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AlloyElementTable

Asubstitutionofanalloyelementcanchangethecompositionofthealloyedsteelcausingunforeseenproblems.NHMLreceivesnumerouscalls ayearrequestingtohavethealloyingelementsinsteelverifiedforthisreason. We have provided below a table of alloying elements, their principle functions, and carbide tendencies. If you work with any of these materials andexperiencedproblems,calltospeaktooneofourknowledgeablestaffmembers.Wemaybeabletohelpprovideananswer. AlloyingElement CarbideFormingTendency Aluminum Lessthaniron,promotes graphitization Boron Calcium Moderate None Carbon None PrincipleFunctions Withnitrogenoroxygen,aluminumformsafinedispersionthatlimits graingrowth Adeoxidizerthatresultsinexcellenttoughnessbecauseofthe resultingfinegrainsize Formsasurfacehardenedlayerby(relatively)lowtemperature diffusionofnitrogen(nitriding) Significantlyincreasedhardenabilityinthe0.0005to0.003%range, withoutsacrificingductilityormachinability Whenusedasadeoxidizer,itprovidesbettermachinabilitythan aluminumorsilicon ControlsinclusionshapeinHSLAsteels,improvingtoughness Themostimportantalloyingelementinsteelasitformspearlite, bainite,spherodite,andironcarbonmartensite Increasingcarbonincreaseshardness,strength,andductilebrittle transitiontemperature Increasingcarbondecreasestoughnessandductility Providesamoderatecontributiontohardenabilityuptoabout1% Mildlyresistssofteningduringtempering Provideselevatedtemperaturestrengthandresistancetooxidation Withhighcarbon,providesabrasionresistance Resistsofteningatelevatedtemperatures

Chromium Cobalt

Greaterthanmanganeseand lessthantungsten Aboutthesameasiron

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AlloyElementTable
Copper None Nickel Lessthaniron,promotes graphitization Improvesresistancetoatmosphericcorrosioninthe0.200.50% range Decreasestheabilitytohotworksteelsduetomigrationtograin boundaries Doesnotdissolveinsteelandimprovesmachinability Cancauseliquidmetalembrittlementattemperaturesnearits meltingpoint Providesamoderatecontributiontohardenabilityuptoabout2% Promotesretainedausteniteonquenching Formssulfidesforimprovedmachinability Producesahighcarbonausteniticsteel ProducesaCrNiMnausteniticsteel(200seriesstainless)that competeswiththe300seriesstainlesssteels Increasesstrengthandreducesductilityinferriticsteels Isadeoxidizerandpromoteshotworkability Contributesgreatlytohardenabilityuptoabout1% Contributesdeephardening Increaseselevatedtemperaturestrengthandcreepresistance Improvescorrosionresistanceinstainlesssteels,particularlyin chlorideenvironments Minimizesthetendencytowardtemperembrittlementinalloysteels inthe0.15to0.30%range Providesamoderatecontributiontohardenability Tendstopromoteretainedaustenitewithmediumandhighcarbon contents Strengthensunhardenedsteelsbysolidsolution Makeshighchromiumsteelsaustenitic Providestoughnessinferriticpearliticsteels

Lead

None

Manganese

Greaterthaniron,lessthan chromium

Molybdenum

Strongcarbideformer,greater thanchromiumortungsten

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AlloyElementTable
Phosphorus None Sulfur None Producesfinegrainsize Increaseselevatedtemperaturestrength Asastrongcarbideformeritcandecreasethehardenabilityofsteel byremovingcarbonfromsolution Providesahighcontributiontohardenability Promotesretainedaustenite Strengthenscarbonsteelsbutseverelyreducestoughnessand ductility Improvescorrosionresistance Improvesmachinabilityishighsulfursteels Decreasesductilitywithmediumandhighcarbonsteels Contributestotemperembrittlement Providesamoderateincreaseinhardenability Hardensferrite,morethanmanganesebutlessthanphosphorus,up toabout1% Increasesthestrengthofquenchesandtemperedsteels Providessomeoxidationresistanceatelevatedtemperatures Isageneralpurposesdeoxidizer,atabout0.05%inrimmedsteelsand 0.150.30%infullykilledsteels Normallypresentasmanganesesulfidestringerssulfur Decreasestransversstrengthandductilitybuthaslittleeffecton longitudinalproperties Decreasesweldability Enhancesmachinability

Niobium

Strong

Silicon

None,promotesgraphitization

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AlloyElementTable
Producescarbideparticlesthatrestrictgraingrowth Reducesmartensitehardnessbyremovingcarbonfromsolution Removescarbonfromsolutioninausteniticstainlesssteels preventinggrainboundarydeteriorationbychromiumcarbide formation Inhibitsausteniteformationinhighchromiumsteels Actsasadeoxidizerbycombiningwithoxygenandnitrogen Decreasessofteningduringtempering Formsabrasionresistantcarbides Promoteselevatedtemperaturehardness Providessomecreepresistance Providesasignificantincreaseinhardenabilityuptoabout0.05% Promotesfineaustenitegrainsize Resistssofteningduringtempering

Titanium

Strongerthanallotherelements exceptniobium/columbium

Tungsten

Strongerthanmolybdenum

Vanadium

Strong,butlessthantitaniumor niobium

HardenabilityCalculation:
Anumberofelementshavebeennotedashavingtheabilitytoincreasehardenability.Burns,Moore,andArcher(ASMTrans.1938)developeda chemicalfactorcalculationtoquantifytheeffectofalloyingadditions.Thechemicalfactor,ascomputedbelowhasadirectrelationshipwith Rockwellinchhardenability. Chemicalfactor=1000(%C)+500(%Mn)+400(%Cr)+100(%Ni)+25(%Cu)+1000(%Mo) Notethatwhilenoalloyingadditionsresultinsuddenincreases,ordecreasesinmechanicalproperties,corrosionresistancemaybesignificantly alteredbysmallchangesincomposition.

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