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ELCE 301

General Course Information:

Course Instructor

Assoc.Prof. Andrzej Sluzek andrzej.sluzek@kustar.ac.ae Phone: 02 501 8578 Office: H 309 H

Office Hours

(alternatively by appointment)

Credits: 3

Prerequisites: ELCE 210, MATH 205 and MATH 206

Prerequisites by topics: Complex numbers and variables (MATH 205). Fourier series and transform (MATH 205). Laplace transform (MATH 205). Z-transform (MATH 205). Circuit analysis (ELCE 210). Course Structure: Lectures will be conducted 3 x 50 minutes per week. Computer Resources: The course assignments may require access to software tools such as MATLAB and its signal processing toolbox.

Laboratory Experiments: ELCE 402 covers the laboratory experiments for this course.

Course aim:

To provide a sound understanding of analysis and mathematical modeling of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems.

Instructional materials Textbook: A.Oppenheim and A.Willsky, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997. Reference Materials:

S. K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A Computer-Based Approach, McGraw-Hill, 2nd edition, 2001.

Time-domain analysis of signals: basic signals, properties and operations, sampling and reconstruction. Time-domain analysis of systems: block diagrams, properties, differential/ difference equations, impulse and step response, convolution integral/sum. Frequency domain analysis of signals and systems: Fourier series and transform, frequency response, Bode plots, stability analysis. Applications of Laplace transform and z-transform. State-space representation of systems. Filters.

Methods of Assessment

30 % 30 % 40 %

(what is it all about?)

What does the world consist of? (list two items only!)

Material and spiritual components? Matter and energy? Animate and inanimate world? Natural and man-made objects? Solid and non-solid matter? SYSTEMS and SIGNALS!!!

(what is it all about?)

Signals result from the activities of systems, i.e. systems are signal generators. Systems receive input signals (generated by other systems) and produce output signals, i.e. systems are also signal receivers and signal converters/transformers. Signals may provide information about the systems status (e.g. temperature in an oven, pressure in a boiler) or provide useful energy/data to other systems (e.g. radio transmitter, solar battery).

(what is it all about?)

Systems can be physical or abstract objects steam engine, car factory, fish, city, cluster of computers human personality, bank account, stock exchange

Signals may represent physical or abstract phenomena flow of water, speed of a vehicle, air pressure, temperature level of customers satisfaction, human intelligence

(what is it all about?) Signals of practical importance change. They may change: with the elapsed time (time-domain signals, temporal signals), e.g. body temperature during a day, tidal level of a sea, a bank account content, etc. In this course, we primarily deal with TIME-DOMAIN signals. across some space (space-domain signals, spatial signals), e.g. colours on a photo (2D signal space), current water temperature in a sea (3D signal space). across time and space (spatiotemporal signals), e.g. colour distribution in a video-clip (2D+time) , water temperature in a sea during a period of time (3D+time).

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(what is it all about?) Signals can be: continuous-domain signals, e.g. temperature, air pressure, battery voltage, colour distribution on a hand-painted picture, etc. discrete-domain signals of two categories: naturally discrete signals, e.g. monthly salary, population of a town, etc.

discretized (sampled) signals, e.g. body temperature taken twice a day, colour of a digital photo, etc.

(what is it all about?) Correspodingly, SYSTEMS can be: continuous-domain (e.g. CT - continuous time) systems; input and output signals of a system are continous-domain signals; discrete-domain (e.g. DT - discrete time) systems; input and output signals of a system are discrete-domain signals;

mixed systems; some input/output signals are continuous and some are discrete.

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(more explanations) The most typical job of a SYSTEM is to generate/extract/modify/transform/manipulate the information/energy carried by the signals. Thus, we need some mathematical model to specify how the system handles a signal.

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(more explanations) The most typical job of a SYSTEM is to generate/extract/modify/transform/manipulate the information/energy carried by the signals. Thus, we need some mathematical model to specify how the system handles a signal.

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(more explanations)

Modern systems typically:

* acquire a continuous-time (CT) signal from a sensor; * a continuous-time system (e.g. sensor) transforms a signal; * an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the signal and creates a discrete-time (a sequence of numbers); * a discrete-time (DT) system does the processing; * if necessary, the signal of converted back to CT form (not shown here).

signal

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(more explanations - exemplary scenarios)

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(more explanations - preliminary formalization) Signals are mathematically modeled by functions. Function is a mapping between the input space (signal domain, e.g. time, 2D space) and the output space (signal values). The function inputs and outputs are numbers (real, complex).

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(more explanations - preliminary formalization) Systems are mathematically modeled by functionals.

A functional converts one function into another function. A system converts one signal into another signal.

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Learning Outcomes :

Analyze signals in the time and frequency domains. Understand the process of sampling and the concept of aliasing.

Model systems (using differential or difference equations), represent them using block diagrams, and find their time and frequency responses.

Use the Laplace transform to represent the transfer functions of continuous-time systems, find their responses, and assess their stability. Use the z-transform to represent the transfer functions of discrete-time systems, find their response, and assess their stability. Use state-space equations to represent systems and find their response. Understand the concept of filters.

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Course Topics (approx. 43 hours):

1. 2. Introduction. Continuous-Time Signals: deterministic, random, periodic and non-periodic, causal, power and energy signals (~2 lectures). Continuous-Time Systems: types of systems (linear, nonlinear, timeinvariance, random, etc.), system modeling (electrical, mechanical, electromechanical, etc.), revision of differential equations (~3 lectures).

Time-Domain Analysis of Continuous-Time Systems: system impulse response, convolution integral, auto-correlation and cross correlation functions, response of Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) systems (~4 lectures). Fourier transform: definition and properties, amplitude and phase spectra of periodic signals, the Fourier transform and spectra of aperiodic signals, inverse Fourier transform, Parsevals theorem (~3 lectures). Laplace Transform: definition and properties (~3 lectures).

3.

4.

5.

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6. Frequency Analysis of Continuous-Time Systems: systems transfer function, system stability, system frequency response, Bode plot, Nyquist plot, feedback and system stability, phase and gain margins. ( ~5 lectures). State-Space Representation of Continuous-Time Linear Systems: state variables and differential equations, time domain analysis of systems, state transition matrix, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, homogeneous and nonhomogeneous solutions (~4 lectures) Discrete-Time Signals: definition, time domain representation, sampling theorem and aliasing, quantization, basic operations, basic signals ( ~3 lectures).

7.

8.

9.

Discrete-Time Systems: definition, difference equations, block diagrams, properties, impulse and step responses, convolution sum, classifications (~4 lectures)

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10. Z-Transform: definition, forward transform, inverse transform, properties, relationship with Laplace, z-transfer function, poles and zeros, causality and stability, frequency response, geometric evaluation of frequency response (~4 lectures). 11. State-Space Representation of Discrete-Time Systems: state-space variables and equations, output calculation (~2 lectures). 12. Discrete Fourier Analysis: the Discrete-Time Fourier transform (DTFT) and its properties, the Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) (~3 lectures).

13. Filters. Revision (~3 lectures).

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