference to liquids is that the cohesion has to be overcome. for any flow to be initiated.4. To cover this property.

will loose a very small quantity of water through the filter and the thickness of dried out and compacted grout on top of the filter will be very thin. by bentonite clay and by other mineral fillers. which is not tested or reflected by the normal check on bleeding.influenced by w/c-ratio. there is one more factor that is very important: The grout stability under pressure. • The standard method for testing the pressure filtration coefficient (Kpf) is the American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice 13. using a 6. The main part of the grout under pressure remains uninfluenced. A grout with a poor stability will over the same time loose much more water through the filter and a thick layer of dried out and compacted grout will be found on top of the filter. 4. When squeezing out a small quantity of water from the grout at the injection front (which is well simulated by the API pressure filtration test).4 Pressure stability of cement grouts For the purpose of controlling grout flow in the ground (to be able to place the grout where it is wanted). divided by the square root of the filtration time in minutes. it is possible and often useful. two things may happen: • The grout with a good stability. to create a grout with a high degree of thixotropy. by chemical admixtures. As an example. This will cause the pump pressure to increase. than some limited difference in particle size. 45 . If the pressure is high enough and the grout stability is very poor. is to consider two different grouts. In this context. but shortly after being left undisturbed.1.9 bar pressure (100 psi). The coefficient is defined as the volume of water lost using the API filter press divided by the initial volume. The best way to illustrate the point. This will happen more readily with a poor stability grout and often in positions where the openings are much bigger than the rule of thumb 3x maximum particle size. the control of the rheological parameters of the grout is vital. it shows a very high cohesion. all the grout volume may be dried out and compacted. internal friction will quickly increase the flow resistance enough to stop further permeation. This means a paste with a low total flow resistance while being stirred or pumped. both having w/c-ratio low enough for zero bleeding. Practical project experience and results support the above views and it is likely that the grout stability is much more important for the permeation of a cement grout. having the effect of more water being pressed out and a rapid development of a plug. If these grouts are filled into a container with a 45 µm micro filter in the bottom and subjected to pressure.

1. One has to be aware that final set has limited relevance compared to strength.5] used stable microfine cement injected into a granite formation. It should be noted that the grout used had a relatively high viscosity of 44 seconds Marsh cone time. or hardening created by cement hydration. MPa): Initial set: 140 to 240 minutes Final set: 190 to 240 minutes (10 to 20 MPa at 24h) A typical high early strength (rapid hardening) Portland cement in comparison: Initial set: 80 to 180 minutes Final set: 150 to 240 minutes (15 to 30 MPa at 24h) From a practical point of view.6 Grout setting characteristics Ordinary Portland cements will typically show the following ranges of initial and final setting times and 24 hours uniaxial compressive strength (ISO mortar.4. Keil et al [4. Analysis of specimens from the grouted formation revealed penetration into cracks as fine as 20 micron. If a high hydrostatic pressure is combined with fairly large openings. far better than what was within reach some years ago. 4. which is covered separately. initial setting time cannot be made much shorter.1. the ground water hydrostatic pressure may be in the range of 10 to 50 bar (sometimes even higher). it is possible to use admixtures to control the open time. the grouting pressure.5 Use of high injection pressure High injection pressure has proven very successful in achieving low water ingress levels. will also dilate the cracks and joints of the rock formation and thus increase penetration by increasing the opening size. without potential problems of build up in equipment and clogging of material lines. when high enough. Under field conditions in tunnel injection. As described above the pressure filtration is an important factor in this and it is clear that the best effect will be reached with a combination of a high grouting pressure (above 50 bar) and a grout with a low filtration coefficient. If high pressure is used without careful consideration of the consequences. then sufficient time has to be allowed at the end of an 46 . Especially. Of course. This full scale injection test was well instrumented and revealed opening and closure of fracture zones by as much as 100 micron. Furthermore. it will be possible to cause damage. be careful not to use very high pressure in combination with large grout quantities in a single continuous pumping sequence.

0 will be only 25 to 30% of that at w/c-ratio of 0. it should be quite obvious that it will pay off to carefully evaluate the situation under difficult conditions and control the w/c-ratio. there is no report indicating that grout has degraded.2 Durability of cement injection in rock There is a large volume of hard rock tunnelling with extensive use of pre-injection as part of the tunnel design and as the sole measure of permanent ground water control. of course. 47 .7].0. Melby [4. During more than 15 years of operation Statoil has recorded the energy-consumption expended in pumping of ingress water from the deepest point in the tunnels to sea level discharge. As a rule of thumb. A comparison of water ingress at the time of opening and measurements made in 1996 shows the average ingress in 1996 to be only 62. Førdesfjord and Førlandsfjord.9% of the ingress recorded when the tunnels opened. where Norway alone has close to 100 km of sub-sea tunnelling.4 and a further reduction to only 5% at w/c-ratio of 2. The tunnels are crossing Karmsundet. whether or not compaction has been carried out by standing end pressure. if it occurred would lead to an increase as opposed to a reduction in the water ingress. going down to 180 m below sea level. before any drilling or blasting into the same area. a puncture may occur and injected cement and water is flushed back into the tunnel. keep in mind that the compressive strength reached at a w/c-ratio of 1.5] presents a paper dealing with 17 different projects totalling 58. a waiting time in the range of 10 to 15 hours should be sufficient. Otherwise. The necessary time will also depend upon the w/c-ratio of the injected grout and at w/c-ratios substantially greater than 1. From this.6 km of tunnelling. thus destroying the work carried out and creating a hazardous condition. the general trend reported is a slow reduction of water ingress over the years as opposed to any sort of degradation in the grout which. Even though some of these tunnels go down to as much as 260 m below sea level and the grout injection works carried out are of a permanent nature. In a more moderate case (pressure of 5 to 25 bar and maximum openings up to 25 mm).0. 4. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration operates 17 sub-sea tunnels of various different ages (the oldest tunnel goes to Vardø island and was commissioned in 1981) excavated through quite variable ground conditions. None of the tunnels showed an increase in the leakage rate. In extreme cases. In fact. The primary experience basis is probably in Scandinavia. Statoil states that there has been no increase in ground water ingress. the necessary waiting time may be as long as 24 hours (above 30 bar and openings larger than 50 mm). since the energy consumed has not increased [4. The Norwegian national oil company Statoil constructed three pipeline sub-sea tunnels amounting to a total of 12 km.injection stage.

6 [4.During grouting: • • • • • higher density. but when considering the use of microfine cement in combination with quick setting to speed up tunnelling.2. Furthermore. Hence.After hardening: • • • • greater strength lower permeability better adhesion to joint walls better durability 4. hence better removal of joint water and less mixing at the grouting front almost complete filling of joints. then the picture is different.1]: “Stable or almost stable suspensions contain far less excess water than unstable ones. which states in Chapter 4. when needed. 48 . including branches the reach and the volume of grout can be closely delineated grouting time is shortened because little excess water has to be expelled the risk is reduced that expelled water will damage the partially set grout .Very important for the quality and durability of cement grouts is the w/c-ratio and whether the grout is stable or segregating. Modern grouting technology in tunnelling means stable grouts and thus also w/c-ratio below a certain limit.3 Accelerators for cement injection It is frequently claimed that there is no need for relatively fast setting cement for rock injection. The downside of this is that at the end of injection. grouts with a low water content offer the following advantages: . This is partly correct. Commission on Rock Grouting. The main point is that accelerators will cause flocculation of the cement particles when added to the grout. but most of the volume is slow and this volume will be dimensioning for the waiting time. there will be some grout setting fast. This view is supported by the ISRM. depending on the type of cement and the admixture used. this is defeating the purpose of paying for and using a microfine cement. because it is possible to use an accelerator in combination with slow cements. In the case of a microcement. Final Report. in most cases part of the injection will be carried out without accelerator and the accelerator is added for special local purposes.

49 . before addition to the grout. This will typically be in post-grouting to cut off backflow. This product seems to create no flocculation before the setting is initiated and then it sets pretty fast. The non-return valve that is needed for use with a dosage pump for MEYCO® SA 160 through a separate hose to the packer head is shown in Figure 4. but this problem sometimes also appears as backflow through the face in pre-injection.4 Non-return valve for accelerator dosage (dimensions in mm) Practical experience has shown that this system works very well and can compete with other alternatives (like quick-foaming polyurethane) to block backflow. thus overcoming the above described problem. accelerated grout may become necessary. If for any other reason the grout is pumped into running water. The practical way of using SA 160 is described in Chapter 9.4. The standard MEYCO® SA 160 product can be diluted up to 50% by adding water. Normal dosage (calculated on un-diluted MEYCO® SA 160) will be in the range of 0. Low dosages can be added to the grout in the mixer (but it is NOT recommended). Even when using a quick setting Rheocem© grout there are situations where acceleration can be necessary.1 to about 3% by weight of cement. or pressure or channel sizes are extreme.The MBT range of specially adapted micro-cements for tunneling are named Rheocem©. mostly even without loosing the borehole for further injection without accelerator. These cements are fast setting without any added accelerator. The best option in combination with Rheocem© is MEYCO® SA 160 accelerator (MBT alkali free accelerator for sprayed concrete). while higher dosages must come through a separate hose to the packer head. SA 160 Rheocem Figure 4.

which leads to a quite different behaviour than cementitious grouts. sodium carbomethylcellulose. Chemical grouts available include silicates. Mixed batches only have to be small enough and with long enough open time to be injected before the polymerisation reaction takes place. normally such products are injected as two-component materials. only depend on the viscosity of the liquid grout and the injection pressure used. phenolic resins. an open three dimensional molecular grid is created. amino resins. demonstrating viscosity but no cohesion (see Figure 4. 50 .5.3). which binds a lot of water in the gel. When short reaction times are used. Therefore the penetration distance from a borehole and the placement time for a given volume. The water is not chemically linked to the polymeric grid. mixing taking place at the injection packer upon entry into the ground. but is locked within the grid by adsorption. Such products will not be dissolved in water. When the polymerisation takes place. At longer reaction times even two component materials can be injected by a one component pump. polyurethane and some other exotic materials. Two component pumps must function properly for this to be satisfied. epoxy. lignosulphonates. but they may react with water. Chemical grouts behave like Newtonian fluids. For practical purposes there are two main groups of chemical grouts available: • • Reactive plastic resins Water-rich gels The reactive resins may be monomers or polymers that are mixed to create a reaction (polymerisation) to a stable three-dimensional polymeric end product. For proper reaction and quality of the end product the right proportioning of the components is important. CHEMICAL GROUTS Chemical grouts consist of only liquid components. The gel forming products are dissolved in water in low concentrations and the liquid components therefore show a very low viscosity (often almost as fluid as water). acrylamide and acrylates.

Polymers are giant molecules that are produced by joining smaller molecules (monomers) in a so called step growth (or condensation) polymerisation into e. polyurethane products. it will be possible for solving special problems. There are products for practical application to be injected as a single component. but these are more hazardous and should not be used for injection in any underground project). to add modifications. The polyurethanes are formed by reaction of two components: Polyisocyanate (Diphenylmethane-diisocyanate.5. The viscosity of mixed product. A simple example reaction is shown below: CH3-N=C=O + HO-CH2-CH3 Isocyanate + Alcohol => => CH3-NH-CO-O-CH2-CH3 Urethane The reaction products may be rigid or soft. is that manufacturers will offer a limited number of standard products. Polyalcohols (abbreviated “polyol”) 51 . with a set of properties for a range of typical situations. (There are also other isocyanates available. by involving specialists on the job site. to tailor make a material for specific purposes. as well as twocomponent systems. or abbreviated “MDI”). pore free or foamed up to 30 times the volume of the liquid components and the reaction time may vary between seconds and hours. The properties of a product are mainly governed by the choice of different basic raw materials. The very wide range of possible PU-grout properties offers an advantage to the specialist. because it will be difficult to sort out which commercial product is the best one for an intended application. The normal way to offer some flexibility.1 General Polyurethane grouts (PU-grouts) are reactive plastic polymers having a wide range of properties for practical applications. For the normal end user.1. before reaction has started and also the speed of reaction. Most systems can be modified by the use of added catalysts and other chemicals that influence the behaviour of the product. are both quite sensitive to temperature. On the basis of such a palette of standard products. this complexity can be quite frustrating. without complicating matters too much.1 Polyurethane grouts 5. Products with repeating units of NHCO2 are called polyurethane.g.

like water flow cut-off and ground consolidation. 52 . but this will reduce the penetration into finer openings and the volume cost becomes high. The cost of materials is also important.1 Polyurethane molecule One very interesting part of the reaction is the effect of water. there is a need of combined effects from an injection. At room temperature a typical product viscosity is 200 cP.1. but is also very much influenced by the foaming pressure. The properties of the foam created will depend on the local conditions. The foam formation has the effect of self-injection of the PU-grout. A typical average volume increase in rock injection at low pressure.1. will produce a low strength grout. but solvents can cause health problems and environmental problems under ground. At the other extreme. When free foaming produces a volume increase of 30 times. but it is possible to get as low as 100 cP. Polyurethane products have typically a high viscosity. because the CO2-pressure developed can be up to 50 bar (temperature dependent). a very quick foaming to several times the original volume. causing the formation of a closed cell foam.2 MBT PU-products See Chapter 11 on MBT injection materials. or the mixed components are meeting water after injection. may compress the foam and increase the leakage again. If the products are diluted by the addition of solvents it is possible to come down to about 20 cP. a part of the isocyanate will react to polyurea and carbon dioxide (CO2). This reaction takes place in parallel to the formation of polyurethane and the gas generates trapped bubbles. The volume cost drops with the foam factor. 5. that may be very effective for an initial cut-off of running water.The structure of a polyurethane molecule created from polyglycol is illustrated in Figure 5. O C N CH2 N H O C O CH2 CH2 O X n Figure 5. is more like 5 to 10 times. In most cases under ground. The penetration of the grout is therefore not only governed by pump pressure and by the product viscosity. in the ground the restricted volume increase will create pressure and less expansion. The best consolidation is reached when there is very little foam reaction. A very porous grout will also not seal completely and subsequent water pressure build up. but with little consolidation effect. If some water is added to the polyol component. which is a limiting factor for permeation into the ground.

53 . Some syneresis will take place after gel has been formed in the ground (release of water from the gel and some shrinkage). There are also examples of silicate injection in rock formations. It may also be added that apart from the pH of typically 10. sodium aluminate). Because of the low gel strength it will have limited resistance to ground water pressure. there are small problems with working safety and health. showing much better practical properties with improved quality of the final grout. These products are mostly methyl and ethyl di-esters. where channels may be some cm wide.5. The liquid is later diluted by water to reach a viscosity level that can be used for injection purposes in soil and fine cracks in rock.2. by a slow extrusion of gel over time.2 Pump and other accessories for 2-component PU 5.2 Silicate grouts Sodium silicates have been used for decades as soil injection grouts.3 Pumping equipment For 2-component PU it is necessary to use a custom design 2-component PU pump.5 to 11. The main advantage of silicate grouts is the low cost and the low viscosity. weak and somewhat unstable.5 (causing it to be quite aggressive). To packer Static mixer Pressure release valve Non-return valve Component A "White" Polyol Component B "Black" Isocyanat Return valve for flushing Pump D 200. These are normally prepared for 1:1 ratio of the A and B components (by volume) and the whole set-up all the way up to the packer is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5.21 Figure 5. Silicates are used for soil stabilisation or for ground water control. but today normally proprietary chemical systems will be used. Acids and acidic salts will cause such gel-formation (like sodium bicarbonate.2. The liquid silicate needs a hardener to create a gel. This can be seen in rock injection locally. Liquid silicate (also called waterglass) is produced by dissolving vitreous silicate in water at high temperature (900 °C) and high pressure. A normal injection grout will have a viscosity of about 5 cP and the gel produced is water rich.1. especially in cracks and joints that are relatively large.

These products are in the same class as cement regarding working safety and can be used under ground. Polyacrylates are gels formed in a polymerisation reaction after mixing acrylic monomers with an accelerator in aqueous solution.4 Acrylic grouts The acrylic grouts came in use already 50 years ago and for cost reasons these were based on acrylamide. The low pH cement-environment is very unfavorable for the durability of a silicate grout. See Chapter 11 on MBT injection materials. that can lead to new leakage channels over time. the primary substances (monomers) of certain products can be of ecological relevance before their complete polymerisation. the use of products containing acrylamide (which is a nerve poison. However. In contrast to that. provided normal precautions are taken. In rock injection it will often be necessary to do cement-injection as a first step. but also the chemical stability is questionable in many cases. where run-off to ground water caused pollution and poisoning of livestock. Before the monomers completely polymerise. 5. The toxic properties of such products have over the years stopped them from being used. The syneresis is one of the problems in such an application. Polymerised polyacrylates are not dangerous for human health and the environment. subsequently leading to contamination. Products are available that are based on methacrylic acid esters. is carcinogenic and with cumulative effect in the human body) must be avoided. In the construction industry. to fill up the larger channels. using accelerator of alconal amines and catalyst of ammonium persulphate. 5. 54 . The colloidal silica is a unique new system with entirely new properties and can even be considered more environment friendly than cement. For temporary ground water control for some months it will mostly be acceptable. Because of such effects in practical injection works underground and because of the working safety of personnel. it is not necessary to include this dangerous component in an acrylic grout.If the grouting is done as a ground water control of a permanent nature (several years).as a rule within some minutes. Injection materials polymerise very quickly . acrylic grouts are used for soil stabilisation and water proofing of rock. then silicates cannot be used. The last known major application was in the Swedish Hallandsasen tunnel.3 MBT colloidal silica This product has no resemblance to the silicate systems described above. a considerable amount can be diluted by the ground water.

If a gel sample is left in the open over time under normal room conditions. The gel will normally be elastic like a weak rubber with a strength of about 10 kPa at low deformation. which then happens very fast.Figure 5.4. The gel-time can typically be chosen between seconds and up to an hour. it will swell again and regain its original properties. Normally such a product is injected with less than 20% monomer concentration in water and the product viscosity is therefore as low as 4 to 5 cP. shrink and become hard. This viscosity is kept unchanged until just before polymerisation. An injected sand can reach a compressive strength of 10 MPa.3 MEYCO MP 301 injected in sand Acrylic gel materials are very useful for injection into soil and rock with predominantly fine cracks. This is a very favorable behavior under most conditions. The strength of the gel will primarily depend on the concentration of monomer dissolved in water. but be aware that if an unlimited number of drying/wetting cycles must be assumed. but also which catalyst system and catalyst dosage that is being used. it will loose the adsorbed water trapped within the polymer grid. 5. If placed in water. then the gel will eventually disintegrate. The chemical stability and durability of acrylic gels are otherwise very good. In underground conditions this property of an acrylic gel will seldom represent any problem. 55 .1 MBT acrylic products See Chapter 11 on MBT injection materials.

The silicate component will lower the volume cost of the final product and the acrylic component will improve the chemical stability. there are also products available where different chemical systems are combined into one commercial product.7 Bitumen (asphalt) In tunnel excavation it has happened a few times that extreme water ingress is exposed locally at the face.5 Epoxy resins Epoxy products can have some interesting technical properties in special cases. The reaction is strongly exothermic and if openings are filled that are too large (width > some cm) the epoxy material will start boiling and again the quality will be reduced. Epoxy resin and hardener must be mixed in exactly the right proportions for a complete polymerisation to take place. Best known is combination of silicate and acrylic grout. The practical handling of such a system is a bit complicated and the use of such products is therefore quite limited. Such inrush can be catastrophic and will in most cases be extremely difficult to get under control or to seal off. Any deviation will reduce the quality of the product.6 Combined systems of silicate and acrylic materials In practical grouting it is quite normal to combine different grouts during the execution of the works. 56 . where the hardener for the silicate is mixed into the acrylic monomer and the hardener for the acrylic grout is mixed with the silicate. reduce the syneresis and give a much stronger and more stable gel. Working safety and environmental risk are additional aspects of epoxy injection that makes the product group of marginal interest for rock injection underground.5. but the cost of epoxy and the difficult handling and applicationare the reasons for very limited use in rock injection under ground. However. 5. unless special solvents are used. Also for epoxy the viscosity is high. When the two components are mixed. which is then followed by an acrylic gel formation to reinforce and stabilise the final gel. The product will be handled as a two-component material. there will first be a silicate gel reaction. This will normally consist in reaching a certain level of tightness by the use of cement and then to finalise by some chemical grout. 5.

bark cuttings. can be very high. grouted in 1983. The grout has no chance to set and is diluted and flushed out by the turbulent flowing water. cellulose materials etc. Frequently failing to do the job. especially at low temperature (slow reaction). it is always advisable to place some suitable cementitious grout to ensure a permanent and stable barrier. the water head and the distance from the injection point until the downstream outlet point. The principle will be to use a selected quality of bitumen (roofing grade asphalt). The water pressure is therefore always present and the flow rate in the channels that need to be sealed. The first zone. the bitumen will rapidly loose its high temperature and rapidly and dramatically change its rheological properties. The other zone. two concentrated leakage zones through the dam foundation were grouted by asphalt (combined with cement) [5. As a last resort. The softening point should be around 95 to 100 °C. will easily stop in narrow points in the water channel and can thus block the flow. like cement or concrete mixed with wood cuttings.8 m3 sand (1984). Leakage like that can be extremely difficult to seal off. However. where the grout flow rate must be able to displace the water to avoid washing out. was 9’000 l/min and was reduced to virtually nil. The bitumen gets sticky. This is totally different to all sorts of cementitious grouting. causing severe water loss. yielded 13’600 l/min water leakage and this was reduced by more than 90%. heated liquid bitumen (asphalt) can be an alternative. The output must be adapted to the water flow rate.7 m3 sand (1983) and 3370 l asphalt and 2. The ideal bitumen quality will rapidly change from an easily pumped fluid material to sticky.It has also happened that hydropower dams expose water channels from inside the water reservoir to downstream of the dam. that heated to a sufficiently high temperature (typically 200 to 230 °C) has low viscosity allowing easy pumping. After a blockage has been achieved. Materials consumption was 6000 l asphalt and 5. the asphalt output may be less than 1% of the water leakage rate and still be effective. An unsuccessful attempt in 1982. grouting of ordinary cement grouts in such situations is useless. but there are situations where it will not work. grouted in 1984. At the Stewartwill Dam in Eastern Ontario. because it is mostly not an option to empty the water reservoir. using cement and sand took 2 months and consumed 5600 bags of cement plus 73 m3 sand. Up to a certain limit. Typically. 57 . highly viscous and non-fluid asphalt at the water temperature. It is interesting to note that both cases where executed in one day of grouting. and with all kinds of accelerators.1]. When injected into the water stream. From case reports it is known that a number of very innovative methods have been tried. The work was carried out with a full reservoir (about 6 bar water head). quick foaming polyurethane can be used for water flow cut-off. Canada..

4 shows one of the water-flow exits after the 4th and the 5th shift. near State College PA.4 Flow after 4th shift (left) and 5th shift grouting (right) (Photo P. Cochrane) 58 . carried out injection with asphalt in Pleasant Gap [5.2]. USA. The grouting was running over 5 shifts and Figure 5. Figure 5.The specialist contractor FEC Inc.

1 Atlas Copco COP 1838 hydraulic drifter machine (photo Atlas Copco) 59 . It is also possible to apply stiffeners to the first drill rod. By coupling of drill rods. Typically. 64 mm diameter has become more popular. A bore hole of 30 m length. with standard equipment. is problems of ground seizing in poor ground. The drill rods attach to the drilling machine using coarse threads and the energy from the hammer blows travel through the drill rod to the drill bit at the end. A bore hole diameter of 51 mm uses a drill rod diameter of 32 mm. modern hydraulic machines can penetrate at 1. The risk of getting the drill string stuck in the hole is substantially increased. For hole length greater than about 5 m. it is possible to drill very long holes. even in hard granitic rocks. thus further reducing the deviation.1 BORE HOLES IN ROCK Top hammer percussive drilling This is the common drilling method in hard rock. Holes drilled near horizontal will show higher deviation than vertically drilled holes.and drill bit rotation. can produce an end point deviation of 5 to 10 m (17 to 34%). but the hole deviation will limit the practical hole length for injection purposes. the deviation can be reduced to less than 15%. 6. The most frequently used borehole diameter is 51 mm. Since the late seventies. but lately.5 to 2. used in jointed and variable rock and with careless drilling (meaning maximum speed drilling with high feeder pressure from the beginning). The outer diameter of the couplings are 36 mm./min. primarily the chosen equipment and practical procedures and secondarily on the rock conditions. the hydraulic drilling machines have completely replaced pneumatic machines. The maximum hole length is limited to about 60 m. By a careful and slow start of the hole. the drill rods are coupled. The rotation speed is in the range of 80 to 160 rev.and medium hard rock tunnelling. The drilling machine delivers torque for drill rod. One disadvantage with stiffeners on the drill string. With such equipment it is realistic to achieve deviation around 5%. The directional deviation depends on a number of factors. until the first drill rod length has entered into the rock and by a slightly reduced feeder pressure.0 m/min.6. Figure 6.

Using drilling machines of the latest design like the Atlas Copco COP 1838 (Figure 6.1), the drilling capacity with 64 mm diameter drill bits is about 2 m/min. Such diameter allows the use of drill rods of diameter 38 mm. The stiffness of this system is substantially improved compared to the above and the hole deviation is around 5% without any special equipment or technique. One disadvantage is the need for bore hole packers of increased diameter. The cost is higher and the problems of packer sealing in poor ground and at high ground water head are quite a bit increased. A 25% increase of hole diameter, gives a 57% increase of axial force on the packer from the ground water- or injection pressure. It also means that the cement quantity spent for simply filling the borehole volume of one 30 m injection round of 25 holes, increases from 2200 kg to 3500 kg. A popular compromise is the use of 54 mm diameter drillbits with drill rods of 35 mm and couplings of 38 mm diameter. This is today the preferred solution for long hole probe drilling and injection drilling. For the drilling of injection holes it is important that the borehole is as circular as possible and with the correct diameter. The packer will then have the best possible chance to seal the hole without problems. From experience it is evident that the drill bits with a (+) configuration of the carbide inserts give the best hole circularity at the least deviation (see Figure 6.2). Both button bits and bits with a (X)-configuration tend to more easily produce oval shaped holes. Furthermore, especially the button bit will more rapidly show diameter wear and it may be producing too narrow holes for the packer, long before it would otherwise be worn out.
Figure 6.2 Drillbit for good borehole roundness and small deviation (photo Atlas Copco)

To achieve high productivity and good economy, drilling of probe holes and injection holes of more than 5 m length, will require hydraulic equipment for the handling of drill rods, including coupling and decoupling. This is available off the shelf from most equipment manufacturers. It should be noted that it is also a must from a safety point of view, if the ground water head is above about 5 bar (theoretically 100 kp axial force on a 51 mm diameter drill bit). At water heads above this level, all manual handling of the drill string would be very dangerous and often not possible.
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For high productivity percussive drilling the water flushing for removal of the drill cuttings is very important. When this drilling method is used for injection bore holes, proper flushing is even more important, to reduce the risk that fine material may be clogging joints and cracks (that shall afterwards be injected). Remaining rock cuttings may also interfere with the packer seal. Typically, about 5% of the produced cuttings are less than 5 mm grain size when drilling in a granitic gneiss. Very likely, the quantity of fines will increase in softer rocks. A secondary grinding of particles arises from the rotation of the couplers and the drill rods and friction against the bore hole walls. This secondary grinding and the risk of squeezing fines into joints and cracks is greatly reduced by sufficient water flushing.

6.2

Down the hole drilling machines
This technique is also a percussive drilling method, but the drilling machine works directly on the drill bit and follows the bit into the borehole. The drill rods are there for feeder pressure, rotational torque and to convey the flushing medium. Since the hammer blows are always directly on the drill bit, long boreholes will not reduce the energy delivered at the drill bit. Drilling rate is therefore not much influenced by the hole length. Typical rotation speed is 10 to 60 rev./min. The typical bore hole diameter range is 85 mm and larger. The reason why smaller diameter is not available is the necessary space for the machine. See Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3 Down-the-hole machine (illustration from SECOROC)

For drilling of injection holes in underground works, this method is not normally used. In special cases it may be considered. If the greater hole diameter is of benefit; if a long hole with small deviation is required; or if it is necessary to use a casing for hole stabilisation, this drilling method may be useful. This drilling method, as part of the ODEX system (Atlas Copco), allows a steel pipe casing to be fed into the hole in parallel with the drilling. When the hole has reached the final depth, drilling machine and drill bit can be withdrawn by counter-rotating the bit, which reduces its diameter sufficiently for retraction. The system is expensive and slow, but elegant for certain purposes.

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6.3

Rotary low speed drilling
Rotary drilling works by point crushing under the drill bit, due to the rotation and axial feeding. The method is not efficient in hard rock and the minimum diameter necessary makes it unsuitable for injection drilling.

6.4

Rotary high speed, core drilling
Core drilling is also a rotary drilling method, but the drill bit is a cutting tool (not crushing). The drill rods are steel pipes and the drill bit is a ring shaped bit with diamonds as the cutting material. Feeding pressure and rotation torque is produced by the drilling machine at the hole opening. The operations are normally hydraulic, while the machine is typically powered by electricity. Core drilling is not used for normal injection drilling, but for investigations ahead of the tunnel face and for special case injection at greater depth. The drilling produces a core of rock material that is retrieved from the bore hole for inspection and geological logging. Normal hole diameters are 45-56-66-76 and 86 mm. Hole lengths in the range of 300 to 500 m are possible. Up to about 100 m length, depending on rock conditions and equipment, the drilling capacity will be up to 5 m/h. The deviation will be in the range of 2-3% for short holes (<15 m) and around 5% for long holes. Core drilling tends to produce round and smooth holes and typically the clogging of cracks and joints is reduced, compared to percussive drilling. The cost and time needed for core drilling is still much higher than for percussive drilling and it is therefore only used in special cases.

6.5

Example solution for drill and blast excavation (tunnels and shafts)

Figure 6.4 Drilling jumbo Atlas Copco Rocket Boomer (photo Atlas Copco)

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6.7 m diameter.5. During drilling.4.Shafts are in many respects the same as tunnels (except for the fact that they are vertical or very steep) from an injection viewpoint. All holes generally have a length of 20 m.5. The average ground permeability is k = 3 x 10-5 m/s and the injection should bring it down to k = 5 x 10-7 m/s. There are many situations where a more relaxed approach will perform adequately. This will be important to ensure that ground water flow of uncontrolled magnitude into the openings is avoided. The number of holes is shown in Figure 6. although other orientations may be appropriate for particular situations and/or rock conditions. By drilling and injecting into 20 m hole length and repeating the process every 10 m the risk of exposing unsealed undetected larger leakages by blasting are close to nil. All holes are generally drilled at theoretically about 11° out from the shaft or tunnel direction. systematic pre-injection must be executed and no effort is done to probe drill to decide about injection based on the findings. Probe drilling to detect water bearing zones before they become a real problem in the shaft is therefore essential. The following is an example of procedures for the systematic pre-injection ahead of tunnels or shaft faces to be excavated by drill-and-blast. The necessity to control ground water is higher than in a tunnel. The described approach is based on the use of the Rheocem® microcement system with supplementary chemical products (MEYCO® MP 355 /A3 2K quick foaming polyurethane and MEYCO® MP 320 silica grout) and on experience of similar operations over recent years (2K means 2-component).1 Drilling of injection holes Drilling of the boreholes shall be done with a 51 mm drill bit preferably using a hydraulic drilling rig for maximum efficiency and control.5 m with access through a shaft of 10. See Figure 6. This is a relatively strict requirement and consequently. The example is a tunnel with a diameter of 5. Drilling of injection holes must be done with water flushing of the drill bit. A suitable drilling jumbo is shown in Figure 6. only that more holes would be needed (larger diameter) to get about the same hole spacing. By a 100% overlap of injection fans the quality of the injection work will be good. because water ingress very quickly creates problems at the working face (the shaft bottom). but there are many alternatives available and also units for larger tunnel cross sections.5. 63 . any weakness zones and areas containing pressurised water are registered manually and noted in a special drilling record by the shift supervisor. Additional holes may be drilled out from the centre of the shaft/tunnel if considered necessary to achieve water tightness of the face. which shows the tunnel and the same set-up would apply in the shaft. where both must be sealed.

5 Full overlap systematic pre-injection. Flushing must be done thoroughly by introducing a stiff PVC hose to the bottom of the hole which is then slowly withdrawn while flushing. 6.4 Choice of injection materials Based on the expected ground conditions the type of Rheocem® must be selected as the primary injection material. with the risk of collapse of the holes. the grouting in of stand pipes of steel or plastic may be necessary.0 and 3. Especially when using Rheocem® microfine cement at a fixed w/c-ratio. In extremely poor ground.5.0 m depth into the borehole. In holes that are yielding ground water backflow the packer should be placed as soon as possible and the valve should be closed. or holes where the measured ground water backflow is greater than 10 l/min. 6. adjusted to the ground conditions and the locations providing a good sealing.8 and about cleaning of holes later in this Chapter.3 Water pressure testing Water pressure testing of boreholes is not required as a routine activity. See also Figure 6.P S Figure 6.2 Packer placement Packers are placed between 1.5. flushing is not carried out. In weak rock conditions. there is no good reason to invest time and money in such measurements. Boreholes yielding ground water inflow of more than 5 l/min must be cement injected in any case and also all primary stage boreholes. to minimise the ground water drainage into the excavated opening. All holes must first be flushed with water in general at approximately 10 bar pressure before injection commences. from the hole.5. The long time spent in comparison to the information value produced is the main reason for this. 64 . which can cover a wide variation in ground conditions. 6. Flushing is important to get rid of all the drilling sludge and fines which may otherwise block the opening of the cracks.

The normal dosage of the MEYCO® SA160 is between 1 . as stated above). 6. Such problems can be solved by injection of quick foaming polyurethane MEYCO® MP 355 /A3 2K. chemical grout by MEYCO® MP 320 silica grout may be necessary as a supplement.5. This is one of the advantages of injection ahead of the face (compared to post-injection) and should be utilised fully.7 Injection pressure The injection pressure is important for the success of the injection and needs to be as high as conditions allow.5 % by weight of binder.5 Mix design for Rheocem grouting Rheobuild 2000PF: Usual w/c ratio: 1. Accelerators for cement injection. still with a very low viscosity of about 32 seconds Marsh cone flow time. See Chapter 4 Cement based grouts.2 % by weight of binder Rheocem 650. 6. may cause problems of grout washout and backflow. In cases the of uncontrolled spread of the grout or backflow to the shaft/tunnel the MEYCO® SA160 can be added to the standard mix.0 allows a non-bleeding grout.5. 6.Depending on ground conditions and the required level of maximum ground water leakage into the underground openings. Inflow of ground water through joints and cracks in the face or elsewhere (not in the boreholes). This product is very fast (and adjustable by addition of an accelerator) and can be used as a temporary flow blockage.5.5 . Also the accelerator used in the Rheocem mix can be an alternative as stated below. MEYCO® SA160 must be added at the packer by a separate dosage pump delivering through a specially designed non-return valve. In such a case this product should be used in the secondary stage boreholes (unless ground water inflow in individual holes is too large.6 Accelerated cement grout The MEYCO® SA160 can shorten the curing time of the grout to minutes which allows an early re-commencement of excavation operations even at high ground water pressure and large fissures. 65 . 800 and 900: 1. by dosage at the packer.0 The w/c-ratio of 1. This grout mix design should be kept constant and only particular special conditions will require an adjustment such as extremely large crack openings and lower w/c-ratio. 650SR.

these measures include: • • • • • • Predetermined pressure cut-out on pumping pressure Predetermined limit of grout volume per hole Predetermined limit of injection time per hole Controlled setting time of the grout Temporary pressure relief Continuous visual monitoring with telephone or radio communication to the injection supervisor during carefully supervised injection • Measures such as these have been used previously to control pre-injection operations where. 66 . However. if the pressure comes above a certain limit. for example. it will remain in place and permanently fill the occupied volume. A grout to refusal technique for consolidation of the grout is not necessary when using Rheocem®. In summary. • • • Where necessary. the following typical special measures can be adopted as appropriate: Injection pressures must always be controlled by monitoring of the line pressure and pre-setting an appropriately low pump cut-out pressure. The available pumping equipment should therefore be capable of producing controlled pressure of up to 100 bar.As noted above. Some typical special measures are given below: 6. The grout take per hole can be limited to less than the general maximum.8 Special measures Special measures should be adopted for injection operations where either adjacent works are less than approximately 10 m away from the point of injection or overburden is less than approximately 10 meters. Because of the non-bleeding character of the Rheocem® grout and its fast gelling when pumping stops.5. There are a number of special measures available for the protection of existing tunnel linings or other structures in close proximity to the injection area. overburden has been as low as 4 metres (Ormen Water Tunnel. Stockholm). relatively high pressure injection is generally possible with the pre-injection approach because injection is made into undisturbed rock ahead of the tunnel face. Very weak or broken ground may also require special measures. situations can arise where other factors influence the choice of injection pressure and the methods of control.

). In the case of chemical injection by MEYCO® MP 320. 6. 67 . Unless special measures are required.10 Injection records During injection the following parameters should be recorded by the supervisor in the injection record: • • • • • • • • Injection material and mix design Pressure at the beginning and the end of each injection Injection time per hole Flow of water Material consumption per hole Number of holes Surface leakages Inter-connection of grout between holes 6.5. or the total quantity has reached 500 kg. In cases where backflow leakages occur directly out of the rock surface. an individual hole is finished when a maximum pressure of 30 bar has been reached (at a flow of less than 1 l/min for 5 minutes).9 Injection procedure Always start the injection in the lowest hole in the face (tunnels) and progress successively towards the roof until all holes are injected.5.6.5 minutes. or when more than 1000 kg has been injected. (Maximum pressure has to be measured and maintained over a period of at least 2 . If during the injection process two or more holes become inter-connected.11 Cement hydration Packers can be removed from the holes 1. Multiply the amount of grout specified with the number of connected holes before completing the injection. close the injection packers in the connected holes. or use quick foaming polyurethane MEYCO® MP 355 /A3 2K. the injection on an individual borehole is completed when the amount of Rheocem® grout going into the hole is less than 3 litres per minute at the maximum pressure specified.5. use Rheocem® with MEYCO® SA160 to block it.2 hours after completion of the injection and drilling of secondary stage holes (or drill and blast holes) can start 2 hours after completion of the injection of Rheocem®.5 .

Where the injection has been done with grout containing MEYCO® SA160 or with w/c-ratio < 0. equipped with an agitator slowly running at all times. with a rotor speed of a minimum of 1500 rpm. After the mixer a holding tank shall be provided.5. the following: • • • • • • • • • personnel and supervision. The Contractor must submit a complete method Statement (MS) for the preinjection works. This grout shall be of a low w/c-ratio type suitable for grouted rock bolts. a minimum of two times the geltime should be allowed from the completion of injection until next drilling. 68 . to allow the pre-setting of the grout flow and the maximum pressure. with lines of decision-making drilling and flushing methods and equipment type and use of packers materials. The pump shall be a duplex piston type operated hydraulically. hoses and connections shall be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to be applied and shall be drip tight. in advance of the start of injection. The MS shall contain information about. Holes injected by MEYCO® MP 320 shall be filled by cement grout from the packer location to the opening.12 Other relevant issues All preinjection works shall be carried out under the supervision of a Superintendent with relevant qualifications and experience. 6. but not necessarily be limited to. Drilling of new holes in this case can start 60 minutes after completion of the injection. The mixer shall be of the colloidal mixer type.7 packers can be removed from the holes approximately 40 .60 minutes after completion of the injection. mixes and quality control procedures proposals for site trials injection plant presentation procedures and forms of record keeping integration of systematic pre-injection into the construction cycle safety instructions All pipes. In the case of silica grout MEYCO® MP 320.

Construction was undertaken around 1980. Spiling rock bolting is very efficient under such circumstances. it is often too late.1 The Oslo Sewage Tunnel System The tunnel system consists of about 40 km of sewage transport tunnels and an underground sewage treatment plant. which requires proper drilling equipment. but in TBM projects it has repeatedly turned out to be difficult. Even such tunnelling may require a strict ground water control. Environmental restrictions are also a part of TBM tunnel excavation projects. Experience shows that if “later” means after start of the TBM operation. The TBM was backed up a couple of meters. provided the fully grouted rebar bolts can be placed efficiently. The first contract let was based on a 3. people and equipment were passed through the cutterhead and drilling was carried out by manually operated pneumatic jackleg drills. However. The contractor stated that the probe drilling and injection drilling would be solved “later”. Typically. In drill and blast excavation this is simple. To take advantage of spiling rockbolts and to execute pre-injection. The system is designed for fast advance and the economy of the project depends entirely on the rate of advance. if the detailed pre-injection drilling solution was not included and acceptable up-front. More than once owners have accepted bids containing reassurance from the contractor that the drilling method will be sorted out later. with just a part roof shield over the front of the machine. short sections of crushed shear zones with clay and gouge material may cause serious time delays. Pre-injection was mandatory because a major part of buildings and infrastructure are founded on marine clay.5 m diameter TBM tunnel and a 900 m drill and blast access tunnel at Holmen. it is an obvious prerequisite to be able to drill the necessary boreholes in the right positions and at the correct angle. This system was grossly unsatisfactory and caused the owner to reject all bids for subsequent project sections. The tunnels were constructed by TBM to avoid the vibration problems when passing below an urban area. because of the normal potential consequences on the ground surface. hard rock conditions will demonstrate stable and good ground for a major part of the tunnel. The largest single tunnelling contract covered 14. Even a minor lowering of the pore pressure in the clay basins would cause settlements up to several hundred meters away from the tunnel alignment.6.6. The feeder length was 10 feet (3 m). 69 . The method finally adopted was very poor.5 m diameter hard rock Robbins TBM.6 Solutions for TBM excavation Hard rock TBMs are open machine layouts. The two Robbins TBMs were manufactured to accommodate two hydraulic booms with Montabert H 70 hydraulic borehammers. 6.2 km of 3.

70 . The total cost of pre-injection. This is shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. The normal borehole angle relative to the tunnel contour was 4°. It is therefore no surprise that weekly face progress also varied accordingly. was 38% of the total Contractor ’s cost per meter of tunnel. it was found that all components had to be adapted to integrate with each other. a net length of 20 m tunnel was pre-injected per round. plan view. The average weekly advance was about 60 m.7 Borehole length and net coverage per grouting stage.6. each shift was 7.6 Tailor made hydraulic drilling equipment mounted on hard rock TBM Work in the tunnel was organized in two shifts per day.5 hours. Figure 6. including setup and clearing away.7.During planning of the works. The starting points to collar the holes were 3 m behind the face. The injection time was highly variable depending on the quantities injected. The routine drilling of four 27 m long holes normally required 3 to 4 hours. The equipment layout can be seen in Figure 6. The final outcome provided 17 locations around the periphery where boreholes could be started. including drilling ahead. By drilling 27 m boreholes. From each location drilling could be carried out in variable directions. losing 3 m between the starting point and the actual face and by 4 m overlap to the next drilling. This included the TBM.

A treatment plant has been built to purify the sewage. Construction of the Stage 1 works started in April 1994. The method reached after a long period of optimization was to execute pre-grouting when probe holes yielded 2 lit/min/m.6.5 million cubic meters of wastewater is being discharged into Victoria Harbour per day and to reduce the pollution the Government has decided to construct a deep sewage collection and conveyance system with a total length of about 70 km. The aim was met by pre-grouting supplemented by post-grouting where needed. This distance is critical to the performance of the total set-up. 71 .3 Comments on drilling and injection equipment Drilling ahead of a hard rock TBM is difficult because of the very limited available space close to the tunnel face. The TBM itself occupies almost all the volume for the first about 15 meters. After treatment. The value of the works was about 270 million USD.6. which are 2.6 km tunnels to convey sewage collected from the northeastern areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon to Stonecutters Island. The deep tunnel conveyance system and the outfall. The solution showed from the Holmen Site was established after elaborate design work including the TBM manufacturer ’s design staff. Key points in the procedure was: • • • Stable grout (< 5% bleeding) Micro cement with admixture to allow low viscosity (Rheocem® 650) Optimized drilling pattern 6.2 m to 5. Even with this solution the starting points for probe holes or injection holes are about 3 m behind the face. Grouting was carried out to limit inflow of water for safe tunnel boring and to enable permanent concrete lining to follow. was excavated by TBM. Supplementary post-grouting was also used.6. The main beam of the TBM was elongated by about one meter. the effluent will be disposed via a submarine outfall to the western approach of the Victoria Harbour.0 m in diameter running at depths between 76 m and 150 m below sea level. Skanska International Civil Engineering AB was the main contractor for contract DC/96/20 including 3580 m of TBM tunnel. to accommodate the hydraulic booms.2 The Hong Kong Sewage Tunnel System More than 1. The Stage I include 23.

2] from the Inland Feeder Project. gives the meters drilled and wasted per round of drilling. The effect of not doing this can be a rapid blockage of the intersected water bearing channels already in the first few mm of the channel. The effort spent in drilling the borehole may in a worst case be more or less wasted. However. Los Angeles. Unfortunately. The water was pumped through a high pressure hose to a nozzle with water jets pointing at 45º back along the hose and 90º radially. This can happen when sludge and rock cuttings from the drilling process are forced into the openings by the injection material and the pumping pressure. measured from the borehole wall. 72 . Lost time and additional cost will soon become critical with increasing starting point distance. the only safe solution is packer placement in front of the actual face location. the pump would be drawing water from the buffer tank. and 9 m from the face. the volume of tests is low and therefore not conclusive. by providing water pressure up to 350 bar. where they finally decided to drill through the cutter head itself. the results are fully in line with practical experience from injection works in rock. Injection often requires pumping pressures of more than 30 bar. The equipment diagram is shown in Figure 6. It is obvious that the starting point distance multiplied by the number of holes. A custom designed diesel powered equipment was used to provide a cleaning jet pressure of 250 bar. This may require a packer placement depth of more than 10 m on a routine basis. The last figure as given by Avery [6. For cleaning of boreholes and if hydraulic fracturing. Skjeggedal [6. In the Hong Kong sewage project more than 10 m distance was tried but later improved as a matter of necessity. The pump was also used for water pressure testing (WPT) and to execute hydraulic splitting of the boreholes (if no water take was measured at normal 10 bar testing pressure).There are examples of starting points at greater distances like 6 m.8. Because the drilled holes are started in the wall at typically 4° to 8°. An investigation carried out in Norway in 1982 and reported at the yearly Norwegian Rock Blasting Conference gives an indication of the importance of cleaning. When executing WPT. the valve would close to the buffer tank for water supply only from the graded measuring tank. To avoid a blowout and grout backflow into the tunnel. With this configuration the nozzle was self-propelled forward into the hole and could be pulled out again by the flexible hose. which is very time consuming and expensive. 6. the distance to the excavated tunnel wall is very small. Arrowhead East tunnel.7 Cleaning of holes Holes drilled for injection of grout must be cleaned properly.1].

Tight sections were subjected to hydraulic splitting to see if it was possible to create permanent connections usable for injection. Figure 6. After this normal way of cleaning WPT was executed with the described equipment.During high pressure cleaning of boreholes the valves A and B would be closed. valve A closed and valve B opened. to keep it as close as possible to 10 bar (which should be used for WPT). The nozzle in series with valve A was adjustable and could be used for adjustment of the pressure (depending on water flow into the borehole). The typical hole length was 10 to 15 m.8. 73 . Then another WPT was carried out. Other nozzles could be used if a higher maximum pressure was required. The fixed nozzle in series with valve B was designed to give 150 bar at 40 l/min if the borehole was tight. For safety reasons the water supply hose had a foot operated valve giving free low pressure water flow when not operated. Equipment for borehole flushing. For WPT the valve B had to be closed and valve A opened. The nozzles were designed to give 250 bar pressure at a flow rate of 40 l/min. The next step was high pressure cleaning and the nozzle was self-propelled to the bottom of the hole and pulled out three times. The holes were cleaned first by the traditional method of water and compressed air flushing through an open hose pushed to the bottom of the hole. When ready to start flushing the operator would step on the valve and all the water would go to the flushing nozzle. WPT and hydraulic fracturing For hydraulic fracturing the foot-valve was removed.

price and a number of other factors.8 Packers When a hole has been drilled into the rock formation for the purpose of injecting a grout at high pressure.1 Mechanical packers (expanders) The typical mechanical expander is meant to be re-usable and works in principle as shown on Figure 6. The quantity of additional dry material washed out of the already cleaned holes varied from 0.04 Lugeon.0 m. The typical packer consists of a pipe with a coupling in the tunnel end and an elastic expander that can be inserted into the hole and expanded against the borehole wall. availability. but the user can also produce his own pipes locally and make any suitable length. typically from 1. The diameter of the rubber expander has to be in a certain relation to the bore hole diameter and the maximum expansion available. but they may be quite different in quality.0 m to 5.The equipment turned out to be very practical and the cleaning process could be carried out much faster and more efficiently. Normally. 6. The manufacturers will give detailed information about this. the hydraulic splitting created channels yielding up to 3. There are a number of different packer types available and some examples are shown just for illustration.9.2% and 55. For very deep packer placements it is normal to use connectors to join standard pipe lengths like 3. The injection pump hose is hooked up to the pipe and the pump can be started. The expander will anchor the packer in place so that the injection pressure is not forcing it out of the hole and it shall also seal off the pressurised section of the borehole from the tunnel side.0 in steps of 0.5 m. such packers can be delivered in different standard lengths. Most manufacturers produce in principle the same types of packers. The equipment was furthermore well suited for WPT and for hydraulic splitting. 74 . In places where there was no leakage. a tight connection (seal) between the pumping hose and the borehole is needed. Packers must be selected for each individual project based on ground conditions. the measured values increased my 8. The normal way of achieving this is by the use of so-called packers.8.3% after high pressure cleaning. 6. In the two locations where there was water take measured with normal cleaning.5 kg to 40 kg per hole. The maximum quantity came from a hole intersected by a clay seam. dimensions and technical details.

or with Polyurethane grout. Without the valve pressurised grout would flow back into the tunnel. Loss of some of the packers is therefore normal. 75 .9 Mechanical borehole packer At the end of the packer-pipe it is normal to fit a ball valve or similar. the ball valve can be closed and the pump hose disconnected (see Figure 6. If very fast setting grout must be used. The valve must remain closed with the packer in place until the grout has set sufficiently to keep the ground water pressure. Figure 6. When the injection is complete. cleaning of packers is often not feasible or practical.Figure 6. The tendency has been to use less of this traditional type packer and to use more of the disposable (single-application) packers. The packer may then be removed and cleaned for re-use in a different hole.10 Ball-valve and hook-up for the grout hose The cleaning of packers of this type can be quite time consuming and if they are not removed at the right time.10). it may become impossible.

6. Figure 6. but they are constructed so that when expanded.11 and Figure 6.2 Disposable packers For reasons given above the disposable packers are frequently a good alternative to re-usable packers. 38 to 63 mm diameter (photo Roulunds Codan) 76 .12 Disposable packers. They are working in principle the same way as the re-usable.8. Figure 6. The packer itself has a one-way valve to keep pressurised grout in place without backflow when releasing the pump pressure and removing the pipes.11 Disposable packer with installation assembly (photo Roulunds Codan) Such packer assemblies are illustrated in Figure 6.and outer pipes used to place the packer and expand it. the expansion is automatically locked to allow removing the inner.12 showing four different standard dimensions.

Here two packers are coupled in tandem at a fixed distance. because they are quick to expand.13 shows an inflated packer. For WPT in long holes. 6. Such packers are normally longer (typically 300 mm to more than one meter). 77 . the cost will quickly become prohibitive. It is also possible to force the non-return valve to stay open when wanted (by inserting a short piece of pipe). they have a much wider expansion range and they will seal better (due to the length). See Figure 15. e. Figure 6. However.g. When expanded in the borehole. these packers are quite practical. Figure 6.3 Hydraulic packers So-called hydraulic packers are expanded (or inflated) via high water pressure supplied through a separate thin line from the tunnel to the packer location.8. the grout will fill the borehole only between the packers and only this section of the hole will be subject to injection pressure (or water pressure in WPT procedures). which is also the grouting pipe (or hose) after the expansion. they are also substantially more expensive and if such packers are regularly lost due to attempted removal after the grout has set too much.The same type of packers with minor modifications can be used as normal reusable packers (by removing the expansion lock ring and the non-return valve at the tip). to be able to detect connections from other boreholes being injected or water pressure tested.13 Inflatable borehole packer (photo Roulunds Codan) When it is necessary to WPT or inject shorter sections of boreholes the hydraulic double packer is used. deflate and move and the low risk of backflow around the packer and the good sealing properties in poor ground are very favourable. The packer itself is only handled via a single pipe.

It must be avoided to improvise a shallow packer placement in very poor ground. 6. Typically. 78 . while the disposable one remains in place.The mechanical expanders and the disposable ones will not work properly in very weak ground.d.14. and the hydraulic packer helps prevent backflow and sliding during injection.8. the hydraulic packer can be removed. This is easy to do by placing a packer close to the inner end of the pipe and pumping the grout into the annular space between pipe and rock. o. until it appears at the bore hole collar. After a short waiting for grout setting.d. A combination of a hydraulic packer and a disposable self-locking packer can be very useful and economic under such conditions. It is difficult to make them seal without backflow. allowing the high water pressure to get too close to the face (risk of collapse). this happens in hard rock tunnelling in shear zones and highly broken ground. The drilling of long holes will frequently be a problem in itself because the drill string will easily get stuck and will sometimes break in the bore hole. By using an over-size drill bit of e. The pipe must be grouted in place using a high quality shrinkage compensated cement grout. they may start sliding in the hole and sometimes they get stuck in the wrong position. 76 mm diameter to drill to a depth of say 3 to 4 meter it will mostly be possible to insert a steel pipe of suitable diameter (i. This special hydraulic packer allows expansion of the disposable packer mounted in the front of it.4 Standpipe techniques There are situations where the ground is so poor that packer placement is very difficult and the bore hole stability can also be quite a problem. If such conditions are encountered it is important to get a safe position to work from (the overlap zone from previous round of grouting should normally help in this respect). When such conditions are combined with high water ingress at high pressure the combination may even lead to loss of face stability and a progressive collapse. One of the best ways of dealing with serious problems of this type is to use the so-called stand-pipe technique. See Figure 6. < 66 mm) into this hole. > 55 mm.g.

79 . The sleeve pipe is surrounded by a weak mortar often called a mantel grout.14). where a hydraulic double packer has been inserted into a pre-grouted sleeve pipe. As soon as the drilling hits serious problems of any kind. and can be rapidly broken without damaging the cutters. the steel pipes will work like spiling rock bolts and improve stability quite dramatically. The packer can be moved as needed and a given valve can be grouted several times. It is then possible to place plastic pipes the same way as described above. The principle is shown in Figure 6.Figure 6. After grout setting the drilling may be resumed for another step of bore hole deepening. The mantel grout is designed so weak that it will split from the injection pressure and grout can flow out into the ground without escaping along the borehole. 6.5 Tube-a-manchet This is a technique frequently used in soil injection (mostly vertical holes) but it is not common in rock injection under ground.14 Use of standpipe in poor unstable ground Once the grout has set the pipe can be used to extend the hole by an ordinary 51 mm diameter drill bit (as indicated in Figure 6. When the boreholes are drilled from the tunnel contour and angled outwards. These do not cause any problems for TBMs or Roadheader excavators. If such stand-pipes must be drilled in the tunnel face it may happen that steel pipes cannot be used. which is a simple cement grout with a relatively high content of Bentonite clay. The sleeve pipe has non-return valves (rubber sleeves) at fixed distance and these valves can be activated individually by injection pressure between the double packers. The process may be repeated as required.15. a packer may be placed safely and tightly in the steel pipe and the drilled part can be injected.8.

A core hole will produce a lot more information and more accurate data.Figure 6. but that is of little help if a local feature is suddenly exposed yielding several thousand liters of water per minute at high pressure.9. can be quite dramatic. When exposed without warning. principle In tunnel injection where holes are frequently sub-horizontal. Grout leakage along the hole. The general average conditions may be reasonably well known. operating from a tunnel face.9 Probing ahead of the face 6. the contrast between normal hard rock tunnelling conditions and the sudden occurrence of a major shear zone containing swelling clay and crushed rock. rather than injection of the ground is therefore often the result. Probing ahead of the tunnel face by percussive drilling is one way of reducing the risk created by not being prepared. 6. It is however.and cost frame. Furthermore. this is often magnifying the problem. it is very difficult to ensure a proper filling by mantel grout around the sleeve pipe. the best method available for investigation of water within a reasonable time. Percussive drilling is not an optimal method for mapping of rock conditions or investigation of hydro-geological conditions ahead of the face.1 Normal approach In tunnelling it is normal that information about the details of rock conditions in front of the face is quite limited and not so reliable. but it takes too much time to be used as a routine tool. 80 .15 Tube-a-manchet (sleeve pipe).

extending some distance beyond the blast holes. or anywhere with a high risk if the rock cover is less than expected. Typically. A general rule is not available. Figure 6. but with diminishing returns. loss or reduction of flushing water. Overlap (minimum 8 m) for each 5th blasting round In tunnels excavated mechanically.16 Probe drilling for sub-sea two lane road tunnel 1. The risk reduction by further reduction of the spacing. Routine minimum probe drilling 2. probability of problem detection. changes in fragmentation of the sludge. will certainly be real. equipment for probe holes will be one extra unit. Additional holes in expected weakness zones 3. on any kind of full face machine. A drilling pattern for a sub-sea two lane road tunnel has been presented by Blindheim [1. but regarding water inrush risk. as shown in Figure 6.. until a hole spacing of about 5 m. The number of probe holes that are necessary will depend on the size of the tunnel. Alternative holes in sections of low rock cover 4. colour of sludge. to be practically useful.and ground water regime and the potential consequences of not detected problems. will increase proportionally to the number of holes drilled. the equipment is already there and the additional effort of drilling some of the blasting holes to a greater depth for probing ahead. Percussive drilling produces bore holes in the ground and a sludge of drill cuttings and water coming out of the hole.2].16. In roadheader excavation a small drill jumbo could be used. custom designed equipment must be mounted on the TBM.In a drill and blast tunnelling operation. sudden increase of water out of the hole etc. two to five holes reaching 20 to 30 from the face will be used. A minimum will be a single hole. A trained operator or an experienced geological engineer can log information like changes in drilling rate. the rock. below rivers or a lakes. the probe drilling would be targeted at more than just detecting water. In sub-sea tunnels. all linked to depth from the tunnel 81 . is quite limited.

6. because of time and cost involved. The system is based on the idea that the penetration rate is normally increasing in weaker rock and to some extent in jointed rock.9. The advantages of percussive probe drilling are the low cost. When the drill bit goes from hard un-jointed rock into weak material. that normally no extra equipment is required and a fairly high probability of detecting major serious features. a combination including core drilling is often used. The disadvantages are the dependency on the observer ’s experience and the subjective evaluation of what can be observed. In cases where core loss occurs. From the observations and the resulting interpretation. Core drilling will produce rock samples for inspection. is giving indications about discontinuities. decisions can be made on possible action regarding additional drilling. where the exact location of all features can be logged. is the automatic jamming prevention system. the feeder pressure will be reduced and sometimes even a short retraction will take place.face. This is considered beyond the scope of this book and will in any case be a subject in only a very limited number of cases. The observations must be noted in a prepared log. using modern hydraulic drill jumbos. start of drill and blast etc.2 Computer supported logging One example of a commercially available computerised logging system for percussive drilling in rock comes from Atlas Copco in Sweden [6. but separated from the actual basic data. When there are indications that problems of a serious nature will occur within the probing depth and more exact information is considered essential.3]. It is very difficult to interpret variations observed. the speed of execution. it is also possible to use bore hole radar systems. electric resistance investigations and similar sophisticated techniques. These automatic system reactions to varying rock conditions are not easily interpreted by the observer. One problem for visual observation of the probe drilling process. This is normally chosen as a next step only after a careful evaluation. The range and pattern of drilling parameter variation. spacing and rock material strength contrasts. seismic tomography. 82 . The interpretation of the observations must be expressed in writing. this is in itself an indication of so weak material that the core has been destroyed (unless careless drilling or worn equipment was the reason). other than high contrast features and the method is therefore quite crude. or very fractured material. while at the same time the torque also increases. execution of pre-injection. Regardless whether probe holes are drilled by one or the other method.

A rock quality model has been developed as a PC-software, interpreting the measurements made by instrumentation on the hydraulic system of the drill jumbo. The drilling parameters measured and recorded on the PC are: • • • • Drilled hole length Penetration rate Axial drill rod thrust Torque

The sampling frequency of the drilling parameters can be chosen and the normal value has been 100 mm. When the system is used on a normal drill jumbo, a finer resolution is mostly not useful, since the bore hole deviation and the uncertainty of the exact location of the borehole starting point will be greater than this. Computerised drill jumbos are being used in some projects, where the system reads off the exact drill jumbo location from a laser beam and input is made of the exact chainage. If this is combined with stiffer drill rods, then a finer resolution is possible and reasonable. The graphical model software will filter and process the drill parameter measurements and generate a rock quality scaled colour picture. The entire analysis and presentation on screen takes only a few minutes. The rock quality shown by the colours along the bore hole can be compared between holes, rounds or tunnel sections, independently of drill depth, thrust etc., which vary extensively between operators. Parallel holes can also be combined to generate sectional rock quality maps. This model is based on a combination of several monitored parameters, is much more accurate and robust than any observation method based on a single parameter monitoring. This system is also overcoming the observational problem of the automatic drill jamming prevention system. When this system reduces thrust because of weaker material to reduce the risk of jamming, the reduced penetration resulting, is not misinterpreted as harder rock. Probe drilling is carried out as part of a decision-making procedure. The information has to be processed and evaluated, to decide on the consequences for further activity at the tunnel face. Due to the high cost of time and often limited possibility of providing highly qualified geological engineers at all tunnel faces, this whole process can become expensive and with a risk of misinterpretation. The computer system can help reducing these problems substantially. By using data-communication, one design office located anywhere, may process and evaluate monitoring results from several tunnel faces and return the conclusions within minutes. It should be mentioned that the cost of instrumentation, software and PC to be able to run the system, is marginal in
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comparison to the benefits of the accurate information. The cost of an experienced and qualified visual observer at the face could easily be in the same range, with far less accurate interpretation.

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7.

HIGH PRESSURE GROUND WATER CONDITIONS
Ground water at high static head (greater than 10 bar) creating a high-flow water in-rush creates problems in tunnel construction. A summary of experiences from some Norwegian tunneling projects is presented and discussed below.

7.1

Basic problem
In hard rocks like granite and granitic gneiss with high overburden, the normal situation is that only limited parts of a tunnel will intersect highly jointed areas producing large water in-rush at high pressure. The problem character will vary within a wide range, from project to project. Even smaller and more distributed inflows may add up to substantial leakage volumes. Practical work procedures, economy, construction time and safety are aspects that must be considered and balanced against each other.

7.2

Features that adds to the problem
• High static head of the ground water (above 10 bar) Ulla-Førre Project Kjela Project Holen Project • • • • • • 3 to 15 bar 20 to 30 bar 20 to 50 bar

Large water-bearing channels intersected frequently but randomly Tunneling on down slope, or the access tunnel is on a down slope or through a shaft The problem tunneling face is on the Project critical path Too low pumping capacity for dewatering, poor drainage capacity Weak rocks or rock zones, or heavy jointing or crushing Salt water

7.3

Consequences for the Contractor
A normal Norwegian contract requirement is that the Contractor must cope with up to 500 l/min. inflow from one face. This figure is sometimes as high as 1000 to 1500 l/min. The normal understanding is that the figure expresses the sum total of water inflows over the tunnel section excavated on one face. Such water inflows are normally handled by pumping, especially when the inflows are well distributed. Some local problems may arise, but seldom of a serious nature.

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More concentrated ingress directly at the face (a few m3/min. On short notice. 2. the lost revenue from delayed electricity production must also be added. The water problem risk must be very low. Pumping out of the water Injection 86 . main Contractor Increased interest cost. With this rental cost. To keep a complete set of grouting equipment in stand-by at the job site. When such conditions are encountered. 7. Such an unforeseen situation will cause loss of time. the rental cost could amount to USD 100 per day. A sample calculation may illustrate the point (cost in USD): Specialist grouting Contractor with equipment Face stand-still cost. This will especially be the case if the face is on the critical path of a major project. Total 2000 per day 10000 per day 55000 per day 200 per day 67200 per day If the above figures were related to a hydro power scheme. will often create a cost reimbursement situation. especially when not prepared for.5 Methods There are two ways of handling water inflow problems: 1.4 Consequences for the Owner The Owner ’s concerns are project progress and cost. the Contractor will have to provide grouting equipment. pumps and suitably experienced staff. The cost of possible damages in the surroundings is also not included. one day saved project time would cover about one year of fully prepared stand-by.) at a high static head. packers etc. (Hydro power project 200 mio) Grouting materials. the tendency is that more similar zones will follow and that more time passes until contractual and practical solutions to minimise the problems have been found. 7. until the problem zone has been passed. materials cost and the above cost of delay. In addition there will be some cost of storing grouting materials on site (capital cost and potential cost of waste in shelf life is running out). grout materials. not to pay this premium. but often the economical consequences may be far more serious than for the Contractor.

which is a relatively simple and inexpensive measure. When excavating on a long down gradient. provided that reasonable practical and economical frameworks are applied. particularly so. A drowned tunnel may be the consequence. if the aim is absolute water tightness.6. A complete sealing of the tunnel by grouting. provided that detection and contact has been made through drilled holes (pre -injection). The limitations are even more pronounced when considering the face area. • • 7. The risk of major water inrushes can be virtually eliminated. but there are good reasons to consider them as supplementary: • There are clear limits as to the quantities of water that can be pumped through pipes.1 Pumping system The capacity must be chosen based on predicted and actual project conditions. Pre-injection may also be costly and time consuming. especially at high pressure. post grouting is very difficult. If inflows have already occurred (through cracks and joints). 87 . A well planned use of probe drilling. costly and often unsuccessful. The reserve capacity should be minimum 100%.These methods could be regarded as alternatives. causing very difficult working conditions. a stepwise pumping system with buffer tanks and decreasing capacity down slope has proven efficient. pre-injection locally and pumping will normally be the optimum solution. becomes too time consuming and costly to be a feasible solution.6 Practical procedure in high risk areas 7. The prerequisite for this is effective probe drilling ahead of the face. or that can be handled by gravity drainage systems. only relying on the pumps for dewatering. • • • • • In conclusion to the above points: • It may be a high-risk undertaking to excavate without probe drilling. especially at low water temperatures. A counterpoint is: It is possible to successfully grout almost any kind of water bearing structure. Tunneling on a decline will experience problems already at inflow rates of only 1 to 2 m3/min. Water at a high static head may cause water jets spraying the whole face area. Experience shows that an attempt to seal the last 20% of a potential water inflow may cost more than sealing the first 80%.

a risk is always there to still intersect water when drilling a blast round. In high risk areas the minimum should be about 4 holes and shafts would require more than this.4 Special issues In spite of probe drilling and pre-grouting.6.6. There are examples of major water inrushes because executed probe drilling did not hit the water bearing channels. within a practical range of 1 to 10 holes.6. New holes to check the effect of the grouting are made from the same face position. allowing controlled grouting to be executed.2 Probe drilling The safety effect of probe drilling increases about proportionally with the number of appropriately oriented holes.3 Injection If large water quantities are found at a drilled depth smaller than the planned probe length. shift sequences. care must be exercised to avoid allowing high pressure water too close to the face. or impossible due to flushing out of pumped materials. In case of a poor and jointed rock in the face area.7. and by limiting the number of holes drilled. only 2 to 3 meters further drilling is carried out. This can be achieved by placing packers as deep as possible in the hole. to establish an anchored concrete face slab. further excavation until 5 to 10 m remains can be executed to shorten the drilling for control. a minimum overlap should be in the range of 5 to 10 m. Experience shows that about one week may be lost in such a case. 7. if the contact depth is less than about 15 m. If so. The length of probe holes can be adapted to the equipment. If the first contact and injection was made at a depth greater than 15 m.and grouting purposes. the risk may be high that a local rupture in the face occurs. Grouting will then become difficult. round length etc. an extra round of grouting may become necessary. 88 . Probe drilling of this type can be executed by percussive equipment. 7. More holes are then drilled into the same area and injection carried out. due to time and cost. In such a situation. Still. Diamond core drilling can only be a supplement in special situations.

the effect of the first step grouting will normally be better. if necessary. sand and fines would punch through the drill rod all the way back into the drilling machine. When conditions allow. To reach the depths required for safety purposes. when drilling more holes into the zone. In one example of such a blow. adaptations on the drill jumbo have to be made. before control holes can be drilled. Drilling too early may cause a rupture and flushing out of the injected material. The force exerted on a 51 mm diameter drillbit is about 1000 kp.7. To place packers against static head of 50 bar. the water jet out of a 51 mm diameter hole would easily reach 25 m back from the face. 89 . It happened accidentally. that the drill string was blown out of the hole and landed 15 m away from the face. due to the produced water spray and subsequent lack of visibility. compared to grouting through very few holes. the front of the drill jumbo was hit by the drill rods.7 Practical aspects At Holen Hydropower Scheme. would break.5 m long. Even with such a solution. When drilling into a water bearing zone. Such pressure may cause quite dramatic effects in the tunnel. Manual handling of the drill string against 50 bar static head is impossible. the recorded ground water static head varied between 20 and 50 bar. without such equipment. is to drive the drill jumbo away from the face. Access Øyestøl (52 m2). the drill jumbo shall be equipped with hydraulic clamps for securing the drill string during coupling and de-coupling of rods. it is beneficial to drill a number of holes into contact with the water bearing zone. When withdrawing the drill rod. until the drill string is free of the hole. Also. drill all holes almost to full depth. The water yield from a contact at 10 m depth would typically be 2 to 3 m3/min. Then couple the last one or two rods by moving the drill jumbo. making it easier to place packers in the holes. When high pressure ground water is expected. The pressure will then normally drop somewhat. Also. A last resort at extreme pressure. A measurement made on a 45 mm diameter hole being 4. gave 4 to 5 m3/min. Water supply hoses of normal quality leading to the drilling machine. frequently water. it is quite complicated to enter the borehole. The drill feeder and drill rod guides must allow handling of the packers by the hydraulic system. drilling has to be executed by the coupling of drill rods. producing a very visible dent in a 25 mm steel plate. Normal cements will require about 24 h hardening time.

The equipment package must allow the use of fairly stiff mortars (e. as a typical starting point. At 1800 m from the access tunnel. since these normally allow independent control of flow and pressure. hoses. 90 . The pipe is weak and will also limit the maximum particle size in the grout to about 3 to 4 mm. no long and narrow suction hoses) and preferably allow particle sizes up to a maximum of 5 mm. is located close to the Europe-road E68. All kinds of standard mechanical rubber expanders (packers) will easily become “bottlenecks” in the system.9. is often a ½” (12 mm) pipe.8 Equipment Mixing and pumping equipment must allow a pumping capacity of about 5 m3/h at 30 bar pressure. Edland . the rubber expander is damaged during insertion against extreme pressure. A long pipe of this dimension will furthermore reduce the possible pumping capacity. Grouting was carried out during 6 shifts and was prematurely stopped due to time and cost concerns. combined with drilling through the pipe. excavation in direction of the lake Bordalsvann. is sometimes a good and necessary solution (refer to Figure 6. Couplings. valves and other fittings must be designed for the maximum pressure. Fixing of a standpipe by quick setting mortar.1 Kjela Hydropower Scheme (South central Norway) The access tunnel Turvelid. The inner pipe used in packers for 51 mm diameter holes. Ground water at 23 bar static head was encountered in probe holes 6 to 7 m ahead of the face. Hydraulic pumps should be used.g. while the water tunnel towards Bordalsvann had a slight incline. split like a Split Set rock bolt in one end. 7. with frequent ground water inflows. The pump must allow a minimum of 50 bar over pressure compared to the ground water static head. Frequently. The next blasting round struck a water inrush of 15 m3/min.7. or it cannot take the load when closing the valve. the worst water ingress situation occurred. in more than one sense. The net diameter with this solution is about 40 mm.Haukeliseter.9 Examples Some key facts are given below from executed tunnelling where severe ground water problems where encountered. The access tunnel was excavated on a decline. has proven a good alternative.14). A threaded steel pipe. 7.

where the depth of cement filling was insufficient to sustain the water pressure.2 Ulla Førre Hydropower Scheme (South West Norway) The Flottene access tunnel was excavated on a decline and the water tunnel in the direction of Førrejuvet had some ground water problems. 91 . A grout failure and water inrush behind the face under such high static head is extremely difficult to stop.Steel pipes (4 units of 102 mm diameter) were placed on the tunnel invert.9. The Osane access tunnel and water tunnel (75 m2) were both excavated on a decline.9. the Owner wanted to blast the next round in spite of a potential ground water yield higher than the installed pumping capacity. Meanwhile. sand and water punching into the drilling machines. In two cases failures occurred behind the face. When the situation was under control and a by pass tunnel had been excavated. down to 500 l/min. Typical problems encountered were bent and damaged packers. This blasting was not executed. with substantial local variation. In a similar situation as the one described above. extra transformer and more pumps and pipes. the Contractor after one week was able to start injection and 30 tons of cement was placed. corresponded well with the overburden 7. Additionally. The last 7 m of the tunnel was then solidly filled by concrete (while the water was drained through the pipes). in pre grouted areas passed by the face. 7. The Owner then instructed the Contractor to provide increased electricity supply. 2 m of concrete plug was carried out later. A successful excavation through the zone was finalized before the added pump installations as instructed by the Owner. In the above mentioned cases. were operational. Contact grouting around the concrete plug finally brought the remaining inflow with closed steel pipe valves. The blow outs occurred at wide spots. from the inrush point outwards. Frequent ground water problems were encountered. back flow of cement through cracks in the face etc. A summary after 2300 m of tunnel excavation shows the following: • • • • Total quantity of cement injected was 1100 tons Added cost due to ground water problems was USD 10 m A maximum of 175 tons were injected from one face position The typical ground water static head of 15 bar.3 Holen Hydropower Scheme (South central Norway) The access tunnel Øyestøl was excavated on a decline and in the water tunnel the typical ground water static head varied between 20 and 50 bar. about 6 months had been lost. but not impossible. the open joints filled by grout material were typically 100 mm wide.

provided that a tight face area is maintained. on the other hand. also anchored into the rock. • • • • • • 92 . The amount of pre grouting shall be balanced against the cost of pump installation and operation. high ground water yield. A prerequisite for a successful sealing of such blow outs. When a sufficient pressure relief was established. High static head requires care and special measures. After necessary hardening. A 5 to 10 m buffer is recommended. relief holes were drilled from the sound side rock into the water bearing zone. Additionally. is simple and efficient.Steel pipes of diameter 75 to 150 mm were driven into the inrush channel(s).5 was used for injection. this exposed serious inflows around the pipes and the concrete plug that had to be sealed by grouting and additional shotcrete. while all valves and packers were open. as many as possible. Do not allow high pressure water too close to the face. Pre grouting and pumping shall both be used (these measures are not alternatives). Post grouting is difficult and time consuming and may become impossible. the start of injection had to utilize saw cuttings. As soon as the back flows were under control. A backup diesel generator is often required. 7. The whole pipe and valve assembly was then encased in reinforced shotcrete. requires that the following set of principles should be applied: • Probe drilling ahead of the face on a routine basis must be executed. sufficient quantity injected and at least 24 h hardening time before any disturbance could be allowed (like removing packers or pipes and valves). The reserve pump capacity must be at least 100% more than the maximum expected water inrush. It is a requirement that the grouting equipment has sufficient capacity regarding flow and pressure and the ability to pump particle size above 5 mm. was stiff mortar. excavation on down slope and other possible problem enhancing features. particularly if in poor ground. low w/c-ratio. 50 bar injection pump over pressure capacity. concrete with particle size up to 10 mm and stiff mortar with anti-washout admixture. Still. packers were used to close the relief holes and the valves on the steel pipes were closed.10 Experience rules in summary High ground water static head. a stiff cement mortar with a low w/c-ratio of about 0. Pre grouting. Normally. valves were fitted to the steel pipes and anchored to the rock by rock bolts.

Even at high consumption of cement. the cost of cement is only about 5% of the total time related cost and injection cost. the added cost of pumping.• Using the consumption of cement as the main pay item is equal to inviting problems. probe drilling and pre grouting may be in the range of 50 to 100% of the excavation cost. Depending on conditions. Finally: Keep the face area watertight and never blast the next round if in doubt. It is obvious that such a relatively small and highly variable cost factor should not be the main basis for payment. • • 93 .

This would be a serious misunderstanding and the result of such an approach to cement injection would be an overall cost increase and poor effectiveness. but as mentioned. Companies like Atlas Copco Craelius.1 Paddle mixer [8. Montanbuero and Colcrete are all good options when seeking an equipment manufacturer.1 Mixing equipment The whole process starts by mixing the dry cement with water and often with other components of the mix. Especially if the requirements call for the use of micro cement it would be a total waste of a more expensive and efficient material. Haeny. There are many specialist manufacturers producing high quality equipment for cement grouting.8. not to use modern custom designed dedicated equipment. sometimes Bentonite.1] 94 . Mixing by agitation Mixing by high shear action Figure 8. The crucial point here is to get all the cement particles properly wetted by water. sand or other materials. far too many to be presented here and it is not the purpose of this publication to grade them or give any particular recommendations. Good mixing equipment is absolutely necessary to achieve good results. Still. like chemical admixtures. it is strongly recommended to select a complete set of equipment from one of these specialist companies before starting any sort of grouting operation underground. 8. 2. EQUIPMENT FOR CEMENT INJECTION There are many ways of executing injection with cement and because of the relatively low cost of the material sometimes it is believed that the equipment side can be improvised with little negative consequence. there are many others. but if you try to do it manually with just a small cement quantity you will see that it is not so straightforward. Mixing equipment will fall in two main categories: 1. This may seem a simple task. ChemGrout.

The first method is typically some sort of paddle mixer as illustrated in Figure 8.3 Turbulence [8. The high shear is created either by the tight tolerance between the impeller and the housing or by intense turbulence (see Figure 8. Figure 8. The high shear mixers are normally termed colloidal mixers.3 respectively). Pouring grout from a paddle mixer onto a low plate and allowing it to harden will show distinct layering when breaking up the cement cake.3 is best suited if there is a need of adding sand or other coarse materials to the grout.1. blocking of small openings and build-up in bends. The drawback with this method is that it will not fully break up dry lumps of cement (in reality consisting of many individual cement particles). due to lower wear cost.2 and 8. The agitation creates turbulence in the mix and after some time the mix will appear to be uniform. 95 . running through the high speed impeller of the pump and returned on top of the tank. valves and other parts of the equipment. It should be noted that the principle shown in Figure 8. A good colloidal mixer will have an impeller speed of 1500 to 2000 rpm and the shear action is strong enough to break up all lumps to properly wet individual single cement particles. These units typically consist of a tank with a high speed circulation pump. Water and cement is drawn from the bottom of the tank. Typically the whole tank volume should be fully circulated at a rate of about three times per minute. Tall glass cylinders filled with grout will demonstrate a substantial difference in bleeding.2 Tight tolerance [8.1] The difference in mixing efficiency between colloidal mixers and other types is easy to demonstrate by simply comparing the grout behaviour of equal mix designs and mixing times after mixing with the two types of mixers.1] Figure 8. The surface tension of water tends to preserve such lumps and this creates grout segregation. The same test gives a uniform layer using the colloidal mixer.

even though the mixing is batch-wise.When injecting a cement grout it is mostly executed against ground water. By simply lowering a spoon of grout into water and turning it upside down (to allow the grout to fall through the water). Typically. the difference is well demonstrated. Be aware that the high energy used in a colloidal mixer will raise the temperature of the grout. Paddle mixers will create a grout that has a strong tendency to be diluted and washed out. With a colloidal mixer the grout is much more stable and will tend to displace the water rather than mixing with it. 96 . The paddle mixer grout will totally dissolve and segregate right out of the spoon and all the water becomes a cement cloud.4 Typical colloidal mixer (photo ChemGrout) Colloidal mixers are made in a variety of sizes and there must be a balance between the maximum pump output and the maximum capacity of the mixer. This is not a problem in normal operation carried out as specified. but if too long a mixing time is used the batch may be unusable and could set in the mixer. Figure 8. Therefore. With the other grout you can observe how the grout falls like a lump with much less cement cloud created. the pump may still operate continuously. The circulation pump is then used to send the prepared batch to an agitated holding tank. one batch of grout is created in about four minutes. Micro cement of the fast setting type could be very sensitive to this effect and the mixing procedure must be well controlled. The equipment manufacturers will normally offer well balanced equipment sets to suit the needs of a customer. from which the injection pump is drawing grout.

Figure 8. The operating reliability and the control accuracy are also good. Such pumps will normally work on a single grouting line.It is recommended to only use weight batching of the grout components. due to the much better accuracy. Pressure above the limit may cause damage to nearby structures or cause unwanted fracturing of the ground. 97 . Liquid components may of course be added volumetric. A high pressure may be maintained over time at marginal or no output. Pressure peaks above the set level at start of a piston stroke (because of inertia of the grout column) is unfavourable and it is not a property of modern equipment. but most important is the limited maximum grout pressure. The plunger pumps furthermore have the advantage of low wear even with abrasive grouts and they operate reliably at very low output.1] There is full agreement that it is necessary to require a tight pressure control to avoid exceeding the set allowed maximum. the high wear cost on rotor and stator and the unpractical pressure control system provided by a return line to the hopper with grout flow control valve. This pumping system requires and allows independent grout pressure and grout flow control without any valves or mechanical control parts in contact with the grout.5 Pressure pulsation by piston or plunger pumps [8. Today’s preference in underground grouting projects is the piston plunger pump with a hydraulic drive system.2 Grout pumps To be able to execute well controlled high pressure grouting in rock it is necessary to have a suitable injection pump. Even though progressive cavity pumps have been used for decades in numerous rock grouting projects (primarily dam foundations and other above ground projects) it is still clear that this pump type today is unsuitable for most under ground tasks. The reasons are many. provided reliable measuring devices are employed. 8.

there is not the same general agreement (see Figure 8. the same particles may again move some distance without bridging. Figure 8. 8. The larger units may also have hydraulic working platform to allow access to packer placements in the roof of the tunnel. When the pressure increases again. which can be more than 10 m up in larger road tunnels. The layout of such systems can vary quite a lot and the size may range from small compact units to be put on a small truck or trailer. For such systems to operate properly there must also be integrated component weighing and accurate measuring devices for water and admixtures. One example of an assembled system is shown in Figure 8. frequently including a PLC control of batching with the mix design ratios pre-stored in memory. agitator and pump).3 Complete systems Most manufacturers of grouting equipment will today offer complete systems with all elements included (mixer. others that the pressure drop between pump strokes is actually an advantage.1].6 Complete system (mixer. The reason for this seems to be the re-arrangement of particles that are about to bridge and block a narrow joint (causing pressure filtration and full blockage) when the pressure suddenly drops. Some say that a constant pressure and flow is best.5).Regarding the effects of the pressure pulsation that is normal for piston and plunger pumps.6. Practical experience supports the idea that the pressure drops actually improve grout penetration [8. to larger units that will need a heavy dump truck chassis. agitator and pump) (photo Atlas Copco) 98 .

4 agitator vessels and 4 hydraulic pumps. The manual recording task then quickly becomes impossible. Today there is a number of alternatives available to improve the data recording and to reduce the workload for the operators. writing the data to a chart recorder. See Figure 8. Grout quantity may alternatively be recorded based on pump stroke impulse counting. Actually.4 Recording of grouting data The traditional way of recording data has been manual recording of the main injection parameters by writing them into pre-printed forms. cement quantity. The whole system has been built into a container.7. each pump capable of delivering 60 l/min at 100 bar grout pressure. date and time are noted this way. 99 . type of mix into which hole along with general data like location. which is put on a normal heavy-duty road truck. Norway.A real high-output equipment system for pre-excavation grouting in larger tunnels has been assembled by general contractor AF Spesialprosjekt AS/SRG of Oslo. Figure 8. The simplest device is a pressure transducer and an inductive flow meter coupled into the grouting line. this part of the work may require an extra person just for the record keeping. especially if the procedures are complicated and many different parameters have to be accurately recorded.7 Container-mounted 4-pump grouting system (AF Spesialprosjekt AS/SRG) 8. The printed data sheet can be collected when the hole is finished the unit may be reset and then the next hole can be started. The equipment unit contains 2 colloidal mixers. Of course grouting pressure. See Figure 8. with quite a reasonable accuracy.7. Since time is money at the tunnel face it often happens that more than one bore hole gets injected at a time.

100 .8.8 A good easy to read manometer is important More advanced versions will send the data to an electronic data logger. When injecting on several holes simultaneously (with one pump per line) this equipment is a great help in keeping things under control and getting accurate recordings. The PC may be input with control parameters like maximum allowed injection pressure. See Figure 8. The PC will then record the process automatically. A good manometer with a simple and clear scale must be installed in a place where it is easily observed. without adding more staff. when using data processing (a PC). this adds the opportunity to actively control the process from the PC.Figure 8. Figure 8.7 Grout recorder example (photo Atlas Copco) Regardless how the system is set up and regardless of how many automatic recording devices are used it is important that a good visual control of injection pressure is available at all times. However. maximum and minimum flow rate and maximum quantity injected per hole. but this is just a different way of recording the same data. but also stop the pump when any of the stop criteria has been reached. At a tunnel face with extensive grouting it will quickly pay for itself and increase the work quality and effectiveness.

OUTLINE METHOD STATEMENT FOR PRE-GROUTING IN ROCK This Method Statement is written specifically for the use of Rheocem® microcement or for microcement with similar properties. but this is not included here. During drilling.2 Flushing of boreholes for injection The first requirement is a good water flushing during drilling of the hole. Soil injection is not considered and primarily this statement is intended for basically competent rocks from medium hard to hard. Typically. thixotropic behaviour. what length etc. such tunnelling is carried out by drill and blast and this is the excavation method considered in this document. In a practical case with very strict water ingress limitations it would be beneficial to combine the use of Rheocem® microcement and the colloidal silica MEYCO® MP 320. 101 . including the normal frequencies of weak zones and particularly jointed and crushed zones. the decision flowchart at the end of this Chapter.9.1. Typical drill bit diameter is 51 mm or 64 mm with rods and rod couplers fitting the drill bit chosen.1 General Drilling of probe holes and grouting holes is done with multi-boom drilling jumbo that is primarily used for the blasting holes. See Figure 9. water (or loss of flushing water) and other selected parameters shall be observed and recorded in a prepared format by the drilling supervisor or operator.1 Drilling 9. choice between injection/no injection and if injection how many additional holes. The same principles will be applicable also in a hard rock TBM tunnel and this Method Statement can be developed and modified also to cover this excavation method. 9. e. occurrence of weakness zones. The most important features that must be satisfied for this Method Statement to be applicable are: • Stable grout with less than 5% bleeding (normally zero). The water pressure used shall be at the maximum specified by the drilling equipment manufacturer and shall be ensured by a special pressure booster on the drilling jumbo.1.1. Marsh cone viscosity of less than 35 s.g. the penetration rate. the range of one and two component PU products of the MEYCO® MP 355-series could also be used as a supplement. quick setting grout and good pressure stability (low filtration coefficient). Together with the measured water in-leakage from the drilled holes. 9. this record forms the basis for the action to be taken. For control of backflow problems and in post-grouting situations.

but mostly this is not necessary or beneficial. The probability of problem detection increases proportionally with the number of holes drilled up to a certain maximum level.8. Probeholes are drilled to reduce the risk and to detect areas where pre-injection should be carried out. The length specified may be influenced by the chosen borehole diameter.Further cleaning of the injection holes must be described as either a procedure combining water and compressed air or by high pressure water cleaning like it is described in Chapter 6 and Figure 6. If four to five rounds can be blasted between probe drilling (and possibly injection rounds). as the deviation is substantially larger for the 51 mm diameter equipment than for 64 mm. 102 . Normally. 9.1.4 Number of holes. Push the hose to the bottom of the hole. combined with some compressed air. holes are drilled from close to the tunnel sidewall contour through the tunnel face. If there are zones in the borehole that may collapse if soaked in water. As for probe holes. open up for water and air and withdraw the hose while flushing is on. drilling accuracy and risk of getting stuck. a balance between drilling effort. this is the typical choice. Subsequent stages (if necessary) will be drilled using the split spacing principle. There are situations with very dominating joint orientations. When pre-grouting has been decided. that may call for an adapted preferential borehole direction. injection efficiency and efficient tunnelling progress is aimed at. Flushing of boreholes for grouting shall be done as specified as a routine matter and any necessary deviations shall be decided and recorded by the supervisor.1. Flushing by water and compressed air should be done using a stiff plastic hose using water at 10 bar pressure. Decision on the number of holes must be based on size of the tunnel. 9.5 m to 3. based on the borehole records. using an angle between 5° and 8° in a pattern creating a cone with the top cut off. the spacing of the first stage injection holes shall be specified. This issue shall be covered by the Technical Specification for the project.3 Length of boreholes Probe holes are normally less than 30 m long. the initial number of holes for a first stage injection will typically produce a borehole spacing at the face of 1. risk involved (in the tunnel and outside) and the required tightness of the tunnel. hole direction Generally. or if the in-leakage from the hole is larger than 10 l/min the flushing should be omitted.0 m.

This is often based on measured water in-leakage from the probe holes and can be a given number of l/min from a single hole or a maximum sum leakage from all the probe holes. High ground water pressure and very poor rock may provoke a face failure and the appropriate action is to place the packer at larger depth (e. the injection could be initiated if a single hole yields more than 4 l/min or if any combination of probe holes yield a total of more than 15 l/min.5 m. with the option of feedback from actual results during operation.2 Mixing procedure i) The cement mixer has to be a state of the art colloidal mixer with an impeller speed of not less than 1500 RPM. It happens that a channel causes water and grout backflow to the face and that the packer must be placed at a depth larger than the depth of intersection between the borehole and this channel. preferably in consultation with the product supplier. allowance must be made for a number of different possible situations that may require a different packer placement. 9. Decision about local adaptations must be made by the injection supervisor.2 Injection 9.1. 800 and 900 shall be mixed with a w/c-ratio of 1. 9.2. The balance between these criteria and the target tunnel tightness must be based on experience and local rock conditions. Add all the water for one batch into the mixer 103 ii) .5 Placing of packers The packer is normally placed near to the borehole opening and the hole is injected over its entire length in one single step. However. Normally. Rheocem® 650. this shall be specified by the project documents. local wedge fallout and similar. 5 m). 650 SR. there is supposed to be an overlap of tight rock (a buffer either from sound rock or grouted rock from the previous injection round) of say 5 m in front of the face. the packer placement should be in this zone. In principle.1 General The decision criteria for pre-injection to be undertaken must be specified.2. The mixer must also be kept in good maintenance to work efficiently with microcement. Depending on the target maximum water ingress into the tunnel. The packer placement depth is typically 1.9.0 using Rheobuild® 2000 PF at a dosage of 1. Moving it deeper is normally able to solve the problem.g. whichever happens first. Sometimes the borehole is locally disturbed by weak rock material. If there are reasons for deviation from the above given parameters or materials choice.5% of the cement weight. causing the packer to slide or to leak.

but it works very well with Rheocem grout in injection works. One advantage is that there is no evident flocculation or thickening at the time of addition and the reaction only influences the grout after a certain time. In the first case. 9. In addition. 104 . by stopping the backflow and allowing further injection of the ground without loss of material and in the second case. setting time and hardening time. In both situations it can be beneficial to accelerate the cement setting and hardening. don’t cut the mixing time short. The batches in the agitator should always be kept as fresh as possible. site tests have to be executed to determine the open time.2. If the temperature gets too high. it may be useful to dilute the accelerator by water up to a 50/50 ratio (by volume). vi) Immediately transfer the batch to the agitated holding tank and keep the grout in slow agitation at all times.iii) Add the corresponding required quantity of cement iv) Add the Rheobuild® water reducing and dispersing admixture v) Mix for 3 minutes. This is very important to avoid unexpected early setting and risk of premature blocking of holes. site temperature etc. since the intensive high shear mixing will generate heat and increase the temperature of the mix. the open time of the batch could be substantially shortened. The dosage of SA 160 can be adjusted to give the effect necessary (should only be added through a non-return valve at the packer). Be careful not to exceed the mixing time. MEYCO® SA 160 is normally used as a shotcrete accelerator. This requires sufficient mixing time and the use of Rheobuild® 2000 PF. because microcement is not living up to the term if flocculated clusters are not broken up by the mixer. type of Rheocem and w/c-ratio used on site.3 Use of an accelerator in the grout There are situations where unexpected backflow can occur through the face or even further back in the tunnel. with the actual equipment. To improve dosing accuracy and to avoid immediate local reaction when adding the accelerator. Monitor the quantity of grout in the agitator and never start mixing a new batch if the agitator holds a lot of material and the grout pump is delivering at a slow rate and high pressure. Before using MEYCO® SA 160. Sometimes indications are that a borehole is in contact with extremely large channels with a lot of high pressure water. by stopping unnecessary spread of grout outside of a reasonable distance from the tunnel.

In step v) above when about one minute of the mixing time remains. This non-return valve has been described in Chapter 4 and is illustrated in Figure 4. detach the hose from the packer and pump back into the agitator to prevent blockage of the hose and pump. 105 . Proceed as described above. before continuation of the work. diluted by water or pumped into a different hole with high leakage (if available). make sure that the speed of grout flow through the hose is not dropping too much. Addition at the packer: i) Addition at the packer has to be done by a separate pump and delivery hose. The output is adjustable and because of the high pressure. ii) iii) Based on pre-testing of dosage and calibration of the pump. During injection of the accelerated grout. ii) iii) Always use a T-valve at the packer. Take a sample from each batch to monitor setting time. slowly add the decided quantity of MEYCO® SA 160 into the mixer. iv) Any longer interruptions of pumping may require a full cleaning of all the equipment and delivery hoses. giving a maximum pressure (300 bar) substantially higher than the grout injection pressure. it may become necessary to open this valve and pump a few strokes of grout onto the tunnel floor. to get fresh material into the system and prevent clogging of the equipment. It should be noted that even if the setting time of an undisturbed sample drops to 5 or 10 minutes. If the grout flow becomes very slow. connected to a non-return valve coupled into the grout line at the packer head. The pump for MEYCO® SA 160 can be a Wagner diaphragm pump for spray painting.2. keeping the injection line open. will not be influenced by the pressure in the grout line. the agitated material will still show an open time of 20 to 30 minutes (temperature dependent). It must be decided if the remaining grout in the system has to be dumped. can be increased in steps until the targeted effect has been achieved and can be closed at any stage.4. dosage of MEYCO® SA 160 can be started at any time. so the key to a successful use of this technique is: keep the grout moving.Addition in the mixer (can be done but it is NOT recommended): i) Follow the mixing procedure for Rheocem as given above in Chapter 2. If the grouting almost stops (because of no more take at highest pressure).

However. the spread of grout into the smaller cracks and joints will be optimized. or The maximum specified grout quantity for the hole has been reached. A high pressure exerted on the borehole alone (quantity only sufficient to fill the borehole) will not cause “damage” anywhere other than the local hydraulic fracturing of some dm around the borehole itself. the maximum injection pressure has to be evaluated on a running basis and especially it has to be checked against local conditions in the tunnel. iii) If backflow of grout and water into the tunnel is detected. regardless of pressure used whichever happens first. in pre-injection the maximum allowed pressure should be used from the beginning of injection (if the pump can deliver sufficient output to reach this pressure) until alternatively: i) ii) No more grout is accepted by the ground at maximum allowed pumping pressure.9. is rather linked to the product of pressure and quantity. high hydrostatic water pressure and existing backflow. 9. 106 .5 Injection procedure i) ii) Start injection of the lowest hole in the face and work upwards. The permitted maximum grouting pressure should be at least 50 bar above the static ground water head. this should be minimised by reducing the pump output and accelerator MEYCO® SA160 should be used to create a blockage of the backflow. or when the specified maximum grout quantity per hole has been injected. In pressure sensitive situations it must also be recognised that the danger of causing damage by lifting. even if the rock cover is hundreds of meters.4 Injection pressure As is always the case. A hole is finished when the maximum allowed pump pressure is not giving more than 2 l/min grout flow during a 2 minutes period. splitting or other deformations.2. Very poor rock conditions in the face area. will be indicators that maximum pressure must be limited. A decision must be taken which method to use (addition in the mixer or by separate pump). With this approach the quantity of grout that can be placed will be executed in the shortest possible time and by working at the highest possible/allowed pressure from the start of the process.2. alternatively the holes with the largest water inflow to the tunnel should be grouted first. unless there are special reasons identified requiring a lower maximum pressure. than to pressure alone.

iv) If during the injection process two or more holes become inter-connected as demonstrated by grout backflow through the holes, close the packers in those connected holes and continue grouting on the current hole. The maximum amount before stop shall be multiplied by the number of connected holes. If the maximum pressure is reached before the maximum quantity, then the connected holes shall be injected as well, if they take any grout.

9.2.6

Injection Records
Records of the injection data have to be taken as a matter of routine. Part of this may be automatic by computerised recording if the system is suitably equipped. Otherwise, there must be well prepared forms to be used in the tunnel during work progress. It must also be well defined who is responsible for the record keeping. As a minimum the following information must be recorded: i) General data like tunnel location, date, time and shift, person who does the recording, identification and location of all holes, measured water flow from the holes. Per hole: packer placement location, length of hole, grout mix design, pressure at start and end, time at start and end, flow rate development, total grout quantity, any leakage (backflow) and any connections to other holes

ii)

9.3

Setting of grout, time until next activity
Rheocem is specifically developed to behave as a thixotropic grout and to give initial set a short time after the end of injection. The purpose is to allow work to proceed without breaks. At moderate ground water head (say less than 15 bar) and if water bearing channels are limited in size (say maximum thickness less than 10 mm), then this should be possible without risk. When the pressure increases and especially if also the channel dimensions increase at the same time, the risk of grout material failure and wash out will increase. It is not possible to give general rules about how to evaluate this, other than that the aspects of consequences of a failure, time allowed for setting and the water pressure and channel size in the ground, have to be considered. If accelerator has been used to shorten setting time, be aware that this will be a good help for the actually accelerated grout, but experience tells that only a part of the grout in one injection stage is normally accelerated. Caution must be used if the consequences of failure are serious.

107

If the next planned activity is drilling of boreholes for control of injection result, or for a next round of grout holes, always start drilling in the area where the previous injection was first completed (giving the maximum setting time).

9.4

Drilling of control holes
The efficiency of a stage of injection must be controlled by new boreholes. These holes will be evaluated using the same decision criteria as used for the probe holes in regard of injection or no injection. Control holes shall be drilled on both sides of all holes that yielded water flow above the injection criteria. If the project requires the use of an acrylate grout the decision criteria for a second stage (or subsequent stages) must tell when to use such grout. Holes that are tight and all holes, if no injection is necessary, shall be filled by stable cement grout. This can be done by rock bolting mortar, if preferred, to avoid starting up and cleaning all the injection equipment just for backfilling of the holes.

9.5

Measuring of water ingress in excavated parts of the tunnel
Control of achieved tightness in the tunnel behind the face is the only way of confirming the result of carried out injection. After a certain length of tunnel excavation, the average water flow out of the tunnel must be checked. By installing sealed dams in the floor, with V-shape overflow, the in-leakage over defined tunnel sections can be measured. To get accurate readings, it will normally be necessary to measure at the end of a weekend, to avoid disturbance from other activities that use water in the excavation. If the required in-leakage rate has been exceeded, post grouting of the remaining leakage spots must be carried out, starting with the largest ones. Also, an evaluation of the pre grouting procedure and criteria must be conducted, to decide if an adjustment is necessary.

9.6

Decision-making Flowchart, example criteria (Figure 9.1)
Step I: Probing ahead. Standard number of holes is two, in clock positions 12 and 6. In high risk areas, use four holes, in positions 6-9-12 and 3. Maximum drilling length per hole, 30 m. Use percussion drilling with water flushing. Recommended drill bit: 51 mm diameter. Start holes at tunnel contour, angle out 5 to 8°. Overlap with end of last drilling is minimum 5 m.

108

Recordings to be made during probe hole drilling: • • • • indications of any weak zones, higher drilling rates, voids. loss of drilling water. depth of detectable water in-leakage. after drilling of a hole, drill string removed: initial water in-leakage rate in l/min.

Apply maximum flushing with water and compressed air, when pulling out the drill string at the end of drilling, for proper cleaning of the hole. Grouting Criteria, A: Injection shall be carried out, if any of the following criteria are met: • • • Initial in-leakage from any single hole > 3 l/min. Total initial in-leakage from all holes > 6 l/min. Loss of more than 50% of the flushing water (approximate), in any single hole

Figure 9.1 Flowchart of decisions regarding probe drilling and injection

Distance Criteria, B: If all, or a major part of the recorded in-leakage or loss of flushing water locations occur deeper than 15 m into the holes, then the face shall be advanced to a minimum distance of 5 m from these features. Step II: Grout filling of probe holes. Place a packer minimum 2 m into the probe holes and inject grout for the purpose of filling the hole. Stop if a pressure of 20 bar is reached, or if the pumped quantity reaches 300 kg. Holes can alternatively be filled by anchoring mortar through an open plastic hose from the bottom up.
109

Drill minimum 4 control holes (after a careful evaluation of required minimum time for cement hydration). The last two holes shall be added in the area of most in-leakage or flushing water loss. Add bore holes until total number equals 8. By packer placement at minimum 1. Add bore holes until total number equals 8. Step IX: Add holes. Location of holes shall be adapted to available information on features in the ground. start grouting in the lower part and work upwards. or if the pumped quantity reaches 300 kg. If necessary. Step V: Advance the face. Step VI: Add bore holes for grouting. in-leakage locations and distribution of grout takes. Location of control holes shall be adjusted. Execute next stage of probe drilling. 110 .5 m depth. for decision on the next step. Step X: Grout filling of control holes. Stop the grouting of a hole if the pressure reaches 50 bar. Apply the Grouting Criteria A on the control holes.Step III: Advance the face. or if the pumped cement quantity reaches 1500 kg. All holes shall be grouted. add boreholes to a minimum number of 8 holes available for grouting. The length of the added holes shall be adjusted to end at the same chainage as the previous holes. Holes can alternatively be filled by bolting mortar through an open plastic hose from the bottom up. Advance the face until a minimum of 5 m probing overlap is reached. Step IV: Add bore holes for grouting. Step VII: Pressure Grouting. increased to 8 holes if high grout takes occurred in most of the previously grouted holes. Stop if a pressure of 20 bar is reached. Positions 6-9-12-3 and 7:30-4:30 shall be covered first. Step VIII: Control holes. The last two holes shall be added in the area of most in-leakage or flushing water loss. Advance the face until a minimum distance of 5 m from the features that initiated the grouting decision. Positions 6-9-12-3 and 7:30-4:30 shall be covered first. based on distribution of grout takes and location of recorded features. Place a packer minimum 2 m into the control holes and inject grout for the purpose of filling the hole.

However.e. The improvement in the ground water situation may be limited to around two orders of magnitude if the rock mass surrounding the tunnel is highly fractured. How much relative and absolute improvement of the ground water ingress situation that can be achieved will depend on the hydrogeological situation i. EXAMPLES OF RESULTS ACHIEVED 10.2 What is achievable? This question is probably wrong. However. However. be aware that the additional cost of improving water ingress reduction from 90 to 95% can be higher than sealing off the first 90%. Generally speaking it is possible with reasonable means using pre-injection to reduce the water ingress into a tunnel to a few percent of what it would have been without injection.10. the general rock permeability without grouting was determined as k = 1•10-7 m/s and the improvement achievable by pre-injection by cement and chemicals was given as end result k = 2. 111 . in hard rock conditions with granites. for a number of purposes it is possible to reach what is required and in many cases with less effort and cost than most engineers would assume in advance.1 General The term waterproofing is sometimes used when considering sealing of rock by grouting. There are a large number of examples showing water features ahead of the tunnel face that would certainly drown the tunnel if left untreated. with targeted and achieved results.’ The sedimentary rocks in Oslo are of this type. More relevant is it may be to use project examples with a focus on the local situation. Under such conditions and based on a large volume of water pressure testing of boreholes (before grouting situation) and back analysis of water ingress into pre-grouted. with extensive jointing along 3 joint sets with spacing in the 10 mm and 100 mm scale. 10. granitic gneisses and similar stiff and brittle rocks. because almost anything is possible if the resources are unlimited. there is no real limit to the relative improvement obtainable by pre-injection.1]. executed tunnels (after grouting situation). This is what can be regarded as a ’worst case scenario. even with the most elaborate procedures. primarily the character of jointing and the number of joint sets. A more correct term would be ground water control or conductivity control.5•10-9 m/s [10. The reason for this is that a 100% drip free and watertight tunnel cannot be guaranteed by pre-injection and post-injection methods.

after pre-injection. Hence.3. Frequently. an originally 400 mm wide open joint was recorded as being completely filled by micro cement [10. with several hundred metres of tunnel producing full water flows from all probe holes at up to 7 bar pressure (70 m below sea level).3 Comparing shallow and deep tunnels 10. microcement and acrylate grout the normally required level of water ingress for such tunnels was actually reached. until all the rock ahead of the ongoing excavation has been properly injected (see Chapter 7).The same features are subsequently tunnelled through without major problems. was also provided.1 Some shallow hard rock tunnels in Sweden Figure 10. The main consideration is to keep a tight bulkhead of sealed rock between the water feature and the tunnel face. To take one example.1 Nomograph indicating tightness target complexity 112 . This statement can be found on page 252. several cubic meters of sand and silt were flushed into the tunnel through the drillholes (51 mm diameter) together with water leakages of about 200 l per minute. the Bjorøy sub-sea road tunnel got into extremely difficult ground water conditions. the untreated condition of the soil is assumed to have had a behaviour like running ground”. Without pre-injection of a discontinuity of this size. Item 3: ”When encountering the zone with exploratory drilling ahead of the tunnel face at a distance of 8 – 10 m. See more details later in this Chapter. causing a flooding situation).2]. Item 4. the tunnel crossed areas with water-filled joints that were typically more than 100 mm wide. A satisfactory ground stability to allow very careful excavation through the zone. The paper furthermore states on page 250. After excavating through one injected section.1 a. With pre-injection of cement. the tunnelling would simply have been impossible. (There are also examples of decisions or ’gambles’ to go ahead excavating without pre-injection in spite of serious indications that there is a lot of water ahead. 10.

even with relatively few curtain holes.4] report on specified water ingress limits of between 0.6] report about a tunnel that is 3.5] by Hässler and Forhaug reads as follows: “A good result can be achieved with close to no water drips from the roof in mica shist. especially in the first phase of the grouting. Even if the untreated ground would yield 15000 l/min per 1000 m this would not reduce the probability of reaching e. Use of the nomograph by starting at an assumed ground water ingress of 1500 l/min per 1000 m and drawing a line through an assumed target of 200 l/min per 1000 m after injection.g. fast grouting cycle and avoiding time consuming execution controls. depending on local risk level in the project. each with a length of 25 m. It is noteworthy that this result was reached with cementitious grouts only. Erikson and Palmqvist [10. 113 . can improve the result. The measured water ingress after the end of the construction period showed results from 0.1.7 km long and has a diameter of 3. starting 8 m behind the face.Stille [10. as given in figure 7 on page 172. An even curtain with small volumes in many holes can be better than an uneven curtain with large volumes in few holes.3] discusses the development from unstable cement grouts using OPC to stable and low viscosity grouts with micro cement. To illustrate what it is possible to achieve in terms of leakage reduction by cement injection. Sundin and Karlsson [10. as shown in figure 2 on page 161 of their paper.85 to 1. It is important to note that the difficulty of achieving a certain specified result in terms of water ingress is far more dependent upon the required tightness level (50 – 100 or 200 l/min per 1000 m) than by the level of water ingress before any injection of the rock takes place. indicates that this is a medium level complexity. The required maximum water ingress was 2 l/min per 100 m and pre-injection was successfully carried out where necessary. Development of grouting methods during the project is good for the result”. Finely jointed mica shist with clay-filled joints can be well grouted with stable grouts based on cement.5 l/min per 100 m.1 l/min per 100 m. This is a reduction of water ingress by 87%. Probe drilling ahead of the face was mostly carried out by drilling 8 holes. The English translation of the summary of the paper in reference [10. 200 l/min per 1000 m. The rock types are granites and granitic gneiss. Under hard rock conditions. Extremely high pressure.5 m. reduction of water ingress by two orders of magnitude is frequently quite easy to reach. the paper presents a line nomograph as presented in Figure 10.5 and 2.

As stated on page 74. Item 3.Hahn [10.0 Lugeon (about 2 • 10-7 m/s). Some interesting information is given in the request in terms of the tightness requirements that were expected using injection: “Maximum allowed water ingress of 1 – 3 l/min per 100 m Based on a number of tunnelling projects in the Stockholm granitic rocks: 75% of the rock mass has permeability < 1 Lugeon (k = 10-7 m/s) 20% is more jointed with k > 10-6 m/s 5% will cross shear zones The cement injection material must satisfy the following: Shear strength > 3 kPa after 2 hours Bleeding maximum 2% after 2 hours” 10. will soon exceed a total of 100 km in length. gave settlements of up to 350 mm within 200-400 m from the tunnel alignment [10. To avoid surface damage in the most sensitive areas the pre-injection grouting must 114 . The tunnelling in this area.3.2 Some shallow tunnels in the Oslo area Shallow tunnelling in sedimentary. The rock types are granites and granitic gneiss with some amphibolite. Some selected references from this area give the following information: Rock tunnelling in the Oslo area requires pre-injection to avoid surface settlements in marine clay deposits. the Royal Technical University of Stockholm sent out a materials request to suppliers dated 12 May 1999 (Mr. T. On behalf of the Södra Länken highway tunnel project in Stockholm.8]. A substantial part of the total water ingress originated from within 18% of the total tunnel length. second column. Page 74. highly fractured rocks has been extensively carried out also in Oslo. About 5% of the length showed more than 10 Lugeon (about 2 • 10-6 m/s). Some early experiences.6 km long and has a diameter of 3. like the Holmenkollen subway commissioned in 1916.7] describes a tunnel which is 7. About 15% of the probe hole length gave water loss measurements equal to or larger than 1. tunnels driven in Oslo’s sedimentary rocks will generally yield in the range of 20 to 40 l/min per 100 m if not injected (this corresponds to an overall rock permeability of the order 10-7 m/s).5 m. The required maximum water ingress was 5 l/min per 100 m and pre-injection was carried out where necessary. Dalmalm). all requiring ground water control by pre-injection.

10. “experience from recent road tunnels show that water ingress may be reduced to 2 to 5 l/min per 100 m by the use of cement pre-injection in tunnels of 60 to 100 m2 cross section”. it was considered possible to succeed and an acrylate grout was selected for the work. at 10 bar. This was very unfavourable because of the risk of back flow to the tunnel. These results have been achieved with cement grouting alone and with a typical target tightness of about 30 l/min per 100 m. In reality what was pumped was gel lumps under formation. In this sense they are not illustrating what is ultimately achievable by injection techniques. It turned out that these gel lumps started clogging up the backflow channels. second column: “Experience shows that fairly good results from post-grouting can only be achieved in pre-grouted areas. the water ingress after commissioning varies from 10 to 45 l/min per 100 m. allowing a start of gel-formation before start of the injection pump (an ordinary cement pump).4 Sedrun Access tunnel. 10. with maximum depths of between 56 to 260 m below sea level and all of them were systematically probe-drilled and pre-injected where necessary. they were drilled in a way to cross the water channels at only one to two meter depth inside the tunnel contour. almost blocked completely.3. Alp Transit Project. This concentrated ingress was not pre-injected and because of the nuisance of the flowing water. The authors also emphasise that post-grouting may be fairly successful in pre-grouted areas. an attempt was made to reduce the ingress by post-injection. Injection holes were pre-drilled by the contractor and as it turned out. the ingress gradually reduced and finally. but post-grouting is stated to be no alternative to pre-grouting. With cross sections in the range of 43 m2 to 68 m2. To counteract this situation the acrylate grout was prepared in batches. Since this was a concentrated ingress with good rock on both sides of the about one meter zone of disturbance. 17 sub-sea road tunnels have been constructed in Norway. Post-grouting is no alternative to pre-grouting”. Furthermore.3 Deep situated tunnels Since 1979. albeit still weak and soft. 115 . Most of them are located in hard rock. The following statement can be found on page 75.reduce the leakage to 1 to 2 l/min per 100 m. Switzerland The 1000 m long access tunnel to the vertical shaft (800 m down to the main tunnels level) hit a small sub-vertical shear zone that yielded about 200 l/min. but illustrate well what can be achieved by quite reasonable measures.

including sprayed-in steel arches in weak zones.The permanent rest ingress in this area has been measured to between 5 and 10 l/min and this was satisfactory to the client (so no additional attempts were made to further reduce the ingress).1 Practical execution in the Bekkestua Tunnel Per pre-injection station a round of 25 holes were drilled with a length of 21 m. The limit of water ingress into the tunnel was set as maximum 2 l/minute per 100 m of tunnel length. Recorded water ingress measured at more than 5 l/min per hole was treated with normal Portland cement and 2% of Rheobuild 1000 admixture for water reduction. injection was carried out with Rheocem microcement. Due to the low rock cover (between 2 and 50 m) vibrations had to be reduced to a minimum. Oslo. who wished to get rid of the heavy transit traffic through their town. Maximum cement quantity per hole was set at 4000 kg and maximum injection pressure at 30 bar. The tunnel was excavated by the drill and blast method. with 3% of Rheobuild 1000 as water reducing and dispersing agent.2 Acrylate grout appearing as limited backflow before sealing off 10. Since the tunnel is below the ground water level with marine clay sediments resting on the bedrock. Maximum microcement quantity per hole was 2000 kg at maximum injection pressure of 30 bar. For measured water ingress less than 5 l/min per hole. 116 . 10. Surface settlement and damage would otherwise be the result. cross section 68 m2) located in a suburb of Oslo in a semi-agricultural area. Figure 10. Rock support was carried out by steel fiber reinforced shotcrete. Norway The Bekkestua Tunnel is a short tunnel (705 m long. Highly jointed limestone with layers of shale was the dominating rock type.5.5 Bekkestua Road Tunnel. measures had to be taken to prevent drainage and lowering of the pore pressure in the soil. The initiative to construct the tunnel was taken by the inhabitants of Bekkestua.

During routine probe drilling ahead of the face. The largest leakage of 1. sedimentary breccia and unconsolidated sand and silt. with a maximum depth of 80 m below sea level.2 which illustrates the efficiency of using Rheocem microfine cement in regard of both time spent. Figure 11.The resulting measured total water ingress to the tunnel at the end of the excavation period was 0. 10.6 The Bjoroy sub-sea road tunnel 10. several m³ of water and sand had blown into the tunnel through one single 51 mm diameter borehole.1 The project The 1965 m long Bjorøy road tunnel passes under the strait of Vatlestraumen near the city of Bergen in South-western Norway.7 l/min and 100 m tunnel length. This was injected through 1440 packer placements and distributed over 26’000 m of boreholes. Within a few minutes.5 m. General Contractor Selmer ASA was awarded the contract by the Public Road Authority of Hordaland County.6. Breakthrough was reached in August 1995. The main part of the fault system encountered turned out to be a Jurassic formation with competent sandstone. The tunnel crossed the zone at 72 m below sea level with a rock cover of about 30 m.2 The problem Extreme conditions were encountered after about 700 m of excavation from the Bjorøy side. Execution was from August 1993 to March 1994. flowing sand/silt under 7 bar water head was hit at 8 to 10 m in front of the face.7 l/min and 100 m tunnel was recorded in a section where only OPC had been used (no microcement). The project consumed in total 583 tons of Rheocem 650. but this is linked to the very strict ingress limit and the highly jointed sedimentary rocks.6. The quantities are comparatively high. quantities injected and final result. The thickness of loose sand material varied from a few cm to 2. See also Chapter 11. when 840 m had been excavated from the island side and 1125 m from the mainland. Excavation was commenced in November 1993 on the island side. 117 . The tunnel was opened for public use in 1996. 10. 40 tons of Rheocem 900 and 556 tons OPC. The hole yielded water at about 200 l/min. while the complete zone had a maximum thickness of about 4 m.

3 The running ground zone It was quickly agreed that to enter into this type of flowing ground with a tunnel face of about 60 m2 cross section without special measures would be impossible. high strength ultra fine micro cement Rheocem® 900 and the acrylate resin MEYCO® MP 301. 118 1460 .6. Ground consolidation techniques included cement based compaction and hydrofracturing grouting. A number of different technical solutions were considered. Stability was monitored systematically by the use of convergence measurements. chemical acrylic hydrofracturing and permeation grouting. until the necessary homogeneity was achieved to allow pressure build up and permeation by MEYCO® MP 301 into the sand lenses. heavily jointed and altered (chlorite. To be able to use ground consolidation by pressure pre-injection. horizontal jet grouting and different types of spiling and micro pillar installation. serisite and illite) Sand and silt with lenses of hard quartz sandstone and broken conglomerate Biotite gneiss. The resin provided a permeation capability into the fine sand and silt material and created a simultaneous sealing. The cement was always used first in several stages.and strengthening effect in the injected ground. as well as gravity water drainage from the zone.Plan view Direction of excavation 1490 1480 1470 Chainage Core drilling area after break through Tectonic breccia. the key problem was to ensure sufficient penetration into the silty soil to create necessary water cut-off and sufficient ground stability improvement.3 The solution Extensive ground consolidation activities were undertaken in order to improve ground stability allowing an open face excavation and support. Key elements of the chosen solution was the quick setting. altered and very poor with high shistosity Figure 10. Support ahead of the face by spiling and immediate shotcrete support after short excavation sequences was utilised. including ground freezing. 10.

39 MPa. Excavation by backhoe. About 25% of the ground produced no core recovery. can be summed up as follows: • • • • • Of the ground inspected. Grain size of zone material Samples from core drilling SILT 100 Percent passing sieve SAND 80 60 40 20 10 100 Grain size in micro meter 1000 Figure 10. The compaction effect was sufficient to produce core samples. Of the silt and sand material. proceeded slowly and successfully.6. A research program carried out by inspection of cores drilled through the final concrete lining after the tunnel break through. was followed immediately by steel fiber reinforced shotcrete. causing compaction of the adjacent silt material.4 Results The progress through the about 30 m of tunnel length directly influenced by the zone. 10 to 15% had been permeated by the acrylic resin grout MP301. 119 . Only minimal water seepage was observed and there were no blow-outs or uncontrolled collapse areas. Silt permeated by MEYCO® MP 301 showed compressive strengths of 0. about 50% consisted of compacted silty sand. Cement lenses had replaced 10 to 15% of the sand/silt ground by splitting. These pipes had also the function of spiling bolts for the subsequent excavation.4 Zone material sieve analysis 10. For a more complete presentation of the project see [10.36 and 0.2].The injection was carried out through steel stand-pipes placed around the tunnel contour. in very short steps and on part face area.

rotting of the piles and damage to the buildings. Average tunnel production including pre-injection works was15 m per day. Any lowering of the ground water level in the vicinity of these buildings would have resulted in serious settlements. Sweden 10. interspersed with zones of fractured and weathered rock (10%). This caused problems as the capacity of the network of pipelines for rain and waste water drainage was insufficient.7. Rheocem microcement was the chosen grout material for this work. Atlas Copco Foro 900. a tunnel was excavated to serve as a temporary storage of surplus water until the pressure on the pipelines and the waste water treatment plants was reduced. Due to its winding form the tunnel got the name “Ormen” (= The snake). 120 . therefore had a maximum working pressure of 100 bar. For this reason the level of maximum permitted ingress of water into the tunnel was set at 2 l/min per 100 m of tunnel length. To reduce overflows into the surrounding rivers and lakes.2 Tunnel data The tunnel goes mainly through crystalline gneisses (50%) and granites (40%). The equipment worked very reliably throughout the whole project.7. which means a practically dry tunnel. In order to meet the project requirements it was decided to use a TBM to eliminate the risk of vibration damages to overlying structures and also to reduce the risk of extra water ingress caused by blasting cracks in the surrounding rock. The Rheocem microcement technology requires the use of a modern colloidal mixer and pretty high pressure during injection (from 30 to 50 bar).1 The project With a frequency of about once per 5 years heavy rainfalls hit the city of Stockholm. 10.5 m. Eight raise-bored shafts lead the rain water from the streets down to this tunnel.10. The selected pump from Montanbüro. the total length is 3700 m and it was excavated by a TBM. Continuous pre-injection along the tunnel alignment was necessary in order to seal cracks and joints to keep water ingress below the specified limit. This is a very strict requirement. Stockholm. The tunnel diameter is 3. The Snake was constructed at a depth of 40 to 60 m beneath the central parts of Stockholm city in an extremely sensitive area of the old town where many of the houses are supported on wooden piles.7 The Ormen Project (the snake).

The soft alluvial deposits. MBT UGC International was also involved during tendering and further assisted the contractor in discussions with the client.7.3 Some general information Contractor was Siab AB.2 The Problem One of the access shafts down to the main tunnel was located in water bearing fine sand and this soil needed stabilisation to allow safe break-in and break-out of the TBM at the shaft. linked to a state-of-the-art sewage treatment plant at the downstream end.8. Access for excavation and for sewage connection points are through 13 vertical shafts. Murphy Tunnelling was the Contractor for the 2550 m of 2.82 inner diameter EPBM drive. This eliminating all untreated discharge to the river and is an important environmental improvement. The tunnel is lined by concrete segments and runs at about 15 m depth.5 Break-in area soil stabilisation 121 . 10. Figure zz is illustrating the general layout of the shaft and tunnel.1 The Project The tunnel provides a new drainage system for the City of Limerick.8 Limerick main drainage water tunnel. 10. the high water head and the proximity to the river added to the construction problems. Ireland 10. 10. Figure 10. Both theoretical and practical training was conducted by MBT UGC International. Works period: February 1991 through June 1992.In this case The MBT Underground Construction Team was a consultant to the contractor (Siab) and produced working guidelines and procedures.8. Injected quantities were 160’000 kg of Rheocem 650 and 40’000 kg of Rheocem 900.

10. Refer to Figure 10. To facilitate injection. and the use of standard equipment offered a clear advantage to the tunnel crew carrying out the grouting operation. a series of one and two metre long perforated steel pipes. The colloidal silica is a nanometric sol. with primary particles of 0. This product can penetrate extremely fine sands and coarse silts.3 The solution Fine sands with silt will typically cause injection problems using cement or even ultrafine cement.6. This allowed sufficient time for permeation and the grout could be injected by standard cement grouting equipment.8. Figure 10. Many chemical resin products may cause environmental hazards in some locations and it was therefore suggested to grout with the MEYCO® MP 320 colloidal silica gel.015 micron. with one-way valves were rammed into the sand through pre-drilled holes in the shaft segment lining. The penetration may stop prematurely and it is very difficult to achieve a uniform distribution.6 Injection point through shaft segment lining The MEYCO® MP 320 was pre-mixed with 20% component B (10% solution of table salt in water). coupled with a viscosity of 5 cP (similar to milk). Positions were marked on the outer circumference of the coming TBM breakthrough.4 Results The mixing of the MEYCO® MP 320 proved extremely simple to undertake. 122 . giving an open time of 30 minutes.8.10. The pipes were sealed in place by quick setting mortar.

10. Samples of the sand gave a particle distribution between 0.2 The problem The sand was saturated with water. causing it to flow readily once exposed during excavation. The tunnel has been driven through fine to silty saturated sand. Ireland 10. Consequently. There were still considerable problems. causing considerable construction problems. but ended up using the acrylic grout since this clearly offered the best solution.0 mm. 10. with roughly 95% smaller than 1.9. Various ground treatment systems had been used to improve the stability of the sand. The Iseki machine could therefore not achieve the steering accuracy needed to reach the target in the reception chamber constructed from pre-cast concrete rings. It passes beneath the town centre with between 5 and 10 m cover to the surface.9 The Kilkenny Main Drainage Tunnel. bentonite and cement injection. Also. 123 . The MEYCO® MP 320 had solved the problem of ground water control and stability of the soil.1 The project The tunnel is about one meter in diameter and is 200 m long. None of the systems accomplished any improvement to the tunnelling conditions. including PFA. For cost reasons the contractor wished to try the Rheocem 900. the original traditional pipe jacking method was abandoned for an Iseki micro-tunneling machine. driven by pipe jacking. like one occasion where the head was almost lost to an oversized washout cavity in the ground. with jacked steel pipes. This indicated soil conditions well within the range of the ground treatment envelope offered by MEYCO MP 301 acrylic grout and on the lower border of what is possible with Rheocem 900 ultrafine cement. waterglass injection and also jet grouting.3 The solution When about 10 m remained to complete the tunnel drive. but offered no resistance to the TBM excavation. settlement problems occurred due to the close proximity to the foundations of old town buildings along the route.063 mm and about 2 mm.9. the sand were seen to be effectively treated and stable.9. the sand demonstrated increased instability.After removal of the shaft segments to allow the safe breakthrough and breakout. 10.

Norway 10. Low pressure injection was carried out using a hand pump system and the MEYCO MP 301 acrylic resin was mixed at 1:1 ratio of component A to B.4 Results During excavation of the final 10 m of tunnel the Iseki machine was able to continue with improved steering performance. The floor of the cavern is located at 83 m below sea level to allow for a ground water head larger than the gas pressure above the liquid propane.9.Injection pipes were drilled from the concrete segment reception chamber in a horizontal umbrella fan arrangement. 10. 21 m wide and the length is 134 m. 10.10 West Process Propane Cavern Project (WPPC). Surface settlement was also well controlled as a result of the grouting. North of Bergen in Norway. The actual rock cavern is 33 m high.10. Pipe spacing was approximately 300 mm. Norway 124 .7 The propane storage cavern at Mongstad. Figure 10. The continuous sand washout experienced prior to injection of the acrylic grout was now stopped. Some clear water was running on the invert of the tunnel whereas before.1 The project As an addition to the existing oil and gas facilities at Mongstad. To allow the storage of propane in liquid form the gas has to be stored at –42º C. a rock cavern has been constructed for storage of liquefied propane gas. the invert was filled with silt and fine sand. The freezing down of the rock surrounding the cavern will be started by air circulation and at the end by filling liquid propane.

Flowing water would otherwise transport heat into the cavern and at concentrated water ingress spots it could become impossible to stop the water by ice building.5% by weight. 10. a total of 500 l of MEYCO MP 320 silica gel was injected.8 to 1. About 4000 m of guided boreholes have been drilled for this purpose. 125 . The shafts have steel lining with concrete backfill and some water was trickling in the rock/concrete contact. It was estimated that the ground water ingress would have to be less than 15 l/min measured for the whole cavern. Some grouting had to be done in the 450 m of vertical shafts (diameter 2. The w/c-ratio of the grout varied from 0.10. benches and invert).3 The solution A program was developed for systematic pre-grouting of all excavation stages (top heading.2 The problem For such gas storage to work properly and avoid gas leakage to the surroundings it is crucial to maintain the ground water level during all stages of construction and operation. To be able to carry out the freezing-down of the surrounding rock it was also for this reason necessary to limit the water ingress. The pre-grouting work required about 30’000 m of borehole drilling and consumed 410 t of micro cement. After this blockage was in place.10.10.0 l/min with the ground water level being virtually undisturbed by the project. 400 kg of MEYCO MP 355 1K polyurethane foam was used.10. All grouting was done by Rheocem 900 Ultrafine cement with Rheobuild 2000PF at 1.1 m). To stop the water at the bottom part.4 The result Measuring of the total ground water ingress after the end of excavation amounted to less than 2. 10. This has been achieved by systematic pre-excavation grouting and by the installed water injection system. The injection hoses in the steel/concrete contact were also injected by MP 320.0 by weight.

showing final set in about 6 hours). particle size: 100% < 40 micron 99% < 30 micron 99% < 20 micron 98% < 15 micron 92% < 10 micron 58% < 5 micron 20% < 2 micron 4. Rheocem® 650 (Blaine value > 625 m2/kg). a pure Portland cement. Rheocem® 800 (Blaine value 800 m2/kg). particle size: 100% < 40 micron 98% < 30 micron 97% < 20 micron 94% < 15 micron 77% < 10 micron 44% < 5 micron 16% < 2 micron 2. Rheocem® 650 SR (Blaine value 625 m2/kg). the open time in the equipment is still one hour as long as the grout is agitated. Under most practical conditions. particle size: 100% < 40 micron 100% < 30 micron 99% < 20 micron 99% < 15 micron 98% < 10 micron 73% < 5 micron 25% < 2 micron 12% < 1 micron These cements have been specifically adapted for use from a tunnel front. MBT INJECTION MATERIALS 11. a pure Portland cement. a pure Portland cement.1 The Rheocem range of tunnel grouting cements Rheocem microcement comes in four different standard types: 1. by giving a very short setting time of about two hours. The importance 126 . sulphate resistant type (slower setting) 3. In the laboratory a 1:1 water/ cement ratio (by weight) at 20 °C will give initial set (measured by Vicat needle) of 60 to 120 minutes and final set (defined as 1 mm penetration by the Vicat needle) of 120 to 150 minutes.11. (Be aware that the SR versions are slower. Rheocem® 900 (Blaine value 900 m2/kg).

Also the strength development and final strength is superior to most other microcements. 127 . penetration is excellent without loss of stability.1 Pressure stability and permeation dependent on the admixture The second most important parameter common to all the four types is pressure stability. Thus. This is why it is possible to use a cement costing about three times as much per kilo and still save money. Water saturated sand Poorest Best Pump Max 6 bar w/c-ratio = 1.0 Rheocem 900 Figure 11. Using Rheocem® 900. which of course is the reason why this has been selected as the standard admixture. The best result was achieved by Rheobuild® 2000 PF. This particular admixture gives the combined effect of low viscosity (Marsh cone flow time of 32 seconds). Here it must be emphasised that this property is only maintained when using the prescribed low w/c-ratio of 1.0% of the cement weight. the time related cost items frequently amount to more than 60% while cement (when using OPC) cost regularly less than 5%.1.0 and only varying the admixture (28 different products tested). The importance of the right admixture has been demonstrated by test injection in sand-filled plexiglass tubes. no segregation and the low filtration coefficient.0 and by the use of Rheobuild® 2000 PF at about 1. gave permeation depths varying from 20 mm to 610 mm. w/c-ratio 1. The practical results in a number of tunnels have demonstrated superior results when other cements have also been tested.of short setting time has been covered in Chapter 2. The testing set-up can be seen in Figure 11. The work proceeds in less time. Handling of rock conductivity contrast and is primarily linked to economy.5 to 2. or the low filtration coefficient. When calculating the contractor’s cost per meter of tunnelling.

Figure 11. is the wrong focus. 128 . Fact is.The described test is one of the good examples that the tendency to focus on maximum particle size or Blaine value to evaluate permeation properties of different cements. As can be seen from the graph the time spent per kg injected OPC increased typically by a factor of 2 to 3 compared the use of micro cement. Transfer to agitator One practical example demonstrating the benefits of using Rheocem® micro cement versus OPC is the Bekkestua tunnel in Oslo. The contractor Veidekke AS partly used OPC only. It also turned out that the section of the tunnel with the highest recorded remaining leakage after completion had been injected by OPC alone. thus demonstrating the efficiency of the micro cement system. a very interesting analysis could be carried out by the site manager. By keeping accurate records of the work progress and the achieved results over the 705 m tunnel length. with Rheocem® 650 and Rheobuild® 2000 PF the permeation depth is frequently almost the same as with Rheocem 900.2 Time spent on injection with OPC and micro cement Rheocem. Figure 11. partly a combination of OPC and Rheocem® and partly the microcement alone.2 gives the details of this analysis. Proper mixing can only be achieved in a colloidal mixer and the best result is produced by: • • • fill all the water into the mixer add all the cement while running the mixer and mix for 2 minutes add the Rheobuild® 2000PF and mix for another minute.

The material volume cost in place is high. The actual foaming reaction requires water and is triggered by first contact with water. In most practical cases when used for running water cut-off it is beneficial to have as short reaction time as possible. because the foaming goes on for a minute and more and during this time a continued pumping will bring fresh material that creates channels in the foam. sometimes two-component pumps. It is unfavourable from a health viewpoint due to the isocyanate and risk of allergy and respiratory problems. This accelerator can be used partly or all of it. The product is solvent free. to locally fill larger openings and voids and sometimes to limit and control spread of the primary injection materials. well trained and experienced staff will be able to handle PU without much difficulty. The viscosity is pretty high (as explained before).2. The targeted injection quantity will therefore not stop prematurely. Into this statement you should read that PU is not really meant to be an injection material in its own right. depending on the actual foam factor in place.11. It is seldom a problem that the reaction time gets too short. there is no high risk of problems.5 kg dosage of accelerator.1 MEYCO MP 355 1K The MEYCO MP 355 1K is such a quick foaming material and it has the advantage of being one-component. The product comes in 25 kg cans with a 2. It is therefore normal to carry out 129 . It is a “dirty” material in the sense that PU sticks to anything it comes in contact with and re-use of pipes. but can be explained as follows below. using modern low risk products and professional staff with proper personal protection and applying good handling procedures. packers and valves becomes a hassle.2 Polyurethane grouts Polyurethane (PU) grouts are quite useful in rock injection as a supplement to cement and other injection materials. giving poor permeation in comparison to many other products. This may be a surprise. Again. The usefulness is primarily linked to the application of quick foaming products that can be used to block running water (typically when backflow into the tunnel is a problem). so the pumping equipment is quite simple to operate and has a reasonably low cost. 11. depending on the required reaction time. water and product has a strong influence on the reaction time. PU needs special equipment. Be aware that also temperature of surroundings. However.

inject with a suitable single component pump.2 by weight).2. The components are delivered ready to use and the two-component pump must be set at 1:1 by volume of A and B (this is 1:1. 11. The chemical reaction of MP355 does not depend on contact with water. When handling accelerated batches of the product. make sure that the working place is absolutely drip-free. one single drop of water into the mixed product or into the hopper of the pump will start the foaming reaction and equipment and hose may get clogged. This way you can make sure there is water to trigger the reaction. 2. To give an idea about reaction times the following has been measured in the laboratory (with 10% accelerator and 10% water): Initial temperature °C 5 10 15 20 Start of reaction (seconds) 120 60 25 10 End of reaction (seconds) 300 200 110 50 Foam factor (free foaming) 25 25 25 30 Used under wet conditions (which is the rule) the application procedure is: 1. Water in the ground will trigger the foaming reaction. It does happen that there is reason to inject under dry conditions (or in a situation where it is unsure if there is enough water in the ground). The A-component mixed with B produce the following properties in the laboratory at 25 °C: 130 . Mixing takes place through a static mixer and the mixed product goes through the packer into the ground.site tests to determine the best dosage of accelerator. add the accelerator to the PU at the dosage established (2 to 10%) and mix it well. The procedure then must be modified by first pumping water into the rock or soil and then following this by the two steps above. Otherwise. The components are conveyed from the pump to the injection packer in separate hoses. since all the necessary elements are in the A and B components.2 MEYCO MP 355 A3 This two-component product consist of the B component (isocyanate) which is combined with the A component (polyol) to produce a foam end product.

Containers and bulk is also available for larger quantities.02 220 ±20 42-48 variable In terms of ground water control and running water cut-off. and rubber boots. 11. construction workers should wear impermeable overalls. the A3 is an alternative to MP355 1K.3 Acrylate resin grouts 11. the two-component product will normally be the first choice when using large volumes and against very much water.1 MEYCO MP 301 MEYCO® MP 301 contains several acrylic esters and a methacrylamide derivative as accelerator. The MP355 A3 product comes in pails 30 kg (A) and 36 kg (B) or in drums of 200 kg (A) or 240 kg (B). and mucous membranes. gloves. All these recommendations are printed on the containers and on the material safety data sheet. However. not neurotoxic. To minimise the risks of irritation and sensitisation.013±0.3. 131 . All primary substances of MEYCO® MP 301 are biologically degradable. eyes. and show no negative effects on human reproduction.Properties Density (g/cm3) Viscosity (mPas) Potlife mixed (s) Reaction time (s) Foam factor A3 1. The A3 version can be made quicker by added accelerator. Polymerised injection material of MEYCO® MP 301 has no ecologically relevant effect. No acrylamide and no formaldehyde will be emitted during its application. if necessary. In contrast to the acrylamide-based products. The primary substances of MEYCO® MP 301 are not harmful to human health: they are not acutely toxic. goggles. not carcinogenic. MEYCO® MP 301 contains neither acrylamide nor formaldehyde. Most relevant are the irritating effects on skin. Regarding the ecotoxicity the acute toxicity toward fish and bacteria is low. Repeated skin contact can cause allergic reactions.

can be used down to +3 °C and allow a choice of gel-time as needed. To give an idea about the particle size. The water dispersion contains discrete.05 6-7 1-2 mPas Hardener comp. but it is equally well suited for ground water control and mostly it requires a two-component pump. remember the frequently made statement that silica fume particles are like cigarette smoke and compare in Table 11.1 below.3 below. B powder white When working with two-component systems the pump must be of stainless steel quality due to the aggressive component B. 11.4 Special product on silica basis 11. The product is prepared for use by adding a liquid accelerator to component A. non-aggregated spherical particles of 100% amorphous silicon dioxide in a 40% suspension. It is a two-component product.4.25 % concentration of Na2O as a stabiliser. 132 . The mixed product will have the following general properties: Property Form Colour Density pH Viscosity MP301 mixed liquid yellow 1. For ground stabilisation the MP301 is particularly well suited.The product is a highly reactive hydrophilic resin that can be used for injection in soil and rock. See also Figure 11. The product is solvent free has no toxic components. Also the strength of the gel and subsequently the strength of an injected soil can be adjusted by varying the concentration of the mixed product (by increasing the hardener concentration in component B and reducing the volume of component B). Containers used during injection should preferably be made of plastic.1 MEYCO MP 320 Colloidal Silica MEYCO® MP 320 is a milky white nanometric colloidal silica suspension. The two pre-made components are mostly combined at a 1:1 ratio (by volume). while component B is prepared from potable water with up to 5% of the powder hardener. with 0. but the slower gel-times can allow the use of one-component pumps by mixing and injecting batches that are pumped in shorter time than the chosen gel-time. since it gives a strong gel.

This gives a very consistent product quality.4 Figure 11.2 5 5 15 Specific surface (m2/g) 80-900 15-25 10-15 10-15 0.4 Gel time at 8 °C versus dosage of accelerator (component B) 133 .1 .3 Relative size of colloidal silica nano-particle The colloidal silica is a manufactured product and not a by-product from other processes.016 0.Table 11. Figure 11. reproducible performance and the chemical structure makes the suspension fully stable with a shelf life of minimum 6 months. Comparison of particle size for silica products Product Colloidal silica (suspension) Silica fume Precipitated silica Fine crystalline silica Crystalline silica (mesh 200) Paticle size (mm) 0.

also termed accelerator. aggressive or in any way harmful substances. Figure 11. will be suitable in most cases. The product can be used between temperatures of +5°C and + 40°C and a one component pump. The gelling behavior of MP320 is very favorable in the sense that the low viscosity is maintained until the preset gel time. This is well demonstrated in the measurements presented in Figure 11. The most important technical data are as follows (at 20 °C): Property Color Viscosity mPas Density g/ml pH Component A Milky white 9 1.To use the colloidal silica suspension (component A) as an injection product we have to add a component B.3 9 . The two components have to be pre-mixed in batches with the chosen volume ratio.07 7 Mixed product 5 1. with accelerator (Component B) in 25 liter cans or 210 liter drums. when the viscosity increases rapidly.10 Component B Transparent 1 1.4 shows the relation between accelerator dosage and gel time. MEYCO® MP 320 is available in standard sets containing component A in 210 liter drums or 1000 liter containers. joints and pores is necessary. before feeding the mix to the pump. None of the components contain toxic. 134 . like the cement grouting pump.5. The gel time will depend on temperature and must be established under site conditions. Cleaning of the equipment is easily done by water. Depending on the dosage of the accelerator we can adjust the gel time between about 10 minutes and more than 2 hours. the product has a very low viscosity and it is well suited for all situations where penetration into fine cracks.25 9 As can be seen from the technical data.

Figure 11. Compared to traditional silicate grouts. This product represents an entirely new opportunity in rock and soil injection. when injected to seal off ground water. it will dry out and shrink if exposed for long time to atmospheric conditions at less than 100% humidity. This creates very good water tightness and the ground strengthening effect is also noticeable in loose soils. but MEYCO MP320 shows zero syneresis and no shrinkage. the chemical stability is very much improved and the product can in many cases be used as a permanent grout. primarily because of the unique combination of positive properties: • • • • • • low materials cost for both components. aggressive or hazardous substances in either component extremely simple handling. behaves like a true liquid in practical terms zero syneresis gel with good chemical stability 135 . preparation.5 Viscosity development of MP320 The strength of the gel is similar to the traditional silica gel products. This must. This is not a problem under ground in soil and rock. however. running sand and in very broken rock. practical use and cleaning and disposal easily adjustable gel time within a wide range (10 to 150 minutes) very low viscosity (5 mPas) until gelling. be verified in each case due to variation in ground chemistry and the project requirements from site to site. Like any other gel product. Long shelf life no toxic.

4] Fu. “Fundamental observations on cement based grouts: Microfine cements and Cemill process.. 12. 1981.. New York. Proceedings of Post Graduate Training Course sponsored by the Norwegian Chartered Engineer Association and the Norwegian Rock mechanics Group. “Catastrophic water inflow in the new Yung-Chuen Tunnel.1] Davik.” Norwegian Tunnelling Society.. 12. vol.1] Dahlø.2] Blindheim. “Some new initiatives in cement grouts and grouting”. K. Inc. A. [2. B. “Grouting design and control using the GIN principle. O. Oevstedal... Andersson. T... Publication No. R. [1. [4. O. B. J. Deere. 12.2] Norwegian Tunnelling Society.. [4.12. Publication No. Norway.. L.. Wang. I. [3.4] Lombardi. K..” Marcel Decker. practical guidelines for injection strategy and methodology” (in Norwegian).5] Stenstad.. Bruce. Oslo 1991. Oslo 2002. 4.. Volume 45... 2001.. D.1] Karol. [1. Oslo 2002.. 42nd Canadian Geotechnical Conference. 136 .. 1989. International Society for Rock Mechanics. “Construction and design of cement grouting. [1. Publication No. H. [4. Publication No. Nilsen. “Sub-sea tunnelling – stability and rock cover” (in Norwegian with English Summary).. Granata. [1. John Wiley and Sons. [4. Oslo 2002. 1. Proceedings X ICSMFE. Oslo 2002. Winnipeg. Milan – Italy. “Water control – reasonable sharing of risk. L. “Injection in rock. “Urban road tunnels – a subsurface solution to a surface problem.3] Mitchell. T. Milan. pp 143-150.3] Berge. [3. 1998. C. 1983. G. C. 1990..” Proceedings of the AITES-ITA 2001 World Tunnel Congress. [2. K. Stockholm.” Norwegian Tunnelling Society. D.. H. Sun.” Norwegian Tunnelling Society. A. “Control of water leakage when tunnelling under urban areas in the Oslo region. “Soil improvement – State of the Art Report”.2] De Paoli. III.. O. E. No 6. R. Handbook no.5] Keil et al. Bosco. pp 509-565. B. “Design principles and construction methods for water control in subsea road tunnels in rock. a guide to grouting in rock foundations.” Water Power and Dam Construction. Fagernes. REFERENCES [1. 12. [2.” Norwegian Tunnelling Society. R.3] Houlsby. Proceedings Norwegian Tunnelling Society yearly conference.” International Conference Soil and Rock Improvement in Underground Works.1] ISRM (1995): Final Report of the Commission on Rock Grouting. J. [4. “Chemical Grouting. New York. S. “Execution of injection works” (in Norwegian). Vol. 1991.2] Karlsrud.K.

[4. Seminar on issues in dam grouting. [5. Tunnels & Tunnelling.8] Kveldsvik. Forhaug. B. T. “Daily life of subsea rock tunnels – construction.. L. N...3] Stille. vol. 1996.1] Lukajic. Proceedings of Workshop Strait Crossings – Subsea Tunnels. and Deans. Swedish Rock Engineering Research Foundation.4] Erikson. ASCE Spring Convention. D. 1... Report 220:5/89. “Tunnelling through a sandzone: Ground treatment experiences from the Bjoroy subsea road tunnel”.1] Mueller. Swedish Rock Engineering Research Foundation. Oslo 1983.3] Schunnesson.2] pers. K. 1989. [6. operation and maintenance”. R. K. Denver. USA [6. Palmqvist. Norwegian Tunnelling Society. Operations Engineer Hans Ove Fostenes. Mascot. Publication No. Oslo 1987.. summary of project”.. “Experiences from the grouting of the Lundby tunnel”.1] Skjeggedal. Swedish Rock Engineering Research Foundation. 1977. the Saltsjoe tunnel. O.. 10. Proceedings of the Rock Mechanics day 1977. [10.6] Sundin..comm. 1992. Paddy Cochrane. Hegrenaes. Stockholm. Experience of grouting works at the Arlanda train project”. E. Stockholm. CUC course Waterproofing of Tunnels. 1977. “Leakage requirements in connection with the new road tunnel “Fjellinjen” through Oslo”.2] pers. 137 . 1999. comm.. Master Builders Inc. [10. “Support methods and ground water control”. “Tunnel boring in the city of Stockholm. pp 249256. Proceedings of North American Tunnelling ’96. Oslo 1995. G. [10. April 1985.. 2000. et al.comm. pp69-77. Swedish Rock Engineering Research Foundation. [6. FEC Inc.2] Holter. 1977. [10. Stockholm. 1999. J. Norwegian Tunnelling Society. B. pp 22-23. Publication No. January 1996. K. [10. Swedish Rock Engineering Research Foundation. “Swedish research regarding grouting of rock – 30 years”. K. Proceedings of the Rock mechanics day 1977. A. [10. H. [8. “Use of asphalt in the treatment of dam foundation leakageStewartwill Dam”.1] Karlsrud. Stockholm. Stockholm. Karlsrud. Proceedings of the Rock Mechanics day 1977. K. Statoil. Washington DC. [5. 2. G.7] pers. [10. V. Johansen. Proceedings Norwegian Tunnelling Society yearly conference..[4. Switzerland... “The use of tunnel boring machines (TBM)”. Karlsson. T. “The Snake – a TBM driven tunnel in Stockholm. Timothy Avery. TN 37806.. H.5] Haessler. Report 451:1/92. M. Colorado.. Oslo..7] Hahn.6] Melby. prognosis and evaluation of excavation”. “Probing ahead of the face with percussive drilling”. “ Contemporary grouting equipment ” . A. [10. Smith...

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