        Deeply emotional country, with strong traditions The 20th Century: Japanese occupation, the Korean War in 1950 and the division of the peninsula. In the 1960’s created miraculous economic growth to become a global economic power. Rapid change has had an impact, It's people are driven, patriotic and industrious. Embraced the modern age and technology, yet they retain a strong sense of national collectivism, family and nurturing their traditional roots. Modernity and globalization have created a new youth culture The potential threat of invasion from the North continues to be a key driver Korea was known as the ‘Hermit Kingdom’

The Korean Peninsula, located in Northeast Asia, is bordered on the north by China and Russia and juts toward Japan to the southeast. The northernmost point is Yup'ojin in Onsong-gun, Hamgyongbuk-do Province, and the southernmost point is Marado island, Cheju-do Province. The westernmost point of Maando island in Yongch'on-gun, Pyonganbuk-do Province, and the easternmost is Tokdo island in Ullung-gun, Kyongsangbukdo Province. The Korean Peninsula is 222,154 square kilometers, almost the same size as the UK or Romania. The administrative area of the Republic of Korea is 99,392 square kilometers, slightly larger than Hungary or Portugal and a little smaller than Iceland. The Republic of Korea is composed of nine provinces, with Seoul as the capital city. Other metropolitan cities include Pusan, Taegu, Inch'on, Kwangju, Taejon, and Ulsan. The landscape of the country is spectacular in its variations and about 70 percent of it is mountainous, with more than 3,000 islands dotting the coastline. There are several major rivers in the south, one of which is the Hangang river which cuts through Seoul.

According to the mythic origin story recounted in the Samguk Yusa, the Gojoseon (Old Joseon) was founded in northern Korea and Manchuria in 2333 BCE. The Gija Joseon was founded in 12th century BC, and its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. The Jin state was formed in southern Korea in the 3rd century BC. In the 2nd century BC, Gija Joseon was replaced by Wiman Joseon which fell to the Han dynasty of China near the end of the century. This resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and led to succeeding warring states, the Proto–Three Kingdoms period that spanned the later Iron Age. Since the 1st century, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla grew to control the peninsula and Manchuria as the Three Kingdoms (57 BC – 668 AD) until unification by Silla in 676. In 698, Dae Jo-yeong established Balhae in old territories of Goguryeo, which led to the North South States Period (698–926). In the late 9th century, Silla was divided into the Later Three Kingdoms (892–936), which ended with the unification by Wang Geon's Goryeo Dynasty. Meanwhile Balhae fell after an invasion by the Khitan Liao Dynasty and the refugees including the last Crown Prince emigrated to Goryeo. During the Goryeo period, laws were codified, a civil service system was introduced, and culture influenced by Buddhism flourished. In 1392, Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) after a coup in 1388. King Sejong the Great (1418– 1450) implemented numerous administrative, social, and economical reforms, established royal authority in the early years of the dynasty, and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet. From the late 16th century, the Joseon dynasty faced foreign invasions, internal power struggle and rebellions, and it declined rapidly in the late 19th century. In 1897, the Korean Empire (1897–1910) succeeded the Joseon Dynasty. However, Imperial Japan forced it to sign a protectorate treaty and in 1910 annexed the Korean Empire, though all treaties involved were later confirmed to be null and void.

vocational high school. The unresolved tensions of the division surfaced in the Korean War of 1950.3 years General High School. science high school.Korean resistance was manifested in the widespread nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919. the two nations officially remain at war because a peace treaty was never signed.6 years Middle school. pray. the democratic South Korea ("Republic of Korea") and communist North Korea ("Democratic People's Republic of Korea") divided at the 38th parallel. were largely active in neighboring Manchuria. therefore your grades are key . and meditate Buddhist Temples Buddhism culturally diffused from China in 527 BC and was adopted by the Shilla kingdom Several temples are built throughout Korea and differ based on the sect of Buddhism practiced. Some temples display prayer flags to remind people why they made a journey to the temple. Levels of Education Primary school. Both states were accepted into the United Nations in 1991. all people should be good citizens. Christianity About 18% of Koreans are Protestant consisting mostly of Presbyterian and Methodist. A great education means you will earn yourself a wonderful and rewarding job in which you can provide for your family and be an intricate part of the Korean economic boom.3 years High school. China and Siberia. Education is stressed in the home and many believe that Confucianism is the driving force behind this success driven society. Although there was a cease-fire in 1953. new governments were established. Thereafter the resistance movements. and overall people should do the right thing Education Koreans believe that education is the key to success. they have many morals mostly originating from Confucianism Buddhism Buddhism is a major religion or philosophy in Korea Several temples are dedicated to Buddha and serve as a place to worship. General Characteristics     Korea is very religiously diverse 23% of Koreans are Buddhist 29% are Christian Many Koreans do not officially have a religion however. coordinated by the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in exile. In 1948. introduced in 1784 About 11% of Koreans are Roman Catholic which historical was introduced by the French in 1784 Korea is the second largest Christian community in all of Asia Confucianism Confucianism serves as more of a philosophy or way of life rather than a religion in Korea Confucianism was most influential during the Choson Dynasty and continues to impact Korea today People are taught to respect their elders called filial piety and education is extremely important People are taught that everyone has responsibilities based on their age and/or gender. or specialized high school You must be accepted into a particular high school. After the liberation in 1945. the partition of Korea created the modern two states of North and South Korea.

from the time of the institution of civil service examinations in the mid-10th century until their abolition in 1894. when Hangul was invented. called idu. and. and finally in Hangul (Korean: han’gŭl. and Buddhism. In another system. that before the 20th century much of Korean literature was written in Chinese rather than in Korean. exploration. developed out of its contact with Western culture. The Korean upper classes were therefore bilingual in a special sense: they spoke Korean but wrote in Chinese. kugyŏl. following the course of modernization. even after the invention of Hangul. Key Facts Climate Koreans pride themselves in having ‘Four Seasons’ Summer is extremely humid (80-90%) with monsoon-type rains. on the other hand.during the Choson period. those written in Hangul. in which entire sentences in Korean could be written in Chinese. called hyangch’al. abridged versions of Chinese characters were used to denote grammatical elements and were inserted into texts during transcription. early literary activity was in Chinese characters. the national alphabet. expression. But the basis for such a division is still being questioned. Modern literature of Korea. Eventually. A more extended system of transcription. Confucianism. Korea has several occupations to choose from Many people choose to work for one of the three major companies. In general. and those written in Chinese. it was also influenced by Taoism. however. By the 7th century a system. Korea's classical literature developed against the backdrop of traditional folk beliefs of the Korean people.especially Song Confucianism . society affect your college opportunities. As a result. Buddhist influence held the greatest sway. it has had a writing system only since the mid-15th century. but also various artistic trends and influences were . Occupations As with any country. 22 – 30 degrees Winter is cold and dry with temperatures dropping to minus 10 degrees centigrade Best times of year for outdoor activities are Spring and Autumn. Although Korea has had its own language for several thousand years.Many Korean families push their children to achieve and want them to attend college and earn a degree Course grades in the five topics including health. certain Chinese characters were used for their phonetic value to represent Korean particles of speech and inflectional endings. then. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the traditional manner of Classical Chinese at least by the 4th century ce. Hyundai. language. followed shortly thereafter. The Character of Korean Literature Korean literature is usually divided chronologically into a classical and a modern period. Not only Christian thought. Among these. every educated Korean read the Confucian Classics and Chinese histories and literature. later in various transcription systems using Chinese characters. or Samsung Others become teachers and gain enormous respect All boys must serve in the military for two years and some men make this a career Literary Background Korean literature The body of works written by Koreans. had been devised that allowed Koreans to make rough transliterations of Chinese texts. Extant literary works indicate. literature written in Korea falls into three categories: works written in the early transcription systems. at first in Classical Chinese. Great reforms swept Korea after the mid-19th century as its society actively absorbed Western things. followed by enormous influences from Confucianism . LG. Hankul in the Yale romanization). A national academy was established shortly after the founding of the Unified Silla dynasty (668 – 935).

and 10-line poems. and literature written inHan-gul. It is difficult to make general determinations about the personalities of the Hyangga poets. with the most developed poetic structure. including Duk Ogok and Shin Chung. As soon as the linguistic duality of "Chinese" and "Native" within Korean life was overcome. formerly fused together in a kind of a song called ch'anggok. the Chinese writing system. Linguistic expression and manner of transmission are issues of utmost importance in the overall understanding of Korean literature. Compared with the literature written in Chinese which was dominated by the upper classes. the use of Chinese letters swiftly declined and the popularity of Korean letters greatly increased. Wol Myongsa. TheHyangga were recorded in the hyangch'al script. While Korea was importing Western culture via Japan or China. the Chemangmaega (Song of Offerings to a Deceased Sister) and Ch'an-gip'arangga (Song in Praise of Kip'arang) boast a superb epic technique. The 10-line poems reflect the emotions of the aristocrats and their religious consciousness. These warriors were the backbone of the Shilla aristocracy. lost the socio-cultural function it had previously enjoyed. The Korean script ( Han-gul) assumed its place of leading importance in Korean literature only during the latter half of the 19th century. 8-line. But in the Koryo and Choson cultures. Most of the 10-line poems were written by priests like Ch'ung Tamsa. and give fine . Korea's Classical Literature  Hyangga from the Shilla period The Hyangga poetry of the Shilla period signaled the beginning of a unique poetic form in Korean literature. Yung Ch'sonsa. This expanded the social base of Korean writers and readers alike. From among the Hyangga. Chinese letters were central to Koreans' daily lives. After the Enlightenment period. New paths opened up for the new literature. it was also carrying out literary reforms from within. The 10-line poems. Because Chinese characters are a Chinese invention. At the same time.a feature shared by most of East Asia during this period . These two aspects of Korean literature greatly differ from each other in terms of their literary forms and character. and 11 poems from that period are preserved in the Kyunyojon (Tales of Kyunyo). Korean literature extends over a broad territory: literature recorded in Chinese. As the "New Education" and the "National Language and Literature Movement" developed. are divided into three sections of 4-4-2.imported from the West. which had traditionally represented the culture of the dominant class. Sodong-yo (The Ballad of Sodong) is characterized by its simple naivet'e. resulting in the growth and development of Korean language and literature studies. The use of the Korean script began during the Choson period with the creation of the Korean alphabet (Hunmin Chong-um). literature in the Korean script became the foundation upon which the national literature developed. This poetic form was passed down to the Koryo Dynasty.they also contain experiences and thought patterns that express the unique way of life of the Korean people. there have been times in Korea's history when efforts were made to exclude literature written in Chinese from the parameters of what constitutes Korean literature. in which the Korean language was written using "sound" (um) and "meaning" (hun) of Chinese characters. we see a variety of formal characteristics: 4-line. With the advent of the "new novel" (shinsosol) came a surge in novels written in the Korean script. Han-gul was being used more and more frequently. Music and classical poetry. The creation of the Korean alphabet in the 15th century was a crucial turning point in Korea's literary history. But it is thought that the 4-line poems with their ballad-like attributes may indicate that the poets came from a broad range of backgrounds. Korean literature in Chinese was created when Chinese characters were brought to Korea. Yongjae and Kyunyo. the Korean script. were now viewed as separate endeavors. they were also composed by the Hwarang ("flower warriors"). We also cannot overlook the fact that the literary activity of the dominant class was conducted in Chinese. Fourteen poems in the Hyangga style from the Shilla period have been preserved in the Samguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms). Korean script made possible the broadening of the literary field to include women and commoners. While Chinese-centered ideas and values are contained in this literature . Observing the form of the extant poems. The 4 line poems have the character of folk ballads or nursery songs.

as in the eleven verses of Kyunyo's Pohyon shipchung wonwangga (Songs of the Ten Vows of Samantabhadra). After the turn of the 17th century. such as Yongbioch'bon-ga (Songs of Flying Dragons Through the Heavens) which celebrates the foundation of the Choson Dynasty(1392-1910). Song NeoConfucianism. and a large-scale readership was formed at that time. The bold. fictions like tale of Kumo shinhwa came to be even more actively produced. But because the songs were transmitted orally over a long period and recorded only after the beginning of the Choson period. and which is complete with musical notation and instrumentation. but it flourished to a greater extent under the Choson period's new leading ideology. Tongdong and Ssanghwajom (Twin Flower Shops). but the more representative Koryo kayo. the p'ansori is rooted in heightened musical expressiveness. The Koryo Kayo are characterized by increased length and a free and undisciplined form. As its contents were "fictionalized" it also made great contributions to the development of the classical fiction. the disappearance of Hyangga. These series of poems were written in forms that had not existed in previous ages.  The Classical Fiction The first appearance of the classical fiction in Korea include Kim Shi-sup's Kumo shinhwa (Tales of Kumo) which was written in Chinese characters and Ho Kyun's Hong Kil-tong chon (Tale of Hong Kil-tong) written in Han-gul.  The Koryo Kayo (Koryo Songs) The literature of the Koryo period is marked by an increased use of Chinese letters. direct nature of the songs make them distinctive. including Ch'nongsan pyolgok (Song of Green Mountain). a compilation in song of the life history of the Sakyamuni (Gautama Buddha). which appeared in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. and divided into anywhere from four to thirteen stanzas. King Sejong also wrote Worin Ch'on-gangjigok (Songs of the Moon Lighting the Rivers of the Earth). helps us to understand the historical function of the shijo. Shijo and Kasa The creation of the Korean alphabet in the early Choson period was one of the turning points in the history of Korean literature. The identities of most of the Koryo kayo authors are unknown. The songs were orally transmitted. the quality of . The transmission of the Hyangga literature of Shilla was continued until the early part of Koryo but. The shijo ("current tune") is representative of Choson period poetry. The fact that a majority of the shijo poets were well versed in Confucianism.expression to a sublime poetic spirit. these were mostly religious prayers with no secular or artistic flavor. They deal with the real world of humankind. extolling praise for the Buddha's grace. and that these poems of the late Koryo and early Choson periods for the most part dealt with the theme of loyalty. A performance art. Sogyong pyolgok (Song of the Western Capital [P'yongyang]). The new poetic form introduced by writers of the Koryo period was the Koryo kayo called pyolgok. only later in the Choson period were they recorded using the Korean script (Han-gul). In the 18th and 19th centuries. and the "extended form" (yonjangch'e) in which the work is separated into many stanzas. In the process of creating the Korean alphabet ( Han-gul) and investigating its practicality. are all written in the extended form. These were written by the Hall of Worthies (Chiphyonjon) scholars who served the court officials. there is a strong possibility that they have been partially altered. Chong Kwajonggok (The Song of Chong Kwajong) and Samogok (Song of Maternal Love) are examples of the short-stanza form. These examples are accordingly recognized as the most representative of Hyangga poetry. Its poetic form was established in the late Koryo period. This poetry has two forms: the "shortstanza form" (tallyonch'e) in which the entire work is structured into a single stanza. akchang (musical scores) were written in the Korean script. Especially popular was the p'ansori (story-in-song). and the emergence of Koryo kayo (Koryo songs) which continued to be transmitted as oral literature until the Choson period. They provided a great stimulus in the development of poetic literature.

Kumo shinhwa also shows aspects of the mysterious fiction (chongisosol) in that its contents are of a mysterious nature and distant from reality. The characters appearing in Kumo shinhwa embody the concept of chaejagain ("talented young man and beautiful woman"). but make use of human stereotypes of the period. Throughout these works. and is designated as the literature of the Enlightenment ( kaehwa kyemong) period. and Hungbujon (Tale of Hungbu) do not deal with superhuman characters. for example. Pak Chiwon's Hosaengjon (The Tale of Scholar Ho). and new textbooks for teaching Western knowledge were published. together with the fiction in Han-gul of the later Choson period. . such as Inhyon Wanghujon (Tale of Queen Inhyon) and Hanjungnok (Record of Leisurely Feelings). The literature of the Enlightenment Period secured its social base through newly emerged media like newspapers. In the late Choson period. thieves andkisaeng (female entertainers). Commercial publishing of literary works became possible with the introduction of new printing techniques and the emergence of publishing companies. Hojil (The Tiger's Roar) and Yi's Shimsaengjon (Tale of Scholar Shim). works with parable-like characteristics were published. Shimch'oongjon (Tale of Shimch'yong). Hong Kil-tong chon strongly opposes the ruling class' discrimination of children born of the union between a yangban and a concubine. After the Kabo Reforms of 1894. After the creation of the Korean alphabet. The change from traditional to modern literature during the Enlightenment period was largely due to the effects of the New Education and the Korean Language and Literature movement. Taehan minbo (The Korean People's Report) all published serial novels. new Western-style schools were established. In addition to these works.P'ansori fictions like Ch'unhyangjon (Tale of Ch'un-hyang). the writing style also combines refined classical language and the vigorous slang and witticisms of the common people.Mansebo (The Forever Report). But with the coming of the late Choson period. Cheguk Shinmun (Imperial Newspaper). It was at this time that a class of professional writers also began to form. we are given a broad picture of the social life of the late Choson period. Yangbanjon (A Yangban Tale). as well asshijo. the importation of new ideas from the West. beginning with Ho Kyun'sHong Kil-tong chon and including works like Kim Man-jung's Kuunmong (Dream of the Nine Clouds) and Sassi namjonggi(Record of Lady Sa's Southward Journey). an abundance of fictions were written in Han-gul. They are sharply critical of a manifold social problems and often ridicule various aspects of daily life. other Choson period fictions record the private affairs of the court. rather than coincidence. opened up new paths for fiction writing. a new brand of education was enforced. Most of these fictions center around casual relationships from real-life experience. authors like Pak Chi-won and Yi EOk wrote realistic fictions in Chinese. Along with these characteristics. The Modern Literature of Korea  The Literature of the Enlightenment Period Korean modern literature was formed against the background of the crumbling feudalistic society of the Choson Dynasty. This kind of fiction. Most newspapers. based on the orally transmitted art form. book rental business thrived with the advent of commercial publishing . It also employs to an extreme degree the style of aesthetic expression used in Chinese letters. and kasa. men of wealth.these classical fictions increased in variety as well as in quantity. In addition to being a mixture of verse and prose. It shows a high level of social concern and criticizes the absurd aspects of the everyday reality of the times. In the mid-Choson period. The first stage in the establishment of Korea's modern literature extends from the mid-19th century to the early 20th century. including the Tongnip Shinmun (The Independent). such as Im Je's Susongji (Record of Grief) and Yun Kyeson's Talch'on mongnyurok (Record of a Dream Adventure to Talch'on). Hwangsong Shinmun(The Imperial City Newspaper). and the new political reality of rising Japanese imperial power in East Asia. all depart from the orthodox conventions of classical Chinese literary studies and introduce a variety of characters such as merchants. Taehan maeil Shinbo (Korean Daily News). Also. the p'ansori fiction (p'ansori gye sosol) emerged.

Korea became embroiled in the political maneuvers of the World Powers. Ch'oe Ch'anshik's Ch'uwolsaek (The Color of the Autumn Moon) (1912) is also a well-known work. The shinsosol. This division in political thought also made a significant impact on the literary world. These novels portrayed Enlightenment ideals against the background of the realities of contemporary life. and the division into South and North became unavoidable. They contributed greatly to the formation of the modern chayushi (free verse poem). as well as an increased interest in concrete reality. . Receiving their influence from free verse poetry. were followed by Yi Haecho's Kumagom (The Demon-Ousting Sword) and Chayujong (The Freedom Bell). contributed toward establishing a broad base of support for artistic endeavors. and literary circles formed.  Literature of the Japanese Colonial Period Korea suffered a great deal under Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945). and Paekcho (White Tide) (1922). However. Postwar Korean society's emergence from the wounds and chaos of that war had a considerable impact on the development of Korean literature.In this period. together with its will to proceed with the Enlightenment ideals. achieved mass popularity. The authors also adopted a vernacular prose style that brought them closer to the form of the modern novel. The Korean War(1950-1953) was a tragic interim which solidified Korea's division into South and North. Literature of the Period of National Division After the liberation from the Japanese in 1945. Yi Injik's Hyoluinu(Tears of Blood) (1906) and Ensegye (The Silver World) (1908). the publication of national newspapers. Korea's spirit of self-reliance and independence. An Kuk-son's Kumsu hoeuirok (Notes From the Meeting of the Birds and Beasts) (1908) is the representative of this kind of work: it centers around the orations of animals who criticize the human world's moral depravity. thus making new genres possible in poems like Ch'oe Nam-son's Hae egeso sonyon ege (From the Sea to the Youth) (1908). 1908). the ch'angga (new type of song) and the shinch'eshi (new poetry) were hailed as the new poetic forms. the character of the shinsosol began to change. there were also many instances where the poetic voice was politicized. This period also saw the emergence of many biographical works based on enlightenment tastes. But despite the novelty of the new forms. no longer could find expression in its literature. Kkot tugo (Laying Down the Flowers) and T'aebaeksan shi (Poems of Mt. The biographies presented images of the kind of hero called for by the realities of the period. P'yeho (The Ruins) (1920). creative literary efforts also began to become more actively developed. Ch'oe Ch'an-shik and Kim Ko-je. Literary coterie magazines emerged. While a professional class of writers began to be formed by men like Yi In-jik. With the publication of magazines like Kaebyok (The Opening) (1920). the shinch'eshi abandoned the fixed meter of traditional poetry. Restrictions governing speech and publications were especially severe. in the wake of the Japanese takeover of Korea in 1910. and commonplace lovestruggles became more prominent. a sharp contrast to the lyric poetry of old. designed to cultivate patriotism and awaken the national consciousness. the literature of that period began to show an interest in themes of self-discovery and individual expression. as the factionalism and struggles began to occur between Southern and Northern literatures. which gave primary expression to individual sentiment and feeling. transcendental worlds of old are not found in their plots. Strengthened by feelings of national self-awakening which had been stirred up by the March First Independence Movement of 1919. In particular. 1907) and Elchi Mundok (Shin Ch'ae-ho. As a result. and the unrealistic. Yi Hae-cho. like the Dong-A Ilbo and the Chosun Ilbo. It was during this period that the Korean people began to exhibit a more positive attitude in coping with their national situation. a new literary form called the shinsosol (new novel) secured a popular readership base. Coercing the Korean government to conclude the Korean-Japanese Annexation Treaty. Aeguk puinjon (Tale of the Patriotic Lady) (Chang Ji-yon. Representative works include. The later works gave more weight to the fates of individual characters. It was in the shinsosol that "time reversal" was first applied as a structural technique. Japan then installed a Governor-General in Korea and enforced military rule. The Korean literature of the Japanese colonial period began with the March First Independence Movement of 1919. likeCh'angjo (Creation) (1919). all written in Han-gul. T'aebaeksan).

Also included in this genre is An Su-kil. In francophone countries. The centrality of individual sentiment and sensibility in the Chont'ongp'a. Among the postwar trends was the Chont'ongp'a (traditionalists). as the translations principally are being published by overseas publishers.For the most part. the scope of literary translation activities from Korean is limited compared to those in Englishspeaking countries. in particular. Kim Ch'a-yong and Yi Pong-rae. In addition to Pak Jae-sam. and another similar collection by Professor Holman. Hwang's novel Umjiginun song (The Moving Castle) was translated in the United States by Bruce Fulton. Pihl and Bruce Fulton. The Shaman Sorceress). and the quality of the translations themselves have improved steadily. The Korean novelists whose works have been most widely translated are Hwang Sun-won and Kim Tong-ri. Since then. Yi Tong-ju and Chong Han-mo were also significant contributors to this movement. Yi Ho-ch'iol'sNasang (The Nude Portrait) (1957) and Ch'oe Sang-gyu's P'oint'du (Point) (1956) describe people living their lives in a veritable pit of bleak reality. the types of works selected for translation have become increasingly diverse. Furthermore. whose novel Pukkando (1959) portrays the pioneering fortitude and steadfast spiritual power of Koreans who migrate to Manchuria. So chong-ju(Winter Sky) and Hwang Dong-gyu (Wind Berial) can also be found in English translation. Poetry selections by Han Yong-un (Your Silence). concentrated on changing the tradition. Another trend in postwar poetry was the Shilhomp'a (experientialists) who. Translations of poetry by individual authors include those of Han Yong-un and Gu Sang. Pak In-hwan. Chong Kwang-yong's Kkoppittan Li (Captain Lee) (1962) and Yi Bom-son's Obalt'an(A Bullet Misfired). when translations of Korean literary works began to appear in foreign countries. brought critical recognition and a satirical approach to social conditions through poetry. In addition. The search for a new poetic spirit and technique was also a significant feature of Korea's postwar poetry. Munyodo (The Portrait of the Shaman) have been translated and published. New York: M. includingCollected Short Stories by Hwang Sun-won translated by Edward Poitras. Important works by Kim Tong-ri such as Elhwa (Eulhwa. were central to this new postwar modernist movement. movement. but in these countries too. 1974). Anthologies of Korean modern short stories such as Flowers of Fire (Peter H. and Land of Exile (Marshall R. Pak Kyong-ri's Pulshin shidae (The Age of Mistrust) (1957). brought a broad. Kim Kyu-dong. the postwar novel in South Korea deals with the struggles of the Korean people to achieve deliverance from their national pain and anguish. 1993) are widely used as textbooks in universities all across the English-speaking world. The Translation of Korean Literature in Foreign Languages Korean literature was largely unknown to the world until the 1980s. while venturing to bring new experiences to poetic language and form. . the translations have became available to a wider reading public. many of the postwar generation writers took as their predominant theme the collapse of the traditional socio-moral value systems. Ku Ja-un. Pak Pong-u and Chon Pong-gon. Other Korean novels available in French are Cho Se-hui's Nanjangiga ssoa ollin chagun kong (La petite Balle Lancee par un Nain). Korean literature in English translation has spread widely in the English-speaking countries. deal squarely with the chaos and moral collapse of postwar society. Kim Kyong-rin. whose P'iri(Flute) and Ulum i t'anun kang (The Saddened River) was inspired by the world of traditional sentiment and folk feeling. as seen in Oh Sang-won's Moban (Revolt) (1957) and Son Ch'ang-sop's Injo in-gan (Artificial Man) (1958). University of Hawaii Press. have also been available in English. Yi Mun-yol has had their greatest overseas exposure through French translations. Other works. marked by a style rooted in traditional rhythms and folk sentiment. Lee.E. projects are actively underway.Sharpe. Translated works by Yi Mun-yol include Uridurui ilgurojin yongung (Notre Heros Defigure) and Shiin (Le Poete) . Such translation projects will continue in the future in an ongoing effort to introduce Korean literature to readers throughout the world. combined with the traditional rhythmic base. In particular. The writings of Kim Tong-ri and Hwang Sun-won are representatives of this new type of literature. as well as a coterie of writers called the Huban-gi (The Later Years). folkish sentiment into the realm of poetry. Since the 1980s.

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