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Mohr's circle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mohr's circle , named after Christian Otto Mohr, is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the state of stress at a point. The abscissa, , and ordinate, , of each point on the circle's circumference are the normal stress and shear stress components, respectively, acting on a particular cut plane (of the object being analyzed) with a unit vector with components . In other words, the circumference of the circle is the locus of points that represent the state of stress on individual planes at all their orientations, where the axes represent the principal axes of the stress element. Karl Culmann was the first to conceive a graphical representation for stresses while considering longitudinal and vertical stresses in horizontal beams during bending. Mohr's contribution extended the use of this representation for both two- and three-dimensional stresses and developed a failure criterion based on the stress circle. There is also a similar Mohr's circle for strain where x-axis depicts strain and the y-axis represents half of shear strain which can be found out by Generalised Hooke's Law.
Figure 1. Mohr's circles for a three-dimensional state of stress
Other graphical methods for the representation of the stress state at a point include the Lame's stress ellipsoid and Cauchy's stress quadric.
1 Motivation for the Mohr's Circle 1.1 Stress transformation in two-dimensions (plane stress and plane strain) 2 Mohr's circle for two-dimensional stress states 2.1 Drawing a Mohr's circle 2.2 Stress components on an arbitrary plane 3 Mohr's circle for a general three-dimensional state of stresses 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links
Motivation for the Mohr's Circle
When a physical deformable object, assumed as a continuum, is acted upon by external forces, either surface forces or body forces, internal reactive forces are produced between its particles. This reaction follows from Euler's laws of motion for a continuum, which are the equivalent to Newton's laws of motion for a particle. A measure of the intensity of these internal forces is called stress. Because the object is assumed as a continuum, these internal forces are distributed continuously within the volume of the object. It is of interest for engineering, e.g., structural, mechanical, or geotechnical engineering, to perform a stress analysis to determine the stress distribution within objects, i.e. stresses in a rock mass around a tunnel, airplane wings, or building columns. Calculating the stress distribution implies the determination of stresses at every point (material particle) in the object. According to Cauchy, the stress at any point in an object (Figure 2), assumed as a continuum, is completely defined by obtaining the nine components of a second order tensor of type (2,0) known as the Cauchy stress tensor, :
or plane strain. To achieve this. https://en. A graphical representation of this transformation law for the Cauchy stress tensor is the Mohr's circle for stress. For example. the Cauchy stress tensor obeys the tensor transformation law.wikipedia. as well as the orientation of the planes where they act upon. consider a point in a two dimensional object under a state of plane stress. Stress transformation in two-dimensions (plane stress and plane strain) To understand where the equation of Mohr's circle comes from. the normal stress and the shear stress on any plane perpendicular to the .e. are given by: Figure 3 .plane passing through with a unit vector making an angle of with the horizontal. Knowing the stress components on any two perpendicular directions at . with an associated stress tensor with known components and all other stress components equal to zero (Figure 3): Figure 2 Stress in a loaded deformable material body assumed as a continuum. It is important to remember that we are considering a unit area of the infinitesimal element in the direction parallel to the .. it is of interest to find the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress. i. it is necessary to perform a tensor transformation under a change in the system of coordinates.e. i. it is sometimes necessary to calculate the components of the stress tensor at a point with respect to a different coordinate system.6/26/13 Mohr's circle . the objective is to find the stress components and on any other plane passing through that point as a function of the angle between that plane and the original coordinate systems. is the direction cosine in the direction. the free encyclopedia After the stress distribution has been determined within the object.Stress transformation at a point in a continuum under plane stress conditions. From the definition of tensor.plane. the stresses on a plane with a different orientation passing through that point of interest —forming an angle with the coordinate system (Figure 3). From equilibrium of forces on an infinitesimal material element at (Figure 4). with respect to a coordinate system.org/wiki/Mohr%27s_circle 2/10 .Wikipedia.
org/wiki/Mohr%27s_circle ( -axis) (Figure 4). we have: https://en. knowing that we obtain Now. and knowing that the area of the plane where is .6/26/13 Mohr's circle . from equilibrium of forces in the direction of acts is .Equilibrium of forces From equilibrium of forces in the direction of ( -axis) (Figure 4).wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Figure 4 .Wikipedia. Derivation of Mohr's circle parametric equations . we have: acts However.Stress components at a plane passing through a point in a continuum under plane stress conditions. and knowing that the area of the plane where 3/10 .
knowing that we obtain However.Tensor transformation The stress tensor transformation law can be stated as Expanding the right hand side. knowing that we obtain https://en. Derivation of Mohr's circle parametric equations . and knowing that and .wikipedia. the free encyclopedia However. which is equivalent to performing the static equilibrium of forces in the direction of and .6/26/13 Mohr's circle .Wikipedia. we have: However. knowing that we obtain Both equations can also be obtained by applying the tensor transformation law on the known Cauchy stress tensor.org/wiki/Mohr%27s_circle 4/10 .
i. We then connect points and by a straight line and find the midpoint which corresponds to the intersection of this line with the axis. This means that by choosing a coordinate system with abscissa and ordinate . and shear stresses are positive if they rotate clockwise about the point in consideration. The following The reason for the above sign convention is that. and (Figure 5 and 2). the free encyclopedia It is not necessary at this moment to calculate the stress component acting on the plane perpendicular to the plane of action of as it is not required for deriving the equation for the Mohr circle.wikipedia. These two equations are the parametric equations of the Mohr circle. Tensile stresses (positive) are to the right.e. Eliminating the parameter from these parametric equations will yield the non-parametric equation of the Mohr circle. soil mechanics and rock mechanics. the normal stresses are positive if they are outward to the plane of action (tension).6/26/13 Mohr's circle . Clockwise shear stresses are plotted upward. i. first transposing the first term in the first equation and squaring both sides of each of the equations then adding them. 3. and shear stresses are positive if they rotate counterclockwise about the point in consideration. This can be achieved by rearranging the equations for and . however. Finally. Compressive stresses (negative) are to the left. first we plot two points in the space corresponding to the known stress components on both perpendicular planes. The radius of the circle is .org/wiki/Mohr%27s_circle 5/10 . we draw a circle with diameter and centre at . https://en. and the shear stress . in engineering mechanics. giving values to the parameter will place the points obtained lying on a circle. To construct the Mohr circle of stress for a state of plane stress. normal stresses are considered positive when they are inward to the plane of action (compression). The principal stresses are then the abscissa of the points of intersection of the circle with the zero for the principal stresses). 4. axis (note that the shear stresses are Drawing a Mohr's circle The following procedure is used to draw a Mohr's circle and to find the magnitude and direction of maximum stresses from it. 2. In geomechanics. .Wikipedia. and the coordinates of its centre are . Counterclockwise shear stresses are plotted downward.e. Thus we have where This is the equation of a circle (the Mohr circle) of the form with radius centered at a point with coordinates in the coordinate system. or plane strain. . Mohr's circle for two-dimensional stress states A two-dimensional Mohr's circle can be constructed if we know the normal stresses sign conventions are usually used: 1.
The angle is found by: . Mohr's circle for plane stress and plane strain conditions (double angle approach). This point gives the average normal stress (σavg ). the normal stress element at an angle and the maximum shear stress element at an angle of . the free encyclopedia First.org/wiki/Mohr%27s_circle 6/10 . can be used to find the components of the stress tensor for any other https://en. . The line connecting these two points is a diameter of the Mohr's circle. implicitly. Next we examine the points where the circle intersects the line parallel to -axis passing through the center of the circle. ) and A ( . Often. To find the angle that the direction that the plane of maximum shear stress makes with the -axis. intersects the σ-axis. The average normal stress can be read directly from a plot of the Mohr's circle. the principal stresses. once drawn.and -axes of a Cartesian coordinate system are identified as the -axis and -axis. C and E. it can be calculated using . Let the angle between the -axis and the -axis be .wikipedia. The magnitudes of extreme values are equal to the radius of the Mohr's circle. If is the angle between the maximum normal stress and the -axis. and are known. The Mohr's circle intersects the axis at two points. then it can be shown that = 2 . O. The vertical diameter of the circle passes through O (σavg ) and goes up to positive and down to negative . The Mohr circle. AB. The next value to determine is the angle that the plane of maximum normal stress makes with the -axis. The previous discussion assumes. The equations for finding these values are Figure 5. It is also implicit that these stresses are known at a point in a continuum body under plane stress or plane strain. These are the points B ( . the . two points of the Mohr's circle are plotted. Alternatively. respectively. The point represents the maximum normal stress (σmax) and the point is the minimum normal stress (σmin ). we use the relation . Let us create a new -axis by drawing a line from the center of the Mohr circle. ). The center of the Mohr's circle.6/26/13 Mohr's circle . Next. but with different signs. is located where the diameter.Wikipedia. O. through point A. that there are two orthogonal directions and that define a plane in which the stress components . O. The stresses at these two end points of the horizontal diameter are and . It is important to pay attention to the use of these two equations as they look similar. The equation to find these extreme values of the shear stress is . the final step of the process is to also draw a square stress element indicating the orientations of the maximum normal and shear stresses.
. coordinate system. for a given plane with unit vector . satisfy the Knowing that .Wikipedia. if we choose otherwise. Therefore. .org/wiki/Mohr%27s_circle 7/10 . then the normal and shear components of the stress vector following equations . two approaches can be used: The first approach relies on the fact that the angle between two planes passing through is half the angle between the lines joining their corresponding stress points on the Mohr circle and the centre of the circle (Figure 5). Stress components on an arbitrary plane Using the Mohr circle one can find the stress components on any other plane with a different orientation that passes through point . In other words.wikipedia. state of stress on a plane inclined at the same orientation (parallel) in space as that line. The normal and shear stresses on that plane are then the coordinates of the point of intersection between the line and the Mohr circle. . and assuming that . as shown on Figure 6. The intersection of any of these two lines with the Mohr circle is the pole. or in other words a plane having its normal vector forming an angle with the horizontal plane. Once the pole has been determined.6/26/13 Mohr's circle . knowing the stress components and on any particular plane. a line from point parallel to the plane of action of . we can draw a line from point parallel to the plane of action of . Considering the principal axes as the coordinate system. we can solve for . one can draw a line parallel to that plane through the particular coordinates and on the Mohr circle and find the pole as the intersection of such line with the Mohr circle. Mohr's circle for a general three-dimensional state of stresses To construct the Mohr's circle for a general three-dimensional case of stresses at a point. then we can draw a line from the pole parallel to that plane (See Figure 6). . the free encyclopedia choice of orthogonal directions in the plane. Any straight line drawn from the pole will intersect of planes. the values of the principal stresses and their principal directions must be first evaluated. First. For this. instead of the general . to find the state of stress on a plane making an angle with the vertical. using the Gauss elimination method which yields https://en. the stresses acting on a plane at an angle counterclockwise to the plane on which acts is determined by traveling counterclockwise around the circle from the known stress point a distance subtending an angle at the centre of the circle (Figure 5). Mohr's circle for plane stress and plane strain conditions point on the Mohr circle called the pole or the origin (Pole approach). As an example. or. let's assume we have a state of stress with stress components . and . Any straight line drawn from the pole will the Mohr circle at a point that represents the state of stress on a plane intersect the Mohr circle at a point that represents the inclined at the same orientation (parallel) in space as that line. The second approach involves the determination of a Figure 6.
Wikipedia. stress points satisfying the equation for circle lie on.wikipedia. and is non-negative. . with radii . the free encyclopedia Since . or outside circle . or inside circle . These equations for the Mohr's circles show that all admissible stress points lie on these circles or within the shaded area enclosed by them (see Figure 7). . and .6/26/13 Mohr's circle . Mohr's circle for a three-dimensional state of stress which are the equations of the three Mohr's circles for stress . And finally. and their centres with coordinates . Stress points satisfying the equation for circle lie on. .org/wiki/Mohr%27s_circle 8/10 . respectively. References https://en. Stress points satisfying the equation for circle lie on. and . or outside circle . . the numerators from the these equations satisfy as the denominator as the denominator as the and and denominator and These expressions can be rewritten as Figure 7.
ca/books? id=u_rec9uQnLcC&lpg=PP1&dq=mohr%20circles%2C%20sterss%20paths%20and%20geotechnics&pg=PA1#v=onepag e&q=&f=false) (2 ed. ISBN 0-415-27297-1. ISBN 0-632-05759-9. ISBN 0521-49827-9.org/w/index. structural engineering. Timoshenko. Kluwer Academic Publisher.).edu/~brannon/public/Mohrs_Circle.G.google.doitpoms. Theory of Elasticity (Third ed. 17–29. Kovacs. (1983). 4. 1–30. T.). Fundamentals of rock mechanics (http://books. ^ The sign convention differ in disciplines such as mechanical engineering. ISBN 0-13-484394-0.com/TAA-Mohr-s-Circle-2D/3000-2054_4-75855210.G. Timoshenko. Brady. Parry.ca/books? id=4Z11rZaUn1UC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA16#v=onepage&q=&f=false).. Rock Mechanics For Underground Mining (http://books.W. A. https://en. additional terms may apply.uk/tlplib/metalforming-1/index.W. John T. E.utah. pp. Prentice-Hall.8 Bibliography Beer. and geomechanics. (1996). Fourth Edition. Mechanics of Materials.ca/books?id=NPZRAAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s). Taylor & Francis.google. James Norman Goodier (1970). John Conrad.). Jaeger.ca/books? id=yYkYAQAAIAAJ&dq=inauthor:%22William+D. Stephen P.cnet. Alfreds R. By using this site. & Zimmerman.php?title=Mohr%27s_circle&oldid=561454961" Categories: Classical mechanics Materials science Elasticity (physics) Solid mechanics Mechanics This page was last modified on 25 June 2013 at 03:35. B. 16–26. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.ac. Wiley-Blackwell.google..org/wiki/Mohr%27s_circle 9/10 ..Wikipedia.php) Online Mohr's Circle Calculator (http://www. ISBN 0-486-61187-6..com/books?id=FqADDkunVNAC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA10#v=onepage&q=&f=false) (Fourth ed.mech. Selvadurai. Prentice-Hall civil engineering and engineering mechanics series. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.wikipedia. Stephen P."Stress Analysis and Mohr's Circle" (http://www. McGraw-Hill Professional. ^ Chen 3. Cook.1) Free Downloadable Mohr's Circle Desktop Application Retrieved from "http://en.ca/books? id=s0BaKxL11KsC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA18#v=onepage&q=&f=false) (Third ed.).google. McGraw-Hill International Editions.wikipedia. Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students.php?CalcName=Mohrs) Online Mohr's Circle Calculator TAA_Mohrs_Circle_2D (http://download. ISBN 0-442-04199-3. Brown (1993).pdf) DoITPoMS Teaching and Learning Package.H. Jumikis. 2007. Cambridge University Press. (2007). History of strength of materials: with a brief account of the history of theory of elasticity and theory of structures.G.html?tag=mncol. R. Dover Publications. ^ a b Parry 2. pp. ISBN 0-07-085805-5. DeWolf (1992).google.H. pp.6/26/13 Mohr's circle . the free encyclopedia 1. Robert D. Elwood Russell Johnston. stress paths and geotechnics (http://books. Theoretical soil mechanics: with practical applications to soil mechanics and foundation engineering (http://books. Dover Books on Physics. S.novanumeric. Ferdinand Pierre. P. Elasticity and geomechanics (http://books. The engineering mechanics sign convention is used in this article. R. 9–41.. ^ Brady 7. William D. External links Mohr's Circle and more circles by Rebecca Brannon (http://www. N. ^ Jumikis 5.google. ^ Megson. Holtz. ISBN 0-07-112939-1.+Kovacs%22&ei=kF-MS5LRKpfCM9vEhIYN&cd=1). (1969). Mohr circles. (1981).com/samples.T. An introduction to geotechnical engineering (http://books. pp. O. ^ Holtz 6. Richard Hawley Grey (2004). ISBN 0-412-47550-2. section 1. Davis.
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