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Reviewer Q3 BROACOU

Lesson 5d OFDM 1. OFDM Orthogonal FDM, invented more than 40 years ago 2. Orthogonality the peak of each signal coincides with trough of other signals 3. 1/Ts space between subcarriers 4. At a right angle to meaning of orthogonal 5. ISI inter symbol interference, avoided by orthogonality 6. Multiple channels what channel bandwidth is divided into 7. Frequency-selective fading also avoided by OFDM 8. Multi-carrier transmission subcarriers are orthogonal to each other in frequency domain 9. Time domain spreading spreading is achieved in the time-domain by repeating the same information in an OFDM symbol on two different sub-bands 10. Frequency diversity see 9 11. Frequency-domain spreading spreading is achieved by choosing conjugate symmetric inputs for the input to the IFFT (real output) (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform), exploits frequency diversity and helps reduce the transmitter complexity/power consumption 12. Fast Fourier Transform variation of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) 13. Fourier Frenchman who discovered that any complex signal could be represented by a series of harmonically related sine waves all added together 14. Cooley/Tukey developed the fast Fourier transform in the 1960s as a way to speed up the math to make Fourier analysis more practical 15. ADC analog to digital converter, digitizes analog signal 16. IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, reverses FFT process 17. DSP Digital Signal Processing, used to accomplish OFDM 18. FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array, can also be used to accomplish OFDM 19. Advantages of OFDM a. Spectrally efficient IFFT/FFT operation ensures that sub-carriers do not interfere with each other b. Inherent robustness against narrowband interference i. Narrowband interference affect at most a couple of subchannels ii. FEC Forward Error Correction, codes of which information from the affected subchannels can be erased and recovered c. Equalization is very simple compared to single carrier systems d. Has excellent robustness in multipath environments cyclic prefix preserves orthogonality between sub-carriers, allows the receiver to capture multipath energy more efficiently e. Ability to comply with worldwide regulations bands and tones can be dynamically turned on/off to comply with changing regulations f. Coexistence with current and future systems bands and tones can be dynamically turned on/off for enhances coexistence with the other devices 20. Drawbacks of OFDM a. High sensitivity inter-channel interference, ICI b. Sensitive to frequency, clock and phase offset c. Time-domain signal has relatively large peak-to-average ratio i. Tends to reduce power efficiency of RF amplifier

ii. Nonlinear amplification destroys orthogonality of the OFDM signal and introduced out of band radiation 21. Standards a. DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting b. DVB Digital Video Broadcasting c. ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line d. Wireless LAN IEEE 802.11a e. Proposed for 802.16 standard 22. Digital Radio for HF frequencies a. Half channel 4.5-5kHz, data rates of 4-14.5kbps b. Full channel 9-10 kHz, data rates of 8-35 kbps c. Double channel 18-20 kHz, data rates of 31-72 kbps 23. Proprietary OFDM a. Wideband OFDM 2.4 GHz band, 30-45 Mbps in 40 MHz (Wi-LAN) b. Flash OFDM freq. hopping for CCI reduction, reuse, 1.25-5 MHz BW, mobility support (Flarion) c. Vector OFDM MIMO technology, non-LoS coverage, mainly for fixed access, up to 20 Mbps in MMDS (Cisco) Lesson 5e - ATSC 24. Service Multiplex and Transport refers to the means of dividing the digital data stream into packets of information and the appropriate method of multiplexing 25. RF/Transmission refers to channel coding and modulation 26. Terrestrial broadcast mode (8 VSB) and High data rate mode (16 VSB) two modes offered by the modulation subsystems 27. Layers of Protocol Stack a. Picture Layer b. Encoder c. Transport Layer d. Physical Layer where channels are joined 28. SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers 29. SDTV Standard TV, has 525 lines, 486 active lines, 720 active pixels, 4:3/16:9 aspect ratio 30. HDTV High Definition TV, has 1125 lines, 1080i (720p) active lines, 1920 (1280) active pixel, 16:9 aspect ratio 31. Serial data stream composed of 188 byte MPEG compatible data packets input to the transmission subsystem 32. FEC Forward Error Correction, used to process randomized incoming data 33. RS coding Reed-Solomon, form of coding used to do FEC, uses 20 RS parity bytes to add to each packet 34. Data field interleaving and rate Trellis coding follows RS coding 35. 8T VSB Spectrum before Filtering

36. 8T VSB Spectrum after Filtering

37. Interleaving provided to a depth of 1/6th of a Data Field (4ms deep) 38. 52-data-segment (intersegment) convolutional byte interleaver interleaving used in VSB transmission 39. Data bytes only bytes that are interleaved 40. Trellis coding 2/3 rate (R=23) trellis code, used in 8-VSB transmission system, rate for convolutional code 41. 8 level (3 bit), 1 dimensional constellation signaling waveform used with the trellis code 42. Data frame consists of two data fields 43. Data field consists of 313 data segment 44. Data field sync first data segment of each field, includes the training sequence used by the equalizer in the receiver 45. 312 data segments remaining carry the equivalent of the data from one 188-byte transport packet plus its associated FEC overhead Lesson 6 Cable Television (CATV) 46. Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television original name for CATV, in 1948 47. Community Antenna constructed in areas where over the air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain 48. 1924 origins for cable broadcasting 49. 12 channel systems method used to broadcast TV signals over the same 2-13 VHF channels 50. Adjacent Cable Channels with a 12-channel systems, some receivers may have adjacent-channel interference because all VHF channels are used, for which this is used 51. Midband Cable Channels used in the gap between VHF channels 6 and 7, start with number 14 (or letter A) for 120 to 126 MHz 52. Superband Cable Channels refers to cable TV channels above the VHF broadcast channels 13, starts with cable channel letter J (or number 23), continuing to Z and the numbers to 53

53. Separate converter unit provided by the cable operator in order to convert all channel frequencies to a designated VHF channel, such as 2, 3 or 4. 54. Cable-Ready TV Receivers receivers that do not need converters 3

55. Coaxial cable conduit used for distributing the CATV signals at RF channel frequencies 56. Trunk Line consists of a heavy central aluminum conductor that is copper-clad, diameter about inch, polyethylene 57. Drop Line line from a branch to the subscriber, used to be RG-59 coax but currently RG-6 is preferred because of less signal loss 58. R Radio Frequency 59. G Government 60. 8 Government assigned approval number 61. /U Universal specification 62. Specification modification or revision designated by letters A, B or C appearing before the slash 63. RG59/U, RG6/U and RG11/U three most commonly used coaxial cable types 64. RG Radio Guide 65. RG59/U available with either solid copper or copper-clad steel centre conductor, suitable for basic analog TV antenna feeds in residential applications and for basic CCTV systems over short cable runs 66. RG6/U Quad shield minimum requirement under the latest Australian Standard for digital TV antenna cabling and for all TV antenna cabling for apartments/units (MATV), also used for CATV and SATV, features a copper-clas-steel innder conductor 67. RG11/U Quad shield used for the same applications as RG6/U for either backbone cabling or for long distribution runs, features a copper-clad-steel inner conductor 68. Characteristic impedance a characteristic for a particular type of line where its value depends on the size of conductors, their spacings, and the type of insulator between them

69. 75 ohms generally, the characteristic impedance of CATV distribution lines 70. Impedance mismatch results when the line is not terminated in Zo, an extreme case being a line open at the end 71. Three causes of attenuation a. Resistance losses produced by current in the conductors b. Dielectric losses in the insulator between conductors c. Skin effect 72. Losses vs frequency directly proportional 73. Signal attenuation per unit distance of line how designers of cable distribution systems think 74. Head end starting point for cable signals, receives programming via satellite transmission, microwave transmission and local broadcast 75. Trunk amplifiers inserted at regular intervals along the trunk route to make up for cable losses, keeps signal up to standard level of 1-3mV 76. Bridging amplifiers amplifier for a branch from the main trunk to feed a particular neighborhood in the cable system 77. Line amplifiers inserted in the branch line to make up for cable losses in that branch, extends the number of drop lines that can be used on a branch line 4

78. Directional couplers used to tap off the signal to keep signal power taken from the trunk very small so that line is not loaded by all the branches 79. Power supplies placed at long intervals and cable itself used to carry dc power, input 120 V ac tapped from the power line on the same pole in an aerial system 80. Line taps final tap on the system, keeps tap-to-tap loss high to provide isolation between the individual at a subscribers TV receiver will not set up reflections in the cable system 81. Balun units balanced-to-unbalanced connection, used to match 75 ohm cable to the 300 ohm receiver input 82. Harmonic distortion type of distortion, the result of amplitude distortion when changes in the waveform generate a new frequencies 83. Overdriven amplifier outputs harmonic distortion 84. Push-pull system used by cable amplifiers to keep interference at bay 85. Cross modulation type of distortion, problem caused by overload distortion 86. Spurious signals type of distortion, can be produced that are not harmonically related to the desired signal, directly relating to amplifier overload 87. Temperature type of distortion, per 10 degree F rise in temperature, there is attenuation increase of about 1 percent 88. Up-down converters heterodynes cable channels up to the IF value of 374-380 MHz in the UHF band, and converts IF signal down to the frequency of either channel 3 or 4 89. Set top boxes needed to decode or descramble TV signals, allow some subscribers to choose payper-view and other more expensive services 90. Decoder box decompresses the digital signal and restores it to a form that can be converted to a VHF channel 91. Wireless cable TV an economical alternative to standard wired cable TV service, transmits programs on microwave frequencies, relays programming to its subscribers by a super-highfrequency transmitter 92. Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS) another name for wireless cable TV C and Ku Satellite Systems 93. C band has uplink frequencies of 5.9-6.4 GHz and downlink at 3.6-4.2 GHz 94. Ku Band has uplink frequencies of 14-14.5 GHz and downlink at 11.7-12.2 GHz 95. Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) or Digital Satellite System (DSS) designed specifically to provide home viewing, use high frequencies and high-powered transponders 96. 18 inches diameter of dishes that viewers can install under DBS and DSS Cable Internet 97. Hybrid Fiber Coaxial (HFC) technology being developed by cable TV industry to provide twoway, high-speed data access to the home using a combination of fiber optics and traditional coaxial cable; infrastructure which consists of fiber optic cables from a cable TV operator or head end, through which data (internet) signal is delivered 98. Data over Cable Modem Service Interface Specifications (DOCSIS) standard followed by cable modem that communicates with the corresponding modem at the CMTS over CATV network 99. Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS) contains all modems that terminate connections from all subscribers cable modems Lesson 7 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 100. IPTV services a. Live television, with or without interactivity related to current TV show b. Time-shifted television: catch-up or start-over TV c. Video on demand (VOD): browse a catalog of videos, not related to TV programming

101. IPTV still an evolving technology, digital TV delivered using technologies used in computer network, TV like quality of service (always on, reliable), can be live or pre-recorded, usually over a managed network 102. Internet TV Digital TV delivered using technologies used for computer network, no guaranteed quality of service, usually delivered via open-internet/unmanaged network e.g. Youtube, BBC player 103. Managed networks have controlled quality of service, controls bandwidth allocation, contention ratio, and content 104. Open internet (unmanaged) little control over quality of service, has variable bandwidth, higher contention ratio (20:1), less control over content 105. Youtube, Metacafe, PC iPlayer, FreeSat examples of Open Internet 106. Virgin VOD, TV iPlayer, Tiscali TV, BT Vision, Orange TV, AT&T, Verizon examples of managed network 107. HTTP, RTSP, IGMP protocols of IPTV 108. Advantages of IPTV over Broadcast a. Two-way data flow (VOD) b. Greater personalization/tailored advertising c. Combined features voice over IP, messaging/recommendations, chat around content 109. HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol, an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems, the foundation of data communication for the world wide web 110. RSTP Real Time Streaming Protocol, a network control protocol designed for use in entertainment and communications systems to control streaming media servers 111. IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol, a communications protocol used by hosts and adjacent routers on IP networks to establish multicast group memberships 112. Video on Demand (VOD) user may select and watch video content usually over a network, either content is streamed or downloaded with/to the application 113. Push VOD delivered to set top box from broadcaster 114. Middleware set-top box software, allows us to write applications, affect capabilities a. MHEG (Freeview/Freesat) also called ISO/IEC 13522-5, a part of set of international standards relating to the presentation of multimedia information, standardized by the Multimedia and Hypermedia Experts Group (MHEG) b. Liberate (Virgin) c. HTML/JavaScript (KIT/Proprietary operators) d. Mediaroom (BT Vision) e. Microsoft Mediaroom latest update of the Microsoft TV IPTV Edition platform Software, the Smart TV platform from Microsoft that is intended for Interactive TV or IPTV 115. Codecs used for compression/decompressions, depending on file extension 116. H.264 type of codec, also called MPEG-4 Part 10 or AVC (Advanced Video Coding) is a standard for video compression and currently one of the most used formats for the recording, compression and distribution of HD video 117. MPEG-4 a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data 118. MPEG-2 widely used as the format of digital TV signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (overthe-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems 119. Windows Media Video (WMV) a video compression format for several proprietary codecs developed by Microsoft 120. H.264 a. Up to 50% in bit rate savings b. High quality video c. Error resilience d. Network friendliness 6