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Relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of supervisors
The impact on team effectiveness
Panagiotis V. Polychroniou
Department of Business Administration, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
Purpose – This study aims to investigate the relationships between social skills, motivation and empathy (emotional intelligence components) and transformational leadership in Greek organisations giving emphasis on supervisor-subordinate interaction on a team basis. In particular, this study aims to investigate employees’ perceptions regarding their supervisor’s emotional intelligence as well as transformational leadership. Design/methodology/approach – Participants were 267 managers working at various functional units and different hierarchical levels. Data were collected by means of questionnaires in a series of face-to-face structured interviews regarding subordinates’ perceptions for the following: supervisors’ emotional intelligence; and transformational leadership. Findings – Results provided support for the model which suggests that supervisors’ emotional intelligence components such as social skills, motivation, and empathy are positively associated with transformational leadership increasing team effectiveness with subordinate. Research limitations/implications – Data were collected from convenience samples that might limit generalisability of results. Implications for management are discussed including the need for supervisors to use emotional intelligence competencies and transformational leadership, so that their subordinates are empowered to participate and increase team effectiveness. Originality/value – This study contributes to our understanding of the linkage among emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of supervisors in Greek organisations and the impact on teamwork with their subordinates. Keywords Emotional intelligence, Transformational leadership, Line managers, Team management, Organizations, Greece Paper type Research paper
EQ and transformational leadership 343
Received February 2008 Revised May 2009 Accepted May 2009
Introduction Interest among social scientists on emotions as a domain of intelligence has grown in recent years. Emotional intelligence (EQ) refers to one’s ability to be aware of one’s own feelings, be aware of others’ feelings, to differentiate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and behaviour (Salovey and Mayer, 1990, 1994). This deﬁnition consists of three categories of abilities: evaluation and expression of emotion, regulation of emotion and using emotions in decision-making. Goleman (1998) provided a similar deﬁnition: “the capacity for organising our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships”. These and other deﬁnitions by Bar-On (1997), Bar-On and Parker (2000), Boyatzis (2001) and others are complimentary.
Team Performance Management Vol. 15 No. 7/8, 2009 pp. 343-356 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1352-7592 DOI 10.1108/13527590911002122
Hofstede. 2000. In particular the supervisors who possess interpersonal intelligence may be associated with transformational leadership for several reasons. Given cultural differences. Transformational leaders have an emotional impact on subordinates. They stand for something. EQ. Goleman (2001) suggested that this intelligence is associated with social competencies.TPM 15. interpersonal intelligence is one’s ability to understand the emotions of others. procedure and measurement. The study was conducted in Greece. 1997. 1993).. 2002. 1998..g. limitations and directions for future research will be addressed. in which research on EQ and transformational leadership has so far taken place. Mayer et al. Hofstede and Bond. but in recent years theorists such as Gardner (1983. 1999) and Sternberg (1985. Bernet. Boyatzis . 1988. motivation. EQ Studies on intelligence over many years focused mainly on the adaptive use of cognition. Ronen and Shenkar. Goleman. In particular. Schutte et al. 1996. such as empathy and social skills. transformational leadership and team effectiveness will be presented and then the hypotheses and methodology part will be explained regarding sample.. Sternberg suggests that there are other dimensions of intelligence-social intelligence. Finally after providing research ﬁndings and discussion session.g. social skills. Anglo-Saxon. 2002) have suggested more encompassing approaches to conceptualising intelligence.. transformational leadership in Greek organisations giving emphasis on supervisor-subordinate interaction on team basis. The national culture can affect management styles the way in which organisational behaviour factors relate to each other (e. 1997. and empathy components of EQ. 1996. this study investigates employees’ perceptions regarding their supervisor’s EQ as well as transformational leadership. or practical intelligence or what scholars refer to as “street smarts”-which indicates that an individual is not limited simply because he or she has a below average academic intelligence or IQ.g. 1998. 2001). have a vision of the future. Asian).. ﬁrst a review of the literature on EQ. his concepts of intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences provided the basis for the conceptualisation of EQ. Although Gardner (1983. Bar-On. Morris and Feldman. Hofstede. 2002. are able to communicate that vision to subordinates. Whereas intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to understand one’s own emotions. An additional contribution of the research was that it was conducted in a national cultural context that was different from other cultural environments (e.7/8 344 Scholars and writers in management are beginning to emphasise the importance of EQ on leadership effectiveness (Megerian and Sosik. 1999) did not use the term EQ. In this article. and motivate them to realise it giving emphasis on team effectiveness.g. Cooper and Sawaf. and . This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between: . 2006). Several researchers have attempted to develop measures of EQ (e. Rahim et al. which is a country with considerably different culture from the countries of other clusters (e. 1996. 1985. Bass. a central issue is whether managers in Greece signiﬁcantly differ on the relationships between EQ and transformational leadership..
. Other authors support that there should be a more restrictive model of EQ based on ability and distinguished from personality (Salovey and Mayer. and needs and help others to regulate their emotions to achieve desirable goals. 2000). Motivation represents the ability to remain focused on goals despite setbacks.. and to handle affective conﬂict with tact and diplomacy.. 1992. . to provide emotional support to people when needed. Goleman (1995) is the progenitor of the EQ construct. This also includes one’s awareness of the effects of his or her feelings on others. Self-awareness is associated with the ability to be aware of which emotions. 1995. 2001). some of them will probably provide misleading information. Descriptions of these dimensions are: . . . and impulses one is experiencing and why. 1993. Mayer et al. to not allow own or others’ negative feelings to inhibit collaboration. 2004.. 1997). Goleman et al. Church. abilities. In order to understand the emotional processes and deal with them effectively. Gardner (1983). 1994. questionnaire measures are too closed related to established personality traits. to remain calm in potentially volatile situations. if the supervisors are asked to self-assess their EQ. 2006). “as presently postulated.. 2002) found that EQ is twice more important than technical skills and IQ for jobs at all levels. (1998) concluded from their three studies that. feelings. Empathy and social skills involve one’s ability to perceive others’ emotions.. and to maintain composure irrespective of one’s emotions. see also Goleman. As a result. Motivation is needed to help an individual to remain focused for attaining goals (Druskat and Wolf. In this direction some authors redeﬁne Goleman components of EQ (Rahim et al. 2002). delaying gratiﬁcation. Thus. Davis et al. Social Skills is associated with one’s ability to deal with problems with-out demeaning those who work with him or her. Van Velson et al. Law et al. and to understand the links between others’ emotions and behaviour. whereas objective measures of EQ suffer from poor reliability”. one needs to have self-awareness and self-regulation. Also three studies reported that under-estimators of their managerial skills are likely to be more effective than over-estimators (Atwater and Yammarino. Another issue is that in organisational studies. and to accept change to attain goals. or competencies that inﬂuence a manager’s capacity to deal with environmental demands and pressures. He also reported that EQ plays an increasingly important role at the highest levels of a company. little remains of EQ that is unique and psychometrically sound. It appears that EQ relates to a number of non-cognitive skills. Rahim et al. 2001. moods. supervisors are often asked to assess their own managerial skills. but studies by Kruger and Dunning (1999) and Shipper and Dillard (2000) reported that unsuccessful supervisors overestimate their skills compared to successful supervisors. 2002.and Goleman. In his role as a consultant in organisations. to operate from hope of success rather than fear of failure. EQ and transformational leadership 345 . Self-regulation refers to the ability to keep one’s own emotions and impulses in check. Empathy refers to one’s ability to understand the feelings transmitted through verbal and nonverbal messages. .
Goleman. The job design literature has been clear in suggesting that a favourable climate is necessary for job design efforts to be successful since it moderates the relationship between job complexity and satisfaction (Hackman and Oldham. trust. 2002. Hellriegel et al. 2001. 1993) proposed that transformational leadership is associated with distinct dimensions of charisma or idealised inﬂuence (extent of pride. employees may well reduce their levels of commitment.. 1996). They create an atmosphere of change. the existence of accurate job description on departmental basis is associated positively with effective task allocation and the absence of role conﬂict (Polychroniou. The transformational leader has the capacity to motivate subordinates to do more than normally expected. and respect engendered by and emotional identiﬁcation with the leader). and they may be obsessed by visionary ideas that excite. Moreover. Bass. Transformational leaders raise subordinates consciousness about new outcomes and motivate them to transcend their own interests for the sake of the team. 2006). 1980. The true transformational leader often does not ﬁt within a traditional organisation and may lead a social movement rather than a formal organisation (Hellriegel and Slocum. take active interest in them. stimulate. Moreover. 1984). see also Bass and Avolino. subordinates’ outcomes and job performance (Megerian and Sosik. if their authority and responsibility are restricted. 2005). Theoretical contributions suggest that components of EQ may be associated with effective leadership (Morris and Feldman. deﬁning factors for team effectiveness refer to leadership style of supervisors. business processes.. Ferris and Gilmore. 1998. 2005). and individualised consideration (extent the leader provides personal attention and encouragement for self-development of followers). values and interpersonal competences are of critical importance to the overall style of leadership that they adopt. 1996. 2004. The role of leadership in management is largely determined by the organisational culture of the company. Following Burns (1978). They might continue to perform satisfactorily but with little enthusiasm for improving quality and productivity (Steers et al. Bass (1985. Successful management actively not only promotes a team spirit.. Rahim et al. 2006). 2002). and to work together to . and drive other people to work hard. It has been argued that supervisors’ beliefs. but also installs team mechanisms and the means to develop in team skills (Harris and Harris. 1996.7/8 346 Transformational leadership and team effectiveness Managers are faced with a requirement to develop. projects to be managed and teams to be led (Hull. implement and if necessary challenge a range of new tasks. Perhaps the most difﬁcult aspect for a supervisor of being a work team leader is motivation of team members. Team effectiveness within the organisation is achieved further when tasks are allocated to employees through a transparent process that takes into account the organisational goals as well as the subordinates’ abilities and preferences. Leaders who possess empathy are likely to recognise subordinates’ need. 2004). Teamwork is also enhanced when such a process also considers training and skills development. intellectual stimulation (extent the leader encourages followers to question their own way of doing things and become innovative). Conversely. 2004). respond to changes in their emotional states. Work teams may be more successful in achieving organisational goals if their members are empowered to do their jobs (Latham and Gary.TPM 15. Informal meetings between supervisors and subordinates on a regular basis empower joint decision-making and participative management. Existing literature support that dimensions of supervisors’ EQ inﬂuence supervisor’s transformational leadership.
2006). and motivation. Rahim et al. accurate self-assessment. 1996. Moreover. 2002.. and needs and help others to regulate their emotions to achieve desirable goals. social skills. 2002. Sosik and Megerian. 2002. in turn.g. Empathy and social skills involve one’s ability to perceive others’ emotions. Goleman. Employees are likely to respect and emotionally identify with a leader who is considerate and is willing to help subordinates to be effective. motivation and empathy dimensions of EQ for the present study because we believed that: . studies reported that self-awareness is an essential ability for enhancing managerial effectiveness (e. In order to understand the emotional processes and deal with them effectively. enhance utilisation of integrating style for handling conﬂict and improve their job performance (Rahim et al. Several scholars use the term EQ to include emotional awareness. 2006) which involved asking employees to assess their supervisor’s EQ and transformational leadership. We selected social skills.. Church. 2000). motivation. 1996... As it was stated. 1993. the objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships of three dimensions of EQ -social skills. 1998. 1996. Druskat and Wolf. empathy. 2002) suggested that EQ is also associated with competencies.to transformational leadership. Goleman (2001) indicates that in workplace self-awareness positively inﬂuences self-regulation. 2006). conscientiousness. and empathy. such as social skills. 2001. a limited number of studies to our knowledge investigated the relationships between the two constructs in domestic or cross-cultural context. Megerian and Sosik.g. manifestations of social skills.. An attempt was made to overcome some of the limitations of existing measures of EQ by using a new measure (Rahim et al. 1998. 2002. 1997. motivation and empathy. Morris and Feldman. feelings. In general transformational leaders who possess EQ are likely to exhibit behaviours associated with increasing effectiveness and handling conﬂict with subordinates for positive outcomes on teamwork (Rahim et al. .. 1985. 2000). and so on (e. and self-regulation. Goleman. Self-awareness is also a prerequisite for self-regulation. one needs to have also social skills. 2002). empathy. motivation and empathy. EQ and transformational leadership 347 Hypotheses As it was stated scholars and writers in management are beginning to emphasise the importance of EQ on transformational leadership (Sternberg. and . Goleman (2001) (see also Rahim et al. Bass. 2001). innovation. Social skills that are associated with enabling followers to engage in desirable behaviours are likely to be associated with intellectual stimulation (Goleman. Also. 2001. 2002. inﬂuences social skills. self-conﬁdence. Shipper and Dillard. Bass and Avolino. 2006). 1999. trustworthiness.. motivation and empathy. motivation and empathy in an organisational context will have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on employees’ perceptions of their supervisor’s transformational leadership.. Motivation is needed to help an individual to remain focused for attaining goals (Church. 2006). Empathy is likely to be associated with individualised consideration. adaptability.attain goals on team basis (Rahim et al. Bernet.. and social skills. Rahim et al. 1997. Bar-On and Parker.
TPM 15. .2 per cent postgraduate studies. Finally.6 per cent) female. and respond to changes in their emotional states. Motivation is related positively with supervisor’s transformational leadership increasing team effectiveness with subordinate.6 per cent). and 13.3 per cent of the participants had completed graduate studies and 21. could be useful in a supervisor-subordinate conﬂict. Social skills are related positively with supervisor’s transformational leadership increasing team effectiveness with subordinate. H1. Participants were 267 managers working at various functional units (production.3 per cent) were 31 to 40 years old.4 per cent to manufacturing sector. with organisations with 301-400 employees (56 or 21 per cent of participants) and organisations with one to 100 employees (123 or 46. In particular. 89 (33. 14. Taking lead from these contributions. this study investigates subordinates’ perceptions regarding their supervisor’s EQ as well as transformational leadership in Greek organisations. Social skills that are associated with enabling followers to engage in desirable behaviours are likely to be associated with intellectual stimulation.7 per cent). Empathy is likely to be associated with individualised consideration. motivation.6 per cent to merchandising sector. Moreover. Empathy is related positively supervisor’s transformational leadership increasing team effectiveness with subordinate. top managers (group head.5 per cent) for four to six years. supervisor) 154 (57. accounting) in Greek organisations.7 per cent) of the participants indicated that they were working in the same position for one to three years and 76 (28. Of these organisations. department head) 82 (30. The sample was well educated. Methodology Sample and procedure The present research investigated how social skills. leaders who possess empathy are likely to recognise followers’ needs. All organisational sizes were represented. R&D. logistics. sales.4 per cent) male and 143 (53. 124 (46. motivation and empathy are positively associated with supervisor’s transformational leadership increasing team effectiveness with subordinate.7 per cent to ﬁnancial services sector.2 per cent belonged to the service industry.7/8 348 The leaders who possess interpersonal intelligence may be associated with transformational leadership for several reasons. middle managers (general manager. Motivation. vice president) represent 31 (11. as 49. 162 (60. respectively. and empathy components of EQ are associated with supervisor’s transformational leadership. human resources. 28. take active interest in them.2 per cent) of the participants were 21 to 30 years old. 18. in the process of attaining goals.7 per cent). Moreover. we hypothesise that social skills. which must be handled functionally for positive outcomes. Therefore. the three dimensions of EQ are likely to be associated with leaders’ charisma or idealised inﬂuence. ﬁnance. in terms of age and gender 142 (53. Employees are likely to respect and emotionally identify with a transformational leader who is considerate and is willing to help employees to increase team effectiveness and improve their job performance. Of the participants.1 per cent of participants) being the least and the most frequently indicated. and lower managers (functional head. H2. marketing. H3.
“My supervisor understands the links between employees’ emotions and what they do” (empathy). MBA and employed management students ¼ 423. Social skills. and . motivation and empathy) were measured with items adopted from the EQ Index (EQI) (Rahim et al. “My supervisor understands the feelings transmitted through nonverbal messages”. After each factor analysis. the items that loaded less than 0. In the case of the same supervisor data were collected from ﬁrst subordinate at Time 1. . “My supervisor has a passion for work that goes beyond money or power”. Initially an instrument was designed and ﬁlled out by MBA and undergraduate students (n ¼ 90). As a result of the above analysis. “My supervisor stays focused on tasks at hand even under pressure” (motivation). ambiguous. Considerable attention was devoted to the study of published instruments on EQ. The instrument was designed on the basis of repeated feedback from respondents and faculty and an iterative process of exploratory and conﬁrmatory factor analyses of various sets of items. Measurement EQ The selected components of supervisory EQ (social skills. middle and top managers) and the need for conﬁdentiality (sensitivity issues regarding subordinates’ perceptions for their supervisor). Critiques of the instrument were also received from four management professors. the instructor initiated an item-by-item discussion. “My supervisor handles emotional conﬂicts with tact and diplomacy” (social skills). Moreover. supervisor’s EQ. Chamber of Commerce members ¼ 220. motivation and empathy. The EQI measures subordinates’ perceptions of their respective supervisors’ social skills. structured interviews increase the reliability of data. . Furthermore. Greek managers were in depth interviewed in order to collect as more data as possible.. 2006). Four successive factor analyses were performed to select items for the EQI (Ns: organisational members ¼ 65. supervisor’s transformational leadership. motivation and empathy subscales consisted of 19 items. The items that were reported to be difﬁcult.Data were collected by means of questionnaires in a series of face-to-face anonymous structured interviews regarding subordinates’ perceptions for the following: . The prescribed method of data collection is considered to be appropriate due to the status of the participants (lower. but the data from second subordinate were collected at Time 2 (which was one week from Time 1). or inconsistent were either dropped or revised. the EQI that was developed uses a seven-point Likert scale (7 ¼ Strongly agree . A new item was added to compensate for the elimination of an item. employed management students ¼ 365. Sample items for social skills. After the students completed the questionnaire. motivation and empathy are: “My supervisor confronts problems without demeaning those who work with him or her”. 1 ¼ Strongly disagree) for ranking each of the items and a higher score indicates a greater EQ of a supervisor. 2002. Special attempts were made to make the items free from social desirability contamination.50 and/or loaded on an uninterpretable factor were dropped or rephrased. EQ and transformational leadership 349 .
empathy). . The internal consistency reliability coefﬁcients of the three subscales of the EQI. Results To test the three hypotheses.” (intellectual stimulation) “My supervisor gives me reasons to believe in what I can do” (individualised consideration). as the independent variables. 0:01) were also signiﬁcant. self regulation. 1) on the 12 items of MLQ. eigenvalue .87. motivation.TPM 15. in the present study a factor analysis of the MLQ items resulted in a single factor. the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used as instrument to assess the three aspects of transformational leadership: charisma. data analysis proceeded in two stages using SPSS: factor analysis and multiple regression analysis: (1) EQI. we conceptualise transformational leadership as a unidimensional construct consisting of the three types of interrelated behaviours. Exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis. varimax rotation. Social skills were positively associated with supervisor’s transformational leadership that provided full support to H1.78 (empathy). Table I shows Pearson correlations between tranformational leadership and EQ dimensions. 0. and 0. loading . intellectual stimulation.89 (social skills). eigenvalue . (2) MLQ. A higher score indicates greater transformational leadership. Transformational leadership was measured with 12 items adapted from the MLQ (Bass. were 0. 1985). We computed an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis. and empathy range 0. 0:01). social skills. Carlessa’s (1998. Results conﬁrmed a signiﬁcant factor representing transformational leadership with loadings range 0. However. The Cronbach a for this scale was 0. see also Tajeda.7/8 350 Transformational leadership Developed by Bass (1985). as assessed with Cronbach a. motivation. The scale was computed by averaging the responses to the items.50.50. Sample items for this scale are: “In my mind. and empathy. and empathy (r ¼ 0:646. p . 0:01).” (charisma) “My supervisor doesn’t let rules stand in the way of solutions.91(one item was exluded) and percentage of variance explained was 83 per cent. 0. varimax rotation. It appears that social skills are a very . p . loading . 2001) study indicated that there is little evidence to support that the MLQ measures three distinct transformational leader behaviours. 0. and individualised consideration. The respondents were asked to rank each item on a seven-point box scale (7 ¼ Strongly agree .88 (three items were excluded) and percentage of variance explained was 79 per cent. As will be seen later.82 (motivation). In the present study. motivation (r ¼ 0:751. 1) on the 30 EQI items supported the ﬁve independent dimensions of EQ (self awareness.73 to 0. motivation. 1 ¼ Strongly disagree). he/she is a symbol of success and accomplishment.69 to 0. p . The MLQ is a widely used instrument to assess the three aspects of transformational leadership. Correlations between transformational leadesrhip and social skills (r ¼ 0:782. We computed a stepwise multiple regression analyses. . Factor loadings for social skills. Multiple regression analysis was computed with transformational leadership as the dependent variable and the selected subscales of the EQI: social skills. Table II shows results for regression analyses.
motivation. 0:05) can enhance supervisor’s transformational leadership and increase team effectiveness with subordinate. and empathy components of EQ (EQ) and transformational leadership in Greek organisations giving emphasis on supervisor-subordinate interaction on team EQI subscales Self-awareness Self. * * p . This study is an attempt to investigate the relationship between: social skills.regulation Motivation Empathy Social skills Note: * Correlation is signiﬁcant at the 0. Correlations between transformational leadership and EQI subscales Predictor variable Social skills Motivation Empathy b 0.627 * 0. p . Supervisors who possess interpersonal intelligence may be associated with transformational leadership for several reasons. As it was stated scholars and writers in management emphasise the importance of EQ on leadership effectiveness. modern organisations should focus on subordinate’s motivation and supervisor’s effective leading on team basis. Organisations that adopt a greater number of prescribed practices are likely to empower teamwork. p .41 * 0.03 * * Notes: n ¼ 267. p . 0:05. DR 2 ¼ 0:64. p . It has been argued that supervisors’ beliefs. DR 2 ¼ 0:12.64 * 0.646 * 0. p . To a lesser degree.12 * 0. Moreover. Discussion Employees are one of the most valuable resources companies have to remain competitive. 0:01.46 * 0. Summary of regression analysis with the three EQI subscales and transformational leadership . DR 2 ¼ 0:03.good predictor of supervisor’s transformational leadership (b ¼ 0:46.664 * 0. p .782 * EQ and transformational leadership 351 Table I. 0:01). pointed out that the implementation of these practices is not always an easy task.79 0.01 level (two-tailed) Transformational leadership 0.76 0. 0:01). Motivation and empathy were also positively associated with supervisor’s transformational leadership that provided support to H2 and H3 respectively. enhance employee satisfaction and enjoy superior performance.14 * * Transformational leadership R2 DR 2 0. modern organisations might achieve this by using organic human resources systems that promote the development of a human capital pool possessing a broad range of skills and that are able to engage in a wide variety of behaviour.64 0. 0:005 Table II. * p . In a dynamic.751 * 0. 0:01. The role of leadership in management is largely determined by the organisational culture of the company. However. 0:01. unpredictable environment. empathy (b ¼ 0:14. values and interpersonal competences are of critical importance to the overall style of leadership that they adopt. It appears that motivation is a good predictor of supervisor’s leadership effectiveness (b ¼ 0:41.
Anglo-Saxon. subordinates’ outcomes and job performance (Megerian and Sosik. In today’s battle for excellent employees. In order to understand the emotional processes and deal with them effec-tively. as culture-speciﬁc ﬁndings have been apparently yielded in previous research in Greece (e. In particular. 2002. supervisors in Greek organisations try to lead effectively using interpersonal competencies such as social skills. transformational leadership and its correlates. In general the implications of the study are that supervisors need to acquire and use their social skills. This was an additional contribution of the research. Furthermore empathy also helps supervisors to understand subordinates’ feelings. and drive other people to work hard. In particular they handle conﬂict with tact and diplomacy. 1996. Empathy appears to enhance transformational leadership of supervisors in Greek organisations. Additional research is needed in various national cultural clusters to identify the extent and the way in which the national culture shapes EQ. take an active interest in them and provide emotional support to their team members in order to work together to attain goals. feelings. which suggests that supervisors’ EQ competencies such as social skills. Rahim et al. in which research on EQ and transformational leadership has so far taken place. They have the capacity to motivate team members to do more than normally expected.. 2006). Overall. It seems that cultural context has also a strong impact on motivation dimension. and they may be obsessed by visionary ideas that excite. and empathy competencies in order to enhance their own transformational leadership and improve team effectiveness regarding supervisor-subordinate interaction. one needs to have self-awareness and self-regulation. Existing literature support that dimensions of supervisors’ EQ inﬂuence supervisor’s transformational leadership. sometimes setbacks prevent managers to remain focused on goals and accept necessary changes. motivation and empathy are positively associated with transformational leadership increasing team effectiveness with subordinate. Transformational leaders create an atmosphere of change.7/8 352 basis. Empathy and social skills involve one’s ability to perceive others’ emotions. As it was stated the study was conducted in Greece a country that displays substantial cultural differences from the countries in which research on EQ and transformational leadership has been conducted. Motivation is needed to help an individual to remain focused for attaining goals. stimulate. the results provided support for the model. this study investigates subordinates’ perceptions regarding their supervisor’s EQ as well as transformational leadership. 2006). Bozionelos. According to research ﬁndings. but certain ﬁndings were not. Asian). In addition transformational leaders have an emotional impact on subordinates. with a certain probability of being culture-speciﬁc. This could be also explained by individualistic culture as well as subordinates’ perceived degree of power distance in organisation. Most ﬁndings were in line with expectations. but less than social skills. The study contributed to our understanding of the linkage among EQ and transformational leadership.TPM 15.g. and needs and help others to regulate their emotions to achieve desirable goals. motivation. An additional contribution of the research was that it was conducted in a national cultural context that was different from other cultural environments (e. Although motivation is a better predictor of supervisor’s transformational leadership than empathy. It should be noted that the possibility that the ﬁnding is culture-speciﬁc should not be excluded.g. manage negative feelings and create team consensus in their subordinates. .
45 No. Moreover. Limitations and directions for future research Data were collected from convenience samples that might limit generalisability of results. self-regulation) apart from empathy. Vol. (1992). Further research is needed to enhance our understanding of the relation-ships between EQ and transformational leadership of supervisors and their impact on team effectiveness. Furthermore this study is limited by the fact that EQ components (self-awareness. decentralised. These changes in the organisation design. EQ and transformational leadership 353 . pp. 141-64.J. There should also be appropriate changes in the organisation design that would require creating ﬂatter. and positive reinforcements will encourage managers to acquire emotional competencies and enhance transformational leadership needed for improving their job performance and developing effectively teams. and less complex structures. Moreover. the analysis suffers from the small sample size. Supervisors may be more successful in achieving organisational goals and reach team effectiveness if their subordinates are empowerment to do their jobs and feel secure in organisation. and motivation were not investigated in relation to supervisor’s transformational leadership. Personnel Psychology. Larger and representative sample is needed to further investigate the relationship between: EQ and transformational leadership in Greek organisations giving emphasis on teamwork (supervisor-subordinate interaction). future studies should try to investigate of how other concepts (task allocation. Also it will be useful to investigate the differences in the perceptions of observers regarding the leadership performance of managers with low and high EQ. Organisations may have to adapt the policy of recruiting managers with vision and charisma who are likely to be high on EQ giving emphasis on team building.management has to offer more than pay to win individuals’ trust and motivate subordinates. L. “Does self(other agreement on leadership perceptions moderate the validity of leadership and performance predictions?”. References Atwater. culture. group learning.E. Field experiments are particularly useful in evaluating the effects of enhancing EQ and transformational leadership of supervisors on individual and team outcomes. and Yammarino. This will help the supervisors and subordinates to develop participative management. Employee loyalty is at an all-time low. 1. social skills. Appropriate interventions may be needed to enhance supervisors’ emotional competencies and transformational leadership that would involve education and speciﬁc job-related training. Also. job satisfaction and organisational commitment) are also associated with EQ and transformational leadership and consequently team effectiveness. E. An important area of future research concerns carefully designing and evaluating the effects of intervention on supervisory EQ in enhancing leadership effectiveness. skills development. team consensus and to work together to attain goals. Transformational leadership has positive impact on subordinate’s willingness to integrate goals with their supervisors and follow a creative problem solving process. Organisations should provide positive reinforcements for learning and improving managers’ essential emotional competencies needed for speciﬁc jobs. education and training may be of limited value when it comes to improving supervisors’ EQ.
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pp. pp.D. pp. the University of Ioannina and the Athens University of Economics and Business. gender and leader effectiveness”. including the University of Patras. R. 39 No. Human Resource Management. L. R. He received his PhD in Management/Organisational Behaviour from the Athens University of Economics and Business in 2003. and Ruzgis. (1994). pp. T. (1990). “Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence”.R. New York. the Hellenic Open University. J. “A study of impending derailment and recovery of middle managers across career stages”. Panagiotis V. Sosik. 32 Nos 2-3. 24 No. pp. Haggerty.emeraldinsight. 12 No. Taylor.J.. The Managerial Grid. Further reading Blake. He has published several papers and he is a reviewer in international scientiﬁc journals and conferences. and Mayer. Cambridge. The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Human Intelligence.J.. C. “The MLQ revisited: psychometric properties and recommendations”. 379-87.E. L. Erlbaum. J. in Sternberg.S. 1. 29 No.R.J. Hall. Viking. Human Resource Management. Tajeda. 249-63. (2002).J. (2000). 331-45. R. 185-211. Cooper. R.E.J. Sternberg.D. Murphy. Vol. F. (1998).7/8 356 Salovey. Vol.com/reprints .. (1993). self-awareness. “An examination of the relationships among self perception. Mowday.. “The future of work motivation theory”. (2001). Vol. and Shapiro. 167-77. Cognition and Personality. 9 No. Leadership Quarterly. Schutte. Personality and Intelligence. pp. P. Multiple Intelligences and Leadership. (1999). (1964).gr To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. and Pirozzolo. Malouff. and Megerian. 4. (2004). Polychroniou can be contacted at: email@example.com Or visit our web site for further details: www.R. P.S. E. His consulting experience includes the co-ordination of various projects funded by the Greek Government and the European Union.M.TPM 15. “Emotional intelligence”.. Vol. Personality and Individual Differences. M. R. J. “Successful intelligence: a new approach to leadership”. L. D. “Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance”. Vol.D. Mahwah. “Some ﬁnal thoughts about personality and intelligence”. N. J. 2.E.. L. Shipper.E. (Eds). 367-90. accuracy. Group & Organization Management. Salovey. and Leslie. Gulf Publishing. He has taught at various universities (undergraduate/postgraduate programmes). J. and Mouton. Imagination.E. In addition he is a full member of major scientiﬁc organisations in the area of business administration. pp. 3. About the author Panagiotis V. Polychroniou is a Lecturer in Organisational Behaviour and Human Resources Management at the University of Patras. J. F. and Mayer. Academy of Management Review. S. and Dornheim. 25 No.. NJ. 3.J. P. J. NY. Cambridge University Press. 31-52. 3. in Riggio.T. Golden. Steers. Van Velson. (Eds). and Dillard.J. His research interests include organizational behaviour and human resources management.J. Houston. Vol.B. Vol. (1985). M.. Sternberg. S. TX. J.
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