Assignment Management Information System EBM- AeU

Question 1. Evaluate the role of Information System in your organization/work/Life. a. Name one (1) system and briefly explain its role functions; AND b. Discuss its advantage and disadvantages

2. Discuss three (3) major challenges that typically users face in building and/or using information system. AND elaborate the ways to overcome those challenges.

MIS DEFINITION The concept of the MIS has evolved over a period of time comprising many differentfacets of the organizational function. MIS is a necessity of all the organizations. The initial concept of MIS was to process data from the organization and present it in theform of reports at regular intervals. The system was largely capable of handling the datafrom collection to processing. It was more impersonal, requiring each individual to pickand choose the processed data and use it for his requirements. This concept was furthermodified when a distinction was made between data and information. The information isa product of an analysis of data. This concept is similar to a raw material and the finished product. What are needed are information and not a mass of data. However, the data canbe analyzed in a number of ways, producing different shades and specifications of theinformation as a product. It was, therefore, demanded that the system concept be anindividual- oriented, as each individual may have a different orientation. Towards the information. This concept was further modified, that the system should presentinformation in such a form and format that it creates an impact on its user, provoking adecision or an investigation. It was later realized then even though such an impact was awelcome modification, some sort of selective approach was necessary in the analysis andreporting. Hence, the concept of exception reporting was imbibed in MIS. The normal for an exception. Was necessary to evolve in the organization. The concept remained valid till and to theextent that the norm for an exception remained true and effective. Since the environmentturns competitive and is ever changing, fixation of the norm for an exception becomes exercise at least for the people in the higher echelons of the organization. Theconcept was then evolved that the system should be capable of handling a need basedexception reporting. This need maybe either of an individual or a group of people. Thiscalled for keeping all data together in such a form that it can be accessed by anybody andcan be processed to suit his needs. The concept is that the data is one but it can be viewedby different individuals in

 The MIS plays exactly the same role in the organization. theconcept of the end user computing using multiple databases emerged. In the body the heart plays the role of supplying pure blood to all the elements of the body including the brain. and sent further to all the needy destinations. problem identification and helps in the process of decision making. the management functionaries: the managers and the top management. This gave rise to the concept of DATABASE. communication. Over a period of time. processed. administration and operations of an organization. the status of a particular record and references on a variety of documents.  The MIS plays the role of information generation. It is supported by the use of the management tools of planning and control. The information is the blood and MIS is the heart.  The MIS helps the middle management in short them planning. plays a vital role in the management. a group of individuals. therefore. when these conceptual developments were taking place.different ways. The system is expected to fulfill the information needs of an individual. This conceptbrought a fundamental charge in MIS.  The MIS helps the clerical personnel in the transaction processing and answers their queries on the data pertaining to the transaction. . The setting and controlling the business functions. and the MIS based on the DATABASE proved much more effective. ROLE OF MIS IN ORGANIZATION  The role of the MIS in an organization can be compared to the role of heart in the body. The system ensures that an appropriate data is collected from the various sources.

2. It helps in generating information. It gives operational data for planning. It deals with transaction processing such as answering the questions. It helps middle management in short term planning. 4. It helps in decision making and to correct an out of control situation. 5.Uses of MIS in Management: 1. It helps top management in goal setting. planning business planes and its implementations. target setting and control the business fictions. 6.scheduling and control 3. communicating of the generated information. problem identification and helps in the process of decision making. status of a particular record and variety of documents. .

Use of a selection process maximizes input from potential co-workers and the person to whom the position will report. Effective feedback focuses more intensely on helping people build . If properly designed and implemented it can change the course of growth and pace of impact of organizations. Performance management could be defined as it begins when the job is defined and ends when an employee leaves the company. Name one (1) system and briefly explain its role/function PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance management system (PMS) is the heart of any “people management” process in organization. the following should be understood for a working performance management system. consistent feedback that addresses both their strengths and the weaker areas of their performance. he or she must have the information necessary to perform. position-related. People need ongoing. Finding a good job "fit" is exceptionally important. an excellent understanding of product and process use and requirements. This includes job-related. and training. education.a. Organizations exist to perform. Providing on-going coaching and feedback. This is the process of matching the skills and interests of a person to the requirements of a job. Providing effective orientation. Developing clear job descriptions: Job descriptions are the first step in selecting the right person for the job. and company-related information. and setting that person up to succeed Job descriptions provide a framework so the applicants and new employees understand the expectations for the position. Selection: Jobs have different requirements. Between these points. Before a person can do the best job. and complete knowledge about customer needs and requirements.

one-sided presentations to positive. 3. changing and challenging job assignments and responsibilities. Designing effective compensation and recognition systems that reward people for their contributions: The power of an effective compensation system is frequently overlooked and downplayed in some employee motivation-related literature Providing promotional/career development opportunities for staff: The supervisor plays a key role in helping staff develop their potential.on their strengths. Both managers and employees see that they have something to gain from using the system. Objectively measures performance. . planning meetings. Assisting with exit interviews to understand WHY valued employees leave the organization: When a valued person leaves the company. evaluative. performance reviews can change from negative. If supervisors are giving employees frequent feedback and coaching. Is trusted to be fair by employees 4. An improved work environment for people results in the retention of valued staff. Growth goals. This feedback will help the company improve its work environment for people. Is aligned with a company’s corporate direction and business strategy 2. A performance management system will only be effective if it: 1. and crosstraining contribute to the development of a more effective staff member. Feedback is a two-way process that encourages the employee to seek help Conducting quarterly performance development discussions. it is necessary to understand why the person is leaving.

bring objectivity & transparency in employee evaluations. manage employee trainings. managing employee trainings & development and promoting right employeesto critical positions. Based on globally followed HR practices and principles. manage employee compensations. . EmpXtrack Performance Management System is an integrated web-based tool to improve organizational performance by setting SMART Goals for employee. help employee achieve their goals. recommending highly competitive compensation plans. The big challenges of following this strategy are identifying the real performers.Organizations succeed when they continuously nourish the top performers and improve (or weed out) the poor performers. evaluating employee performance. promotion and careers. provide a competitive compensation to retain & motivate them and improve employee skills & competencies to maintain the business competitiveness. this performance management system provides right tools to engage employees in productive work.

Promote right employees to critical positions: Organizations success by placing right employee in right positions.Features of Performance Management System Setting SMART Goals for Employees: Goal Setting Software provides leaders. Define competitive employee compensation plans: Employee compensation plan helps you to remain competitive in your business and attract and retain talented employee. . managers and employees with web-based tools to set SMART goals and track progress on frequent intervals. Coach and Train Employees to improve their performance: To continually improve performance of your organization you need to continuously training employees to update their skills and competencies. Training Management Software allows you to manage employee training effectively. EmpXtrack Succession Planning Software helps you to identify critical positions in your organization and recommend right employee to fill these positions. Evaluate Employee Performance: Employee Appraisal Software ensures objective and accurate evaluation of your employees performance and helps you find the strengths and weaknesses of the employees.

budget allocation and monitoring issues can affect the efficacy of MIS. Coordination of specialized projects and activities is much better and decision makers in the organization are aware of issues and problems in all departments. This ensures better planning for all activities and better ways to measure performance. Modern businesses have been leveraging management information systems (MIS) to manage. Another advantage of MIS is that it minimizes information overload. Advantages Management information systems have changed the dynamics of running businesses efficiently. which can be quite common with conventional businesses in the modern era. Decentralization is one of the biggest advantages. However. monitors the company's activities and operations and enhances communication and collaboration among employees. organize and manipulate the gigabytes and masses of information generated for various purposes. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages. Control helps in forecasting. Better Planning and Control MIS has to be designed and managed in such way that it aggregates information. manage resources and facilitate compliance with industry and government regulations. order. address information needs of employees and various stakeholders and take informed strategic decisions.b. MIS helps businesses optimize business processes. it allows monitoring of operations at low levels and frees up resources for departmental managers to devote time to strategic activities. It has its advantages and disadvantages depending on organizational deployment and usage. preparing .

Decision Making The purpose of MIS is to generate synthesized and processed information from computerized/automated and certain manual systems. usage and extraneous factors. . key functionalities might get effected and benefits might not be realized consistently. top management and business partners. some disadvantages related to Management Information Systems can come to the fore. Integration issues with legacy systems can affect the quality of output and vital business intelligence reports. Top management and board members can take strategic decisions. Allocation of budgets for MIS upgrades.accurate budgets and providing the tools and vital information to employees. If budgets are not allocated uniformly or as per immediate requirements. Managers are able to make quick. professionals and key executives becomes quite seamless with streamlined MIS. plan future growth and business expansion activities based on the data and information generated by MIS. modifications and other revisions can be quite tricky at times. Information distribution to all levels of corporate managers. timely and informed decisions. Disadvantages Depending on organization deployment.

· A secure MIS solution can be very transparent and can help organizations to keep a check on any malpractices happening in the organization. smooth and accurate. we would use a hypothetical organization which gives insurance. it can help the organization in keeping the confidentiality. The insurance company needs to send the information to the central government about the number of insurance buyers aged between 25 and 30 with weight more than 90. Moreover. If used properly. To understand those strengths. · A complete MIS solution can give a Comprehensive picture of the company’s performance at any point of time. integrity and availability of the data. · The flow of information among the various departments of the organization becomes lucid. Without an MIS.SWOT ANALYSIS OF MIS SYSTEM Strengths: MIS has its own strengths as listed below. · MIS improves the problem solving capabilities of the Organization . it would be also a hectic job for the central Government to upload the data. A report in an MIS which alerts the management if more than 90 % of the customers coming from that doctor-agent pair pass the medical examination would help the management to identify such malpractices in the organization. it would be difficult to go through the hard copies of the documents and find out such information. For example the insurance agents might have a link up with the doctors certifying the fitness of the insurance buyer. This is one of the strengths of the MIS. MIS would definitely help in this scenario. · MIS helps in maintaining the three pillars of security in any organization. collect it and send it to the concerned party.

This is one of the key weaknesses of the MIS. · Marketing and sales departments can be more accurate in their demand forecasting if a good MIS system is available to them. Opportunities: · The decisions supported with flawless information combined with the wisdom of the directors of the company can lead to unforeseen opportunities. hiring process. MIS would require a lot of processing power to produce the expected results in time. Human resource MIS looks at needs of the employees. Due to the enormous data. detailed and effective. · The requirement gathering for the system should be very comprehensive. · MIS is highly sensitive to changes. · Human Resource MIS manages employees and selection of employees. · A system in the manufacturing firm can control the flow of materials.Weaknesses: · MIS is totally based on transactions. training. any change in the meta data would require a careful observation of the system. The concept of just-in-time can only be implemented if it is backed by a flawless MIS. and job assignments. the resulting information would also be faulty. This is an inherent flaw of MIS which cannot be mitigated. the workforce rules. This forecasting can be used by the production and the whole organization can be benefitted by this. One of the basic decisions of investment can be made through the information given by the MIS. If transactions are not captured properly. · With the amount of data growing. As discussed. A small gap in the change may lead to drastic and devastating results. . This can reduce the cost of inventory. The company's Human resource MIS is in charge of payroll and medical care for its employees. the system is highly sensitive to changes.

· The designing of the information can also turn out to be a threat if the design is not flexible enough to entertain the change requests. The transaction capturing system should be very accurate in capturing the data. All the data is on the network. MIS is a supporting system for the management. . Very keen care should be taken for the system on this aspect. · As discussed in the weakness part.Threats: · As with any IT system. the system is totally dependent on the transactions. A complete backup policy and business continuity plan should be in place for even the smallest part of the MIS. The system should be capable enough to handle such changes. If these systems or the information about the system falls into wrong hands. Any vulnerability or loophole can turn into a potential security flaw. Any violation in any of the rules in the captured data would percolate to the upper layer. · Natural threats can turn out to be devastating of no backup of the system is taken. · MIS is nothing without the human wisdom. security is a big threat to the MIS system. This is one of the biggest threats of MIS. it can be misused. Any change in management may require in the change in the MIS.

it is observed that the user’s and the designer’s interaction is smooth. The real problem is /thedegree of structure. Having made the plan of the MIS. the user understands of the system and the complexity and its interface with other systems. AND elaborate the ways to overcome those challenges. and each other’s needs are clearly understood and respected mutually. The development strategy determines where to begin and in what sequence the development can take place with the sole objective of assuring the information support. decision making and the understanding of the overall business activity. the development of the MIS calls for determining the strategy of development. Discuss three (3) major challenges that typically users face in building and/ or using information systems. the size of the system. As discussed earlier the plan consists of various systems and subsystems. greater is the stabilization of the rules. The choice of the system or the subsystem depends on its position in the total MISplan. Determining the position of the system in the MIS is easy. Higher the degree of structured ness and formalization. The development becomes approach with certainty in inputs process and outputs. Here. The designer first develops systems independently and starts integrating them with other systems. enlarging the system scope and meeting the varying information needs.2. the procedures. . and formalization in the system and procedures which determine the timing and duration of development of the system.

These calls upon each individual to comply with the design needs and provide withoutfail the necessary data inputs whenever required as per the specification discussed andfinalized by the designer. . It requires. For example. the departmental. its use is more for the collection andstorage of data and its elementary processing. when there aremultiple users of the same system and the inputs they use are used by some other userswell. and all have to contribute as per thedesignated role by the designer to fulfill the corporate information needs. the personal boundaries do not exist. the designer’s task becomes difficult. others do not. a lot of input data comes from the purchase department. which is usedin accounts and inventory management. The attitudes of the various users and their role as the originators of the data needs to bedeveloped with a high degree of positivism. of all the personnel. to appreciatethat the information is a corporate resource. These factors can besummarized as follow. which make it a failure.In the prototyping approach. Many organizations use MIS successfully. There are some factors which make theMIS a success and some others. Though the hardware and the software is the latest and has appropriate technology. When it comesto information the functional.

i. iv.FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUCCESS If a MIS is to be a success then it should have all the features listed as follows. i.s requirements andits operational viability is ensured. The MIS is kept under continuous surveillance. ii. MIS is not allowed to end up into an information generation mill avoiding thenoise in the information and the communication system. The globalization of information in isolation from the differentobjectives leads to too much information and its non-use. Also adequatedevelopment resources are provided and the human and organizational barriers toprogress are removed. The MIS is integrated into the managerial functions. the systemsmust consider all the human behavioral factors in the process of the management. The MIS is easy to operate and. ii. . The MIS recognizes that the different information needs for different objectivesmust be met with. defined and designed in terms of the user. An appropriate information processing technology required to meet the dataprocessing and analysis needs of the users of the MIS is selected. It sets clear objectives toensure that the MIS focuses on the major issues of the business. therefore. MIS focuses on the results and goals. the design of the MIS has such featureswhich make up a user-friendly design. so that its open system design ismodified according to the changing information needs. vi. iii. and highlights the factors and reasons fornon-achievement. v. The MIS recognizes that a manager is a human being and therefore. The MIS is oriented.

lack of user-friendly system and the dependence on the systempersonnel. VI. II. IV. III. The MIS is conceived as a data processing and not as an information processingThe MIS does not provide that information which is needed by the managers butit tends to provide the information generally the function calls for. The common factors which are responsible for this arelisted as follows. an inability to get the processing done in aparticular manner. The MIS is developed without streamlining the transaction processing systems inthe organization. Adequate attention is not given to the quality control aspects of the inputs. I. and they have to play an important responsiblerole in the MIS. V.FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FAILURES Many a times MIS is a failure. . The MIS does not meet certain critical and key factors of its users such as aresponse to the query on the database. Underestimating the complexity in the business systems and not recognizing it inthe MIS design leads to problems in the successful implementation. Lack of training and appreciation that the users of the information and the generators of the data are different. The MIS thenbecomes an impersonal system. theprocess and the outputs leading to insufficient checks and controls in the MIS.

Lack of administrative discipline in following the standardized systems and procedures. Site preparation 2. IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGE The implementation of the information technology is a complex task and needs a detailedand careful planning for successful implementation. The MIS does not give perfect information to all the users in the organization. VIII. It is necessary to prepare a plan ofimplementation covering the following features. A belief that the computerized MIS can solve all the management problems ofplanning and control of the business. certain assumption not known to the designer. System development plan 3.Any attempt towards such a goal will be unsuccessful because every user has ahuman ingenuity. Information technology installation schedule 4. Investment plan . Recruitment and training of computer personnel 5. IX. These features are: 1.VII. bias. Training of the users 6. The MIScannot up these by providing perfect information. wrong coding and deviating from the system specifications result inincomplete and incorrect information.

.representatives. and inchange of the information technologyimplementation would be ideal for a planned site preparation activity. A broad system development plan would go a long way preparing theoperational and implementation plans of the information technology in the organization. It also helps in deciding the procurement plan of the hardwareand software. guidance is availablefrom the hardware vendors.Site Preparation This is a major activity.installations need infrastructural facilities.and the office layout for the professionals. the air conditioning system. System Development Plan This is generally prepared while assessing the hardware and software needs. and training cum demonstration room with the modern aids of training. A system development plan also helps you in planning the other activities such asrecruitment and training. such as a conference room. The modern information technology needs site preparation at the user’s end as well for the convenience and the ease of operations. System development plan priorities the various steps in the sitepreparation. the electrical andcommunication cabling.architect and interior designer. A committee consisting of the vendors.. the main computer system. The space allocation for each of these items isbased on present need with some allowance for the future.e. Most of the information technology. the peripherals. In all these matters. This would help to make a long-term financing plan. the tape-disk consumable storage. This process of site preparationtakes away 10 to 12 per cent of investment. Such a plangives the indication of the various locations of hardware in terms of quality and timewhen needed. wherein you prepare the site for the physical installation of thehardware i. One can make a site preparation plan for an immediate need and also for alater date.

The skills may fall in the area of languages. Many times the schedule also considers key issues like data of development and also acquiring the precise know-how on the emergingtechnologies and its application in the information systems. switching over from an old system to a new system. The training may range from awareness to learning of the specifictools. .testing and acceptance. Such schedule also helps in the smooth transition fromold to the new. Such a recruitment and training then calls for restructuring of the information technology organization. The usersshould be trained to use the various information technology facilities. There are occasions where the skills are not available and a specific recruitment is called for. Training of Users The latest development in the information technology requires its users to be well trainedfor its effective use. The users should be trained to accept the concept of end user computing. It also needs to be linked with the information system development plan to synchronies the installation with the user of the hardware and thesoftware. rewriting programmer for newsoftware environment and so on. It may be from one information technology to another information technology environment or from the manual system to the computerized system. The technology is changing at a very fast pace and it is necessary to upgrade the skills of the existing manpower by providing a need-based training.Information Technology Installation Schedule This schedule gives the item-wise details of the hardware arrival and its installation. Recruitment and Training of Information Technology Personnel The implementation of the information technology needs specific skills in the manpowerresponsible for effective implementation.

it is possibleto work out the monetary implications such an implementation. A carefully worked out investment plan should be submitted for approval with the implementation plan of the information technology. . If there are any budget limitations.executives and the managers. therefore.The users should be trained to blend the information support in their day-todayactivities. officers. the productivity gains and thecompetitive edge that the business of the organization acquires through the informationtechnology. It is a change in work culture and an appropriate attitude needs to be developedfor the absorption of the new information technology solutions. A presentation of an hour and a halfto the top management highlighting the investment. at the most it can be deferred but cannot be curtailed. the investment in the information technology is strategic. It is important to note that the intermediate information technology solution to save on the investment is not effective. would help in obtaining the approval. its involvement and support inimplementation of the information technology. With the support of the information technology. the user is becoming aknowledge worker. Many software packagesare available which need to be learnt for its appropriate use to become IT literate. One can fit the investmentin the budget provisions by suitable modifications in the implementation plan of theinformation technology. It is a qualitative cultural change and it is. it is better to postpone the implementation. Summarizing theestimates on the time scale would generate an investment plan. necessary toprepare the user for this transformation through a comprehensive .User Training Programmers Such training is imparted across the organization to the workers. Since. Investment Plan When all the facets of the information technology implementation are ready.

 Default in computer system or server jam may lead to stop the whole activities of the store.PROBLEM WITH INFORMATION SYSTEM  Data Leakage: as the whole data base and information is saved on systems there are chances of leakage of information.  Problem with ERP in terms of recruitment of people as they might not aware of ERP and extra cost and time is incurred on giving training to them. .

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