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• Formal nursing education and curriculum can be traced to the 17th century and the French Sisters of Charity, according to Em Olivia Bevis and Jean Watson. • Until this time, untrained helpers, mostly servants, were nurses. When the order was formed in 1633, the prescribed course of study was a two-month probationary period followed by seven to eight months of instruction and supervision. The instruction consisted lectures, quizzes and religious exercises.
. occurred in 1860 due to the influence of Florence Nightingale. • Curriculum was based upon the development of 12 personal characteristics and 13 functions and skills.• A significant advance in the nursing curriculum. Most experts consider it a well-organized and highlystructured curriculum. according to Bevis and Watson. followed by three years of hospital service. and it was accepted worldwide. • There was a year of training and a probationary period.
• Bevis and Watson point to the establishment of formal "Curriculum Guides" as being a turning point in the history of the development of the nursing curriculum. as nursing requirements were minimal and not uniform." It was designed to help nursing schools improve their programs and standards. the Education Committee of the League of Nursing Education produced its "Standard Curriculum. • In 1917. .
content and methods for each course.• The work defined objectives. . It provided lists of needed materials and equipment and bibliographies. The work was revised in 1927 and 1937.
• The most significant advance in the nursing curriculum came when institutes of higher learning adopted nursing education programs. • Based on the studies of Mildred Montag. according to Bevis and Watson.many two-year colleges developed associate of arts degree programs. who designed a two-year course of study for "technical nurses" in the late 1940s and 1950s. .
" or a rapid rise in the number of nursing programs in higher education. from the 1950s through 1970s. . colleges introduced baccalaureate programs that based a professional nursing education on two years of prerequisite courses and liberal arts. • College-based programs and expanding curricula saw a "geometric explosion.• Shortly thereafter.
" which was then revised in 1950 to "Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Ralph Tyler.• In 1949. introduced "Syllabus for Education 360. a consultant with the University of Washington School of Nursing." .
Defining appropriate learning objectives. 2." according to Keating.• Tyler's model was based on objectives or "goalattainment. 4. . Organizing learning experiences to have a maximum cumulative effect. Evaluating the curriculum and revising those aspects that did not prove to be effective. 3. Tyler identified four principles for teaching: 1. Establishing useful learning experiences.
but the Tyler Model remains the foundation for a performance-based nursing curriculum.• This is considered the Classic Curriculum Model. . one the earliest ideas in education that leads to the measurement of outcomes. Other models have followed. such as the CIPP and Baldridge Evaluation System.
• Can a school exist without a curriculum? Why or why not? • How does a strong belief or philosophy influence curriculum? • As future teachers. how important will a curriculum be to you? • What are the implications of an ever changing curriculum to teachers? .
. derived from a Latin word currere which means “to run. appreciations and values under the auspices of that school”. 1989).• Curriculum. develop skills and alter attitudes. • Ronald C.” over the time it has been translated to mean “course of study” (Wiles & Bondi. Doll (1996) defined curriculum as the “formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding.
. Jr. (2002). Doll. moving from a formal definition to a focus on one‟s multiple interactions with others and one‟s surroundings.• William E. described curriculum in relation to a shifting paradigm.
district or country documents 3. SUPPORTED CURRICULUM – resources. 4.1. WRITTEN CURRICULUM – appears in school. RECOMMENDED CURRICULUM – proposed by scholars and professional organizations 2. audio-visual materials which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum . computers. textbooks. TAUGHT CURRICULUM – what teachers implement and deliver in the classrooms or schools.
LEARNED CURRICULUM – What the students actually learn and what is measured. 7. 2000) 5. HIDDEN CURRICULUM – The unintended curriculum .( ALLAN GLATTHORN. ASSESSED CURRICULUM – tested and evaluated 6.
• Subject.focuses on academic disciplines c. . Discipline design .Subjects are related to one another but each subject maintains its identity. Subject design . Correlation design .focuses on the content of the curriculum Examples: a.centered design model.centers on the cluster of content b.
d. Broad field design/interdisciplinary • variation of the subject centered design • Compartmentalization of subjects and integrate the contents that are related to each other .
Skills and Values • How do teachers teach? Strategies and Methods .• Who teaches? The Teacher • Who do the teachers teach? The Learners • What do the teachers teach? Knowledge.
• How much of the teaching was learned? Performance • With whom do we teach? Community Partners .
. The curriculum is a result of a long-term effort The curriculum is a complex of details.• • • • • • The curriculum is continuously evolving The curriculum is based on the needs of the people. The curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter. The curriculum is democratically conceived.
.• The curriculum complements and cooperates with other programs of the community. • The curriculum has educational quality • The curriculum has administrative flexibility.
It is central to the teaching and learning process (Rogers and Taylor 1998). • It can take place in an institutional setting like a school. It can take place inside or outside a classroom.• Curriculum development describes all the ways in which a training or teaching organization plans and guides learning. or in a village or a field. college or training centre. • This learning can take place in groups or with individual learners. .
In practice.• Systematic planning of what is to be taught and learned in schools as reflected in courses of study and school programs. • There is no clear distinction between curriculum content and methodology . leaving to the teaching profession decisions as to HOW this should be done. • The primary focus of a curriculum is on WHAT is to be taught and WHEN.how a topic is taught often determines what is taught. .
: 1.FOUR STEPS TO CURRICULUM DEV’T. 4. 2. 3. "The Tyler Rationale" What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? How can they be organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? .
• She advocated the teachers take inductive approach the act or process of inducting somebody into a position or an organization . the teacher could participate in developing it. .• She believe that those who teach curriculum.
• Diagnosis of learner's needs and expectations of the larger society • Formulation of learning objectives • Selection of learning content • Selection of learning experiences • Organization of learning activities • Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it .
STEP 1: DIAGNOSIS OF NEED STEP 2: FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVE STEP 3: SELECTION OF CONTENT STEP 6: ORGANIZING OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE STEP 5: SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE STEP 4: ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT STEP 7: DETERMINATION OF WHAT TO EVALUATE AND OF THE WAY AND MEAN OF DOING IT .
• • • • • • Curriculum conceptualization and legitimation Curriculum diagnosis Content selection Experience selection Implementation Evaluation .
relating to conforming to science or its principles • It allows us to plan of mind .• Technical .relating to specializing in industrial techniques or subjects or applied science • Scientific .
curriculum development is a plan or blueprint for structuring the learning environment and coordinating elements of personnel. but rather a way of planning to optimize students learning and allow them to increase their output. . • According to this point of view. it is not the vehicle for dehumanizing education .• To those who believe in approach . materials. equipment.
Uses empirical methods would answer the question. WHAT SHALL BE TAUGHT? .
especially through activity-oriented approaches to learning • Those favoring this approach note that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed do they need to be known in all cases • Considered the curriculum evolved rather than being planned precisely .• They tress not the outputs of production but rather the learner.
realize that one cannot separate curriculum development from the people involved in the process or from those who will experience the curriculum • View world not a machine but as a living organism • Focus of curriculum activity not the content but the individual .• Advocates might well identified themselves as postmodern.
exact and certain machine that dehumanizes those involved in its development and those who experience the products of such development .• Curriculum Development appears to be a living. precise. rather than a cold. breathing or organism.
also limited by its sensitivity to the politics of curriculum making and that curriculum cannot be generated in a manner that is neat systematic. . or ends oriented.• He posits technical model the one who accepts the assumption of modernity.
educators make known their ideas and values as to what is essential for learning and what is to be taught. what contents is to be praised and the very function of itself • It enables individuals to realize that means and ends affect each other. constantly modifying the very reality about which one is deliberating .• In this process.
the instructional problem is clarified. the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified. .ANALYZE PHASES • in the analysis phase.
DESIGN PHASES • The design phase deals with learning objectives. exercises. content. subject matter analysis. lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. assessment instruments. .
DEVELOP PHASES • The development phase is where instructional designers and developers create and assemble the content assets that were blueprinted in the design phases.
IMPLEMENT PHASES • During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators' training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures.
EVALUATION PHASES • Ongoing cycle of (formative and summative) evaluation of all aspects of the curriculum in order to understand how the program works, how successfully it works, and whether it, in all its complexity, is responding to students‟ needs, teachers‟ abilities.
TEACHERS.INDUSTRY EXPERTS DRIVE JOB FUNCTION EXPERIENCE TEACHERS IDENTIFY COMPETENCIES FOR EACH JOB FUNCTIONS CLASSIFY GENERIC AND TECHNICAL SKILLS LIST SKILLS WHICH CAN BE DEVELOPED THROUGH THEORY INSTRUCTIONS LIST SKILLS WHICH CAN BE DEVELOPED THROUGH LABORATORY INSTRUCTIONS DEVELOP PROGRAMME STRUCTURE DETAIL OUT CONTENTS FOR THEORY DETAIL LABORATORY CONTENTS FOR THE TOTAL PROGRAMME PREPARE APPROPRIATE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL TRY OUT IMPLEMENTATION FEEDBACK FROM STUDENTS. INDUSTRY EXPERTS REVISE THE CURRICULUM .
state. Aim: one sentence (more or less) description of overall purpose of curriculum. including audience and the topic 2. 3. and local standards.1. Rationale: paragraph describing why aim is worth achieving. Goals and objectives: list of the learning outcomes expected from participation in the curriculum. This section would include assessment of needs. This section includes a discussion of how the curriculum supports national. .
AUDIENCE AND PRE-REQUISITES: describes who the curriculum is for and the prior knowledge. and attitudes of those learners likely to be successful with the curriculum.) . SUBJECT-MATTER DESCRIPTION: designation of what area of content. skills. arena of endeavor. facts.4. (This is a further elaboration of the "topic" description in the Aim. that the curriculum deals with. 5.
and the sequence of those activities. MATERIALS: lists materials necessary for successful teaching of the curriculum. Also describes what the TEACHER is to do in order to facilitate those activities. 7.6. INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN: describes the activities the learners are going to engage in. Includes a list of web pages .
8. or other elements of assessment. Also should include plan for evaluating the curriculum as a whole. including feedback from learning . sample exam questions. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION PLAN: includes plan for assessing learning and evaluating the curriculum as a whole. May include description of a model project.
strengthen ethical and spiritual values 7. appreciate the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country. promote respect for human rights.Based on the 1987 Philippine Constitution. develop moral character and personal discipline 8. 4. inculcate patriotism and nationalism 2. broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency . all schools should aim to: 1. foster love of humanity 3. 6. 5. teach the rights and duties of the citizenship. encourage critical and creative thinking 9.
students perform individually or collectively. • It provides the focal point or unifying element according to which the school staff. • It is a guiding post around which all educational efforts including curricula that should be directed. • It should be ambitious .• It is a clear concept of what the institution would like to become in the future. faculty.
. • It targets to produce the kind of persons the students will become after having been educated over a certain period of time.• It spells out how it intends to carry out its vision.
• They also set the criteria against which learning outcomes will be evaluated. • They provide the bases for the selection of learning content and experiences. • These are called educational objectives.• These are translated vision and mission which are broad statements or intents to be accomplished. . • Objectives direct the change in behavior which is the ultimate aim of learning.
concepts generalization. SUBJECT CENTERED VIEW – It represents the repository of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centuries. • It is another term for knowledge. . due to man‟s exploration of his world. principles and theories • Two types of curriculum a.• Information to be learned in school. • It is a collection of facts.
LEARNER – CENTERED CURRICULUM – relates knowledge to the individual's personal and social world and how he or she defines reality. .b.
refers to the vertical reiteration of major curricular elements. • We aim for educational effectiveness & efficiency. .EDUCATION EXPERIENCES MUST BE ORGANIZED TO REINFORCE EACH OTHER. • Integration .unified view of things.refers to experiences built upon preceding curricular elements but in more breadth and detail. • Continuity . Solving problems in arithmetic as well as in other disciplines. • Sequence .
• That ordering of the experience had to be somewhat systematic so as to produce a maximum cumulative effect • Organizing elements such as: ideas. concept. values and skills showed be a woven as a threads into a curriculum fabric • These elements could serve as organizer and means and method of instruction and could relate the different learning experiences among different subjects .
regardless of • Their design or developmental models • How individuals view the content is affected by their view of knowledge and reality their philosophical posture .• They have all content.
What will lead to student self-sufficiency? What is significant? .
what is interesting? NOTE: Student may not even KNOW his own interests What is useful? What is learnable? What is feasible? . suggesting or implying deeper or unstated meaning important. notable. having or conveying a meaning. consequential 2. what is valid? 3.Two definitions of "significant": 1. expressive.
field trips and other experiential learning. methods. .• The core of the heart of the curriculum • Instructional strategies. educational activities like field viewing. conducting experiments. interacting with computer programs.
Feasible In terms of time. Optimal in terms of students learning the content 4. staff expertise. Capable of students to develop their thinking skills and rational powers . facilities available within and outside of the school . Valid in light of the ways in which knowledge and skills will be applied in out-of-school situations 2. community expectations 3.1.
Capable of fostering students an openness to new experience &tolerance act‟s diversity 8. To facilitate learning and motivates students continue learning . Capable of stimulating students greater understanding of their own existence as individual or as a member of a group 7. Such students can broaden their interest 6.5.
social and spiritual domain . of students cognitive. Such that they will foster the total dev‟t. affective. Capable of allowing students to address their needs 10. psychomotor.9.
product of the curriculum .• It may refer to the formal determination of the quality. effectiveness or value of the program. process.
the learners.• Context – refers to the environment of the curriculum. the contents and all the materials needed • Process – refers to the ways and means of how curriculum has been implemented. the teachers. . Context evaluation refers to situation analysis • Input – refers to the integration of the curriculum which include goals. • Product – Indicates if the curriculum accomplishes its goal. instructional strategies. It will determine to what extent the curriculum objectives have been achieved.
Focus on one particular component of the curriculum 2. Analyze information 5.PROCESS OF THE CURRICULUM EVALUATION 1. Organize the information 4. Report the information . Collect or gather information 3.
learning process • Increasing the capability the teacher • Broadening the delivery of education • Revolutionizing the use of technology to boost educational paradigm shifts.• Upgrading the quality of the teaching . .
relevant and valid • It is a developmental process that gives the signal as to whether the particular curriculum can already be implemented with confidence.• Pilot Testing or Field try out. reliable.this process involves gathering empirical data to support whether the material or the curriculum is useful. .
effectiveness and adequacy of a curriculum . • It provides a decision that would even end or terminate the program • Curriculum Evaluation .refers to the systematic process of judging the value .a periodic assessment and adjustment during the try .out period.• Curriculum Monitoring .
voluntary process of submitting a curricular program to the external accrediting body for review in any level of education. .an approach to curriculum evaluation which places the content. School Based evaluation. operation. and maintenance of evaluation procedure in the hands of the school personnel. Accreditation. design. 2.TWO WAYS OF CURRICULUM EVALUATION 1.
• • • • • • Curriculum and Program studies Classroom Management Instructional Processes or methodologies Graduation requirements Administrative Support for Effective Instruction Evaluation of Academic Performance of students .
• Highlight curriculum expectations • Gather information about what students know and can do • Motivate student to learn better • Motivate and encourage teachers to meet the identified needs of students • Provide evidence to tell how well the students have learned. students and parents make good decisions to guide instruction . • Obtain feedback that helps teachers.
and arrange the WHAT that is selected for learning. the deal with HOW to present.• What shall be included for purpose of learning? After that. • First they deal with knowledge & content specifically they deal with teaching and learning experience • Regardless of their philosophical orientation. so that students can learn or experience. this elements will not ignore .
• Key factors that shape the learners orientation to the content and understanding to it. .• Meat of curriculum plan but can consider the experiences planned for students as the heart. • TABA noted “perhaps the first important consideration in achieving the wider range of objectives is the fact that the learning experience not the content means of achieving the all objectives besides those knowledge and understanding.
• Patrick Slattery noted “ education is a human activity that is greatly affected by the environment” It is a placed in which individual affects their inner experiences • John Holt pointed out space “creates activity‟‟ it allows students „‟to generate places and moods‟‟. .
security needs and belongingness. as well as development of self awareness and empathy for other .• Should address social needs.
HAWKINGS AND VINTON • Stated long ago that classroom can no longer be the sole learning environment LANG • Noted that “ occupants of classroom must „peek‟ out with windows. to the world beyond for illumination and views .
must consider the scale and shape of the educational activity ex.He Is referring to educational elements/essential criteria in school for optimal educational space like. instance of quietness • Acoustic . audile. • Volume . Silent reading in classroom.auditory.lights present in the educational environment • Temperature . sound that conducive to learning • Illumination .not too cold and not too hot classroom .
. and community based.• In developing the curriculum involves a large number of persons. both school based.
POLITICAL PARTICIPANTS • Concerned with providing programs to the learners. • Both educators and non educators. will determined what types of curricula will benefit what students how to select curricula. who will receive the benefit of particular curricula and how to deliver those benefits .
SCHOOL PARTICIPANTS TEACHER • Most powerful implementers in curriculum development • Decide the what aspects of curriculum new developed and undergoing. determined the spent time and how much of it on developing basic skills or critical thinking skills .
Gifted child or committee of disabled learning • teaching is implementing curriculum development activity.• Involved in curriculum committee which organized curriculum by grade level. from formation of goal and aims to the evaluation and maintenance of the curriculum . some organized according to type of students under consideration ex.
• Teacher should not be viewed as a “Performer Professionally equipped to realizes effectively any goals set for them .• “Teacher should be viewed as an intellectual engaged in some form of thinking.
STUDENTS • Secondary students are more involved in curriculum planning development RONALD DOLL note: • Students are the “consumers” of education and they deserved to supply input to educators regarding curricular matters .
proposed 2 broad strategies to attain their goals regarding the changing authorities and governance • Return authority for decision making to the school site and to democratize the process of decision making .PRINCIPALS • Curriculum leaders. they restructure the school MARY RAYWID note. • considered restructuralists.
then the principal must be a visionary leader possessing a clear view of mission of the school and a strong belief on her professional values .JOHN GOODLAD “school site management” • School site should be recognized as the primary unit of education • A place of action” with regard to curriculum decision making.
• Large school they are facilitator of curriculum: furnishing time for current curricular activities arranging for in services training, sitting on curriculum advisory committee as a resource agent, and refining the mission of the school. • In small school principal actively more on curriculum initiators, developers and implementers
CURRICULUM SPECIALIST • Major role in curriculum development and implementation • Chairpersons, supervisors, coordinators, directors or curriculum generalists. • Expert in creating and implementing curricula, no content major
ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT • Primary responsible for curriculum activities • Line administrator, report directly to the superintendent • Is a chair or serves as advisor to the general curriculum advisory committee • Responsible in Informing major trends occurring in the field of curriculum and how these trends being translated to the school system to the superintendent
initiate curriculum activities. informing district personnel of changes .SUPERINTENDENT • Chief administrator of school system and keep it running • Responds the matter before the school boards. starts program for in service training for teacher.
BOARD OF EDUCATION • Legal agents of school & Representative of general public: spokesperson in the community which responsible for overall management of the school .
Lay Citizens • Non professionals • Few people would contest that the school belongs to the public • Concerned in general terms but really not interested in becoming actively engaged in curriculum development because of little knowledge about course content .
1. "Toward a Caring Curriculum: A New Pedagogy for Nursing". Sarah Keating. 1989 . 2006 2. Em Olivia Bevis and Jean Watson. "Curriculum Development & Evaluation in Nursing".
~Gail Godwin .Good teaching is one-fourth preparation and three-fourths theater.
~John Cotton Dana .Who dares to teach must never cease to learn.
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