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MAIN TYPE OF LNG HAZARD The basic properties of LNG and LNG vapour can be summarized to identify the main types of LNG hazards: a) Pool fires. If LNG spills occur near an ignition source, a mix of the evaporating gas and air will burn above the LNG pool. Such pool fires are intense and burn far more rapidly and hotly than e.g. oil and gasoline fires. Furthermore, they cannot easily be extinguished and all the LNG must normally be consumed before they go out. Due to the high temperatures, the thermal radiation from a pool fire may injure unprotected people and damage property a considerable distance away from the fire itself. For example, in the event of a collision followed by a pool fire at the side of the ship, the thermal radiation from the fire might be lethal within a radius that covers both vessels involved in the collision. b) Vapour clouds. If not immediately ignited, the evaporating natural gas may form a vapour cloud that can drift some distance from the spill site. LNG that is released from a temperature controlled container begins to warm up and hence return to its gaseous state. Initially colder and heavier than the surrounding air, a vapour cloud is created above the released liquid. It mixes with the surrounding air and begins to disperse. The cloud will ignite if it encounters an ignition source while its concentration is within the flammability range. An LNG vapour cloud fire are expected to gradually burn its way back to the spill source and continue to burn as a pool fire. c) Cryogenic temperatures. If LNG is released, direct contact with the cryogenic liquid will freeze the point of contact and damage tissues of humans, animals and aquatic fauna. Embrittlement leading to structural failure and equipment damage may also occur when materials not designed for such low temperatures come into contact with LNG. d) Asphyxiation. Although not toxic, a non-ignited LNG vapour could asphyxiation because it is displacing breathable air. e) Rollover. When LNG supplies of multiple densities are loaded into a tank, they might not mix at first, but instead form various layers within the tank. Subsequently, these layers may spontaneously rollover to stabilize the liquid in the tank. As the lower layer of LNG is heated by normal heat leak, it changes density and might eventually become lighter than the upper layer. This might cause a liquid rollover to occur with a sudden vaporization of LNG that might result in overpressure. However, this is a design condition in recognized LNG construction standards, and the LNG tanks are believed to withstand the pressure from possible rollover incidents. f) Rapid Phase Transition (RPT). LNG, being lighter than water, floats and vaporizes when released on water. If large enough quantities of LNG are released on water at a fast enough rate, a rapid phase transition (RTP) may occur. In this case, heat is transferred from the water to the LNG causing the LNG to instantaneously convert from a liquid to a gaseous phase. This rapid transition between phases causes a large amount of energy to be released in the form of a physical explosion, although without any combustion. Such a rapid phase transition might have the potential to shatter windows and glass nearby and is only assumed to constitute a minor hazard to people and buildings nearby. g) Explosion. In its liquid state, LNG is not explosive, and LNG vapour will only explode if ignited in a mixing with air within the flammable range and within an enclosed or semi-enclosed space. Due to the physical properties of LNG, there are also some types of hazards that are not particularly associated with LNG. a) Pollution. LNG spills will cause minimal pollution or damage to the marine environment beyond local damages due to contact with the cold liquid or possible damages due to a possible fire. LNG is neither toxic nor persistent. In a LNG spill scenario, the released LNG will vaporize and either disperse into the atmosphere or, in some special circumstances, ignite and burn until there are no LNG left.

b) BLEVE. Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVE) are only associated with pressurized iquids. An LNG tank is not designed for pressure and can probably not pressurize to a level that would cause a serious BLEVE event. 2. Identifikasi risiko The 158 relevant incidents reported in appendix A.1 can be grouped into a few generic accident types. The following accident categories are assumed appropriate for previous accident experience: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Collision (striking or being struck by another vessel) Grounding (touching bottom or stranding) Contact (with an object, another vessel, etc) Fire or explosion Equipment or machinery failure (power generation, propulsion, steering etc) Heavy weather Incidents while loading/unloading of cargo (leakage, overfilling, rollover, etc) Failure of cargo containment system (loss of cargo containment integrity, leakage of primary barrier, sloshing, liquid nitrogen leakage, cargo-related equipment failure etc)

It is noted that it is sometimes difficult to determine exactly which accident category is most appropriate, and the categorisation of the accidents is undeniably subjective. As a general rule, the incident will be categorized according to the first event, but some exceptions exist. Some examples of incidents that could have been placed in different categories are given below: Some accidents have been initiated by a strike of lightning causing fire while loading. This accident can defensible be categorized as incidents while loading, incidents due to bad weather or a fire incident, and the choice might seem arbitrary. However, since the main hazard in these types of incidents is the fire, these will be categorized as fire events. An accident where a short circuit ignited LNG vapour while unloading might have been categorized as incidents while loading, equipment failure or fire. However, this incident will be categorized as fire, due to fire being the main hazard. Some incidents are reported as engine breakdown following by contact, grounding or collision. This might be categorized either as machinery failure or contact, grounding or collision. However, this will be categorized as contact/grounding/collision since this corresponds to the accident scenario which will be further investigated. Equipment or machinery failures that do not lead to any subsequent accidents will be labelled as equipment or machinery failure. Failures in cargo pumps, gas compressor pumps and other equipment related to the cargo containment system might have been categorized as equipment and machinery failures, but since these types of equipment is related to the cargo containment system and thus specific to the carriage of LNG, such failures will be labelled as failure of cargo containment system for the purpose of this study. One incident reported compressor damage. Without further details, it cannot be known whether this is related to the cargo, the engines or other things. However, for the purpose of this study, if no other details are reported, this is taken as an equipment or machinery failure. Failures in cargo pumps are categorized as incidents related to unloading of cargo since this is the only times when these pumps are used. Reports of violent sloshing and subsequent damages in heavy weather might have been categorized as either heavy weather or failure of cargo containment system. Since these problems are related to the cargo containment system of LNG, such incidents will be labelled as failure of cargo ontainment system.

The following distribution of accident categories was found in the historical data (an exposure of 2,838 ship years has been used in order to estimate the accident frequency):

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3. a) b) 4.

Risk assessment menggunakan HAZID HAZID Definisi konsekuensi dan frekuensi Mitigasi