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Bachelor of Applied Science (Textile Technology)-2012/2013
Right-First-Time (RFT) principal
The manufacturing of a textile begins with the ﬁber input, whereby each processing step results in an added cost to the ﬁnal product. As dyeing of a textile is often the last step in the manufacturing of a fabric, it requires extra caution to get it right by avoiding waste and maintaining cost control. Only under favorable conditions is it possible to get it right the ﬁrst time. In the past, it was not unusual for a dyer to re-dye until the target shade was reached. A typical strategy was to start with a base recipe that undershot the target shade. After each dyeing the missing dye component was added to the bath until the shade was matched. The smaller the number of reformulation, the more skilful the dyer was considered. The Right-First-Time (RFT) dyeing concept was introduced in 1970 and became a desired feature of textile dyeing. This concept meant that at each dyeing the target shade was achieved the ﬁrst time, hence not requiring re-dyeing. However, the successful evolution of the concept depended on work carried out over many years by a relatively small number of organizations..
"Right First Time Dyeing" had been a proven boon to Textile chemical processing industry. It helps to eliminate extra expense on re-dyeing, re-shading and reproducing the color. This paper deals with dye selection criteria, process involved while dyeing, assigning dye uptake, machineries developed, type and principles of reactive dyeing and benefits involved in right first time dyeing. In dye houses processing, cellulosic fibers with reactive dyes, much progress has been made in the quest for zero defect production by the innovative introduction of controlled coloration technique that has supported the dyeing performance. Exhaust dyeing using reactive
dyes quantify dye migration properties, the degree of process control to achieve shade reproducibility and level dyeing performance. The concept of Reactive Dye compatibility Matrix (RCM) will allow to identify dyes with similar properties and used in combination to support right first time production. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool when optimizing application techniques.
Reactive dyes form a covalent bond between fibre and dye. They are classified depending on the reactive group present and the optimized conditions in which they are best used. Depending on the type of reaction, the reactive dyes are broadly divided in to two categories: A. Dyes reacting through Nucleophilic substitution reactions
B. Dyes reacting through Nucleophilic addition reactions.
The first fibre-reactive dyes contained the 1,3-5-triazinyl group, and were shown by Rattee and Stephen to react with cellulose in mild alkali solution. No significant fibre degradation occurred. ICI launched a range of dyes based on this chemistry, called the Procion dyes. This new range was superior in every way to vat and direct dyes, having excellent wash fastness and a wide range of brilliant colours
The following key parameters should be considered for reactive dye RFT Principle.
Selection of compatible dye stuff Selection of correct process path Selection of right auxiliaries Removal of unfixed dye stuff and final finish
Selection of compatible dye stuff
Dye Selection Criteria
Accurate and consistent standardization of dyes is the principle requirement for optimized dye house efficiency and right-first-time production.
Exhaust dyeing of cellulose with reactive dyes is a complex process. It involves the exhaustion of the dye onto the fiber in the presence of electrolyte and then the addition of alkali to promote the chemical reaction between the dye and cellulose. The external factors which influence the process have been identified and segregated into assignable and random variables The internal fabric pH at the start of the Dyeing cycle, The material to liquor ratio, The temperature gradient, The fixation temperature, The electrolyte concentration, The addition profiles of dye, Electrolyte and fixation alkali, The fixation pH and time.
The performance of a reactive dye is defined by the S.E.Fsubstantivity, exhaustion and fixation profile as shown in Fig. 2. The substantively equilibrium, S. represents the primary exhaustion of the dye in the presence of neutral electrolyte. The exhaustion equilibrium, E. represents the final exhaustion of the dye which takes place after the addition of the fixation alkali. The fixation value, F, represents the fixation level for the dye. The secondary exhaustion, represented by E-S, takes place simultaneously with dye fixation after the addition of the fixation alkali Dyes with a wide range of S.E.F. profiles can be obtained. Dyes with such wide differences in substantivity will exhibit different levels of performance and sensitivity to external influences. Dyes with low substantivity will generally be more sensitive to variations in liquor ratio and electrolyte
Example S.E.F profiles:-
The term substantivity is primarily a measure of the amount of the molecular dye chromophore that can penetrate/diffuse into the interstices of cellulose micro fibrils assisted by physical forces from an aqueous dye bath. This is influenced by the salt concentration in the dye bath, the liquor ratio, the temperature and the fibre surface area characteristics, besides the chemistry of the dye chromophore. Substantivity ratio is the unit concentration of dye on the fibre to the unit concentration of dye in the bath at the equilibrium state (both expressed in the same units)
process of primary exhaustion proceeds to its limiting values dictated by the substantivity beyond which it ceases. In the absence of salt
Other important factors of Dye Selection
Dye selection process is very important for the reactive RFT dyeing process. Here we should consider the bellow points, Moisture content:-In padding operations, the moisture content, temperature of fabric should be maintained uniformly as a constant. You should find out the moisture content of fabric before starting the operation (padding).
Absorption in solution
Particle size of dye Dye bath additives :-Check the compatibility of dye bath additives in a blank bath, with dyes and after raising the temperature to dyeing temperature. There should not be any turbidity or precipitation.
Liquor ratio:-Liquor ratio, though not affecting the shades, maintaining a constant figure would yield reproducible results. pH range of the dye bath
Selection of correct process path
Correct process path of Right First Time approach 1. Exhaustion :-It involves the exhaustion of the dye onto the fiber in the presence of electrolyte 2. Fixation:- Addition of alkali to provide the chemical reaction between dye and cellulose 3. Washing:- Last but not the least, removal of unfixed & hydrolyzed dye from the material in order to achieve the desired results.
1. Exhaustion:When fibre is immersed in dye liquor, an electrolyte is added to assist the exhaustion of dye. Commonly NaCl is used as the electrolyte. This electrolyte neutralize the negative charge formed in the fibre surface and puts extra energy to increase dye absorption. So when the textile material is introduces to dye liquor the dye is exhausted on to the fiber.
Exhaustion of dye from the dye bath to the cellulose during Primary Exhaustion phase is governed by the following three physical processes and the phenomenon of substantivity .During the initial phase of the process, the neutral primary exhaustion of the dye in the presence of electrolyte, migration and diffusion can take place. Dye which has exhausted onto the fiber is available for migration, and leveling will take place by the classical mechanism. The actual migration which takes place during primary exhaustion will depend on
The chemistry of dye-its molecular structure, Physical chemistry and stereochemistry, And on external factors-concentration of the dye added to the dyebath, time, Temperature, Materials to Liquor ratio, Rate of liquor circulation and fabric construction,
Migration phase Since fiber surface area is a factor in diffusion process, the exhaustion would proceed to locations where relatively more surface area is presented like in the amorphous areas and less densely packed crystalline areas in that order in the cellulose and therefore the dye concentration within the cellulose substrate would not be uniform/even. Such a situation would result in uneven build up of the dye both in hue and intensity. In a trichromatic mixture the situation could be worse
The observations and inferences in the above deliberations related to primary exhaustion in a Reactive exhaust dyeing process are incomplete without the final fixation. When Alkali is added, the cellulose
ionizes to form Cell-O- and H+ (Cell O– Na+) and starts forming covalent bonds with the reactive functional groups of the dye Chromophore. When more and more of dye anions are covalently bond, the distribution coefficient shifts to fiber phase effecting further exhaustion due to deficiency of dye anions in the cellulose phase and dye bath concentration starts depleting further. The degree of alkalinity in terms of pH plays a major role in shifting the fixation of dye to its hydrolysis reacting with water. Any exhaustion during this stage if it is hydrolyzed dye it would be far more undesirable In a reactive dye system therefore, primary exhaustion alone does not govern the efficiency of dyeing. The degree of secondary exhaustion also would influence the efficiency. During the secondary exhaustion when alkalie is added, there is a second reaction that also sets in motion in parallel ( i.e. the hydrolysis of the Reactive dye with water) in competition to the fixation of the dye that is the primary aim. The dye anion is equally facilitated to react with OH of water to form the hydrolyzed dye in which state the dye is as good as a direct dye with all its ‘undesirable’ characteristics.
2. Fixation: Fixation of dye means the reaction of reactive group of dye with terminal –OH or-NH2 group of fibre and thus forming strong covalent bond with the fibre and thus forming strong covalent bond with the fibre. This is an important phase, which is controlled by maintaining proper pH by adding alkali. The alkali used for this purpose depends on brand of dye and dyeing temperature. Here generally caustic soda, soda ash or NaHCO3 is used as alkali depending upon reactivity of dye. They create proper pH in dye bath and do as the dye-fixing agent. The reaction takes place in this stage is shown below(example): -
3. Removed of unfixed dye
As the dyeing is completed, a good wash must be applied to the material to remove extra and unfixed dyes from mater Although, with some reactive dye systems, there may also be some reactive dye to remove. There is a finite quantity of unfixed dye on the fibre at the end of the fixation stage, whether it is hydrolysed or unreacted. The unfixed dye must be effectively removed in order to meet the required wash fastness specification. With some reactive dyes also, the washing off stage can play a vital role in maintaining shade reproducibility, and pH control is often necessary.
The effective removal of unfixed reactive dye takes place in 4 phases:
1. dilution of dye and chemicals in solution and on the surface of the cellulose 2. diffusion out of the deeply penetrated unfixed hydrolysed dye to the fibre surface 3. dilution and removal of the diffused-out dye 4. prevention of re-deposition of the dye removed.
Benefits of RFT dyeing RFT production in textile dyehouses has a dramatic effect upon the efficiency, production capacity, and delivery schedules as well generating greater sales turnover and profitability. The impact of RFT dyeing on the dyehouse performance may be measured in terms of three parameters, namely:
1. The cost of non-conformance;
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2. The additional profit generated by improved production efficiency through conformance to requirement 3. The cost of quality.
If RFT dyeing is carried out the effect on machine and overall dyehouse productivity can be very marked, provided that there are materials to be dyed to fill the spare production capacity generated. A focus on total quality management (TQM) is required which embraces the application of controlled coloration and RFT dyeing. The cost of conforming to the required quality depends upon the following factors: • Prevention of off-quality e.g. laboratory cost, maintenance of quality systems and procedures; • Appraisal - fabrics examination and quality control systems; • Reprocessing - internal and external; • Claims / debits i.e. cost of non-conformance; • Shading additions and re-dyes i.e. cost of non-conformance; • Consequential - lost profit opportunity.
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