Knitted Knitted Fabric Fabric for for Apparel Apparel Use Use

Apparel Textiles
Sweater Sweater Dress Sportswear

Fabric Properties





General General Properties Properties of of Knitted Knitted Fabrics Fabrics
Extensible Extensible (up (upto to200%) 200%) Elastic Elastic (good (goodshape shaperetention) retention) Tight Tight fit fit (good (goodappearance, appearance,protection) protection) Fullness Fullness (soft (softand andwarm warmtouch) touch) Pilling Pilling (loose (loosestructure structureform formpill pilleasily) easily) Snagging (loop caught by sharp Snagging (loop caught by sharpobject) object) Dimensional Dimensional stability stability (shrinkage (shrinkage& &skew) skew)

Woven Woven Fabric Fabric for for Apparel Apparel Use Use


Suit Work shirt

Dress shirt


Work jacket Uniform

General General Properties Properties of of Woven Woven Fabrics Fabrics
High High strength strength (over (over100N/cm, 100N/cm,durable) durable) Firm Firm (good (goodappearance appearanceand anddrape drapewell) well) Tough Tough ((abrasion abrasionresistant, resistant, good goodprotection) protection) Compact (down proof for thermal Compact (down proof for thermalwear) wear) Tearing Tearing (compact (compactstructure structuremay maybe betorn torneasily) easily) Seam Seam slippage slippage (seam (seamfailure failureby byyarn yarnslippage slippage)) Stiffness Stiffness (can (canbe betoo toostiff, stiff,fabric fabricdesign designcan canhelp help))

Overview Overview of of Fabric Fabric Properties Properties & Performance & Performance
Appearance Appearance Functional Functional Comfort Comfort Maintenance Maintenance Durability Durability Safety Safety


less pilling (e. Abrasion resistance: flat abrasion. tear. Pilling resistance Pilling is the formation of little pills or entangled fibre ball clinging on fabric surface Life cycle of Pills: Loose fibres on fabric surface (protruding fibres) Entanglement of loose fibres due to abrasion Pill rubbered off due to breakage of rooting fibres Before Before abrasion abrasion Flat Flat abraded abraded area area Edge Edge abraded abraded area area Factors affecting pilling Fibre properties: • Fibre rigidity (immature cotton has more pilling problem) • Fibre strength (affect the ease of pill off) Yarn compactness: • Higher twist. edge abrasion c.g. flex abrasion. Abrasion resistance: flat abrasion. flex abrasion. lower pilling • Tightness factor 2000 Number of rubs 4000 6000 2 . bursting Durability a. Worsted yarn is better than woolen yarn) 800 Number of pills 600 400 200 0 0 Pill Formation Acrylic Woollen Worsted Fabric structure: • More compact the fabric structure. less pilling • More compact yarn. tear. Pilling resistance Low tear strength Durable Durable & & high high performance performance High High tensile tensile strength strength fabric fabric High Sett High yarn strength Longer fibre High fibre strength High inter-fibre friction Harsh hand feel High twist Unstable structure More expensive e.a. Pima cotton b. Strength: tensile.g. edge abrasion c. Strength: tensile. bursting b.

 do  not  usually shear  easily  and  will  behave    shear  easily  and  will  behave more  like  paper.  Shearing is enhanced by flexible. fullness and stiffness h.    other direction. Crease recovery. drapes. colour Drape is a fabric’s ability  to form pleasing folds  when bent under its own  weight. drape  and  shaping  properties. the fabric must  undergo shearing as well.    shearing  behaviour  and  also to fabric weight. exhibit  a double curvature that  requires bending in more  than one direction. Prickling j. 3 .  Shearing    in    woven  fabrics  involves  yarns    Shearing in woven  fabrics  involves  yarns rotation  at  their  intersections rotation  at  their  intersections Under these conditions. but if it    is    bent    in    one    direction.  however. Comfort g.  can  shear  to  assume a  double  curvature  and  will. it does    not    easily    bend    in    the    does not easily bend in the other    direction. thick place.  on  the other  hand.d. Permeability of air and water vapour i. Drapeability Appearance d.    it    it is    bent in one direction.  on  the    Nonwoven  textiles.  therefore.  do  not  usually    other  hand. Fabric hand: smoothness. For curtain. more  like  paper.  can  shear  to  assume    Woven  and  knitted  fabrics. thin place.  however. Higher crimp in a  woven fabric also decreases the resistance to shearing. Nonwoven  textiles. It is one of the most  important aesthetic  concept characteristics It   is   of   interest   in   product   development   as   well   as    It is of interest in product development as well as consumer    acceptance consumer acceptance Drape  has  been  shown    to  be  related  to  bending  and    Drape  has  been  shown to  be  related  to  bending  and shearing  behaviour  and  also    to    fabric    weight. smooth yarns that can  move easily over one another and by looser weaves that  allow the yarns room to rotate.  In many garments. Drapeability e. Initial cold feel Woven  and  knitted  fabrics. bending is  in only one direction.  exhibit    better    a  double  curvature  and  will.  exhibit better drape  and  shaping  properties. and  gathered skirts. Yarn unevenness: neps. Paper    usually    has    a    low    Paper usually has a low resistance    to    bending. texture. periodic fault f.    but    if    resistance to bending.  therefore.

etc. Dimensional stability: shrinkage. 3. twist Relaxation Relaxation shrinkage shrinkage Relaxation of stress imposed during weaving. Change in length. Summarized expressions about fabric characters. Reduction Reduction of of Shrinkage Shrinkage • • • • Sanforization Mercerization Resin treatment Heat Setting Twisting Twisting Twisting of garments after laundering 4 . Touch of fabric by hand 2.g. bow. skewing l. 4. rubbing. shear stiffness and surface smoothness. Overall judgement of fabric quality h. Colour fastness: to light. Wrinkle resistance k. growth width Change in shape : Skewness. roller tension). Most of the shrinkage due to relaxation occurs with the first wash. Maintenance k. growth. : Shrinkage. Detection of fabric bending stiffness. Items are especially affected by the moisture and heat used in washing and tumble drying. washing. growth. Permeability of air and water vapour GORE-TEX® fabric : an impenetrable barrier against wind and water while maintaining breathability. Fabric hand: smoothness. Dimensional stability: shrinkage. knitting or drying (warping. perspiration. skewing Maintenance of shape and dimensions of a fashion product is a significant factor in its acceptance by consumers. dry cleaning m. takedown tension. fullness and stiffness Standardization of fabric handle The expert's handle judgement 1.

Textile fibres are poor conductors of heat. Thermal insulation KES KES -. residual strain o. but air conducts even less heat. Finer Finer fibres fibres have have more more surface surface area. which which results results in in more more dead dead air air space space between between fibres. Water repellence. drycleaning. UV protection u. spaces. climates. residual strain Re sidual Ext. rubbing. it is particularly important to most consumers. Factors Factors affecting affecting fabric fabric thermal thermal resistance resistance An important factor affecting the r . air. the the better better the the insulation insulation value value of of the the textile. crocking. Wool Wool is is a a good good fibre fibre for for insulation insulation because because its its natural natural crimp crimp maintains maintains a a high high volume volume of of dead dead air. washing. fibres. An An example example is is the the effective effective use use of of micro-fibres micro-fibres in in coats coats for for use use in in cold cold climates. Soil release v. Manufacturers of textiles and apparel are very concerned with color specification. Color fastness tests provide exposure to various agents and treatments that can potentially alter textile color. structure. color matching. 5 . including: Functional n. Seam slippage t. dry cleaning Color is a highly visible phenomenon. then then convection convection is is also also minimised. perspiration. Colour fastness: to light. Elasticity: elastic recovery. Wicking: vertical and horizontal transportation of liquid r. laundering. water resistance and water proof q.value is the amount of air space contained within a textile structure. and and the the air air is is “dead”. minimised. Water absorbency s. The The higher higher the the volume volume of of dead dead air air within within a a textile textile structure. Snagging resistance water. = L1 − L0 ×100% L0 Recov ery = L2 − L1 ×100% L2 − L0 L oo--Initial L Initiallength length L 11--Length L Lengthafter afterrelease release L 22--Length L Lengthat atextension extension Load (N) Length (cm) o. and the colorfastness of their products. “dead”. textile.Thermolabo Thermolabo Lo L1 L2 If If air air is is confined confined in in small small spaces. n. Thermal insulation p. bleaching. Elasticity: elastic recovery.l. area. light. perspiration.

Uniform trousers Recommended fibre And fabric type Requirements (at most five ) ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ 6 . Safety w. Ski jacket 8. Water repellence. water resistance and water proof Perspiration in vapour form. Seam slippage v. or a knitted fabric with long loop is more likely to snag than are other types of fabric structures. Sweater 2. Underwear 9. Snagging resistance • Snagging is the catching of a thread by a sharp point or rough surface forming an unsightly puckering. the vapour condense to sweat. Evening gown 6. When this vapour cannot escape. Sleepwear 5. Gore-tex ® q.p. Men’s work shirt 7. Wicking: vertical and horizontal transportation of liquid s. increasing discomfort. Men’s suit 3. Basketball vest 10. • Any fabric with long yarn floats such as in a stain weave. body is relatively comfortable. the contribution of textile fabrics to comfort depends on their ability to carry away the water vapour. Under these conditions. Flammability Apparel Products: 1. Toxicity: residual dye stuff and other finishing agent x. Men’s dress shirt 4.

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