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# Institute for Internal Combustion Engines & Thermodynamics Research Area Design

Introduction into

Application
of

## Finite Elemente Method

Dr. techn. Stephan Schmidt schmidt@ivt.tugraz.at

Content

The Finite Element Method The Theory of the Finite Element The major finite elements in structural mechanics Procedure of the der FE-Analysis Pre-Processing Solution Post-Processing Application examples

Content

The Finite Element Method The Theory of the Finite Element The major finite elements in structural mechanics Procedure of the der FE-Analysis Pre-Processing Solution Post-Processing Application examples

## Finite Element Method

Substitution of real structures which can not be solved in an analytic way by a simplified model. The model consists of simple finite Elements, for which analytically solvable equations (element formulation) can be formulated. Every FE calculation is an approximation of the reality. The accuracy of the FE-calculation depends on the assumptions of boundary conditions, the discretisation, the element formulation, the mesh quality and the interpretation of the results. The finite element method can be applied to structural mechanic, electrical, fluid dynamic and other problems.

## Discretisation Finite elements

Substitiution of the real structur by a simplified model

Element formulation

F1

1 u1

2 u2

F2

F = c l

F1 = c l1 = c(u1 u2 )

F2 = c l2 = c( u1 + u2 )

{F } = [K ] {u}

F1 1 1 u1 = c 1 1 u 2 F2

Content

The Finite Element Method The Theory of the Finite Element The major finite elements in structural mechanics Procedure of the der FE-Analysis Pre-Processing Solution Post-Processing Application examples

## Theory of the finite elements

Mathematical description of the element displacement Composition of the single stiffness matrices to one global stiffness matrix [K] Displacement of the nodes are unknown Each degree of freedom at a node results in one equation The equation {F} = [K] * {u} equilibrates the displacements with the forces The solution of the equation for the whole system results in displacements and hence in stresses.

Content

The Finite Element Method The Theory of the Finite Element The major finite elements in structural mechanics Procedure of the der FE-Analysis Pre-Processing Solution Post-Processing Application examples

## Discretisation by finite elements

Rigid: rigid connection of two nodes Beam: elastic connection of two nodes Shell: thin-wall surface element Solid: volume element Gap: gap element

## Finite elements: 1-dimensional

Rigid element: 2 nodes 6 degrees of freedom per node

## Finite elements: 2-dimensional

Linear triangle shell element, 3 nodes 3x6 degree of freedom

## linear brick element (hexaeder) 8 nodes 8x6 degree of freedom

Content

The Finite Element Method The Theory of the Finite Element The major finite elements in structural mechanics Procedure of the der FE-Analysis Pre-Processing Solution Post-Processing Application examples

## geometry discretisatoin / mesh generation problem definition = boundary condition

Preprocessing

solution evaluation

Solution Postprocessing

## Procedure of the FE Analysis

Pre-Processing:
Generation or import of geometry data Simplification of the real structure Transition of the simplified structure in a FE model (meshing) Assignment of element properties Assignment of material properties Definition of boundary conditions

Solution: solution of the equation {F} = [K] * {d} Post-Processing: evaluation and display of the results
displacements stresses forces etc.

## Procedure of the FE Analysis

Pre-Processing:
Generation or import of geometry data Simplification of the real structure Transition of the simplified structure in a FE model (meshing) Assignment of element properties Assignment of material properties Definition of boundary conditions

Solution: solution of the equation {F} = [K] * {d} Post-Processing: evaluation and display of the results
displacements stresses forces etc.

Pre-Processing
Generation of the geometry in the FE-program packages

Pre-Processing
Import of the geometry from a CAD-Program Interfaces: IGES VDA Translator

## Procedure of the FE Analysis

Pre-Processing:
Generation or import of geometry data Simplification of the real structure Transition of the simplified structure in a FE model (meshing) Assignment of element properties Assignment of material properties Definition of boundary conditions

Solution: solution of the equation {F} = [K] * {d} Post-Processing: evaluation and display of the results
displacements stresses forces etc.

## Procedure of the FE Analysis

Pre-Processing:
Generation or import of geometry data Simplification of the real structure Transition of the simplified structure in a FE model (meshing) Assignment of element properties Assignment of material properties Definition of boundary conditions

Solution: solution of the equation {F} = [K] * {d} Post-Processing: evaluation and display of the results
displacements stresses forces etc.

Pre-Processing

Manual meshing:

Automated meshing:

## Procedure of the FE Analysis

Pre-Processing:
Generation or import of geometry data Simplification of the real structure Transition of the simplified structure in a FE model (meshing) Assignment of element properties Assignment of material properties Definition of boundary conditions

Solution: solution of the equation {F} = [K] * {d} Post-Processing: evaluation and display of the results
displacements stresses forces etc.

Pre-Processing

Element properties

Material properties

## Procedure of the FE Analysis

Pre-Processing:
Generation or import of geometry data Simplification of the real structure Transition of the simplified structure in a FE model (meshing) Assignment of element properties Assignment of material properties Definition of boundary conditions

Solution: solution of the equation {F} = [K] * {d} Post-Processing: evaluation and display of the results
displacements stresses forces etc.

## Pre-Processing Lock of degree of freedom

Application of
- force - torque - pressure - displacement

## Procedure of the FE Analysis

Pre-Processing:
Generation or import of geometry data Simplification of the real structure Transition of the simplified structure in a FE model (meshing) Assignment of element properties Assignment of material properties Definition of boundary conditions

Solution: solution of the equation {F} = [K] * {d} Post-Processing: evaluation and display of the results
displacements stresses forces etc.

Solution

Equation solver

Contakt Convergence

## Procedure of the FE Analysis

Pre-Processing:
Generation or import of geometry data Simplification of the real structure Transition of the simplified structure in a FE model (meshing) Assignment of element properties Assignment of material properties Definition of boundary conditions

Solution: solution of the equation {F} = [K] * {d} Post-Processing: evaluation and display of the results
displacements stresses forces etc.

## Post-Processing Display of results

point 8 velocity x
2.E+00 Gehusepunkt 8 Orig vx Gehusepunkt 8 New A Gehusepunkt 8 New B

2.E+00

1.E+00

5.E-01

velocity [mm/s]

0.E+00

-5.E-01

-1.E+00

-2.E+00

-2.E+00 10.00000

10.01000

10.02000

10.03000

10.04000

## 10.05000 time [s]

10.06000

10.07000

10.08000

10.09000

10.10000

Application examples Simple beam Cylinder Normal modes for accustic analysis Cover Normal modes for accustic analysis Piston Cylinder deformation by operating conditions Transient analysis of a compressor housing Vibration analysis of a Scooter powertrain

Application examples
3D CAD structure

Application examples
FE model based on linear beam elements

Application examples
FE model based on linear shell elements

Application examples
FE model based on linear hexaeder

Application examples
Deformation

Application examples
Stress (von Misses)

Application examples
Stress in axial direction

Application examples
Distortion energy

Application examples

Application examples
Cylinder CATIA-Model

Application examples
Cylinder Normal modes

Application examples

Application examples
Cover CATIA-Model

Application examples
Cover Normal modes

Application examples

Application examples
Piston-Cylinder mechanical load: ignition pressure 27 bar Thermal load: piston: 200C - 335C cylinder: 155C - 225C

FE-Model

## Temperatur distribution at piston pin

Application examples
Piston - Cylinder

Application examples

## Cooling compressor FE- Volume model

Application examples

## Cooling compressor view bottom up locations of force introduction

Application examples

## Cooling compressor MBS-Model

Application examples
Result of MBS-Analysis = Input to FE-Analysis
Loadfunction Point 1 x-Direction
5.00E+01

0.00E+00 10.00000

10.01000

10.02000

10.03000

10.04000

10.05000

10.06000

10.07000

10.08000

10.09000

10.10000

-5.00E+01

Force[mN]
-1.00E+02 -1.50E+02 -2.00E+02 Time[sec]

Application examples

## Cooling compressor deformation

Application examples

## Cooling compressor points of evaluation

Application examples
point 6 displacement y
4.E-03 10.00000

10.01000

10.02000

10.03000

10.04000

10.05000

10.06000

10.07000

10.08000

10.09000

10.10000

## Cooling compressor evaluation: displacement / time

2.E-03
displacement y [mm]

point 6 velocity y
3.E+00

1.E-03

2.E+00

2.E+00
0.E+00

1.E+00

velocity [mm/s]

-1.E-03

5.E-01

10.01000

10.02000
time [sec]

10.03000

10.04000

10.05000

10.06000

10.07000

10.08000

10.09000

10.10000

-2.E-03

-1.E+00

-2.E+00

-2.E+00

## Ablauf FEM mit I-DEAS

Geometry
Discretisation Mesh Element Material L.C R.S. B.C.S. S.S Solve Results Show drawing extrusion

PostProcess.

Solver

Boundary Conditions

## Ablauf FEM mit I-DEAS

Geometry
Discretisation Mesh Element Material L.C R.S. B.C.S. S.S Solve Results Show zeichnen extrudieren meshing physical property table materials

PostProcess.

Solver

Boundary Conditions

## Ablauf FEM mit I-DEAS

Geometry
Discretisation Mesh Element Material L.C R.S. B.C.S. S.S Solve Results Show zeichnen extrudieren meshing physical property table materials load case restraint set boundary condition set

PostProcess.

Solver

Boundary Conditions

## Ablauf FEM mit I-DEAS

Geometry
Discretisation Mesh Element Material L.C R.S. B.C.S. S.S Solve Results Show zeichnen extrudieren meshing physical property table materials load case restraint set boundary condition set solution set manage solve

PostProcess.

Solver

Boundary Conditions

## Ablauf FEM mit I-DEAS

Geometry
Discretisation Mesh Element Material L.C R.S. B.C.S. S.S Solve Results Show zeichnen extrudieren meshing physical property table materials load case restraint set boundary condition set solution set manage solve results display

PostProcess.

Solver

Boundary Conditions