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Overload Relay Class Time Delay American industry has standardized on Class 20 overload protection for motor control.

The Europeans have standardized on Class 10. Class 20 will give a nominal 590 second trip (9.83 minutes) at an overload of 125% of full load amps, a 29 second trip at a 500% overload, and a 20 second trip at a 600% overload. Thus, a motor that is stalled and drawing locked rotor amperage will be taken off line in 20 to 29 seconds. However, a motor that draws a continuous locked rotor current can be expected to burn out before 20 seconds. Class 10 will give a nominal 230 second trip (3.83 minutes) at 125% overload, 15 seconds at 500% overload, and 10 seconds at 600% overload. Class 30 has a longer time delay to be used on high inertia loads that require a long acceleration or have shock loading that causes repetitive motor inrush. The Model CRP series overload relays by Cerus Industrial are infinitely adjustable for Class 1 to 30 by setting the trip time from 0 to 30 seconds. The set time is the trip time at six times the set current. The digital, solid-state CDP series is adjustable for Class 1 through Class 60. The wide range of class adjustments with the Model CDP will allow the relay to be adjusted for the maximum protection of the motor. Thus, if a motor is normally up to running speed in six seconds then the overload relay may be adjusted for Class 1 with a nominal trip time of 12 seconds at 125% overload. A typical overload event is that of a motor bearing failure in which a bearing begins to seize the motor shaft but yet still allows the shaft to turn. This type of bearing failure causes a continuous drag on the motor rotor, causing a high motor current. If the bearing causes, for example, a 125% overload, the overload will be sustained for the 590 second delay of Class 20 or the 230 second delay of Class 10 and may end in winding burn out before the overload relay takes the motor off line. A lower Class protection will take the motor off line in less time. Model CDP relays will then give an indication that an over current condition took place rather than a phase loss or other fault. The bearing problem can then be detected and the bearings replaced before the motor burns out.

The CDP relay also has a bar graph which indicates load is approaching thermal limit. The graph indicates 60 to 110% limit which, if monitored regularly, can give a warning that a problem is developing. In addition, the CDP relay will give a digital readout of amperage on each of the three motor legs. Model CDP will sense a stalled or locked rotor condition and will shut down the motor independently of the Class time delay. The Stalled Rotor Protection will trip when load current is more than 180% of FLA for 5 seconds after start. The Locked Rotor Protection will trip when the motor draws locked rotor current for .5 second. Stalled or Locked Rotor detection is the only type of protection against load jam or bearing seizure that will allow a motor to be shut down with any possibility of preventing a winding burn out.

For large motor applications, Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) for sensing motor winding and bearing temperatures may also be used. A motor with RTDs will have two RTDs on each of the three windings plus one on each bearing. General Electric Model RRTD module will accept up to twelve RTDs.

Single-phasing Protection via Current Sensing The standard melting alloy or bimetallic heating element relays, such as the Cerus Industrial Model CTK, offer single-phasing protection by virtue of the remaining two motor legs drawing more current to compensate for the lost leg. The relay will then sense the increased heat that is generated by the current and see an overload. Shut down of the motor, however, will be subject to the time delay that is inherent within the heating element type relays. Many electronic single phasing protectors are voltage sensitive. The inherent problem that arises is that a three phase motor that looses one phase will begin to act like a transformer. The unpowered winding then generates an output voltage that is sensed by the protective relay. As a result, the relay, if not adjusted properly to the characteristics of the specific motor, may not sense a loss of power and the motor will continue to operate rather than be taken off line. The only positive solution is a relay that senses motor current. When current in any motor leg ceases, the relay will shut down the motor in three seconds without being affected by either thermal time delay or motor transformer action. Cerus solid state overload relays Models CRP and CDP are current sensing relays. For high amperage motors, use Models CRP22-3S or CDP06-S. Set the current trip for 5 amps and use three current transformers which have 5 amp secondaries. Fault Indication, Electronic Relays, and Inductive Spikes The Model CRP solid state relays require a power supply of 100 to 260 VAC, 50/60 Hz, and the Model CDP requires either 110 VAC nominal or 190 to 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz. There are current sensing overload relays on the market which are assembled to the motor contactor so as to have the internal electronics powered by the same power that feeds the motor. Those relays are then subjected to the continuous inductive spikes that are generated by electric motors. Without sufficient internal transient suppression, the relays could fail after a period of time due to the electronic components being degraded by the repetitive motor generated transients. An advantage of using a control transformer input with the Models CRP and CDP is that it will provide isolation which will protect against external transients that would enter the power input of the relay. If the 240 VAC used on the CRP or CDP is taken from the motor power source, then the relays will be subjected to the motor transients. Although suppression is built within the relay, an external suppressor

is available for extra protection and can be wired in parallel with the input terminals of the relay. Use Cerus suppressor Part Number AS-3. Voltage Sag Protection The input power requirement of the CRP relay is a range from 100 to 260 VAC. If a 240 VAC power input is used, it will have the added advantage of voltage sag ride-through. The line which supplies the 240 volts could drop to 100 volts, a 58% sag, and the relay will continue to operate without shutting down the motor. If the sag affects both the motor and relay, the motor will be shut down by the relay and the relay will then give an indication of a phase imbalance or other appropriate fault. Additional Options The model CDP has available a ground fault sensing option and also a kit to mount the display in a panel door.

Advantages of a Comprehensive Motor Protection A motor winding has a generally accepted life expectancy of 18 years * when operated at rated internal temperatures. However, bearings often fail before the winding. Thus the objective of providing a quick response with motor overload protection is to have the benefit of the maximum lifetime of the motor winding. Consider the case of the bearing failure in which the bearing places a drag on the motor shaft, as was mentioned above. If the failure is detected by an overload Class less than Class 10 or by RTD sensors that are imbedded within the motor, then that early detection will allow the motor to be taken out of service for perhaps a one day bearing replacement rather than a three or four day period for rewind and repair of mechanical damage caused by bearing collapse. Enhanced motor protection will therefore not only lower motor rewinding and repair costs but will also lower over-all down time and yield an increase in production. Overload Relays often should not be used on the output of a variable frequency drive as nuisance tripping will result under 30 HZ. When using Current Transformers as noted in the relay descriptions, use standard units with 5 amp output. Prices of current transformers are available upon request.