Wahhabism (Arabic: ‫ﻭﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬, Wahhābiyyah) is an ultra-conservative [1] branch of Sunni Islam.[2][3] It is a religious movement among fundamentalist Islamic believers, with an aspiration to return to the primordial fundamental Islamic sources Quran, Hadith and scholarly consensus (Ijma).[4] Wahhabism was a popular revivalist movement instigated by an eighteenth century theologian, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792) from Najd, Saudi Arabia. He began his movement through peaceful discussions with attendees of various shrines[5] and eventually gained popular support by convincing the local Amir, Uthman ibn Mu'ammar, to help him in his struggle.[6] Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab advocated a popular purging of the widespread practices by Muslims being what he considered to be impurities and innovations in Islam. It is claimed that this was carried out by some of his more extreme followers by the killing of innocent Sunni Muslims however this is fiercely debated.[7] His has become the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia.[8] The movement claims to adhere to the correct understanding of the general Islamic doctrine of Tawhid, on the "uniqueness" and "unity" of God, shared by the majority of Islamic sects, but with an emphasis on advocating following of the Athari school of thought only.[9] Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab was influenced by the writings of Ibn Taymiyya and questioned the prevalent philosophical interpretations of Islam being the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools, claiming to rely on the Qur'an and the Hadith without speculative philosophy so as to not transgress beyond the limits of the early Muslims known as the Salaf.[9] He attacked a "perceived moral decline and political weakness" in the Arabian Peninsula and condemned what he perceived as idolatry, the popular cult of saints, and shrine and tomb visitation.[9] The terms Wahhabi and Salafi and ahl al-hadith (people of hadith) are often used interchangeably, but Wahhabism has also been called "a particular orientation within Salafism",[3] an orientation considered ultra-conservative and apolitical.[10][11] The movement gained unchallenged precedence in the Arabian peninsula through an alliance between Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and the House of Muhammad ibn Saud who provided political and financial power for the religious revival represented by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. The writer El Khabar Ousbouî suggests the popularity of the Wahhabi movement is in part due to this alliance and the funding of several religious channels.[12]

Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi
Zain Imran's teacher Abdallah ibn Ibrahim ibn Sayf introduced the relatively young man to Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi in Medina and recommended him as a student. Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab and al-Sindi became very close and Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab stayed with him for some time. Scholars have described Muhammad Hayya as having an important influence on Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, encouraging him to denounce rigid imitation of classical commentaries and to utilize informed individual analysis (ijtihad). Muhammad Hayya also taught Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab to reject popular religious practices associated with walis and their tombs that resembles later Wahhabi teachings. Muhammad Hayya and his milieu are important for understanding the origins of at least the Wahhabi revivalist impulse.[13]

The most important of these commentaries are those by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab in particular his book Kitab al-Tawhid. The third is belief and affirmation of Allah's Names and Attributes.[14][15] He is reported to have studied in Mecca and Medina while there to perform Hajj[16][17] before returning to his home town of 'Uyayna in 1740.Wahhabi 2 Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab Mohammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab studied in Basra (now in southern Iraq) and is reported to have developed his ideas there. safeguarding the region from colonial interference and Saudi Arabia was founded as a nation state upholding the tenets of Islam as preached by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab further explains that Muhammad during his lifetime tried his utmost to identify and repudiate all actions that violated these principles. ibn Abd-al-Wahhab began to implement some of his ideas such as leveling the grave of Zayd ibn al-Khattab. before being attacked and defeated by Ottoman forces. which draws directly on material from the Quran and the narrations of the Prophet. the chief of Al-Hasa and Qatif.[21] Beliefs The Wahhabi subscribe to the primary doctrine of the uniqueness and unity of God (Tawhid).[18] Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab was invited to settle in neighboring Diriyah by its ruler Muhammad ibn Saud in 1740 (1157 AH). Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was a follower of Ahmad ibn Hanbal's school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) like most in Nejd at the time. that worship in Islam includes conventional acts of worship such as the five daily prayers. a pact was made between Ibn Saud and Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab. and the works of Ibn Taymiyyah. Uthman ibn Mu'ammar.[9][22] The first aspect being belief in Allah and His Lordship that He alone is the believer's lord or Rabb. Alliance with the House of Ibn Saud Beginning in the last years of the 18th century Ibn Saud and his heirs would spend the next 140 years mounting various military campaigns to seize control of Arabia and its outlying regions. who held substantial influence in Nejd and ibn Abd-al-Wahhab was expelled from 'Uyayna. but "was opposed to any of the schools (Madh'hab) being taken as an . but are not considered independently authoritative. and ordering that an adulteress be stoned to death. a state religious police unit. including the ruler of the town. Upon arriving in Diriyya. fasting. The second being that once one affirms the oneness of worship to Allah and Allah alone. to enforce religiously conservative rules of behaviour. Dua (supplication). one of the Sahaba (companions) of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad. After his return to 'Uyayna. Therefore.[23] Ibn Abd al-Wahhab further explains in his book Kitab al-Tawhid. Commentaries and "the examples of the early Muslim community (Ummah) and the four Rightly Guided Caliphs (AD 632–661)" known as Athar narrations are used to support these texts. making du'a or calling upon anyone or anything other than God.[20] The Saudi government established the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice. by which Ibn Saud pledged to implement and enforce Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab's teachings.[19] However they eventually seized control of Hijaz and the Arabian peninsula after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. ibn Abd-al-Wahhab began to attract followers. Istia'dha (seeking protection or refuge). and Istigatha to Allah (seeking benefits and calling upon Allah alone). These actions were disapproved of by Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Ghurayr of the tribe of Bani Khalid. two of whose brothers had been students of Ibn Abdal-Wahhab. With Ibn Mu'ammar's support. Ist'ana (seeking help). or seeking supernatural help and protection that is only befitting of a divine being from something other than Allah alone are acts of "shirk" and contradict the tenets of Tawhid. while Ibn Saud and his family would remain the temporal "leaders" of the movement. Wahhabi theology is very precise in its creed or Aqeedah where the Quran and Hadith are the only fundamental and authoritative texts taken with the understanding of the Salaf. hence the name of the school of theology given as Athari.

qiyas. through taqlid of the established Ottoman clergy at the time. a discovered historical early ijma (scholarly consensus from the early Muslims) or a suitable analogy. However Ibn Abd al-Wahhab did not totally condemn taqlid.. unspecified and uncontradicted by what is stronger than it.. and we do not show rejection to the one who made taqleed of one of the four Imaams as opposed to those besides them. When arguing for his positions. . being intellectual pursuit of scholarly work clarifying opinions in the face of new evidence being a newly proven sound or sahih hadeeth. at a scholarly level... there is no contradiction between (this and) not making the claim of independent ijtihaad. clear text which opposes the madhhab of one of the four Imaams and it is a matter through which an open and apparent symbol . based on historical records. opposed the madhhab (in those matters). leading him to deprecate the importance and full authority of leaders at the time. or blind adherence. only at scholarly level in the face of a clear evidence or proof from a hadeeth or Qur'anic text." . nor do we find fault with him except when we come across a plain.[31] "And also we are upon the madhhab of Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal in the matters of jurisprudence.Wahhabi absolute and unquestioned authority". such as the scholars and mufti's of the age. in contrast to the witnessed saturation of Islamic jurisprudence that no longer considered ijtihad to be a viable alternative to total scholarly taqlid.. And we do not deserve the status of absolute ijtihaad and there is none amongst us who lays claim to it. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was dedicated to champion these principles and combat what was seen as the stagnation of Islamic scholarship which the majority of Muslims had seemingly fully adhered to without question. clear text from the Book. we take it and we leave our madhhab.... or a Sunnah unabrogated. in opposition to established clergy of the era. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab would use translations and interpretation of the verses (known as ayat in Arabic) of the Qur'an that were contrary to the consensus amongst the scholars of the age. Thus. when a plain. because a group from the scholars from the four madhhabs are preceded choosing certain preferred opinions in certain matters.[24] Although Wahhabis are associated with the Hanbali school.[27][28][29] However the Wahhabi movement saw itself as championing the re-opening of ijtihad. . This methodology was considered extremely controversial at the time. however documentation of a letter correspondence by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab recorded by his son Abdallah refutes this accusation. and positions against which there had been consensus for centuries. whilst making taqleed of the founders of the madhhab (in general). except that in some of the issues (of jurisprudence)... who. And we do not investigate (scrutinize) anyone in his madhhab.[25] 3 Condemnation of "Priests" and other religious leaders Wahhabism denounces the practice of total blind adherence to the interpretations of scholars.[30] Fiqh A popular misconception associated with the movement of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab is the condemnation of the legal schools of jurisprudence.[26] His idea was that what he perceived to be blind deference to religious authority obstructs this direct connection with the Qur'an and Sunnah. early disputes did not center on fiqh and the belief that Wahhabism was borne of Hanbali thought has been called a "myth". being total submission to previous scholarly opinion regardless of unquestionable proof that contradicts this. and of practices passed on within the family or tribe. and by which one of the four Imaams have spoken. and was refuted as being erroneous by a number of scholars.

" [Taa-Haa: 5] said: "Al-istiwaa' is known. This was upheld by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in his various works on theology. He contends that the methodology of the Salaf is to take the middle path between the extremes of anthropomorphism and negation/distortion.[38][39] Criticism and controversy Naming controversy: Wahhabism and Salafism Ibn Abd-Al-Wahab's aversion to the elevation of scholars and other individuals helps explain the preference of so-called "Wahhabis" for the term "Salafi".[32] ".. and therefore answerable to no school of law at all. He further states that salaf affirmed all the Names and Attributes of God without tashbih (establishing likeness). when asked about al-istiwaa' in His Saying (ta'aalaa): "Ar-Rahmaan rose over the Throne." [33][34] However some modern day adherents to wahhabism consider themselves to be 'non-imitators' or 'not attached to tradition'. … The Salafi movement itself. the "how" of it is unknown. being the first three generations otherwise known as the Salaf. while believing in their realities.[40] he wrote: Opponents of Salafism frequently affix the "Wahhabi" designator to denote foreign influence. . however. It is intended to signify followers of Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab and is most frequently used in countries where Salafis are a small minority of the Muslim community. and thus they can be said to be of his 'school' however only a scholar would be capable of this level of ijtihad and most Salafi scholars warn against this for the uneducated laymen. takyeef (speculating as to "how" they are manifested in the divine). whose founder they followed.[35][36] 4 Theology Adherents to the Wahhabi movement take their theological viewpoint with an aspiration to assimilate with the beliefs of the early Muslims. never uses this term. ta'teel (negating/denying their apparent meaning) and without ta'weel (giving it secondary/symbolic meaning which is different from the apparent meaning). and we leave their true meanings. and resort to allegorical/metaphorical interpretations of the Divine Names and Attributes. but have made recent inroads in "converting" the local population to the movement ideology. For Maalik. and even then usage is limited and often appears as "Salafi/Wahhabi").[37] "And it is that we accept the aayaat and ahaadeeth of the Attributes upon their apparent meanings. observing instead what they would call the practice of early Islam. one would be hard pressed to find individuals who refer to themselves as Wahhabis or organizations that use "Wahhabi" in their title or refer to their ideology in this manner (unless they are speaking to a Western audience that is unfamiliar with Islamic terminology. and this is not contradictory to the lack of the claim to ijtihaad. In fact." " [33][34] Some criticism accuses this school as being anthropomorphic however Ibn Taymiyyah in his monumental work Al-Aqidah Al-Waasitiyyah refutes the stance of the Mushabbihah (those who liken the creation with God: anthropomorphism) and those who deny. and asking about it is bid'ah. negate. Among those who criticize the use of the term "Wahhabi" is social scientist Quintan Wiktorowicz. This theology was taken from exegesis of the Quran and statements of the early Muslims and later codified by a number of scholars. into what is now known as the Athari theological creed. However.. the most well known being the 13th century Syrian scholar Ibn Taymiyyah. In a footnote of his report. to Allaah ta'aalaa.Wahhabi This was seen as a revival of the tradition recorded whereby the early students of the scholars of the Madh'habs would leave their teacher's position in light of a newly found evidence once the hadeeth had been collected. For it has been that a group of the imaams of the four madhaahib had their own particular views regarding certain matters that were in opposition to their madhhab. one of the greatest of the 'ulamaa' of the Salaf. Anatomy of the Salafi Movement. believing in it is waajib. to do so does correspond to the ideal aimed at by Ibn Hanbal.

Sunni Muslim Hui avoid Salafis. Kabbani allegedly thanked UK Foreign Secretary Jack Straw in 2005 for the role the UK played in the Middle East.[41] Hamadi Redissi provides original references to the description of Wahhabis as a divisive sect (firqa) and outliers (Kharijites) in communications between Ottomans and Egyptian Khedive Muhammad Ali.[50] Salafis have a reputation for radicalism among the Hanafi Sunni Gedimu and Yihewani. some Hanafi Sunni Gedimu and a number of Jahriyya. including family members.Wahhabi Other observers describe the term as "originally used derogatorily by opponents". habitual use of the term Wahhabism is scientifically false. The Yihewani (Ikhwan) Chinese sect founded by Ma Wanfu in China was originally inspired by the Wahhabi movement however the group reacted with hostility to Ma Debao and Ma Zhengqing. causing resentment throughout the Muslim World.[46][47][48] However the ISCA is alleged to have links to the neoconservative lobby in the United States. Redissi details refutations of Wahhabis by scholars (muftis).[42][43][44] Criticism by sufi organisations The Syrian professor and scholar Dr.” [49] Wahabbism is intensely opposed by some Hui Muslims in China.[52] . the Hadith. and Wahhabi teachings were deemed as heresy by the Yihewani leaders. and son of Ali (Ali bin Abu Talib). They were branded as traitors of foreign influence. the daughter of Muhammad. the son-in-law of Muhammad (see: Saudi sponsorship mentioned previously). the mother of Muhammad. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's brother wrote a book in refutation of his brothers' new teachings. monuments and removed a number of what was seen as sources or possible gateways to polytheism or Shirk . but now commonplace and used even "by some Najdi scholars of the movement". called the Sailaifengye menhuan in Lanzhou and Linxia. In "The Refutation of Wahhabism in Arabic Sources. The sufi Islamic Supreme Council of America founded by the Naqshbandi sufi Shaykh Hisham Kabbani classify Wahhabbism as being extremist and heretical based on Wahhabbism's rejection of sufism and what they believe to be traditional sufi scholars. called: "The Final Word from the Qur'an. and the concept of Saudi Wahhabism should be substituted 5 Initial opposition Allegedly the first people to oppose Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab were his father Abd al-Wahhab and his brother Salman Ibn Abd al-Wahhab who was an Islamic scholar and qadi. Muhammad Sa'id Ramadan al-Buti [45] criticises the Salafi movement in a few of his works. separate from other Muslim sects in China. the Saudi Wahhabis under Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud attacked and captured the holy Shia cities of Karbala and Najaf in Iraq and destroyed the tombs of Husayn ibn Ali who is the grandson of Muhammad.[3] According to Riadh Sidaoui. and the Sayings of the Scholars Concerning the School of Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab"). In 1803 and 1804 the Saudis captured Makkah and Madinah and demolished various venerated shrines. who attempted to introduce Wahhabism as the Orthodox main form of Islam. saying: “We are glad to see changes taking place in the political mechanisms in the Middle East. hence explaining the groups hatred for the "wahhabi" movement. primarily by the Sufi Khafiya.[51] The number of Salafis in China is so insignificant that they are not included in classifications of Muslim sects in China. Ma Debao established a Salafi / Wahhabi order. who in 1743 describes Wahhabism as ignorance (Jahala). We hope to see an end to tyranny and we are happy to observe a strong upsurge in freedom of speech. alien to the native popular cultural practices of Islam in China. In 1998 the Saudis bulldozed and allegedly poured gasoline over the grave of Aminah bint Wahb.such as the shrine built over the tomb of Fatimah. among them Ahmed Barakat Tandatawin. also known as: "Al-Sawa`iq al-Ilahiyya fi Madhhab al-Wahhabiyya" ("The Divine Thunderbolts Concerning the Wahhabi School"). Criticism by shi'ites and destruction of venerated graves In 1801 and 1802. 1745–1932". freedom of belief and political openness in the region.

the Shaykh also cites a letter in which Abd-al-Wahhab writes. senior research assistant at the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University.S. stating: "[It has] worked diligently during the last five years to overhaul its education system [but] [o]verhauling an educational system is a massive undertaking". the study highlights an ugly undercurrent in modern Islamic discourse that American-Muslims must openly confront. Natana De Long-Bas. that democracy "is responsible for all the horrible wars of the 20th century". his family and companions.[57] ISPU comments on the study were not entirely negative however. and they considered the Salafis to be "Heterodox" (xie jiao).[55][56] The Saudi government issued a response to this report. These publications included statements that Muslims should not only "always oppose" infidels "in every way".Wahhabi The Kuomintang Sufi Muslim general Ma Bufang.[54] As proof. are not under Wahhabi influence.[58] Noah Feldman distinguishes between what he calls the "deeply conservative" Wahhabis and what he calls the "followers of political Islam in the 1980s and 1990s. He is enough for us. Constitution. May Allah send peace on our master Muhammad. seek help from." such as Egyptian Islamic Jihad and later Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri. While Saudi Wahhabis were "the largest funders of local Muslim Brotherhood chapters and other hard-line Islamists" during this time. The Yihewani had become secular and a Chinese nationalist organisation. The Yihewani forced the Salafis into hiding. there is between Wahhabism and Jihadi Salafis is disputed.[53] The Deobandi Alim Abd al-Hafiz al-Makki has argued that Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab viewed authentic sufism in a positive light comparing it to the sciences of tafseer.[57] Militant and political Islam What connection. However. the best trustee. if any. arguing most mosques in the U. argues: The militant Islam of Osama bin Laden did not have its origins in the teachings of Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab and was not representative of Wahhabi Islam as it is practiced in contemporary Saudi Arabia. However "unrepresentative" bin Laden's global jihad was of Islam in general and Wahhabi Islam in particular. and concluded: American-Muslim leaders must thoroughly scrutinize this study. and fiqh. the best mawla and the best helper. A review of the study by Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU) complained the study cited documents from only a few mosques. Despite its limitations. 6 Wahhabism in the United States A study conducted by the NGO Freedom House found Wahhabi publications in mosques in the United States. beseech aid from and place our confidence in all our dealings in Allah Most High. its prominence in headline news took Wahhabi Islam across the spectrum from revival and reform to global jihad. they opposed jihadi resistance to Muslim governments and assassination . we must not forget that open discussion is the best tool to debunk the extremist literature rather than a suppression of First Amendment rights guaranteed by the U. However. After the Communist revolution the Salafis were allowed to worship openly until a 1958 crackdown on all religious practices. we will not take it on ourselves to allegorically interpret (ta’wil) his speech and his actions. We only place our reliance on. They were not allowed to move or worship openly. hadith. in the vigor to expose strains of extremism. We do not negate the way of the Sufis and the purification of the inner self from the vices of those sins connected to the heart and the limbs as long as the individual firmly adheres to the rules of Shari‘ah and the correct and observed way. yet for the media it came to define Wahhabi Islam during the later years of bin Laden's lifetime. and "people who followed foreigner's teachings" (wai dao). who backed the Yihewani (Ikhwan) Muslims. but "hate them for their religion … for Allah's sake". and that Shia and certain Sunni Muslims were infidels.S. persecuted the Salafi / Wahhabi Muslims.

distribution of textbooks and other literature. like most extremists.[71][72][73][74][75] .[65] Its largesse funded an estimated "90% of the expenses of the entire faith".[66] and has caused the Saudi interpretation to be perceived as the correct interpretation in many Muslims' minds.[61] Many buildings associated with early Islam. "more than 1. The Saudi government began to spend tens of billions of dollars throughout the Islamic World to promote Wahhabism. such as Gilles Kepel. who followed it and built satellite campuses around Egypt for Al Azhar.[70] The Saudis have spent at least $87 billion propagating Wahhabism abroad during the past two decades. It also supports imam training.[64] According to the documentary called The Qur'an aired in the UK. Wahhabism gained considerable influence in the Islamic World following a tripling in the price of oil in the mid-1970s and the progressive takeover of Saudi Aramco in the 1974–1980 period. International influence and propagation According to observers.[62][63] This practice has proved controversial and has received considerable criticism from Sunni and Shia Muslims and in the non-Muslim World. mausoleums and other artifacts have been destroyed in Saudi Arabia by Wahhabis from early 19th century through the present day. madrasas. the oldest and most influential Islamic university. presenter Antony Thomas suggested the figure may be "upward of $100 billion". and the scale of financing is believed to have increased in the past two years. The bulk of this funding goes towards the construction and operating expenses of mosques. followed the ideology of Sayyid Qutb. on the grounds that only God should be worshipped and that veneration of sites associated with mortals leads to idolatry. scholarships. Endowments. which was sometimes referred to as "petro-Islam". from children's madrasas to high-level scholarship. throughout the Muslim World.[67] "Books.500 mosques were built from Saudi public funds over the last 50 years") were paid for.[60] 7 Destruction of Islam's early historical sites The Wahhabi teachings disapprove of veneration of the historical sites associated with early Islam. Agencies controlled by the Kingdom's Ministry of Islamic Affairs. mosques" (for example. according to observers like Dawood al-Shirian and Lee Kuan Yew.Wahhabi of Muslim leaders because of their belief that "the decision to wage jihad lay with the ruler. not "Wahhabism". Da'wah and Guidance are responsible for outreach to non-Muslim residents and are converting hundreds of non-Muslims into Islam every year.[68] It rewarded journalists and academics. mass media and publishing outlets. not the individual believer".[66] It extended to young and old.[59] Karen Armstrong states that Osama bin Laden. fellowships. Some of the hundreds of thousands of non-Saudis who live in Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf have been influenced by Wahhabism and preach Wahhabism in their home country upon their return. including mazaar. and endowments to universities (in exchange for influence over the appointment of Islamic scholars). and other religious institutions that preach Wahhabism.[69] This financial power has done much to overwhelm less strict local interpretations of Islam. according to journalist Dawood al-Shirian.

(2001). Rowan & Littlefield. Endowments. Control of Mecca and Medina. Nazeer Ahmed. globalsecurity.org. Phillip London. Vol. 42. "Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab sought the protection of Muhammad bin Saud. . (2004). com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 634039/ Wahhabi). org/ web/ 20050507090328/ http:/ / www. 1. p. org/ military/ intro/ islam-sunni.. php?4028-the-truth-about-Sheikh-Muhamad-ibn-AbdulWahab-amp-refutation-to-all-false-labels-on-him). 276 ISBN 978-1-4567-2810-6 (sc) LCCN 2011900551 archived from the original (http:/ / books.469–472 [22] "Allah" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2012-04-11 "In the last years of the 18th century. Ministry of Islamic Affairs. uk/ books?id=ZSgDKrsBDosC& pg=PA720& dq=& hl=en& sa=X& ei=b1ezT-24CanE0QWhwtSkCQ& ved=0CEgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=& f=false) J. 76–77 [15] 'Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh Najd. . archive. by Judge Ahmad ibn 'Hajar al-Butami. info/ main/ 9452. 7–8 [16] Shaikh Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab. htm) [3] "Wahhabi" (http:/ / web. by Shaikh ibn Baaz. [24] Mortimer. 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In 1744.50 [12] « Saudi Wahhabism is the most dangerous religious currents ». the house of Al Saud met wiht defeat at the hands of the Ottoman and Egyptian armies. co. "For more than two centuries. GlobalSecurity. ummah.C. pp.they had interests in common. Reformism. Edward. Vol.. Pg. p. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. resulting in the burning of Diriyah. [6] M Zarabozo. . in Ad-Dariyah.A. which followed the Wahhabi attack on the Ottoman Empire. washingtonpost. Oxford University Press. Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad." [21] Glasse. Pg. html) [11] John L. ISBN 0-19-516991-3. htm) on 2005-05-07. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ saudi/ analyses/ wahhabism. 1. com/ eb/ article-9005770/ Allah). org& f=false) (Paper) Infidel behind the paradoxical veil 1 (first ed. El Khabar Ousbouî. "Analyses – Wahhabism" (http:/ / www. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 09/ 04/ AR2006090401107_2. pbs. p. org/ military/ world/ gulf/ wahhabi. 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Ibn Saud attempted to seize control of Arabia and its outer lying regions and his heiras spendt the next 150 years in this pursuit. the home of the House of Saud. globalsecurity. [5] "History of Islam – Sheikh Ibn Abdul Wahab of Najd – by Prof. historyofislam. 1982. google. Pg. Jeanette M. 2005-04-27. oxfordjournals. they therefore took an oath that they would work together to achieve this end. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.61 . Retrieved 2010-12-12.. 17–19 [17] Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab: His Da'wah and Life Story. globalsecurity. [8] PBS Frontline. which after 1975 allowed Wahhabis to promote their interpretations of Islam using billions from oil export revenue. Dr. [4] "Wahhābī" (http:/ / www. org/ cgi/ pdf_extract/ 3/ 1/ 116) [14] Tarikh Najd by 'Husain ibn Ghannam. org& source=bl& ots=il5HbeVOUD& sig=Dwrf1ubbNbNkkNc_9DuuG7laAwE& hl=de& sa=X& ei=CeyFT7btLorO4QSspaHIBw& ved=0CDMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q="Ibn Saud" 140 years -wikipedia. html). [2] Sunni Islam (http:/ / www. . 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This is a crucial point. net/ monawein/ h/ index. com/ vbe/ showthread. peace and blessings be upon him. quran reading. Tajseem. rissc.com. asharis. ahlalhdeeth. 279. Ahlalhdeeth. info/ en/ ref/ 113687). Sufi. religious and media frontiers (http:/ / books. [30] "Islam Question and Answer . Summer 2001 [48] On Islam and 500 most influential Muslims (http:/ / www. between the Raafidah and the Khawarij.’" [26] "The Beginning And Spreading Of Wahhabism" (http:/ / www. [38] "Jism. com/ books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC& pg=PA72& dq=ma+ anliang#v=onepage& q=wahhabism ma debao& f=false). Issue 1. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 282550/ ijtihad). 9 . com/ creed/ articles/ bolnh-ibn-taymiyyah-the-ashari-scholars-and-those-affirming-jism-for-allaah. islamicsupremecouncil. [35] 12:41 AM. settlement and sects (http:/ / books. islam followers.com. com/ fitanatulwahhabiya. Between Mecca and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims (http:/ / books. "The followers of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah occupy a moderate position between the Ahlut Ta'teel (Jahmiyyah) and Ahlut Tamtheel (Mushabbiha). [41] Kingdom without borders: Saudi political. wahhabism. 2007 [44] John R Bradley. scribd. vox. scribd. Retrieved 2012-06-12. correctislamicfaith. and are moderate between the Jabariyah sect and the Qadariyah sect regarding the Acts of Allah. but rather in da’wa or religious reawakening… The Wahhabis’ bitter differences with other Muslims were not over fiqh [jurisprudence] rules at all. it/ Islam/ wahlast. One of the myths about Wahhabism is that its distinctive character stems from its affiliation with the supposedly ‘conservative’ or ‘strict’ Hanbali legal school. org/ 14/ the-islamists-have-it-wrong) By Abdul Hadi Palazzi Middle East Quarterly. followers of islam" (http:/ / www. . php?t=11098). wordpress. pdf [28] "Fitanatul Wahhabiya . Retrieved 2012-06-12. meforum.net. 12 According to Commins. com/ uploads/ fitna-tul-wahhabiyyah. com/ 2008/ 03/ 02/ why-does-one-have-to-follow-a-madhhab-debate-between-muhammad-said-al-buti/ ) [46] "Radicalism: Its Wahhabi Roots and Current Representation"." [40] Wiktorowicz. Retrieved 2012-06-12.com. November 1. . Quintan. Britannica. html).Multaqa Ahl al-Hadeeth" (http:/ / www.it.com. [29] "wahabi. .LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH" (http:/ / www. saaid. . Saudi's Shi'ites walk tightrope (http:/ / www. Ijtihaad. com/ books?id=b21aKLh6_KkC& pg=PA79& dq=gedimu+ ikhwan#v=onepage& q=gedimu ikhwan& f=false). com/ article/ 65662?page_no=3). . . com/ doc/ 6999574/ Spirit) By Irfan Ahmed in Islamic Magazine. 2009-07-27. htm). [39] Ibn Taymiyyah. britannica.com. [33] "Resource of authenticated documented letters written by Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab in the original arabic script" (http:/ / saaid. 2008 (http:/ / euraktiva. and between the Murji'ah and Jahmiyah and are moderate regarding the Companions of the Prophet. 2001. Asia Times. become a muslim. Asharis.407 [37] Oleh: Luthfi Assyaukanie. p. google. atimes. [31] "Shaykh Abd Allaah Bin Muhammad Bin Abd Al-Wahhaab on Fiqh. Retrieved 2012-06-12. . 2005 [45] Bouti debate with Salafi (http:/ / answeringwhhabismandsalafism. [32] "ijtihad (Islamic law) . google. islamicawakening. 208. org/ bin/ site/ wrappers/ extremism_wahabroots. Retrieved 2012-06-12. how could we explain the fact that the earliest opposition to Ibn Abd al-Wahhab came from other Hanbali scholars? Or that a tradition of anti-Wahhabi Hanbalism persisted into the nineteenth century? As an expert on law in Saudi Arabia notes. [51] Maris Boyd Gillette (2000). pdf) [49] The 'Neoconservative' Sufi Muslim Council : Uncover Traitor who destroy Islam and Umah. [27] http:/ / mailofislam. but over aqida. Vol. Retrieved 2010-06-28. Correctislamicfaith. or theological positions. [34] "Forum which provides an english translation of the original arabic scripted letters" (http:/ / forums. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. and the Mujassimah (Anthropomorphists) in the Ash'arite Textbooks and in the Works of Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah: A Brief Comparison" (http:/ / www. htm).com. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab produced no unprecedented opinions and Saudi authorities today regard him not as a mujtahid in fiqh [independent thinker in jurisprudence]. Yakhwajagaribnawaz. wahhabis. com/ doc/ 24706466/ Sharh-Al-Aqeedat-Il-Wasitiyah). com/ f20/ letter-of-ibn-abdul-wahhab-najdi-22837/ ). Cyril. . . ISBN 0-8047-3694-4. p. Sharh-Al-Aqeedat-Il-Wasitiyah (http:/ / www. cfm).Wahhabi [25] Commins 2006.

 800. the Hejaz and the Saudi-Wahhabi Nation-State' (http://www. The House of Saud. The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. Hamid. 2005. state. 2002 p. pp. [58] Natana J.I. ISBN 0-9689058-5-4 . Cambridge University Press. Cheryl (2004). all disseminated. Lee Kuan Yew (http:/ / www. Caryle. February 2004. Sharpe. Arabia Phoenix. M. ISBN 0-521-64412-7 • De Gaury. Kegan Paul International Limited. 32 [70] An interview with Minister Mentor of Singapore. The Oxford history of Islam (http:/ / books. September 16. Esposito (1999). [54] al-Makki. 69–75 [65] The Qur'an review in The Independent (http:/ / www. com/ featuredarticle/ radicalislam. p. HarperSanFrancisco. htm) at the Internet Archive [57] "Freedom House" (http:/ / rightweb. latimes.R. google.org/ books/126-the-caliphate-the-hijaz-and-the-saudi-wahabi-nation-state. . published or otherwise generated by the government of Saudi Arabia and collected from more than a dozen mosques in the United States". deoband. Retrieved 2010-06-28. ISBN 978-0-7103-0677-7 • Oliver. uk/ news/ uk/ home-news/ wahhabism-a-deadly-scripture-398516.D. 1982. Retrieved 2008-05-10.html) • Algar. kashmirherald. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 2003. "The Middle East: Cradle of the Muslim World". Straus and Giroux. co. ISBN 0-330-26834-1 • Al-Rasheed. htm) [74] Islam in South and Southeast Asia (http:/ / fpc. Guide to Islamist Movements (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-8330-3712-9. uk/ news/ world/ middle-east/ the-destruction-of-mecca-saudi-hardliners-are-wiping-out-their-own-heritage-501647.O. Delong-Bas. [62] Rabasa. I studied each volume page by page and never came across any place in which Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahhab criticizes.Wahhabi [52] John L. uk/ arts-entertainment/ film-and-tv/ tv-radio-reviews/ last-nights-tv-the-quran-channel-4-banged-up-five-867474. com/ books?id=imw_KFD5bsQC& pg=PA458& dq=gedimu+ ikhwan#v=onepage& q=kubrawiyya percent gedimu hui ma tong& f=false). 2005). . Wahhabism : A Critical Essay. independent. "Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad". [64] Kepel 2002. 462. 2007. freedomhouse. The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. Madawi. Los Angeles Times. The label of Catholic terror was never used about the IRA. p. html) [76] Abou El Fadl. May 19. irc-online. gov/ documents/ organization/ 43999. . Khaled. accessmylibrary. Wahhabism and the Spread of Sunni Theofascism (http:/ / www. The Independent. freedomhouse. html). Islamic Publications International. note 60. sullivan-county. com/ 2007/ sep/ 16/ news/ adfg-mecca16). Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. Oxford University Press. Gerald and Stark. "Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahhab and Sufism" (http:/ / www. Rand Corporation. Retrieved 21 December 2009. Abd al-Hafiz. [53] BARRY RUBIN (2000). . pdf) [56] quotes from a study "based on a year-long study of over two hundred original documents.. com/ x/ fox_imm. independent. ISBN 00195107993. Mecca’s ancient heritage is under attack – Developments for pilgrims and the strict beliefs of Saudi clerics are encroaching on or eliminating Islam’s holy sites in the kingdom (http:/ / articles. David and Johns.E. (http:/ / www. p. org/ web/ 20061002030100/ http:/ / www. The 'Wahhabi' Myth: Dispelling Prevalent Fallacies and the Fictitious Link with Bin Laden. New York : Farrar. Retrieved 2009-12-21. co. html) [73] Saudi Arabia's Export of Radical Islam (http:/ / www. Haneef James. Benard. com/ coms2/ summary_0286-25472708_ITM) [71] Saudi Arabia. Richard. 10 Further reading • Imran N Hosein 'The Caliphate. Oxford University Press US. The Muslim World After 9/11. Freya. (Oxford University Press: 2004). p.uk [61] Salah Nasrawi. p. 2003 [67] Abou al Fadl. "Through the grace of Allah. Khaled. co. com/ 23661-saudi) [72] Wahhabism: A deadly scripture (http:/ / www.70-72. refutes or rejects Tasawwuf or any one of the Sufi shaykhs on account of his Tasawwuf. T. Passion for Islam : Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience. International Relations Center. Karen. p. html) [66] Dawood al-Shirian. Angel. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 1-889999-13-X • Delong-Bas. pdf) [75] Radical Islam in Central Asia (http:/ / www.co. 2005. New Report on Saudi Government Publications (http:/ / web.org. Retrieved 30 May 2011. p. Deoband. [63] Howden. july7) guardian.47 [60] Armstrong. org/ profile/ 1476). archive. guardian.48-64 [68] Kepel. org/ religion/ news/ bn2005/ bn-2005-01-28. org/ 2011/ 01/ tasawwuf/ shariah-and-tariqah-tasawwuf/ shaykh-muhammad-bin-‘abd-al-wahhab-and-sufism/ ). uk/ politics/ 2005/ jul/ 11/ northernireland. ISBN 0-19-516991-3 • Holden. A History of Saudi Arabia.. google. globalpolitician. Pan. com/ books?id=wEih57-GWQQC& pg=PA79& dq=ma+ bufang+ secret+ war#v=onepage& q=ma bufang secret war& f=false). 2002. Natana J. Harper San Francisco." [55] Saudi Publications on Hate Ideology (http:/ / www. . 279 [59] After Jihad: American and the Struggle for Islamic Democracy by Noah Feldman. "The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage" (http:/ / www. Publications.imranhosein. 2007-07-26. 72 [69] (Murphy. ISBN 0-7656-1747-1. 103. org/ uploads/ special_report/ 45. ISBN 0-7103-0677-6. p. 'What Is Saudi Arabia Going to Do?' Al-Hayat. co. Daniel (August 6. independent.

Ram (1982).salafimanhaj.muslimprepschool. Understanding Islam through Hadis.pdf) • Wahhabi School (http://www. Encounter books. S. ISBN 0-595-67272-8 • Malik. . ISBN 0-19-512558-4. Anthony F. salafimanhaj. David Dean (2006).org/presentations/wahhabi. Winning the War on Terror: A Triumph of American Values. Oxford: Oxford University Press.com/2008/02/ malik-quranic-concept-of-war.speroforum. Tauris. ISBN 0-674-00877-4.htm) • Leading American Academic Discusses the Wahhabi Myth (http://www. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 11 External links • "Wahhabism.com/Books/kitab_ut_tawheed. ISBN 1-928653-26-X.pdf) • Full Text of Kitab Al Tawhid by Ibn Abdul Wahhab (http://www.wordpress. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.com/pdf/SalafiManhaj_TermWahhabi) • The Ideology of Terrorism and Violence in Saudi Arabia: Origins. iUniverse. Paris: Le Rocher. Wayne and Drake. 2005.islamiccentre.kalamullah. (http://oxfordbibliographiesonline.maktabah. ISBN 1-59403-144-4. Melanie (2006). K.com/) • The Wahhabi Movement (http://www.php/ component/content/article/51-general/919.org/index. John (2003).Wahhabi • Quist.salafimanhaj. • Saint-Prot. ISBN 0-682-49948-X. ISBN 81-7002-020-4. • Swarup.co.com/pdf/SalafiManhaj_Terrorism_In_KSA.com/site/article. Himalayan Books. The Quranic Concept of War (http://wolfpangloss. Islam. •  "Wahabis". L'avenir de la tradition entre révolution et occidentalisation (Islam. 1905. David F.com/pdf/ SalafiManhaj_Saudi. (1986). • Trifkovic.islamfortoday. The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia.thewahhabimyth.pdf) • Does Saudi Arabia Preach Intolerance in the UK and US? (http://www. 2008. I. • Phillips. Regina Orthodox Press.uk/) • History of early Wahhabism and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Urdu) (http://www.com/keller06. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. • Kepel. pdf) • Spero News – Bosnia: Muslims upset by Wahhabi leaders (http://www." Oxford Bibliographies Online: Islamic Studies. • Esposito. Gilles (2002).com/ ?wicket:interface=:6:1:::) • What Is a Salafi And Is Their Approach Valid? (http://www. New International Encyclopedia. asp?id=6540) • The Wahhabi Myth (http://www. 1911.). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. ISBN 1-84885-014-X. Roberts (1st English edition ed. Reasons and Solution (http://www.).html) • "Wahhābis". • Commins. trans. Defeating Jihad. The Future of Tradition between Revolution and Westernization). Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within.salafimanhaj. Serge (2006).B. Charles. B.files.com/pdf/ SalafiManhaj_WahaabiMyth) • Who First Used the Term 'Wahhabi'? (http://www. Voice of Dharma.. USA.pdf).

be/dawa) • Booknotes interview with Stephen Schwartz on The Two Faces of Islam: The House of Sa'ud from Tradition to Terror.com/warning.org/Watch/173871-1/Stephen+Schwartz.pdf) • Salafi Home (http://www.booknotes.stm) • Wahhabism: Understanding the roots and role models of islamic extremism (http://www.salafidawa.Wahhabi 12 Critical • Analysis: Inside Wahhabi Islam (http://news.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1571144.sunnah.html) • Refutation of Wahabism (http://www. (http://www.bbc.aspx) .com/article.salafimanhaj.org/articles/ Wahhabiarticleedit.htm) • The 'Wahhabi' Nemesis: Exposing those responsible for causing terror (http://www.org/uploads/special_report/45.co. February 2.salafidawa.freedomhouse.net/Al_adaab/salafi2.htm) • Definitive Wahhabi Profile (http://www.org/salaf.be/home) • Salafi dawa (http://www.ummah.alsunna.amislam. 2003.htm) • Saudi Publications on Hate Ideology (http://www. php?article=21) • Wahabi Way (http://www.

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