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# Chapter 3: Mechanical Properties of Materials

Why mechanical properties? Why mechanical properties? Why mechanical properties? Why mechanical properties?
Need to design materials that will withstand
applied load and in-service uses for
Bridges for autos and people
MEMS devices
1
Space elevator?
skyscrapers
Space exploration
Chapter 7: Mechanical Properties
Stress and strain: Normalized force and displacements.
Elastic behavior: When loads are small.

Engineering :
e
= F
i
/ A
0

e
= l / l
0
True :
T
= F
i
/ A
i

T
= ln(l
f
/ l
0
)

Young ' s Modulus : E [GPa]
Chapter 3: Mechanical Properties of Materials
2
Plastic behavior: dislocations and permanent deformation
Toughness, ductility, resilience, toughness, and hardness:
Define and how do we measure?
Mechanical behavior of the various classes of materials.

Young ' s Modulus : E [GPa]

Yield Strength :
YS
[MPa] (permanent deformation)
UlitmateTensile Strength:
TS
[MPa] (fracture)
Stress and Strain
Stress: Force per unit area arising from applied load.
Tension, compression, shear, torsion or any combination.
Stress = = force/area
3
Strain: physical deformation response of a
material to stress, e.g., elongation.
Tensile specimen
Tensile test machine
Stress & strain Testing
Often 12.8 mm x 60 mm
specimen extensometer
Adapted from Fig. 7.2,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
4
Other types:
-compression: brittle materials (e.g., concrete)
-torsion: cylindrical tubes, shafts.
gauge
length
Tensile stress, s: Shear stress, t:
Area, A
F
t
Area, A
F
t
F
s
F
Engineering Stress
5
F
t
=
F
t
A
o
original area
F
t
F
F
s
=
F
s
A
o
Stress has units: N/m
2
(or lb/in
2
)
Tensile strain: Lateral (width) strain:
Shear strain:
/2
/2

L
/2

L
/2
L
o
w
o
=

L
o

L
=

L
w
o
Engineering Strain
6
Shear strain:
/2
/2
/2 -
/2

L
/2

L
/2

= tan
Strain is always
dimensionless.
Simple tension: cable
o

=
F
A
A
o
= cross sectional
F F

Common States of Stress
7
o
A
Simple shear: drive shaft
o
=
F
s
A

Note: = M/A
c
R here.
Ski lift (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
M
M
A
o
2R
F
s
A
c
Simple compression:
A
o
Common States of Stress
8
Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM
Balanced Rock, Arches
National Park
o

=
F
A
Note: compressive
structural member ( < 0).
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
Bi-axial tension: Hydrostatic compression:
Common States of Stress
9
Fish under water
Pressurized tank

z
> 0

> 0
< 0
h
(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)
(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)
Pure Tension Pure Compression

e
=
F
normal
A
o

e
=
l l
o
l
o
stress
strain

e
= E Elastic
response
10
Pure Shear
Pure Torsional Shear

e
=
F
shear
A
o

= tan
stress
strain

e
=G Elastic
response
Elastic Deformation

bonds
stretch
1. Initial 3. Unload
initial
11
Elastic means reversible!
F

Linear-
elastic
Non-Linear-
elastic
F

initial
Plastic Deformation of Metals
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload
planes
still
sheared
bonds
stretch
& planes
shear

plastic
12
Plastic means permanent!
F

elastic + plastic

plastic

elastic
F

linear
elastic
linear
elastic

plastic
Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(also known as Young's modulus)
Hooke's Law: = E
Units: E [GPa] or [psi]
Linear Elasticity

F
Axial strain
13
Linear-
elastic
E

F
simple
Width strain
Tangent Modulus is experienced in service.
Secant Modulus is effective modulus at 2% strain.
- grey cast iron is also an example
Modulus of polymer changes with time and strain-rate.
- must report strain-rate d/dt for polymers.
- must report fracture strain
f
before fracture.
Polymers: Tangent and Secant Modulus
14
%strain
Stress (MPa)
initial E
secant E
1 2 3 4 5 ..
tangent E
Hooke's Law: = E (linear elastic behavior)
Copper sample (305 mmlong) is pulled in tension with stress of 276
MPa. If deformation is elastic, what is elongation?
Example: Hookes Law
| |
For Cu (polycrystalline), E = 110 GPa.
F
Axial strain
15

= E = E
l
l
0
|
\

|
|
l =
l
0
E
l =
(276MPa)(305mm)
110x10
3
MPa
= 0.77mm
Hookes law involves axial (parallel to applied tensile load) elastic deformation.
F
simple
Width strain
Mechanical Properties
Recall: Bonding Energy vs distance plots
16
Adapted from Fig. 2.8
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
tension
compression
Elastic Behavior
Elasticity of Ceramics
Al
2
O
3
And Effects of Porosity
E= E
0
(1 - 1.9P + 0.9 P
2
)
17
Al
2
O
3
Neither Glass or Alumina experience plastic deformation before fracture!
Comparison of Elastic Moduli
18
Silicon (single xtal) 120-190 (depends on crystallographic direction)
Glass (pyrex) 70
SiC (fused or sintered) 207-483
Graphite (molded) ~12
High modulus C-fiber 400
Carbon Nanotubes ~1000
Magnesium,
Aluminum
Platinum
Silver, Gold
Tantalum
Zinc, Ti
Steel, Ni
Molybdenum
Si crystal
Glass-soda
Si nitride
Al oxide
Glass fibers only
Carbon fibers only
Aramid fibers only
40
60
80
100
200
600
800
1000
1200
400
Tin
Cu alloys
Tungsten
<100>
<111>
Si carbide
Diamond
GFRE(|| fibers)*
AFRE(|| fibers)*
CFRE(|| fibers)*
Metals
Alloys
Graphite
Ceramics
Semicond
Polymers
Composites
/fibers
E(GPa)
E
ceramics

> E
metals

>> E
polymers
Youngs Modulus, E
19
0.2
8
0.6
1
Magnesium,
Graphite
Concrete
PC
Wood( grain)
AFRE( fibers)*
CFRE*
GFRE*
Epoxy only
0.4
0.8
2
4
6
10
20
40
Tin
PTFE
HDPE
LDPE
PP
Polyester
PS
PET
CFRE( fibers)*
GFRE( fibers)*
GFRE(|| fibers)*
10
9
Pa
Based on data in Table B2, Callister 6e.
Composite data based on
reinforced epoxy with 60 vol%
of aligned carbon (CFRE),
aramid (AFRE), or glass (GFRE) fibers.
Poisson's ratio, :
Poisson's ratio,

=
width strain
axial strain
=
w / w
l / l
=

Units: dimensionless
F

L
20
Why does have minus sign?
metals: ~ 0.33
ceramics: ~ 0.25
polymers: ~ 0.40
F
F
simple
Axial strain
Width strain

-
Limits of the Poisson Ratio

=
w / w
l / l
= 1
Poisson Ratio has a range 1 1/2
Look at extremes
No change in aspect ratio:

w/ w = l /l
21
Volume (V = AL) remains constant: V =0.
Hence, V = (L A+A L) = 0. So,
In terms of width, A = w
2
, then A/A = 2 w w/w
2
= 2w/w = L/L.
Hence,
A/ A = L/ L

=
w / w
l / l
=
(
1
2
l / l )
l / l
=
1
2
Incompressible solid.
Water (almost).
Poisson Ratio: materials specific
Metals: Ir W Ni Cu Al Ag Au
0.26 0.29 0.31 0.34 0.34 0.38 0.42
generic value ~ 1/3
Solid Argon: 0.25
Covalent Solids: Si Ge Al
2
O
3
TiC
0.27 0.28 0.23 0.19 generic value ~ 1/4
Ionic Solids: MgO 0.19
22
Ionic Solids: MgO 0.19
Silica Glass: 0.20
Polymers: Network (Bakelite) 0.49 Chain (PE) 0.40 ~generic value
Elastomer: Hard Rubber (Ebonite) 0.39 (Natural) 0.49
Tensile stress is applied along cylindrical brass rod (10 mmdiameter).
Poisson ratio is = 0.34 and E = 97 GPa.
Determine load needed for 2.5x10
3
mm change in diameter if the
deformation is entirely elastic?
F
F
Example: Poisson Effect
Width strain: (note reduction in diameter)
= d/d = (2.5x10
3
mm)/(10 mm) = 2.5x10
4
23
F
simple
tension
test

x
= d/d = (2.5x10
3
mm)/(10 mm) = 2.5x10
4
Axial strain: Given Poisson ratio

z
=
x
/ = (2.5x10
4
)/0.34 = +7.35x10
4
Axial Stress:
z
= E
z
= (97x10
3
MPa)(7.35x10
4
) = 71.3 MPa.
Required Load: F =
z
A
0
= (71.3 MPa) (5 mm)
2
= 5600 N.
Elastic Shear
modulus, G:

1
G

( = G
Elastic Bulk
P
P
M
M
simple
Torsion test
Other Elastic Properties
24
Elastic Bulk
modulus, K:
P= -K
V
V
o
P
V
1
-K
V
o
P
P P
Pressure test:
Init. vol = V
o
.
Vol chg. = V
Simple tension test:
engineering stress,
Elastic+Plastic
at larger stress
Elastic
(at lower temperatures, i.e. T < T
melt
/3)
Plastic (Permanent) Deformation
25
engineering strain,

p
plastic strain
Elastic
initially
Adapted from Fig. 7.10 (a),
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
permanent (plastic)
after load is removed
Stress where noticeable plastic deformation occurs.
When p = 0.002
Yield Stress,
Y
For metals agreed upon 0.2%
P is the proportional limit where deviation
from linear behavior occurs.
Strain off-set method for Yield Stress
tensile stress,
P

Y
26
Note: for 2 in. sample
= 0.002 = z/z
z = 0.004 in
Strain off-set method for Yield Stress
Start at 0.2% strain (for most metals).
Draw line parallel to elastic curve (slope of E).

Y
is value of stress where dotted line crosses
stress-strain curve (dashed line).
Eng. strain,

p
= 0.002
Elastic
recovery
P
Yield-point phenomenon occurs when elastic plastic
transition is abrupt.
Yield Points and
YS
No offset method required.
In steels, this effect is seen when
dislocations start to move and unbind
for interstitial solute.
27
For steels, take the avg. stress
of lower yield point since less
sensitive to testing methods.
for interstitial solute.
Lower yield point taken as
Y
.
Jagged curve at lower yield point occurs
when solute binds dislocation and
dislocation unbinding again, until work-
hardening begins to occur.
3 different types of behavior
Stress-Strain in Polymers
Brittle
plastic
For plastic polymers:
YS at maximum stress just
after elastic region.
TS is stress at fracture!
28
Highly elastic
Highly elastic polymers:
Elongate to as much as 1000% (e.g. silly putty).
7 MPa < E < 4 GPa 3 order of magnitude!
TS(max) ~ 100 MPa some metal alloys up to 4 GPa
Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond
Metals/
Alloys
Composites/
fibers
Polymers
Y
i
e
l
d

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

y

(
M
P
a
)
H
a
r
d

t
o

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
,

s
i
n
c
e

i
n

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

f
r
a
c
t
u
r
e

u
s
u
a
l
l
y

o
c
c
u
r
s

b
e
f
o
r
e

y
i
e
l
d
.
200
300
400
500
600
700
1000
2000
Al (6061)
ag
Steel (1020)
hr
Steel (1020)
cd
Steel (4140)
a
Steel (4140)
qt
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)
a
W (pure)
Mo (pure)
Cu (71500)
cw
H
a
r
d

t
o

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
,

i
n

c
e
r
a
m
i
c

m
a
t
r
i
x

a
n
d

e
p
o
x
y

m
a
t
r
i
x

c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s
,

s
i
n
c
e

i
n

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

f
r
a
c
t
u
r
e

u
s
u
a
l
l
y

o
c
c
u
r
s

b
e
f
o
r
e

y
i
e
l
d
.

Room T values

y(ceramics)

>>
y(metals)

>>
y(polymers)
Compare Yield Stress,
YS
29
Y
i
e
l
d

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

PVC
H
a
r
d

t
o

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
s
i
n
c
e

i
n

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

f
r
a
c
t
u
r
e

u
s
u
a
l
l
y

o
c
c
u
r
s

b
e
f
o
r
e

y
i
e
l
d
.
Nylon 6,6
LDPE
70
20
40
60
50
100
10
30
200
Tin (pure)
Al (6061)
a
Cu (71500)
hr
Ta (pure)
Ti (pure)
a
Steel (1020)
hr
H
a
r
d

t
o

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
,

i
n

c
e
r
a
m
i
c

m
a
t
r
i
x

a
n
d

e
p
o
x
y

m
a
t
r
i
x

c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s
,

s
i
n
c
e
i
n

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

f
r
a
c
t
u
r
e

u
s
u
a
l
l
y

o
c
c
u
r
s

b
e
f
o
r
e

y
i
e
l
d
.
HDPE
PP
humid
dry
PC
PET

Room T values
Based on data in Table B4,
Callister 6e.
a = annealed
hr = hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
qt = quenched & tempered
Maximum possible engineering stress in tension.
(Ultimate) Tensile Strength,
TS

y
F = fracture or
ultimate
strength
e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

TS
s
t
r
e
s
s
30
Metals: occurs when necking starts.
Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are
aligned and about to break.
strain
Typical response of a metal
Neck acts
as stress
concentrator
e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

s
t
r
e
s
s
engineering strain
Metals: Tensile Strength, v
TS
For Metals: max. stress in tension when necking starts, which
is the metals work-hardening tendencies vis--vis those that
initiate instabilities.

dF = 0
Maximum eng. Stress (at necking)

dF = 0 =
T
dA
i
+ A
i
d
T

d
T

=
dA
i
A
31

T i i T
decreased force due to
decrease in gage diameter
Increased force due to
increase in applied stress
At the point where these two competing changes in force
equal, there is permanent neck.
Determined by slope of true stress - true strain curve

T
A
i
Fractional
Increase in
Flow stress
fractional
decrease
bearing
area

d
T

T
=
dA
i
A
i
=
dl
i
l
i
d
T

d
T
d
T
=
T
If
T
= K(
T
)
n
, then n =
T
n = strain-hardening coefficient
Room T values
TS
(ceram)

~TS
(met)

~ TS
(comp)
>> TS
(poly)
Compare Tensile Strength,
TS
Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond
Metals/
Alloys
Composites/
fibers
Polymers
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

T
S
(
M
P
a
)
200
300
1000
Al
a
Al (6061)
ag
Cu (71500)
hr
Ta (pure)
Ti (pure)
a
Steel (1020)
Steel (4140)
a
Steel (4140)
qt
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)
a
W(pure)
Cu (71500)
cw
2000
3000
5000
Al oxide
Diamond
Si nitride
GFRE (|| fiber)
C FRE (|| fiber)
AFRE (|| fiber)
E-glass fib
C fibers
Aramid fib
32
Based on data in Table B4,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
Si crystal
<100>
T
e
n
s
i
l
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

PVC
Nylon 6,6
10
100
Al (6061)
a
L DPE
PP
PC PET
20
30
40
Graphite
Concrete
Glass-soda
HDPE
wood ( fiber)
wood(|| fiber)
1
GFRE ( fiber)
C FRE ( fiber)
AFRE( fiber)
Example for Metals: Determine E, YS, and TS
Stress-Strain for Brass
Youngs Modulus, E (bond stretch)
GPa
MPa
E 8 . 93
0 0016 . 0
) 0 150 (
1 2
1 2
=

=

0ffset Yield-Stress, YS (plastic deformation)

YS = 250MPa
33
Max. Load from Tensile Strength TS

F
max
=
TS
A
0
=
TS

d
0
2

(

(
2
= 450MPa
12.8x10
3
m
2
|
\

|

|
|
2
= 57,900N
Change in length at Point A, l = l
0
Gage is 250 mm (10 in) in length and 12.8 mm
(0.505 in) in diameter.
Subject to tensile stress of 345 MPa (50 ksi)
l = l
0
= (0.06)250 mm = 15 mm
Most metals are ductile at RT and above, but can become brittle at low T
bcc Fe
Temperature matters (see Failure)
34
cup-and-cone fracture in Al
brittle fracture in mild steel
Plastic tensile strain at failure:
Engineering
tensile
stress,
smaller %EL
(brittle if %EL<5%)
larger %EL
(ductile if
%EL>5%)
L
o
L
f
A
o
A
f

%EL =
L
f
L
o
L
o
x100
Ductility (%EL and %RA)
35
Engineering tensile strain,
%EL>5%)
Another ductility measure:

%RA=
A
o
A
f
A
o
x100
Note: %RA and %EL are often comparable.
- Reason: crystal slip does not change material volume.
- %RA > %EL possible if internal voids form in neck.
Adapted from Fig. 7.13,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
Energy to break a unit volume of material,
or absorb energy to fracture.
Approximate as area under the stress-strain curve.
Toughness
E ngineering
tensile
stress,
small toughness (ceramics)
large toughness (metals)
36
very small toughness
(unreinforced polymers)
Engineering tensile strain,
stress,

U
T
= d
o

## Brittle fracture: elastic energy

Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy
Stress-Strain in Polymers
brittle polymer
plastic
elastomer
elastic moduli
37
elastic moduli
less than for metals
Adapted from Fig. 7.22,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
Fracture strengths of polymers ~ 10% of those for metals.
Deformation strains for polymers > 1000%.
for most metals, deformation strains < 10%.
Decreasing T...
-- increases E
-- increases TS
-- decreases %EL
Increasing
Influence of T and Strain Rate on Thermoplastics
40
60
80
4C
20C
40C

(MPa)
Plots for
semicrystalline
PMMA (Plexiglas)
38
strain rate...
-- same effects
as decreasing T.
Adapted from Fig. 7.24, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig. 7.24 is from T.S. Carswell
and J.K. Nason, 'Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Mechanical Properties
of Organic Plastics", Symposium on Plastics, American Society for Testing and
Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1944.)
20
40
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
40C
60C
to 1.3

## Necking appears along entire

sample after YS!
Stress-Strain in Polymers
Mechanism unlike metals, necking due
to alignment of crystallites.
39
Align crystalline sections by
straightening chains in the
amorphous sections
After YS, necking
proceeds by
unraveling; hence,
neck propagates,
unlike in metals!
See Chpt 8
Time-dependent deformation in Polymers
Stress relaxation test:
-strain in tension to
and hold.
- observe decrease in
stress with time.
tensile test

Large decrease in E
r
for T > T
g
.
(amorphous
polystyrene)
Fig. 7.28, Callister &
Rethwisch 3e.
(Fig. 7.28 from A.V.
Tobolsky, Properties
and Structures of
Polymers, Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1960.)
10
3
10
1
10
-1
10
-3
10
5
rigid solid
(small relax)
transition
region
E
r
(10 s)
in MPa
viscous liquid
(large relax)
40
Representative T
g
values (in C):
PE (low density)
PE (high density)
PVC
PS
PC
- 110
- 90
+ 87
+100
+150
Selected values from Table 11.3, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
o
r
t
t E

=
) (
) (
Relaxation modulus:
time
strain

o
(t)
10
-3
60 100 140 180 T(C)
T
g
(large relax)
True Stress and Strain

=
F
A
0
Engineering stress
True stress

t
=
F
A
i
Initial area always
instantaneous area

t
=ln
l
i
l
0
True strain
Relative change

T
= 1+
( )

T
= ln 1+
( )
Relation before necking
Necking: 3D state of stress!
41
Why use True Strain?
Up to YS, there is volume change due to Poisson Effect!
In a metal, from YS and TS, there is plastic deformation, as dislocations move
atoms by slip, but V=0 (volume is constant).

A
0
l
0
= A
i
l
i

t
= ln
l
i
l
0
ln
l
i
l
0
+ l
0
l
0
= ln(1+)
42
Sum of incremental strain does
NOT equal total strain!
Test length Eng. Eng.
0-1-2-3 0-3
0 2.00
1 2.20 0.1
2 2.42 0.1
3 2.662 0.1 0.662/2.0
TOTAL 0.3 0.331

t
= ln
2.2
2.0
+ln
2.42
2.20
+ln
2.662
2.42
= ln
2.662
2.00
Eng.
Strain
True
Strain
Sum of incremental strain does
equal total strain.
Example:
A cylindrical specimen of steel having an original diameter of 12.8
mm (0.505 in.) is tensile tested to fracture and found to have an
engineering fracture strength of 460 MPa (67,000 psi). If its cross-
sectional diameter at fracture is 10.7 mm(0.422 in.), determine:
(a) The ductility in terms of percent reduction in area
(b) The true stress at fracture
Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in compression.
--better wear properties.
e.g.,
10mm sphere
apply known force
(1 to 1000g)
measure size
of indent after
Hardness
45
10mm sphere
of indent after
d D
Smaller indents
mean larger
hardness.
increasing hardness
most
plastics
brasses
Al alloys
easy to machine
steels file hard
cutting
tools
nitrided
steels diamond
Adapted from Fig. 7.18.
Hardness: Measurement
Rockwell
No major sample damage
Each scale runs to 130 (useful in range 20-100).
Minor load 10 kg
Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg
46
A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond
HB = Brinell Hardness
TS (psia) = 500 x HB
TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB
Hardness: Measurement
47
Under fluctuating / cyclic stresses, failure can occur at
considerably lower loads than tensile or yield strengths of
material under a static load.
Causes 90% of all failures of metallic structures (bridges,
aircraft, machine components, etc.)
Fatigue
Failure under fluctuating stress
48
Fatigue failure is brittle-like (relatively little plastic deformation)
- even in normally ductile materials. Thus sudden and
catastrophic!
Fatigue failure has three stages:
crack initiation in areas of stress concentration
(near stress raisers)
incremental crack propagation
catastrophic failure
Fatigue: Cyclic Stresses
Cyclic stresses characterized by maximum, minimum and mean stress, the range of stress, the
stress amplitude, and the stress ratio
Mean stress
m
= (
max
+
min
) / 2
Range of stress
r
= (
max
-
min
)
Stress amplitude
a
=
r
/2 = (
max
-
min
) / 2
Stress ratio R =
min
/
max
49
Convention: tensile stresses positive
compressive stresses negative
Creep
Time-dependent and permanent
deformation of materials subjected to a constant load at high
temperature (> 0.4 T
m
).
Examples: turbine blades, steamgenerators.
Creep testing:
50 Creep testing
Furnace
Stages of creep
51
1. Instantaneous deformation, mainly elastic.
2. Primary/transient creep. Slope of strain vs. time decreases with time:
work-hardening
3. Secondary/steady-state creep. Rate of straining constant: work-hardening
and recovery.
4. Tertiary. Rapidly accelerating strain rate up to failure: formation of internal
cracks, voids, grain boundary separation, necking, etc.
Creep: stress and temperature effects
Stress/temperature dependence of the steady-state creep rate can be
described by
|

\
|
=
RT
Q
exp K
c
n
2 s
&
Q
c
= activation energy for creep
K
2
and n are material constants
52
Mechanisms of Creep
Different mechanisms act in different materials and under
Stress-assisted vacancy diffusion
Grain boundary diffusion
Grain boundary sliding
Dislocation motion
53
Different mechanisms different n, Q
c
.
Grain boundary diffusion Dislocation glide and climb
Typical Forming Operations
rolling
forging
54
Wire drawing
extrusion
Deep drawing
die
Stretch forming
bending
shearing
Stress and strain: These are size-independent measures of load and
displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often shows a linear
relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a large elastic
modulus (E or G).
Summary
55
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches sy.
Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.