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Textile materials can be exposed to contamination with microbes (bacteria, fungi, algae) during production, usage and storage.

The microbial attack of textiles leads to quality losses due to changes of colour and appearance or to reduction in strength and can result in unpleasant odour formation. Moreover, since microbes are absorbed by textiles, there is a risk of contamination and infection. Microbes are too small to be seen by the naked eye. As may be expected, there is an increase in demand for antimicrobial active agents to impregnate textile material (woven and non-woven) chemically or naturally in order to create additional properties (functional textiles).With synthetic and natural fibre blends, this may create better physical and chemical properties. The antimicrobial property of fabric is considered important and an inevitable parameter for garments in direct contact with the human body. Imparting Chemical and Natural Antimicrobial Finish on 50:50 Nyco Blend

Though the use of antimicrobials has been known for decades, it is only in the recent couple of years that several attempts have been made on finishing textiles with natural and chemical antimicrobial compounds. The present work aims at developing application of natural and chemical antimicrobial finish from Clove Oil and N9 on 50:50 Nylon Cotton (NYCO) blend. An extensive study was conducted to assess the antimicrobial effectiveness of natural and chemical antimicrobial agents by employing standard test methods. Anti microbial finish is a recent innovation in textile finishes. This finish prevents the growth of bacteria and products finished with antimicrobial finish have been proved to be environment friendly, health protecting while also preventing diseases and eliminating unpleasant odours. The result of the antimicrobial activity is based on the standard test method AATCC 147 for evaluating antimicrobial effectiveness. 1. Methodology Selection of Area: - The Experiments were carried out in the laboratories of NITRA, V.M.L.G College and Dr. Parul Pathology Lab. Selection of Base Material: - NYCO (Nylon 6,6 and cotton blend) fabric were used in this thesis. NYCO fabric is soft in handle and more spacious in structure so that antimicrobial finish can easily penetrate in between the spaces of fabric. NYCO fabric has good stretchability, absorbency, fitness, durability, tenacity & comfort and is thus taken up for study.

Collection of Raw Material * Fabric: - NYCO fabrics were collected from NITRA. * Antimicrobial Finish: - Antimicrobial finish was brought from Resin Pvt. Ltd (Bangalore). * Bacteria: - They were carried from T.B Hospital, Dr.Mynaidu [Mehrauli, New Delhi]. * Clove Oil: - Clove oil was bought from a Chemist Shop in Delhi. * Prepared Petri plates :- 1) Blood Agar These Prepared Petri plates were carried out from Krill green medical devices ( Mayur Vihar). Selection of Technique: - In this study two techniques were used for application of antimicrobial finish. * Pad dry cure method. * Exhaust method. 2.2 Chemical finish :- N9 Silver finish was applied. [Application through Resin] Recipe: * Fabric Type :- 50:50 NYCO Blend * Dosage of N9 Silver: 1% - 2% (Dosage is taken according to weight of fabric). * Dosage of SEA (Surface Enhancing Agent): 1% (Dosage is taken according to weight of fabric). Process Control:* pH :- 5.5 to 6 * MLR :- 1:10 * Temperature :- Room temperature. * Time: - 30 minutes and after application, kept for line drying. Procedure * Make acidified bath water first and add SEA (in the form of a gel). * Stir continuously for several minutes to make a homogenous emulsion. * Add the recommended quantity of N9 Pure Silver. * Mix it thoroughly to get a pale yellow coloured homogenous solution and then add the remaining water. * Application was done by exhaust method and exhaustion is complete when it changes from a light yellow coloured, hazy solution to a colourless transparent solution. 2.3 Test Organisms (AATCC-100-2004) Test Bacteria: This bacteria was tested against antimicrobial finish. l Staphylococcus species, Gram positive Organ Culture Medium Nutrient Broth: Peptone (Bacto peptone) = 5 gm Beef extract = 3gm

Distilled water = to 1000 ml 1. Heat to a boil to disperse ingredients. Adjust to pH 6.8 0.1 with 1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. (This is not necessary if a prepared, dehydrated medium is used). 2. Dispense in 10 ml amounts in conventional bacteriological culture tubes (i.e. 125 x 17 mm). Plug and sterilize at 103 kPa (15 psi) pore 15 min. 3. Nutrient agar: Add 1.5% bacteriological agar to nutrient (or appropriate) broth. Heat to boiling. Check pH and adjust to using NaOH solution if necessary. Dispense in 15 1 ml amounts in conventional bacteriological culture tubes. Plug and sterilize at 103 kPa (15 psi) for 15 min (may be sterilized in 1000 ml borosilicate glass flasks and petri dishes poured from this). 4. Slurry Inoculum carrier (for hydrophobic fabrics ) Sodium chloride 8.5 g Agar 3.0 g Distilled water 1000 mL Maintenance of Culture of Test Organisms Using a 4mm inoculating loop, transfer the culture daily in nutrient (or appropriate medium) broth for not more than two weeks. At the conclusion of two weeks, make a fresh transplant from stock culture. Incubate culture at 37+_ 2 c (99 3 F) or other optimal temperature. Maintain Stock cultures on nutrient or appropriate agar slants. Store at 51 c (41 2 f) and transfer once a month to fresh agar. Qualitative Testing A clear zone of inhibition ensures antibacterial activity of finish since zone of inhibition occurs as a result of the diffusion of an antimicrobial agent from the finish. An inhibition zone >2mm. indicates good antibacterial effect. Procedure * Agar plates were swabbed with the broth cultures incubated for 24 hours. * After swabbing, the agar plates with respective bacteria used in the study (treated samples of 2cm diameter) were pressed against agar surface in the middle of the plate with a pair of forceps been sterilized in flame and then air cooled immediately before use. * These plates were then incubated at 370C for 24 hours. After 24 hours the incubated plates were examined for clear zone of inhibition. The average width of the zone of inhibition on either side of the fabric was calculated using the following equation: W= (T-D)/2 Where,

W= width of inhibition (mm), T= Total diameter of fabric and clear zone (mm) and D= Diameter of well created (mm). Precautions: * All testing was conducted in a laminar chamber. * All apparatus was sterilized before use. * After testing was completed, material was disposed off in accordance with the regulation prescribed for the deactivation of the biological material to ensure environment and human safety. * Some of bacteria used in this test are capable of infecting humans and producing diseases. Therefore every necessary and reasonable precaution must be taken to eliminate this risk to laboratory personnel and to personnel in associated environment. Wear protective clothing and respiratory protection that prevents penetration by the bacteria. * Good laboratory practices should be followed. Wear safety glasses in all laboratory areas. * All chemicals should be handled with care. * An eyewash/safety shower should be located nearby for emergency use. [Srivastava, A] 2. Results and Discussion Antimicrobial finish was applied on 50:50 NYCO blend fabric with different percentages of finish i.e. 1% and 2% finish. Natural (Clove oil) and chemical finish (N9 Silver-based finish) were used for the application. Qualitative testing was used for evaluate the growth of microorganism. An inhibition zone >2mm, indicated good antibacterial effect. After testing of microbes, comparison has been made between chemical and natural finish. Table 3.1 : The Zone Of Inhibition of Staphylococcus on NYCO Blend (50:50) Against Natural Finish Finish - Staphylococcus Controlled --- 0.0 mm 1% finish --- 3.0 mm 2% finish --- 6.0 mm Table 3.1 shows that the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus is 0.0 mm. in controlled, 3.0 mm. in 1% finish and 6.0 mm. in 2% finish. Table 3.2 : The Zone Of Inhibition of Staphylococcus on NYCO Blend (50:50) Against Chemical Finish Finish --- Staphylococcus Controlled --- 0.0 mm 1% finish --- 1.5 mm 2% finish --- 2.5 mm

Table 3.2 shows that the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus is 0.0 mm. in controlled, 1.5 mm. in 1% finish and 2.5 mm. in 2% finish. Table 3.3 Comparison between Natural & Chemical finish on NYCO Blend (50:50) against Staphylococcus Finish - Natural - Chemical Controlled --- 0.0 mm. --- 0.0 mm. 1% finish --- 3.0 mm. --- 1.5 mm. 2% finish --- 6.0 mm. --- 2.5 mm. This table exposes that the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus in natural finish was excellent in 1% and 2% finish in comparison to chemical finish. In case of controlled condition, the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus was absent in natural as well as in chemical antimicrobial finish.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Growing awareness towards harmful effect of microorganism upon human hygiene as well as textile has increased the demand of antimicrobial textiles. In addition, the desire for healthier life style and to protect the cloth from bacteria and surroundings is the driving force behind the development of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effect. Natural compound (Clove oil) and chemical compound (N9) were selected as antimicrobial finish for this study. Clove oil was applied through pad dry cure method and Silver finish (N9) through exhaust method. After application of antimicrobial finish, the selected fabric were tested against Staphylococcus for antimicrobial property. The result revealed that the zone of inhibition of staphylococcus was absent in controlled condition, 3.0 mm. in 1% finish, 6.0 mm. in 2% finish against natural finish (Clove Oil) on NYCO Blend whereas in case of chemical finish (N9) the zone of inhibition was absent for controlled condition, 1.5 mm. in 1% finish and 2.5 mm. in 2% finish. It can thus be concluded that natural antimicrobial finish had good antimicrobial property in comparison to chemical antimicrobial finish and should be applied on fabrics to protect them from microbes.

Dr. Sandhya Kaushik**and Dr.M.S.Parmar***


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