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SATIID MUHAMMAD AL'-ijUSAYNI-I GISUDI
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,ON SUFISM
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(72-1/1321
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Syed Shah Khusro Hussalnl
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, AThesis
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- 825ft f422.) :
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SubmLttO'd,t.o the Faculty.of
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and aeeearc,b, Univers ity, Montreal .
..........
ln partial of the

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,requlrementa \for the degree
,-
of of Arts _ l
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Inatltute of Studtee
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Canad
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o Syed Shah Hussaini
1977
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ABsmCT
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:110 ' Syed Shah Khusro Hussainl
Thes /1:] SAYYID MUHAMMAD AL-lruSAYN-I GSDIRAz (72\1/1321
l ,1 " < 825/1422).
1 ON SUPISM "
! III ' .
nt ,/:. lnstltute of lolamlc Studl"" Unlver\lt
y
Degree Master of Arts (M.A.),
, \ .
Date 1976
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Gtsdiriz (721/1321 -
of the Chisht! order. is st ,11
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popular Ln Indla toIt was also the first Ch1jhtt ta
have been a prollfl wrlter. Since there La inadequate'prlmary source
1
material 'on the ear 1er Chlshtts, only , $tudy of GIsdiriz'may cast
li ht on the dJr,trinal of his controveralal
tapics - "Saintship" (walixah) and "Audi.ion of Music'" (sami
c
) have
been ch sen for the resent study. The Goncept of Saintship la discusaed
from angles: Ln lompar Lson ta Prophethood (nubuwwab), and lnsofar as
it is_q alifUd by in 'Audition of Music
\.
tai.n
discussed fro polnta of view: the rules and conditions
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ta thla' InstL utlon (exate,rie aspect), and as a mtat1cal path
aspect). The chapters wallrah and!!!!' con-
in tr()duc t Lana ln classlcal auftsm.
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Syed

SAY'f(.!D MU\fAMMAD AL -t;ruSAYN - l GSD IRAi
? l( ,
';, " ON SUFISM
l',
(121/1321 -

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ppartement : i
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Institut des tudes Islamiques, Universit de
MC:Cill 1
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'Maltrise en Arts (M.A.)
}'
Date Aoat 1976
/
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Sayyid (721/1321 - 825/1422)
soufl indien de l'ordre Chiant!, un ordre qui compte
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/
encore aujout'd t ul. beaucoup 'de sympathis1nta en Inde. G!sdiriz est ;
le Chisht! 1aisd hne lloeuvre 'crite conaLdrable.
/' 1
Coume Ll a de documentat,ion lur les Chllht!s
antrieurs, c'est seulement une tude de G!sJdlriz qui permet d' c1att'cir
, 1
les doctrlnes de cet ordre. Deux thmes de controverse"la "Saintet"
(waliyah) et "l'Auditlon de Musique" (1!!!!!'> ont t cholsis pour cette
tude. L'ide de saintet est traite de deux polnts de vuei par rapport
)
1 t ide de prophtie (nubuwwah) et en tant que mod,.lfie par les penses.
'.J..
de GIsdiriz sur le monde en L'Audition de est traite
de deux points de vue galement: 'xotrique et sotrique; c".t--dire
1
les rgles et les conditions 'attacnes cette instltution et l'audlltlon
comme voie mystlque menant Dieu.

Les chapitres sur waliyah'et sami'
\
contiennent aussi des ces controverses dans le soufisme
c la8s iqu'e.
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ACKNOWIED9EMENTS
1>
At the outset, l would 11ke to extnd my thanka to the
R.E.H. the Trust _Fund, Hydex:abad., whleh aw&+ded.'me
support durlng'the teDm of my first year at McGIll University.
l am &>180 gratef'ul to the Institut. of Islamie Studles and t.he Fa.cUlty
, .
of Ciaduate Studie. and Rese&rch for thetr f1nanolal support.
l &JI &lao srateful tG Dr. Charles J. oAdall&$, Dlrector of the
InsU tut. of Isl&m1c Stud1es for his encoaragem.nt. !' taU short
o ...
, ,
of wrds ln expreulng 1IlY gratitude to Dr.+Hermann LaDdolt who
,
superv!sed llY thesls and _so pat1ently rtad through ea.oh part. ! &II
1ndebted to hill for his suggestions and o Orltructl ve
cri tioisas ot the pruent lIork. l lJ!l a140 tbaD.kfu.l to hi. for
, -
tO,. 'a of, manuacr1pts in Xerox form, and,
for tra.nalating redevant' lU.ge. fro. articles 1n German aDd. FrehCh.,
j 0" < 1 1" l \/
l u, indeed, proUll ot bav1ng worked under such a profound scholr.
'I &Il thankful S. YEsta, Secretary Ma.rhatwada Waqt Board.,
o
Au:r&Ilga'b&d. (Incita)' fOr penttt1n8 .e to use nts npubllshed Urdu
, ,
translation of 'th." Asek al-Aarir of CtsUd1rb. mOngst thoae who
asateted me 1n collectlng reae&roh mater1al durlng m:f V1slt t.o Hyderabad.
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ln the sumlIler' of 197;, l extend my thank.1f to Sa.yy1d M\}amlllad)'
,
C Mr. S. Ra-Qlm a-n!n,JMr. S. -AUm a1-Dtn and M. Slddlqui.
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l grate:ful to all IIW' )fho he1ped m8
0
in prepe.ratlon
of this l would l1ke, 1n pa.rtioulir" ta mention here Mr . &Al1

al...1)In !Jasan, Kr. F.M. Hunzal, Miss F. Awad., Misa T. Stewart tiho. "
transla.ted a French treatls8, and Mr. D: HacLean, f".r. J. Esoovitz,
" .

and Mias M. Jonte for readlng the vqrk'ln draft form and
vaiUILble l also 'mend my thanka ta N. Sale",
Hrs. C. Kor&h, and Kra. L. Asbra! for carefully, typtng . whole
\ p
F1n&lly, l a.m very grateful ta the Librarian,. Kr. Muzaffar
.
, ,
Ali, MS,ss S., Ferahlan, and other .e.bers of the Instl tute :Li brary
for their help' and. co-operation throughout the preparation of the
thesis. l deeply appreoiate their assistanoe.
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NOTE oN IRANSLITERAIION
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In Chapter III, l
wald, etc.
haye uSd often certain technlcal terms
llke in thelr transliterated forms lnstead of
Engllsh fOr the sake of convenience and to avold
The are mentloned, though, necessary
.. Some .ether words suc,h as sufiSm, sufl. etc. are angLLc lzed. In par-
tlcular, the ward A!mi( ls partiy angllclzed due lts
forms of the dames of towns snd cLtles are retained. The fol-
lowlng ls the system generally applLed 'ln the
,\ ln itial, une>cpre d;
.
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a.
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b
p
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th
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kh

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z
zh
s
sh
Short vowels:
Long vowel.:
!ll! mag ,!lt!.b.:
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f a;.J .;
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, medtal flnale
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,diphtongs: .J aw; fi aYi
lya;
Il.,
" uwwa.
.. q
li' marbt.!!l': /).. aQ;
ln ldfah:
- -.----
at.
..
The il ls rendered c.:.:.t ln Perslan. W\len trans-
o
llteratlng a word endlhg wlth
tif marbtah
- -.-
in a general cantext
or from an Arabie source the Arable ah la retalned; lf
1iIt
quotlng from a Perslan Lt La to: at. Thua, for
example, for aaLntablp II waLixah 0 but wallyat ln
Pers,Lan.
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'tABLE OF CONtENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION
CHAPTEa l -
INTRODUCTIDN
,
A)' Chlshtt 0t:der
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1) Chisht! mona,tery (la!!'at
2) Chlshtt ldeo10gy
"t'
B) LLfe and Works of
1) Life
2) Sp
,
irltua1 trainlng
3) As. mas ter .
4) SulTsources.of
5) As an Butnor
NOTES
CBAPTER II -
",
(WlBU\ftlAB) AND SAINTSRIl (WAlAYAH)
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'Pag
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1-53
4
7
9
16
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19
21
23
29 .
39
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54-139
A) ot the
1) a1-V-ktm al-Tlrmidh!
2) Mu9yi Ibn a1-
c
Ar.bI
3) cAli' al-Dawlah,al-Slmnln!
:::
60 .
3
8') ,Gtsd 'and 6a Uit.h,ip
'i. ' . .
1) Prophot' 'and mysUc man (saint)
\
a) Prophetboo and Salntshlp
b) nd Saintship
c) S in1=
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as concepts
as'mystiea1 stagea
69 .
69
71
75
82
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CHAPTER II (cont'd) - i
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NOTES
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2) God's MystlGal Experience: Cration
Jf)
b)

c)
d)
ln the creative process
Deus absfondltus: Beyond the beyond
(wara' af-wsra')
Deus revelatus: .
The man" (,inrin-l kamU)
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CHAPTER. III -
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97
100
105
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,117
140..219
,
cl OF MUSIC.,
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A) The Suf l C()ntroversy , 140
1) !xoteric'aapect
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a) .!ml C 'of conilion p'eop le anc! nov Les
b) Mu.lea1 instruments
(c)
2) aspect . , ,
t .... ::J
a)' Signifieanee of !!!l'
"
Object of !!!l' :
c) .!ml' and ehe "covenant" (S"tthg)
. d) ecstaay
.) Source of _estasy
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, ,
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147
11:,
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149
149.
,t 150

, 151
, 152
f) Ees tas y and ar t l fic la 1 .... ea tas y
8) Dane long U:!9..!) , '
(taw."Id) "
, '. ", lSS '
h) Rendlng of garments - . 156
"',
158
C) GIsdlraz On Audition .of Music
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164

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a.pect _ 'n " " i64
<;li. .. (_/ .. ' ...
"a) 11 11:y ox ,a!j c, 166,
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'Bules and regul,tloqi,., ';'. . "- i'f,7 -
c), (z41mln) _ p,lace." _ < I.kbyJn) <: 169 p f:
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CRAnER III - \
Ins of sa-
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c.
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e) '-0 \
f) Gu ldel lnes ..' \ .
g) Artlfi.elal eestasy (t'awajud)'
eonformi ty (muwafaqat)', \
h) Self-control '
-
.2) lao ter le aspee t
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a) Meanlng and end of !!ml'
'1: ' b) Music (
--
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,c) Process of relating (tatpll)
dl Symbolic meanlngs of different kinds
of dances .
1 e) The .tate of unlty in !.!lB! ,
f) Saml
e
a4 a sufi peth
.
CIIAPTER IV
.
CONCLUSION
j
NOTES
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APPENDIX A: THE CBISBt SILSILAH
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APPENDIX B: 'l'flE CHISm' SBAYICHS OF INDU
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APPENDIX C: COMPARATIVE' CHART OF KYSTlcL' STAGES,,;
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APPENDIX D: SOURCES ON GsDIBIz
BIl5LIOGRAPHY .
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171
172
112
175
177
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178
179
180
182
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187
199
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220-222 '
223
224
225
226-,
227
233
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CHAPl'EB l '
ImODTJ,:ON
India. bas been a land of sulla var sinee th. Mual1m conquest,
J
or even before. Among the f!rat sulla known to ha, tl'a.ell.ed to
'. 0
. l'
Ind1a. was the celebrated. Man,Or (d.)09/921) J but lt was
. ,
durlng th. llth century th&t Iodla.. attracted. the attentlon of any
, -.
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Itl.nerant genera.lly known &II derv1s.h , of Bukh&r&, S&rqud,
Iran, Khuruln, Turk1ataD '&ad, probably, Arab1& and 511'1&.2 Th .o.t
of th ... 11&8, pex"b-.pi" ".lrbdUa Sa17id cAU al.-JlIllAt a1-Huj1ftrt
the author 'of eU:"knovn. Pera1&n' .utl MIlual.
... .. ---" '
Ktahf .. "ho C&M ta Iild1a 1a th. latter PIn or hls. lit.
and in Lahor. Th. h1atGl'7 01' .Sutia. 11&
Ind1a,in "tact;- be&1na wlth, th. eatabU4b.ent of th. Chlehtt. &Dd
,,-,
SUbrawardt' 'th. t_o earlleat eutl of I1a. the
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fana .. 1'oundlcl ln AjMr' br Sba1.kh MUch al-DtA JluaD si.,at Ch1ahtt'
-
and th. 'in Mult&n bJ ,Sb&1kb BabI:' .. l.ooDtn
.. .
Z&b.rtyl' ,(4.661/1262), .. diaclpl.e of Sh&1kh SbibD al-Dt.u'
. ' -
al-8uhft.lI'&rd.t. (4.6)2/12,34). The, other t1l0 eutl vli1cn pined
" -
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poplll&rlt,.. &ad dur1ac the' 16th o.JlWrl .. , a.n.r .
. diaorp.nlu.t101l ot tbe Chiabtt ... , lIere the
&ad. the lfaqahbud.t ,- Qqkr' O'rder f1rat
.'
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-' 1ntrocluced. to Inc11& by '!hJ& d Gb&wtb 881/lJ4.82, &Dd. the liacJ..bbu4!
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order oves Us organ1u:tlon to 'Mu.QaaMd. B&qt Bl-Allah (d.l012/1603).
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AU the four orders are regarde4 as ort.hodox beca.uae of tbeir
. .
, c
.aphasis on sha.rt a.h.
, ,
The scope our .tudy, liai ta.lIS to tbe Ch1ahtt
-
1n genml and to 'GtsOdirJz in The
.u th. aost popular in Ind1& the da1S of Sharkb Much'
1
a1-Dtn 1JUaD, &Del 18 atill on. of the II08t pcpular ordera tod&7.. lt
, '
'uen1aed lu 1Dfl.uenc. all OTer' the count.ry, &Dd lta
.ere looi of aop1&l, and. r.llgloua actlvltl... Th1a arr
bu atwi1ed elaboJi&t.ly br acholara Ollly t'ro. the hhtO%'1c&l "
perspective, but no on. bu r ... deTOted a 81&teat1c twl1 ta the
thougbt of the Ch1ahtta. This -1"be due to a lack of ,
" ,
.ource _ter1al. It la, 1ndeed, UIlfartl1ll&te earl1 Ch1ahU '
.baykba of lDdta (tlU Sbaykh Nattr al-Dh M&lpI1Id) Dever r.1iabed
. ,
th art of wr1tlng. The 0Il17 authent10 eouro cODc&t'Il1ng the. are
r
the MJ.1'ttf (discoure .. ) The of th la the .
. ".
of Sb&ykh'IU,,, ... (d.n6/1)25), polleatecl by
hta l1aciple Aatr lS&a&D. Sljst 'bet 1301 .Dd. l)22A.D. Wlder th. ,
tltJ.e ".,' 14 al-Fu 'Ici'.
4
The Dut .uoh -l:C\1It 1& the of'
'"the d1aco ..... ot Shaykb .... a1-Dh Ma.l)aIId (d.7.57/1356), oap1lecl
, '
Qa.l&Mar (l. d1aolp1e ot Sbaykb'!fitb a1-Dh A.l11E') clurtAs
. . ... .
. . . ,
the 'w.,t ,..&ra of the .b&rkh, UDder the Khan a1-Ma"11& .5
,
bothe -.ark vorth aentlca1ng 1. & accoUllt ot the Cb1ab'tta,.
, ,
ooaplle4 1>1 Aa%r Khurd (a ds.clple ot Sbaykh Xl'" &l"'D%n Av11,.&')
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in the 8th/14th oentury, entl tled Sll!' al-Avllyt;'
6
Theae thl:'ee
c
cOllp1:t.atlons, besid some other fabr1oated, worka, 1'" the souroes
of a.l1 the later ha.glographleal or hlstorleal warka on the
'
It durlng the latter part of the 14th that
the Ch1ahtt sutis 'thought of expreas1ng ,theuelves in writing. Gtau-
. ,
d1:rh .... one of the.. K.A. obeeryea, "no Indo-Muall. C1htt
saint bas ao 'JaU1 to h1a credit .. u
8
Sinee
he acy4tCl the kblngah or his spirltual perceptai- Sh&ykh lattr
liup.ud .. the .. _ ... ar
9
ff.' 44 ,..n, lt '1& feJ.t
ayate..,t1o atud1 of n.cesa&rJ to enl1ght4Ul th.
Ch1abtt doctrine. in pnerala weao,' bec&ua. he wu & prol1f'1o
wrlto. '.
....
a_pter l of our InUoduct1on\ bu tlfO aectlcaa. th. Q
,<
deala lflth a brier &OCOlIDt' of the Chiahtt arder. bave'
the., laportant kblpgahs , G!aGd.1rIs D4 &D&l.1sect a fn
81plf'10&l1t aap;ecfta o't tbe1.r Tbe secOnd .ction 18 devoted
to the ure and _orb ot GtaUd.1ds. V. hav. tried t.o be very brier
" 1
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... innUMftble worka ha.,. beea ultteD CIl his Ufe. AIl atteapt
"
bu Meil -..:l. to whtoh he atlldled aDd .bat .ources _,. ba.,.
...nJ.ae4 Jafl' ....... a.1II. , c-. __ Il f ....... , o ... ef.
v1ewed alonpW,. "propbethood"
Sectlon A deala w1'tb othla oontrovera1&1 _tter as .cUaewsaecl' bJ tb.
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ear11er sui1a, to g1ye a genera.l plct.ure of lta nature. .Sectlon B "
.... '
la devoted. to Ylewa on the problell!. Besides, lt al80
dlscusses the world-v18w of ln sa far as the concept of
\
, .
salntahip la linked. 1f1 th 1 t. Cha.pter III cOIlp.t'1aes another contr.o-
c
versial aspect of :sufisll, namely, salll or. listerUng to music. Aga.ln,
, aeMion A of th1s chapter analyzea the clasaicalJcontroversYt
, ,
the lep.llty of aua1c, &a d1acuaaed by the sufis the.elyea prior to
o "
ctsadida. Sect10n tbe nAture of th. a&l.. taclcl.ed
ln Ind1&. by tbe GtaU41:r1&' yl... ar. dlscusaed tully
, , C
Sectlon C. He wu an J:dgt. loyer of Alli wb1ch, for hl., waa a.
spec1al far. of worsbip and a apeclfie ;u:t1 path laading to God.
A) OHISHTI OftDER
Ch1aht 18 the D&IIe of a vfllage nw Harat in MCll.n.l
, '
Khurlsln. A group rd foUDded a for IIp1:l:1 tual "
, - - _ _ l'
clucatioa aud. training Chiaht, P,lfned &Ad. fau_{
! ;
ThOlSe perliona conneoted 1fl th th1a orpn1satioa. caM to be kIlOWD. as
-;-.
ChiahtJi .U Khwljah- AbU Iat,lq-1 Sbht (d.329/940), wu
the tint to acqu1red the .plthet ,..Qh1ahtt
12
&Dd 1a aa
l'a
the founder of the cmler.'" The eda of the Chiahtt order _en

aOMa in the 1ft4.1&a aol1 Dy the tlcnrtatand.1a fi,;un 1Il th. anMla
, '
Ialaalo ayBt1cla.", uuc;n al-Dtn S1jzt in the 'yea:r 1193l.D.,
.hen h .irlYed in Ajar &tter br1ef' stay in' Lahare.l:
4
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'l'ra.d.lt+on haa 1.t th&t Shaylch MuCtn al-Dtn 1nlt1a.ted. the mer
'," -'in Ind.1a. under the lnatruction of elther his preceptor uthmln ... 1
HIrilnt (d.617/1220) or the Prophet who 18 a&1d to have
asked. hi. ln a vision to proceed. 'to Ind1a., a.s a. repreaentat1ve
and to propagate ISlam.
15
In any case, he 0 1l1U1l1grated to IDd.1a. and
.
'"'- Und. ln AjJAr under th. '.ost unfon\lD&te oon(11tlol18 oreated. by
the Chawblll power. Hia star 11&8 utterly deteeted. by the ruler
"
.
Pr1thT1dj.16. III .pit. of the 100 .. n.pUon, the ah&1kh
.
in hia al ingle:-hallded &Il4 organ1sed &Il .ttio1ent group
ot alif1a. j..r 11&8 Ilot ODl;r a locua of poli tlca1 &et1 vl t1.. 'but
wu alao .. rel1g1oua o.;Dter vher. pll.gr1u tro. &ll onr Wied. to
p.ttrer.
17
1t wu th1a .... t of '001&1:, oult\1l'&l., and. pol1t.1cal-
, .
actirlt1 th&t Sba1'kh Huein al .. Dota ohoa. to vlt in u4.,
ll1MD8e POpulf.r1t1. The Sbafkh diecl 111 the 1'Mr 6JJ/J2.)6 at
th. Ag. ot 9). Rfa ain. la thl. day by &l.l olau ..
o
<4 .., 1
of people hTeapeotlve. of eut. or ,oreec1.
;;
Pr1ar
1
17, the Chlabtta bad. th81,r 1lOIl&aUrf ..
(.WQat Jchyah) in d&;y Iajpa1:&lJ&, uttar had .. b and th.
,
PaD.""'b. --Sbaykh HuGh al-Dh wotbd. ln ,A.:j ... , Sb&1kb' al-Dtn
BalcbtyEr-1 KIk! (4.6),/12)6) aettled ':a Delhi, Sb&ykb. lJU!4 al-D!a
SUi-! lflctlrrs (4.642;1244) }D:opagated.1n th. ra:r:al arua (la
Ba3uthb) , .hU. aOM 11'ted .-.11 tovna aDCl Tiu.Pa .19
,
, , .
In th. 1u1t.1&l stages, the actiTiti .. of th., Chishtta _8%'. natr1c.tecl
/

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1
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,
.. fi. l"..- ....
..
'1 '
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"
,
to the Dorth, but the1r influence eriended. Pl'&ct1caJ.ly to the whole
. ,
of Ind1a. the auccession' of Shaykh FarId &l-Dtn Ganj-l,Shakar
(d.644/1265) and. his discipl. Sh:&ykh N1i&1Il al-DIn Awl1y&'. People
fr91l ali over th. country J1:Sed ta congregat. at their llouater1
. . .
in Pakpa.tt&A (Panja.b) -and. (Delhi) respetively. Sbaykh
N&fh al-Dh' MaqIlOd "Chirlgh-l Delhi" later continued the wort in
Delhi, &Dei the ,Chiahth h&d aOll8Wbat .. centxilly organ1sed. ayat
.
the populace of D.lhi to 110ft to Dawlataw' wb_ b. uuuco ... full1
"
to cbaDp th. capital iD 728/1)21. CoueclUlltly, 1anuerable
, '"
.utia were oo.pelled to .aigrate to the DecO&ll i enD thoqb Sbaykb
. - .
_ .. h al-Dt.a retuaecl to l.M.ve Delhi lIDder &n7 CiroWllltaDO". Jlenr-
. :theleaa, the cent.ra.1:- orgaa.1s&t1on of th. CHiahtr. thua
iDto .. ntulber of prY1nc1&l JIODUterl... 'thl. iapract1cal ftatur.
,
OR th. part of the Sultan -7 beu. ri. blA 1Ag lA diqu1
beoauae the newly oreatecl ..,.ateri .. gaT. &A i.petua to th. popW.ar1t1
.
0
the Chi.htt cmler 1n IDd.1a. SOlie of the tbaytha
, ,
e,.. eutwud. to'.BUar ua. SU-tlMJ.\lUt17, aonuter1ea
. , '
-. l t 20
were ooutruot. ta the Decoan, G1,ljarat, &ad Malwa. Althoup,
".. l' -
, , ,
Gtaifdhls oorrtinued to work ta Delhi in bu apac1t1 ... Sh&1kh .... tr
1
&l-D!n' a eucoeaaor fOr 44 1-frts" he eTentuall.J aoved t.o Gulbarp.
(DeccaD)
., 1
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1) (,jMIa.t
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The 'ma1n of the astabl1sbment of' IlODUterles was to
Il
.. l '
1n.cw.cate spirit, &JIcng the and' to bulld up the
" 21 ' q
1IQl'&1 and cu).ture of the people. Tho, the.e lIlonaaterles
, \
were alao of soc1&l and cultural besides 'be1ng \,
a plaC. far auti praotlo... Th CAwlr1f &l-MaEr,.r of ShayJeb. Sh1hEb
al-.Dtn Uar al-6uhra1fUd% wu taun ... th. guSd.' book far th.
.... "'; ibe Cb1eht:r _terlu.. 22 _ ' th.
ChiabUa of Khm:Ia&D neT8%' took to wrlt1Jag at aU.
b
Heap1:ta.l1 t1 wu Olle of tn. ..,.t iaportant aspecta of <th. lit .
,
of a Chuhtt .ut1. Th.1r aoaaaterl .. bad &11 "open kitehu" 1Jt th.
sena. tbat &IlJOIle oould. b. rad. irr peot.1ft b1a belDc a d1aclpl.
1 -""j>,
, Th. ab&ykba a ... to han quoted the trad.1t1OA 1Ja tb1a
recardl -11' SOMen. dalte a lly1Dc MD a.nd. ceta lloth1Ac :r:ro. hia'
,
to: -t, iti 18 as 1f he h&d Ya1ted. the clea4". 2) If potblq, &t all "
... ..... 1J ... bl.e, th. ab&yJch .ould &t lMat otfer wate t.o th. y1al:tar.'
The expaa .. of the acmaateri ...... _t :t'ro. ar lIDUDcl-
tar-obu'lt,.. AJrt other M&IlS of l1ftllbood. wu l.oobcl don upoD,
.... .
1th the ucepUoa of tta. cultbatlc.-. of a piac. of .... telaDd. Juat
. . r"
larp encup te ta1Jl th. ruilJ. 24 . , (J
n. 0 ..... ter1 ... ere open t.o &11, irr .. pectbe of b1,Ch or low,
. "
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........... _ .. .... J t Ie.a.
e ... J f
... _w .....
.: : ...... ::') 01..
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,--,, __ ....... '" ..... ... ,.-..... ..... .. -,.....\'"'I-.. , .. , ... _ .... ..... ....... ....... ..-
. ,
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, .
caat, creed, or relIgIon. ETel!'yone, 'trOll a king to a beggar, was
1
velcomed and was -trea.ted as an equal. There are 1nst&nc' of ldngs
vIsit'ing the Chishtt shaykhs and being treated as any,other ordinary
,
1I&Jl. GtsiJdiriz relates thAt Sultan F1rUz Shml Tughlaq (7.52/1351-
790/1388) onc'e v1s1ted Shaykh Na.ttr;al-Dtn I-1alJ.IIild who wu, inc1deiltally,
. ;'
taJd.ng a nip. One of the rea1dents of his llOna,atery lnforlled the '
_ Co .,
, ,
ahaykh who got. up and perfaraed. ablution and pr&yers. In the uan- '.cl
ti_, while th. Sultan waa wa1tiDg outsider. . st&rted raiD1ni.
- ,
Addre 1&?g.hia offic.r, Tatlr Kban, th. Sultan 1a reported. to Te
...ur "" i<1Dg, be (the ahayltb) 1& & king 25

Besides the Mualias, H1ndua were al80 &1lowed to enter th.
Chiaht! aonast.x-1 without an;y inhibition Qr feu. Due to th. soo1al.
,
d1acrIa1nation on the part of 'th. -H1Ddu &Dd oaat. H1nd.ua, th.
i1l1te:rat. clua wer. kept _&Y' !ro. th.1r forta and. t ple., ami
were diacaried iroa .ociety. When tb... untouchabl.. ..w tbat there'
wu nO diacr1a1n&t,lon wbataoeyC' uOJIC th ... 811f1a, th.y flooJcecl to
'tbe Chiahtt IIOD&ater1ea. v. &lao f1n4 referenoe., on the ether baDcl,
; .
. '26
of w.U-ImOWJl yogIs holcliq &rfiWlll1ta and.' diaoua81oa.a .1 th th. .b&,.kba.
, .
Thua, 1t .... !n tturb: .... ter1 tbat the sba,.kba and the1r d1ao1plu
<f'(
ca.,..; !nto close con\,.ct _ .i th cl1.tterent k1Dda aDd ol&aaea ot people.
,.......Ther.far., cu .. ot ooapet1t1" tp1rit_lit,. vIth YOSis" are
recarded 1li .un h&c
1
ogra.pb1ca.l. auch &8 fly1ng in the ,air
ln co.petit1on "ith a HiDdu YOCi ... attr1b\Red to & ..
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On the o.ther s1ona.r1es of' Isl.aa and' as. 11beral

. ,
leaders of'1 ts sp 'tual1 ty, theosuf'is were the f'1rst Dong
the Musllm intell tual elite to come into contact vith the
Hindu masses a..'1d thus indirectly with individual. features
of' Hindu m1stlc1sm especially the Yoga.27 '
\
It was, perha;ps, because of' th1s soc1a.l,contact lfith tho Hindua tha.t
ft f'1nd. the hishtI shaykhs narratlng sto",,1es f'rom' Hindu:1a1l to expla1n .
the essent1a.ls of' thetr olln tarrqah and. religion ta the uneduca.ted and.
1
i1l1terate classes of the ,Hindua. This w&4 one of the aoat s1gnl-
f1cant features of the tlexib111ty and l1baral1ty1n the outlook
(
ot the Chiahtt.. They tri_ and, subaequently, aucceeded. ln _king
'"
- their z:tel1g1on and creed. and. acce .. lble to a
lay 1IIILll. The1r llonaater1es, thus, beca .. cetera ot attraction. K. A.
N1za.1 reall1'ka, "as th.1r' khinqaha were the only places where people
of' dlffereDt of opin'-ons, ilrofeaalng di:t'ferent rel1giona and
dlfferent l.a.nguage. Mt, kbanqu verltable
centra. of cultural a;mthesla where 1deaa were freely exchanged. aad
.' 28
,_ COJUlon lIledlua far: thia W&8 evolved".
. 2)
1 n
,
ChiahtI Ideology
9
..
Shaykh KuCtn t.l-DtD ljaaan cboae for hl.elf _ lite ot "p!ety,
otarie exer'a.1aea and sealoua propagation of Islall .. "29 For hl.,
,
religion wu h),lall sertice. He always 1lsuted bia' dlaclplee
develop ri. ver .. l1ke gueroai ty, sUn-like affection
hospttal1ty. The .h1ghest fora-of devotldn (taCat),
\
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aceordlng to hllll, vas to redr.sa the lIliaery of tho8e in cl1atreas,
. . , 0
to fulf1l1 'the needs of th, helpless and to feed the hungryonJ The
shaykh def1ned tt,neither a ImoirliMige nor & forll (raam)" but'
"a. pe.rtioular eth10al d1soipline of the Thua,
A. '
the ethlcal discip11ne came to be elllPnaslzed by aU the la.tar Chlsht!s 1
an aspect vh10h pl&yed an i_portant role in &ohieving the ai. of "thls
" -
ord.er. G%ati1rh; for relates &Il incident to .aph&alze '
that one .bould not be 41arupeatful to &DY', one -regardle.a of nia

'-+
B ides, the Chiahtta 1na18ted 'on th. a.dherence te abriC&b)
(/ ,
atrict conforalt,. to whlch wu a nec.ulty.:n The f"rat oath t&kan
iro. a perIIon inltlated 1nto the arder wu to &db ... to I.laa1o
crd1nanc ...
J4
It la r.p0rta4 that ShayJeb. QUib al.-Dtn &Dd.
,sbaykb Fartd. al-Dtn uaed to be WlcOJ18clows for da18 1n eoata.;r dur1ng
sad
C
, but at tlle hour of Pl'&yara th.y get up &ad. perfa:r:1i th.lr
'" 35
a) Cblahtta d. the State
Ifo _tt.r 1Ibat c1rouutano .. , th. Chiabtt .ut1. &Y014acl
wlth the Sta.te. The lnnuenoe po t1cal authorlt;r
) V
.... 11a nl1 coapaD;r to the.. Perbapa thia 1Ias on tbe ... jar
dlff'erenc.. bet.Hn the Chlahtta and th. Subr&1Iardta who, CD the
OODtra,r1,., &CC)epted goyeruental Pa-ta &Dd l1ved ln c ..... oc1atlO1i,
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wlth the State.
J6
ShayJdl MuCtn &l-Dtn ljaSaA. the
of &, lite of 'pOverty and trOll the or State.
Thus, the la.ter Chisht!s trled. their best to shun the company of
royalty. They built Dlonaateries outside the city "alla pro-
fqr the reuon, and &l.&ya warned tneir discIples to keep
. ,
th.uelyes any !ro. suoh Shaykh Fartd. al-DtD is X'eported
to haye 8&14 to bia diaoiplea""if you de.1re to attain the
of gr_t ... lata do' not &Dy attention to the prino .. " .37' Shaykh
al-Dh bl1yC'. auce ... ion cert1ticate oOllta
1
De4, "do not aco.pt
&111 vil.lap Or atipeDd. or !roa and It 1& not
puai tted to a dervi.h" .,38 GtaUdirlz hi.eU repor.tecl te hA"
.... ,0
rejected the offer ot villag.a &Ad gifta t'ro. Sultall Ft.rUs Sbib
.
.BabraDt (800/1397-825/1422), lS&y!q tbat to &CO.pt the. vu aOut.bing
oontrary to the Chi.Mt 39
It .y be aald. that the Chlshtrs could not &lnya rejeot. tbe
.
lforld. Shaykh Mutn al-D%Jl's sOns oned. lfb1b -1 baye been
pnted to hi Shaykh Q1l'\b Ba.kbt;rlz' obOli. the capital a.a
, . iI" ,
tba oeter ,of the Chiabtt ord.u at the requeat o't S1:tD. IltUta1ab \
(601/1211-633/12)6) &114, the people of Delhi ...
1
Ii 11 ral&te4 that
. \. .
Sliaykh Ft:rU al-DtD 41tt1D h1t lut da,. aUllllOJlecl al-Dtn
"; \. '\ of ..
".U)&' and _id, bould i*n aoaethiDg t'roa thia vcr14 tao", .
., \ . . -' .
&nd hl. & N1fa A.U1&'. acQept.
",.. . '3,
a. of casb thoQ&b-be sJI.8Il\,lt 'in
'.
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Sha1kh l-Dtn accoapa.n1ed. Sultan Mul}a
m
!l8
d
b1n Tugblaq
.
'reluctantlyon'h1s expedlt10n the oat.h of
office to the next Sultan,' FtrUz Sh&h Tughlaq. h1l11Self "
had very cordial relat.ions vith'the BahJaanl Sultans
t
:Ft:r1lz ShIb and
l', ""0:. _
Al)iad.
b) Un1ty of Be1M (!!Qd.tt. .. ( "
, .
, .
th1a 18 the- lapartant in Our' con-
, D 1 , '.. ....
trOTen1&l t.apect. of Ch1ahtt, 1cieoJ.ocy . h1c1i cau., for a a.et&1leCl
l' . __. "
et_y_ ',It 1 . todr tbat the Chlabt% auf1a of
11141& -'end. iD of be1ng" (vaQd&t al ..... u;1Ud.).
, ..
nite. tbCt Sba1kb ... i-Dtll. M:.Cb:a' talth 1D'!f!d&t al-vu8
,. ( un1t,. 'of beinS) prOy!d.ed. ,"nece.aarr .upport hu
ayat1c .ai 101l to bJ:1Dc e.ot1oaal integrat1oa. of th. peopJ..
,
... .,. - '. .
aacmgat vtio. III a general OQl1tut. h. wr1t .. ,- -the
, t, 1.- ,.,' 7.
cornrate of waa the oonc.pt of 1fI!.t "al-wju., :.0 ,.
'Of .. 111 Aiuad. .,.., "the 0:.C th. .
....
." Chlahtt .... .tn; cloOtrla.: of OIltoloi1oal. .oD1a. (wf.t,y.t &1-vu,1U4) ,
'" 1 4.
, !Io _... ,1
. 'wh1ob upla1u 1ntlu.enoe on lt of Ibo &1aoat. 1*11-
. , '
tti.iat1c S.A.A. 11av1 th. wu$%.
H. writ , lit. deYGtiooal:' apProaoh' of iU ... td-Dtn Aull,...
the dtrin. 0:; PUId. wu not ,bute-ur d1tt.rent 1'ro' th. speculat1v .
.. '
.. ( , Q 1>
'OB. ot Ibn rabt
ll
46 Th. of th. aoholara rep.rdiq
,1) .!.. !', .. , '
the Cht.htt., eapec1&ll, ln the oue pfShaykh KuCIA to
..
. "
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----.: '
.. \ . '. , ".-._, ,,- - -- . --. ______ __ __ ____ ____ .. __ ... _ .. _
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"
... be .... boaed b1a ...... Ylnga t"lv.", tbe
:he t.'O' be Onel 1.e. in t.he world\ un,lt.y (taw'tifd)
47 . ,1 . .!'
, a.ll one". Suoh st.a.tement.s, no dOubt., _y po,1nt pa.n- ,,'
t.h.lstie . but thell tha't. t.he
.
.... . -0" '0 ,-
r Chisht.ta be11eved. ln waQdat a.l-wu;1M of 1 lm Ara " . MubaJlUllBd. N()or
, ' 1" .,
Nab1:f-.. ..... tter af tact, att.eapted ta prcwe t "the early Ch1aht1:s
.. -. l ' 1
", . ! 1 .. -_ -
"'1' not have been aU th&t vu 1U4t He oonludea
,
( .. 48'
. tr.1ed to present the'7 1n la fora. The
of our et. ''',Dot ..Uo. go d:.v.i ptoblea,
_,- \ a ,i \ -
- .... ,,<.' 1 t'Ir. 'J
- but a1ght as 11 poi,nt out .1gn1f1cazft upecta,
, \- 1 Il _.. J
- ',' Il
' .. 1 - .
. K,A. lIiMai -ltIM
t
of hr &
1<1_ of id""locP ,49'. . '
rexpcnmdecl th. ,princ1plaj 1D the ... 50 s ... ;, Haq
" ;. 1 .
, \ .. .
nit .. ' that tbe teach1np ot .. .. '.
thoae of his l1t"e4ec ... ora' iD the Chiaht1 "Mh liaJ.%
, l ,
l-lltD th&t Gtat1d.1rIs beUe"e4
abon f.t thf;t
414 Ilot .u:pcnmd the \cloctrlne" ot: vagdat al-wum. ratber, h. ..
'1 ' "
obaerftcl b7 S.A,.A. aisYt, .. . S:3 Y'the
.. .. \ t
,.tl1d.7 ..... acre 'tne of ".
, l "'.
J 1 1
.h1ch 1. referred. te as "uit1' of dtn_ 1ng" (ve.gtt a1-
. , '.' . _ f-, .
,bUbP,)' lIow are. on17
1..' Ij ... 1 \ toi ::.,
Dot "g1".1a& a"f&.1r11 acOOlUlt of' ,hiah t tbft
..
hisbtt. th elv .. bel1eYecl in . "UD'-t, of .it.n .,1ng". '
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If w. look at the probl. trOll another' angle, the" doctriaes Ibn
..,.!lI ,..
CArab1,' who was 11.- of. came
'. .
to he mon 1n Ind1a a. long tolu a.ftar the establishment of th.
" .. ... 1:' ....
,
,Chlsht:! order . K.A. hlmsel! argueS tba.t t.h. idea.s of Ibn
) f.o '
cAra'ot ma(hs;ya'1n:f'11tra.ted I-iut1a through Fakhr &l-D'1n-1'
C
IrKq%
, -
(d.688!1289), but that 1s no evldence of hie worka having reached
t.ha.t early.S5: '
> -
Neither the J'ad'id al-Fu;&d, (Uacour ... o:f;.,.Jf1t'a al.:.ntn Awlly1')
, .
n01" the KhaYr al-_ of N&ftr al- Dta. MIJpIUd) bu a
, c
lMJttion of Ibn ,Arab% or. bis worb,' thi4 would. De aurp:rialng, li' the

1
ia. ..... lfenrtheleA, Ibn CArabt''"
. . - -
warka IlU8t ba iad1& before the r.1fpl ot ,Sultan FtrtJz
'l'ugtllaq "(752i13S1t.\.790/1J8s) bec&aae by tba:t pc10d the,. a.J.zeady ba4-'
\' k -
Deco .. very cOllMlltarl .. writt,._ 011 FgJUt &l=ijikp
tb. ,last ftf'ty 1M.rar.ot th...,l.4th oantury .56 A. a _tter
- faot., by' ,tl .. , Ibn cArabt! . and. hh d_inea !J to bave
taken poaJ ... i. of aut1a, jur1ata, COJlllOJl the onboclox
&ad. kept :th aU In K.A. NlsuS.' Ir OIID
.Warda, .. a atir in,Muali. ra11g10ua period.
IDClecl, lt producecl d1verse'.atfecta. On the on. haD.d, thee vere
fA., -
ot "1 a. -th'" and the Sultan had to ta.ke , vere
action to end. auch .. ,.58 wh!lel, on the ether:' 1t 'gave r!:ae
.'.. .
. to nl!.g1oua debat.a" Th1a par10A .ilutoDa 1n hs..t.QI:J
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, -lS-
ot Musli. rel1g1ous ln Ind1a., fOr enorlllotlS litera.ture on
jur1&prud.enc$" was prodUOd.
59
the fact tha.t eminant Ch1ahU '8uf't
l1ke NaJitr al-Dfn Ma..lJmM was 'regarded as the "seoond Abn
.' 60 : 1 e
Jjan!fah" beqa.use of his overempha.s1s on shart a.h, 1& ln 1tsel:!
very In short, the wujOd.% doctrines of l'bn cArab% perhaps
, 0
brought abot 8. cha.J1g& ln the rel1g10ua trends of the" pu-lod. As H.
, .
Mujeeb narlCll J th ulis l.n 1114'1& &T01dtd aetf.pbya1c. and r ..
j
theMelves 1.0
1nM.ract1on of the1.r aurtds wltb1n th. :f'n.aework of the
abart ah.... x..ter, the teDd.uo1 towarda Ililtaphys1ca becua -
atroqer, and th. doctrin. of IIIDDeD.ce wabd&h al1Ujtkl -
bu;ed CIl th. t.each1nlls ot MuhlyuddUl ibn Arabi, ,so -
popular uong .u:ria as to be 1dentiflecl NItA, .. ut1all. l
.
Th1a is particularly true of the Tughlaq per1od.
\
To go back to the Chisht% 1deoloQ' J a queation nov be
peela lt the Chtaht1'thought, r1ght t'roa 1ta incepUon iD Ind1&, 11'&&
bulcally wabdf.t al:wurllld, 'Ilhat could pisibly have ben th.
for thia tundU ln the nl1g1oua thought, so lat. in the 14th ce.uty
IDd1a? Tb. c'!l!@' and the ahoUld have beenat leut acqua..1..Dted
1Iith the1r id.... After the cula.ml' ot 1ad1& 1I'ere net 50 19aorut
",
&ad the1 h8d .ource. tbrougb vh1ch they kne" about &ll tha.t h&ppenecl
,
the ..... t..riM. la .. , ..... t., doea Mt PEait
. '
ua 1.0 ana.tIr the aboYa quaatlon. Our intentiOn Pl'eaently 1a nct ta
Pl'ove or not the Chiahtts bel1"eved in wu;flldt , but
only to point out that they C&D,Dot be lab.lled &a' the propaptcra ot
f
-
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l'
,
VU,nt doctrines <,:t l .... t tlU K&lftr ,al-ntn Mal)1IliSd), unt11
a study of thQught 1& made. Moreover, if' Ife hes1ta.te
in applylng 'such a label to the Chiahtta, thla la not to deny any
"
, C
theirlfay of' th1nklng and that of Ibn Arabt.
Rather, 'He teel tt the probleJll le preaea.td ln toc a
1
llpl1atic
if auch labela ... If&Qd&t. &l-wu.1Qd. &Dd w!l)d.t al:-ahuhOd are appl1d '
1 _
.1tho't f'urt .... qu.:l1ficati on on al.1f"1 thought.
/
",B .. Sdu, neD. the 14eaa expoUDcled br CAli' al-Dulah al-SillDlDt "
Jd.736/1JJ6), GtaU;41ds (4.82,5/1422) A.lJMd Sirb!Dd.!' (d.lO)4/1624)
;-'- et.al., acceptecl u orthociex; baye' atrlking ala1larltl ... 1t.h
the n.tt14% doctrine
B) LIJ'I ABD WORKS OF GlwPIRXZ
, '
1)
, Born ."th. 4tb Raja}) 721/3oth July 132.1
62
in Delbi, GtaUd.1ris
,. ,,0
eue t.r:oa & J 11&1714 ful11 of lChurlalD..
63
Hia Uloeaton .. popular].y
, cnown ter. .. the, _ ..... yylda. th loag-loob" (!IdIOt-1- d1rl!
t'rea .. bion be got h1t .DUt of GtaUd.1ds.
64
Hia Da :WU Sa7.Yid
- Il - .
&Del b! .... tbil ot) 8&1114 YUsuf al-Jjusayn%
(popularly u Hjtl a d1aclp ot Shaykb lf1tJa al-Dtn
A.li'" ,
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At the age of sevell, '-n the year 728/1321
, -
vith his parents 1eft for Davl&tabad. lI'han M1Jammad 'bin
. ,
Tughla.q (125/1325-752/1)51) Itsmba.rked upon the Deccan experiment"
by ch&nglng the c C&plt&1.
66
rsached the ne. capital'on the
. ,
17th ,of Novelllber 1)28. Not long a.f'te.r,. when,
G'1sUd1dz wu te yer. old., hia father, Sanid 'xasui died. i;D 731/
- A 6 - ,
1))0 and vu burled. in 7 Flve years lAter, howev&L",. in
, ,
the beginza1hg "136/1)), -along "ith bia .other. &nci Gta1Jd.1r&s 1
6 '
returned. to Delhi 8t> wh.,. th.y rtnally ttlecl down, at leaat f: the
, ,
It 1a reported that wbl1e he na still a 1OUII6 boy a .troDg
,'\ 1'1
1
de.lr. twi' developed 111 GtsUd
1
r&z. to join the o1rcl.e of .NI".
al-Dtn about he bad hea:d a "'lot froa hl. father.
69
-
Unfortunately, the Shaylch .... alre&d.1 dead. (in 726/1325),' nen befere
1
theix' l .. 1grati on to Da.wl&t&bad.. Neve.rthe1esa
T
whu G%a1Jd.1r1s reached
,
Delhi, Sh&ykh Naf!r al-Dtn MIJII04 (popUlar1y knovn u Ch1dch-1 Dul1!,
d.757/1)56) .... actlq as the spiritual vic.gerent of Sh&rkit Nifla
_ al-Dlza. On the 16th of ftaj&b 1J6/lat Mareh IJJ6, GtaUd1riz &Del hia
J
o brother
70
Chand
h
1jua&7Il! jolnecl the c1:rcie ot ot Shaykb
,
N&ftr al-Dtu.
GtaUd1rls tben aerved hia wlth sueh \U1aWerylng
tbat Sbaykh N ... tr: al-Dtll la rePQrted, to have ... 14, -&fter
o 1

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seventy years of age, l am remlnded of p&st experiences by a small
child (Jdlda.k1:) ."72 !t 16 an unprecedented prlvllege for a disciple
to be thus respeoted by his spiritual preceptar. ThJ Shaykh 1&
to have pa.1d. a vislt. once to G1:sttdirlz, and. offered hlm .. fe" colns
as nadhr. relates tha.t' since t
ll
8n G1:siJd1rb galned luense
populariiy. He further adds that G:taUd1rb had becoll8 m01fn among
, ,
the suf1s &8 bav1ng atta.1ned the hlghest stage of 4 abaykh 10 hia,
, 0
yout.b (jalfiq.t). 73 In the year 757/1356, .t: tbe age of )6, GtaU.1rIz
o
na gr&Qted b,. K&'Jtr al-D'!n penis.lon to .aU his own fi
disciples (khUif'ah). 74 Iii the aame yeri.r the Sba"kh f.U
, '\l:\ - ,
iU. When requeated ll" hla disciples to noallULte one of the. &8 hla
",-, succeasor, Sba"kh N&ftr al":"f)tn ls,-rPorted to have appolnted. GtaUdiriz
to take hia place afte;- his 75' "bn the l8th of Ba.ma4Jn 757/
-
l4th Septe.ber 1356, Shylcb al-Dtn aired, and Sblnt repens
tb&t three da)"I later CtaUdlr1s-took charge of th khlggah .. the
\ v1egerent of Sh&ykh Nllftr a1-Dtn. 76 Thm:atter, l1.ttle ia kn01fll
\ of th. life of Gtal'iiUrb 1., Delhi, vber; he vorld for th. n_ 44
writes th&t he urr1ed at tbe age of 40, and had tvo
P" '
sona &na. daughtera.
71
G%aOdirb bec&ae extre .. ly. popul&r and.
all kinda of people gathered around hia.
78
. f . "-
Havlng predioted the :t'ate of Delhi (T1IlUr 1nvad.ed nelhl and.
o
11&8 the caus. of great three year's prior to hia d,epu:tur.,
GtaUdlds, at the as. of 80, 18ft Delh1 w1th bu fally and disciple.
tor nawlat&ba.d on the lat ot Rab%c al-Awwa.l 8Ol/11th 79
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'lia Ba.h&durpur, , GW4l
1
yar, Bhander, Chander1, .Baroda and Xhalllba.ya.t,
being given a varm W'elcome place, Gtsildiriz eventually .
Da.wla.tabad Mhere he hOm&ge at 'the Shrine of his f.ther.
;./ 1
,1 .
On hea.ring of' arrival of in the Sultan 'Ftrtlz
Shih (800/1397-825/1422). . hi. to
(Gulbarga) whieh wu theft tlTe CApital. GtaMirEz accep-ted
Il ,
the Invl tation and lIloved to where he arrlvect, ln 803/1400. 81
,
- "'
.SbIu-t W:i:ltell tb&t the Sul.tan eue out of Gulbarga and offered. a
..ra welOo.. to.GtaOdirlz, &Dd :rllqueated hia to atAy on in ,
, !
82 - -,
capital. lt 1& reprted: tb&t the Sultan h&d great re.pect tor' the
. 83 ' 84 - ,
shaykh, but ter on wlthdrew hia fa.voura. , Then, after a perlod.
of 22 yea.ra, dtaing .hien tl .. GtaiJd.1rIz 'Ifaa Ii&iAly engaged in '
/
, "
pr ... cn
1
ng and ooap
i
1
1
ng' worka, he d1ed. &t the Age ot 105 lunar y8&1"a on
the 16th of-DhU al-Qadab 825/lat 14?2.
85
2) Sp1rltU&l training
. 'GtaUd1:r& had .. natural iltcl1na.tlon toward.a aufi.a. S1noe
hia youth he b&d deve1opec! .: tute tor & sut! vay ot lite. It 1&
reported. tbat cnildren uaed to gatber' arOUDd hia when be v .. elcht
- \
year& 014 and tbey UIIec! to ,re.pect bl.and tr_t hia
'"
&8 & aut1 ahaykb. It 1& aaid. tht.t the ohlld.J:_ uaed. to fatoh wate
for GtafJd.1rIs to perfora ablution. GtaOdi:rlc, 1A t.reat
the ..... a ahayJch treata h1a diac1plea.
86
ad.cla that
.... rel1c1oualy alDded. ainee his boyhood and bacl pe:r:f'JMd h1a p.r:&78n
lIIt - \- ... - ___ lw_'_' .. UlP_'._."""lg ___ .... _________ ... ..... ....
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regularlyever ainee.
8
?
Gtstld1rb rece1ved his sp1rit.ual tra1ni ng from his Preceptor
shaykh' NAfi'r l-ntn Ma.tJmd.. The shaykh 1s reported to have trained.
hlll gradually the rel1g1oua pract1ceB, v1th .aphasie bn the per-
:tor-.qee cf prayera and :ta.st.lng. Gtafldirlz wU "bd. grad.uall.y te
perfora a.ll prayers 1f1 t.h t.he \u. ablution ",hieh he
, . ,
o
faraed at da.ll. Al.ong with. the nuaber of pr&YEa, Sh,kh If ... tr
l' ,
. .
al..ntn ubd. GtaUdlr1s to inc:;eaae the 4&,78 of futlq. , &ventually,
GtaUdtrb hl.eU "'18 tbat. he 'becue habltuated. te faatlq the
whele ;rea.r rCUDd.
88
At the .... tl , he wU at.udyiag the r.le1'&llt
'wara of bble to eoncentrat. 'full,", on ...
prCt1c .. at ho_, nite. SblDt, GtaUd.!rIs rutecl rooa wh ... he
l1ved for teil' .,.-ara,.89 Durlug tb1a' per10d b. eoapleted. bis .t1.ld1.
and If",tr al-Dtn tralned hi. 111 the spiritual. .. 'SllllAt
bu 1t tbat G'taUd1.r-. ach1eved h1gh ..,.t1oal stag .. revel&t1oa.a
, , -
(,ll\1JcIahaflt) &Dd -.nlt .. tatlona (ta:\&UlyJt) about wh1cb h.
,kapt hla precepter lnter..... :N&ftr al-Dtn .... happy
th. procre.. -.d. by GtaUd1rb. 90 ' , .
,
t the age ot JO, however, GtaOdhb 1a to ban sput
IIOIiIt ot hia tl_ ln juqlea, h. aocoapl1aliecl suce .. afully all
91 ' ,'"
the atagea. Thua, GtaDd1rls .... ap1r
l
tually &DC1
log1ca4, Pr.pa:red. for the '8ucceaorahlp (khll.lfat) wh1ch h. recelved
6 1
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in from Sha.ykh N .. al-Dtn. Sbbt says that this
&usplalous 'occasion took place when GtsUd1:r&z reported. "to Shaykh
NLljtr al-Dtn & visIon whieh he had. seeh 4uring his lllnass. In that
vision, some persons made hlm wear robes (j[mah>
one -.t'ter &n,ot.ber. (a) the robe of aa1ntsh
l
p (waUy!t) J (b) the robe
of prophethood (nubuwwat), (c) tbe role of apostleshlp (riallat>,
(d) the role'of unit y (lttibid), (e) the role of lardsh1p
bl:rat) J (t) tb. role of dbInl"t.y (ult1b
1
yat) J (g) robe of' be-:'lleaa
(buwtDt).92 Thla v1a1 1& 81gn1f1cant for th. robea prtNIuabl,y
,
.,.aboli d1ffe:rent atagea .. &Dd. It &180 reve&la the psychOlog1cal.
" .
stau of Gtad1rk. S&IIIn.t iapli .. that he W&8 now & full-fiedged
ah&l'kh of having bi8 01fI1 alrcle of disciples. Thi. vision
a.lao giv .. ua aD ind1oa.Uon of tbe. 1aport&nc. of t.he ata&. of
rh.-sa .. s" 93
Morecmu: t Gt8\ld1rls 01&1a to bave .. t the spirit. (M:.!I9)
of th . Propbet MWJa--d, &Del of eainui sut1a lib
AbU Yutcl aJ.-JlJD&yd. AlJa&d &l-GbuIl.t,
c A1B al-Ha-.dhIDt.
) A. & ... ter
G1:at1dlzob waa & Sunnt Mualla &DIl followed th. lj&D&t"t scbool
. of' Jurisprudenc 95 1(. la reported to baye ... 14 tbat very f peraou
"
are fOWld to be juriata, san1c1a, &Ad awm!a togethc, .hlcb quaJ.1f-i-
catla an, &l.l fOWld. in hia.
96
GtaUdlrls.... a prof0un4 acnolar
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and an author of lnnuaerable worb.' He waa .. lao iell-versed. In the
sciences of the Qur'in, tradition, jUl'lsprudenca, thaology, and
\
autism. In h1a, monastery, G!stld.1riz 1s reported to have conducted
"
leasona in Arabic graJlUl&r tradition
(lJad1th), theology (glim), .and jurisprudence (f.!9.h), oasides suf1sIl.
97
, .
It 18 diff1cult 100 say hov ci p his Imowledge ot: phl1osophy was, but.
, '-
110 1s cleu iro. bis warka tbat h. 1fIUI wlth the teohn1oa.l
tens of' phlloao'Pbr and. l.og10. H. waa Qr
i
tlcal tovarda phlloeOpblcal
teDdua1u ...... th. ou 1tb th. _Jor1t,. of aufis, bd. it la
atatecl th&t b. ODted. to wrlt. a crltique of' Ibn StnI's (Avloana)
lshlrlt wa-T&Dbthlt.
98
, .
GtaUd,1rb Jen.. aeY8r&l languasea wh1ch inolucled, Arabie, peraian, ,
H1Dda_t, DecC&llt ,( wh1ch la.ter developed into Urdu) aM. SanaIc:1i;.. He
f
.. ,. that h. had read -the S&Dskrlt book" and kil .. Hlndu ll1thology.99
The follovizlg 1a a 11at of warka ooncern1ng the external aclencea
whiC?h ar. r.port.ed br' th. bi-o,;raPMra,1OO as bav
1
ng atud1ed by'
a} Tafalr al-Kaabablf of' Ma1pd1d (4.539/11.44)
OD the Qur'ID,
b) MybIrM "l=AnvIJ: of' 8&41: al4),tn al-SacblD
t
(d.6.50/12.52)
Ga the proptl.tt14 (Q&dS:th) f
0) al-H1dIDh of iurbln al-D!n al-Margbla1n1: (4 .593/1197)
CD ju.riapr1.eno
J.
" - ........ __ .. .. __ _'J ____ __ --
.-... -...... --....
, .
- ,- _ _
,
BudaW't of CAlt bin MulJamma.dal-Bazd.awI (d.482/l089) on jnrisprudencef
e) Mukhtaiar a.l-QudOrt of Al)mad b
1
n al-Qudi1rt
(d.428/l0;6) on jurisprudencef
f) Miftil) al_cUliIr.! of S1rij al-Dtn al-8akkkt (g..626/1229)
on ph11ology.10l
g) K1t1b al-M1vPli ftjl-Nagw of,AbU Nlfir al-Mutarr1.t
(d.;?lO/121:3) on
h) a.l-Klti1&b of lta pj
1
b (d.647/1249) a poe. OD Arabie
arntaxs
1) al-R1dlah &l-8hust yah ft al:Q.awio14 al-H!U!'Vg%:tab of
Naja al-l)1I1 al-Dt1bt (d.675/3276 0;: 693/129lt-) on
. :. ,
" \,
The aboTe liat ., be iDcoaplete ln .,tew of the 1nnuurable
.. :n.ka popular aed.la ... i Ind1a.
104
Aa repris th ut1 11tca.tllt'a,

". lI1ght polnt out .. that laoat all tha _jar contrlbution. to th18
field wu. avall.a.ble in Iad1a,105 &Dd 1t -7 not far-fetched to
PL"_UM G'taUd.!rIs bad .tud.1ed ot th... Be.1c:l .. , ill
,
pr:MeIlt17 be d1acua.ing the poaalble .uf1 aource. ot ippJ.ration to

4) Sut1 sourea of 1nap1:ra.t10n
o
, Va shall be VtIJ:1 brief hu. becausa .a w111 .. tian and refer ,.
to the poaa1ble aourees of 1nspiration to ciaUd1dz l.D the notes to
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our c2hapters on his thoughtA.
Mentlon lI&y be ude haret of al-Junayd (d;297/909) of Baghdad.
whO S 1IlS to bave been th lIlOdel sutl for G!sd.1riz, as he was for
.
manr other e.1nent sutis. Juna.!d is nferre<!. to ln a nwaber ot pl.a.ces
in his worb, espeo1ally when GhDdirb wants to hl.
om argwaenta. At 'tl ... , JUD&yd in a Va.l that would
support hU ottn opiliion, bec&ue on tpe o:1e band, Gt.tldlr11; doea not
want to vith wbU .. , on the other be WaDta' to ' .
adher. to bla 0VIl &rguent.
106
a.id .. JUDayV., GtaUdll'iz refera to
J ,
11&1)1 other sufis, li101ud
1
ng Maja al_Kubr
107
(d.618/1221). lnn
lt la dlff10ult to sa7 whloh of hl.lw .. avallable. hoDg othen,
w alao f1Dd re:farencea to al-Dta ab! (d.612/3273), CAst. l-D!n
,
al-Naa&rt
lO8
,.entur.'Y), al-D1:I1-1
-
Sa.nI'! (cl" 526/UJ1) others
Tb. _jar sourc.. uad are _lnl1 the cl&aaioal worka on wbloh
, .
, , 109
G!aUd1rb hi.eU bas coap1lecl coaeotar1ee. To Mntion a few,
warka lib Q.at &l:Q.ulUb of AbU tl:1ib al-MaJcI (4.J86/996), CLl-TaCa.n-ut
, ',)-
11 Hadbh&b th
l
of al-Ka.lIbIdh1: (4.390/1000),
Q.l-8'lllah of Ab\l al-Qlal. al-Quh&,r! (4-465/1072), lCaabf 'al-MaQ;l!1b
lW 0
(d.. ca.465/1012), IhJI' uib al-1)111 of MuvaD&Cl al-
Chadl'! ("d..SOS/UU), Sa.l; ft al_CI.bqm of A.tpIad.' 'al-GbuIlt (ca.
1
520/1126), T .... :t4i.t al ...... t
c
,

"
l,'
'" ,

'"
t

L,
l,'
'1 _ _ '\
'J1<"I
1
". t5, .. .... ....., .. __ ,"-,,-
- '01' , .. , \ -' \
-25:'"
, -
, '
.
.
. .
, .

, l
a1-Mur1:dtn ,,91J
1
yS.,'- ,l-Dtn "AbU' al'-Subrawa.rd! t"
CAli!;!! a1-fo'.p.Clrif of Sh1h1b a1-Dtn cUmar (d.632/1234) ; '.'
t.a1. are referred to. It ma.y be that GtsOd.1.rls doea 'not agre.e

w1th them , H cr1tIcues some of -th ,' e15pea1a.lll when he "'
teels' thS1 are' poaaib1y th.
ISl&a,and" at t
l
l1e, he 6Xtracta than probabl1 na ',1nl
. '.
"
tend4lld.
1
J.2" B",taea, he -:rites tb&t "orb suoh as of 4Y1"
" b
'big a1=Jj1k&a aftd other of Ibn' cArab% (d.638/
1240) \" .. t hot atud.1ecl by .. ; ra'the th.,. abOtlld. prefer alc
,
\. Q
bookS lib 'K&sht' ot al-Hujwtr
t
, "1#.1 a1-
C
A.b1d
t
n &Dd.
\..., J ')
of MulJ& ... d al--GhuD.%.llJ, .
Actber ajar 1& ,.91 of Ibil CArabt.l.l4
Altbouch bad.:. cr1t1ca1 attitude towaz:da Il:D AJ:abt,\ he
..... te be i ....... 11' 1.n.fluencedby his dcctrin... V. will poit.
,. ... 1
out certain s1a1l&r1tiea in Cba.pter :cI of our present
atq. Hia 1n:tluenc. 1a d1acerned ,.1nly 'ln' the ontologioal :phiJ.oaoPhY
<
ot Gtaildirla, "h1oh 1a bued OG th. 1c1M. of t.heopbu:r (tt.i&11;) &8
, ' "
.",. 1,. the _hole. s1Jlt o't the Sp&Iliah Arab. lf8'Y8rtheleaa, GtaUd.1d&
atat .. ,
lf h. (Ibla cArabt) .40: . &liv. during ,rq age, l wou.14 ._
bl. 'COIUICioua' o't 'be;rond the be;rcmdfJ by tak1Dg hl. up, (iato
th. r_la), &Dd. "oul4 bay. reviyed bia beU.:r .
&Dd CODyerted hl. into & Musli ll'
. ,
,
. '.
c
, "

the class1ca.l coaentators th., FulOIJ &l'7Jilaua, 1fI rind
referehces to cAbd al.-Kishnt (d.736/133.5), DwQd b.
l ,
... i'
>J
al-Qa.yta-t, (a.7sl./1J50),O al.-Dtn a.l.-Q,na.w% (d.672/127J),
"and Fakh:rl'
. ,
, . ,
1 i V,e wouLi like to discuss here &rie!l,. 'the pdssible influence <
f,
c . \ '
of the ra.oua Kubra.wt sufi of Ali' al-Dawl,a.h a.l-Sll1lD1Dt (d.736/'
13)6) who.WU -the disoiple/of lfOr &l-DiD (d.7l7/1317).
l
Dr. S.A.A. 111sv1 writ .. thI,t" GtaUd1dz -1' ha .. been\,
o1
nfluenoecl by '"
siabt bis worka lib pJ..c
Urwah
llahl wa-al-J&l.wah
. ,
&Dd Chini]; Ma.1lia, and through hie. disciples who had. Gtadlraz
at Gul,rglh As w. bave pointe,d out below, llB' l1Ted about '85
1
prlr to Gtaild1rb. Both are crltlca1 tow&ma CArabt, bd.
- " 1 1
ha ... tried to :reMe the aaae id.. doctrina.l.'lJ, th.,.
J' t \
.. strlk1nc .1a11&r1ty, a.t. th ..... tl_, are theMelve. UDd.eri the
, , <
influence of Ibo CAJ:ab%. The pf SiadDt falla under tbat
Ia.J.aai.c ayat1claJi 1I'b1ch 1.\\ aa "unlty
of .1u ... in- (wacJ.!.-t &l.. ... IpIhIl), 11
9
," oppoeecl to "=lt7 of beiq'
-;;0
(vtQdtt al-wu;1!ld) o.f Ibo ck'&b1, &Del wt. th1nk that 1a Dot,
. ,
&111 dittannt ,r.ro. Sll1P1nt ,
!I ;
Nat1ll:'&J.l1, the. f1.rat,:-,queatioa 1fhloh co to la, 11&8
...-, q
G%aUdirfs br ,Slabt? Th possible' JIeaDa of
ba.v. bau two. tbrOU&h the worb or through th. d1soipla. The'
" "
, ,
,.
!
J
".
,',
'"
"
'.
.
f
,
, '
.
.,

;':"
"
1
-,
/
, .'
\
\
.
f1rst 'Ilea.nS 1s IlOSt sinee there .. no evidenoe.to' show
, ' , t,' ' , .
, tha t any of Sll111'l1nt l'a worka ha.. reaohed Ind1.a. during the tlme of.
Moreover, nowner.e does CtaOdlriz hi .. el:f' to S1mnint
\,'/'
or '0 Gts\1d.1rIz bas a hab1t 'of cl t1ng or to
,l.' , >
" of, whuher ,wi1;h tbem or' not. It '
.
c '
1& felt he woul.d. haye S1.IIdn't if &Dy of his worka vere
.. 4 l,
atud1ed by. bi.. This l.eave. .ith the alt8rD&t1ve' , or' iuf'lu8DQe,
J ( , '''Z'
that throp ,Sll1dnt ;s dsclples. Ve know that. br&t .... l
, .
S1 .. 1: (d. "S/lM2.) , who :took
, . t'raa ;.Ali' ta !Dd1a. h,
. Aabraf' JahlDg1:r bacll v1alted.
Q
the aouatary of Gtatkl1rlz at '.
..
. .. s.121 1 hee ln the' diaoouraea of the . LaV' lf-l , v
.. , )
that so .. , dlao1pJ.ea of Jabgtr had,c alao
. "
1
pa1ci y1alt tG G but lt 1a .. t ptobabl.e that thia yiait
; q
,p;tace &ft .. the aut1.
122
As far .. the two
'i j
. v1asita of Aabraf' are oOlloerned, th. tJw.ylCh hi ... U lapl.1ea
.' .
l,
'in one of ha letter that in hi. second. Tialt GtaUdi$.!ad &lready
. . ,
12 \
PI.aed &11&1- :3 In.hGr:t, the 0Il11 Cm .Aah1:af'
4
,t ....
could. ha" ... 1ft T1a1t Gulbarp.,
wbloh i-1llOt.. poaa1.bl1ty for the
a} tatl'if Mnnit hi l! gainlld ap1r1tual
knewled.a. troa 'acre he t'.Te f'roa &D1 ' 0 "" b'
. othe ahaYkh.
124
b} b: a the latter of: Aabraf ,Jahlnctr lt 1a apparent
, li> .,. ',,',
that he in" tf' cA:r&bt &Dd be '.e to bave
.'
--?
r
- "Il
1
1
"
, .. '- --'-"---
..
c,
: 1
-, v
, ,
.... .. r'!Jm!!'!'''1 __ ._ ....,., ..... ,(-.' .Jit __ ...... .,.., ..... _ ... ,.., .,pt,....., .... .. __ .... ; """".... ""'''I!llII .... I'!f'D_ ... __ .. _ .. __ ...... ___ _
l,
f
1.
o
, ,
-28-
, -
...
. ,
Gi:aM1rb 1n support of his doctrInea.J2.5 This .'Ult he w.
c
-
not'a supporter of philosopny. c) It _y-be sa1d. that
trled. to re:fuj;e Ibn I,n bet'ore ,:'
Ashraf Jahangtr, and the sam doctrInes both ln Delh1 and.

. .
ln Gulbarga.. Va do not find ,in hl. any major change doctrinalJ.Y., ,
tqroughout.h1s wnole .
. .
Ve,. that. R.i
zv
I' &8et5' 1 of a poIIsible
Inhueno. IJt Sl,adDt on GtaQdlrh la mther far-f ed.. On t.h.
th. of both
'. conaequenoe iD respect of the
i
r. tI.... Tbat la to .... y" that
\ >
the CoDQ,!pt of ".ity of bel ng" (ftbdt Al-iU,1Ud) of Ilia bad
such a s.eep1q InfluQc. on the rel1gIoua t.hought of the l't.h aad
b J
l.4th oent:'. that It produced. dlvers t'fecta. tn a vay, tbia
. '
.doctrine vent aga1naf, the Ialaa1c concept. of,l'un
l
ty" (ta-Vtd) of God. '
"-'tl.. .,.
:t'hia arouaed t.h. Muali. and. juriata to IbD Arabt
aever.iy. th. ,1Jssu. 'raiaecl. by. a. '.uf1 could 01117 be tacklMl by
--
..
thOli. who .
a tM probl_ This vouli1

,81.1ap1.1ty the 'other .'aspect. of the iD case of no apParent
.,; that 18 .. lD<S'll1D.1nt abd G%aUdiRz. I-t .!pl.:t1es ,
, l' ,
.s..,11ar peyoholoc1cal experiences ot' 'bath the.e auf1a, Olle in Iran and
"
the other 1a IDd1a.
l,
, ,<
j
',
i
\;.
f'"
,
_o.
,
'/
-29-
..
\
Titus we flnd ln Sldnt and GtaOdlr1z atteapta to reconcl le Shartah
&nd Wtg'ah by propounding the doctrlnes referred to as .. unl ty of
wltns8aing (wa.Qdat al-ehuhUd). Whethor waQd.at a1-ahuhUd is ao_-
;
t1ng different or.oppoaed to w&Wat al .. wuiad or not, 1s another
questlon.
\
5) As an author
. WICi,t .ta.tea that GtaMirb usec1 to cOllpare hll1111elf wltb
who uaed to dictat. four gr fi" vorb 8ot. a tl ... 128 HenrthleN,
ctaUd1dz bl.elf n l t.ea, '"enryons who traveraea on the path to 'Ccci
la beatowed vlth a partl cular Cod. haa beatowed .e wlth the
: =

. ' , 129
\ glft of explal nl ng Hia aecreta". !t 1s not certa
1
n, however, the
nuaOer of warka aotually wrrlttu by hl.. Aocor.!ng to a tradlt
l
, h.
\ ,
, ,
la auppoaed to pave coap
1
led 105 worb. The Tabtirat
, . "
aentJ.ona the nwaber as 125.
131
Sly-l Mug -d.t lista about J6 warka', 1)2
Wh\le TIr2:kh-1 IJabtb2:' quC7t... 4-7 wbleb
of ... (-.l:g1fIt) .13?, !t De aaid, .tboQ8h,tbat ..
Gtat'ld.1rIs a,. ..... o08plled .ore t.baD.the warka liated by hla biographeriJ
beouae 8. nuaDer of tnatis .. (bea1d.8!I thoa8 llated ln hia blogra.phl .. ) ,
1
at.trlbuted hl., are tOUDd. in' T&rlcraa 1lbnrl.a./Jf India. The Tlrtkb-l
;
41T14r" hia 1torlas t"o coap1led
in 'lh1 and. 801/1398) whieh lnc1ude thoee wrrltten on
hia to (bet" .. 801/1398' a.Dd 803/lhOO), and thoa8 vrltten
l ' , 0
;
\,
. ,
;
/
/
1 /
- ........ ,' .. .... -,:-1,1.- .. -, -......,. '"--:---;--_ .. ....
,-
-
{
- -
.. 1P .... .....
." ,'f"'t .... .. __ D'fII'JiIIIIJ:'I'JZ\ r CIU tMS0l1\1lft!'Ffii ... ]:t:d!!+#4;. ';;"Ai4'PZNA;tJa 4. ! __ __ ,." .. ..,. ___ '" _____ -___ __
c
-30-
ln Gul.barga. (803/1400.;.a2S/1422). We will, however, dlvlde th
according to the relevant subjects. following la Il llst of the
lmportant works of Gt'aOdiraz.
"
a) Exefies
1
s
1) Kaahshlff th!. vas & aarg
i
na1 co ... ntary of the oo ... n-

tar" Kaahahi:f of Zall&khsb&rt. It wu ooapiled. work).
It 1_ reported
o
that. GtsQdlr1z not.e another cOllJlentary on the Qur'in.
, "
wlt.h an approa.ch' a
1
a
1
l&r to that of Kuhahlf t but lt waa not COllp1eted
.. he bad to l.e&Te Delhl.
1J4
It wu; pr.suu.b1y, wrltten aoutl.e
t
betveen 800/1397 and 801/1398, ln year he left Delbi,
1
11) Tafstr-
i
'his coaentart on th. vU wr
l
tten ln
A.r&b1o ciur
1
ng C
t
aUd.lrs' atay ln Delhl Sblnt
tb&t. it. wu coa 1ecl trOll th. _uf1 point ot Ti_.135 -It le
reportecl that thla 0 tur wu Olle ot the .orb whieh QteOdlr1z
talJ8bt to hl. disciple, .136 It ... alao one ,of hla thr.e worka tha.t
Gta6dlrb ... blael! loua (f5hamt) of .137 tlnt part. of th1a
oO&aeQ'tar7 up 'too the of Srah 18 1& pre.erTe<i ln the Hlt
l
r
t
yah
Llbra.ry, 'oopy ot the ln tvo Toluaea (oo.plate
,
OOIIMIltart) alao .. ened)Dth. Of1'loe.
139
M. Q14va'i,
1ft &Il article on th. Luomow anuacr
1
pt, quotea puta oi' the text &Del

reu.rJca tb&t the oo __ t&rJ bu llt'e to -7 aboat au.tiu. li la u:tbc
aore ua.:f'ul trOll the l,lterary point ot' Tl .... VfO
"'
--
, _ l"
.- .. -''----'''''' .. _IfiIlZ __
,
\0,
lt'
__ '_l) ----, ..... , .... -."!"'I_.S'!!"!!"---= .... - .. - ----._ ........ _ .. """ ... _ ..... , "!!" ........... , _0_ ......... __ .;,.:-_, ... , _ .... .....___ __ ._...,.....; .. _II,.. ...... t '"
/
-;1-
"
'.
b) .Tradition
Sh&rl'}-i Mashig al-Anwirl Mashir
1
g al ... Anwir la a well-known 'Nork
4
on the prophetie trad,ition comp11ed by Baq,t al-D1:n lJasan
.,
G
t
sQd1dz wrote a cOllllentary on this work of al-Bagtmnt in Delhl.
.
W(1,t mentiona lta 1'l&JDe as IShirl:t al-Mashir1g.142 When Gtad1raz
aoved to Gulbarga, he la sald to have 1II&d. a traDala:t.lon ot the same
Mubiriq in 81Oi1.401.
14
J Both th... ';orka;are loat. ,
t:
c) B!oapby
, .
SlN &l-tfabt., th1a b1ogra1f17 of th. PropbR MUI'1'_ci wu 111"1"811
in Gul.b&rp.. ",litt n-lt.. tbat d1ctatecl t.b1a w:k to one
144 .
hi. cU.c:iPlee, Sha."kh S1l:'!j &l-Dtn. d The work la refarl:ed te bJ'
Shaykh Ashrat' JabIDgtr Sll1D1m ln one of hi. lattera,
lIhere he .tt.... tha:t lt wu on. of the laet WQl;'D GtaiJd1d:a vu eapgel
\. l45 - . -
ln, "hen be vls1ted the khing.ah ln Thia, biosraphy la not
Imown to bave SUJ:T
1
ved.
" ..
..
. d) Jur1a pgd.ence
'Sh&rQ al-F1sh al-AJcba;.1.46 al-F1gh 1a & .eU-known wk
of AbU. ljanttah al':K\1ft (d..15f.),61)-J The of GtaOdlr1z ata.t.
that he wrote a cOIlMntary on th1a u..tl.. of AbU ljantfah, both 1n
Anb1c aad Pera1u, dur1ag hla .tay ln GulbaJ;p..lJt1 ln the lnUoduoUon
.
;
-100 the Pera1aD oouentary', Gteua.
l
rb ttjat he had. atarted out. by
oOllp
l
11ng lt 1n Arab1c, but he rece
1
ved in.p1ra.t1on ta co.-nt in Pera1an
1natea4. Therefon, 18ft the ra.b1o incOaplete.
148
,
,
L
, f
.. )2 ..
e) Sufla.

i) ,Asmlr ai-Asrlrl th
1
s la a very illportant Mark becauae lt dea.la 'tr
l
th
almoat a.U the aspeets of sufism. Gtsd.iriz hlmseli see. to ha-.re been
proud. of lt.l#9 WI'l,t writes that Gtsdiriz alw&18 reluctant to
teach th
1
s work of his to he d
1
d teach 1t tt;,a selecT.
he avOlded expla.
1
n
i
ng to anyone th08e ehaptera
(74 id 75) _b1ch dealt vith the lnterpretat
i
on of the 14 ayat1cal
of the Aadr al..AarIr wu the -:k
that GtaUd
1
r1s jaloua of. 1.50 GtaOd1rh d
1
v1ded the _ork 1nto lJJ.I.
obaptera acc:d
1
ng to th. nUllber of ati:raha 1.0. the Qur t b.
1S1
i&ch
ohapter dean w
1
tb A IIJSt1cal of _ eitber .. Qur' 11110 VEh 1

en: a prOphetie tradition, or & eontrovera1aJ. topio. On the whole,
however, lt la A .1.0.. of l nforation regardlng 01t'D thougbt, but at
the __ tiu extre"l1 d
1
rfloult to Ulldentand.. Another a1gnlt1oant
aa:Pect of the Asilir nia that 1t ahows the iaportanoe of .,at1cal. v1a1ozus
in the thought of GtaUd
1
r1&, _ho devotecl a nuber of ohaptara to h
1
s
y1s1ona. It, thar.fore, requ
1
res very oat'ful read
1
q of the text.
GtaGdlrb i. coa.alatent tbrou8hout the lI'ork, bat At tl_ l.a.ooap:etulu
1
ble
&Dd cOllfu
l
q, eapec1ally' _hen he to be ao. :, It -1 H .... 14 tbat
.
AlJIIIr knowWce of Ibn Arabi's docttr
1
n"', &01,' no c1oubt,
GtaGdlr1s hl U ooapiled.' the vork v
l
th Ibn Arabt ln .1ncl. Ife t1Dd
, .
lrinaerable pl&c.. _ner. he openl.y cr1.i.1ei ... th. Shaykh al-!Itb&r &DIl
hl. 1c1 .... , whlle at UD1 other 1natan.. h. juat alltd.. to ao
..
- ------- .... -.. _,,_nnIl1iillW,,'.""".'
-
.. , R'

C'
'.
*
t
-,'
i:
,
:

(

,.
t;,
,;
1
1
f
Ut
Sr
1
i
t
t.
,
<
,
t,
c


-33-
WI(.i,t stat., that the vu written in Gulbarga, but the
qate of lts coapilation 18 no;t stated..
l
.52 , On the ba.sls of internal
hovever, We ,ma.y be able to deterl1l
l
ne the yea.r of lts compila-
tion. In chapter 80 of the !!!:!!I:t, GtstldiX'b states tht he ia already.
90 yea.rs dld.
153
Having been barn the 4th Raja.b 721/3Oth july 1321,
it yould add up to the 4th fu..jab 811/23rd Npveaber 1408 to lIAke
GtaUdiritl 90 yeara 014. -.:Hia son S. Akbar HWS&JJlt vrote a couen't4ry on
. -
SOM chapters of the A!.!!It, and quotes a.lso t'r01I anapter 11.4,1,54 vh1ch
1apl1ea that the whole Aa!f.J: vu coapleted when hf-'began hia OOIlMllta:r1.
, )
S.A. .died on the lStb a1-1kb
i
r 812/25tb OctOber 1409.
155
This 1.Yes ua v
1
th 10 IIOnths (bet"een 4th Bajab 811 and -15th Jmdda'
al.-Ikhir 812) dur
1
ng "bieh per1od. Gi:eOdJ.raz IlWIt haTe ooapleted. th1s
york. "It 1{ould det4JFll1.ne alao that the co..antary ot S.A. lJusaynt
.... nitten dur
1
ng the ..... period.,
We "lll mention here two couenta.r1ea on the As. al-Asrlr of
G
t
sUdlr1z. Tabt1rat al-I,t1l1Mt al-f1yah 18 A work vr
1
tten by bi.
eldeat .on, S.A. ti_111
t
, whoa we haYe juat II8I1t1oned AboYe. It ....
as obilerved, .000000lae bet..een 811/1408 and 812/1409.
156
, .
.
S .1... Ijuaa.ynt nit.. that he coapiled the work 80 as to u:pla
1
.11
<-
teohn
i
ca1 tans, upec1a.lly ot tbe A.aIr al-AerIr, vh1ch are ext:re .. l.;r
d
i
tt1cult to underst&.Dd.
1S7
Th
1
"ork A the
\ .:Jo ....
folloving of the Aallllr a1-AsrIr, nuaWra 49, 73, 76, 78, 81,
, ,
aIId. 83. Cbapter 9 of the COJlll8lltar,y containe 1nterpretat1ona of oert&1n
-..:.. .. ____ ""UJt'",",1I' ...... ,_" n ......... '._ ... __ .. _. _.P .... _ua ________ ... _ .. ____

c
:"
",
L
, \
>,
,
,;
,-
,
tt,
"
"-

>- l
,
u

JI/>
. ,-
_. ... - .. .........
-)4-
techn
1
cal tfila often uaed. in .,.t1ca.l. poetry. III ohapter 5, S.A.
a
1
scusses at langth G%8Ud
1
rlz' objeot
1
ona to Ibn The'
work la very 1ntere8tlng and lUuJIl
1
na.t
1
ng espec1ally in regard to
certa
1
n d
1
fficult parts of
..,
,The second oo .. the AarIr al-ABllir
l58
vr
1
tten ln the yea:r
871/1472.
159
It 1s &Il .ork, the author does not reveal.
hl. DaM. S.oAU' lJusaYJ1, the ed.ltar ot AllIIIr al-AarIr, tbat lt
.... probabl,y oo.p1led. b7 one of the d
1
_0
1
ple. of the gr&Dda0l1 of
d
1
rb.
160
Th .. t
1
tle AF4r al-A .k Sharb..1AaIllr: al-A_rIr 1_ aat1oa..
at a nuaber' ot place. ln the oOlllllentar;r ltaelf.
161
Tbe authar aYOidecl
OOlUleDting on the ohaptera 74 &Dei 75 of the Aaalr a1-Aark deal
1
ng w
1
th
, the ayaterloua 1e1ttera of the Qur' ln. H. then beg
1
na fro. the .1cidl.e o-t
chapter 76 (ire. 1!!Qt U _hu4, "!lE, 11ne 4, p.236). It "- eyidat th&t
th. co ... ntator W&8 anre of a.nd., perh&pe, _tud
1
ect th. Tabf
1
rat al- .
.
l'l111)J&t al-artY!h of S.A. ijU8&1Il
t
Hia eOlllleDtary on a couple of
18 not .uch dlfferent trOll that of S., HuaaYJ1
t

162
However,
..
the AH'I al-A_1IIr 1a alao an lnter .. t
1
ng eOilllent&.r7, ,but at \1 ... , lt
1_ telt th&t lta au:thor extracted. "\00 .ucb -.ning froa the text ot the
A,IIIr.
There 1_ a tb
1
rd. on aeot1 of Aa"r al-'a\adr b7
.Q '\
SbIh Batte al-Dtll, th. son .of SbIh Wal
t
"AllIh.
163
f
,
- -----..,...--__ =IiiIiI's .. "'iiiMI, .. ,..._
"
r,
" .


, 0
.
... ..... .. ...... ......... -...;_ ...... ___ .._".l'<..,.,, ... ,,"'...,. ,.., .. '''if' .... _____... ...... ____ _
1
-35-

11) 1j!wlsh
t
-1 9Ut a1-QulUlu a co_entary 011 the marg1n of QUt al=Q11lilb

of Abil t1lib written ln Gulbarga..164 T)1 QUt a.l-Q,ulUb was ln
.
the curr1culUJI of the khlngah of. G
t
sUdlr1z. The couentary ls
.,
111) U"i"lr al=Quds ,166 th1s wor,k, a1&o known as CIshg Nlmah, 1s focused
on the 148& of ayst1eal love. It 16'as coap1led on bis 16'a.y to the Deccan
ln 'Kb&abhayat (Cubay) .lb? As Gts Udlr1z h:_elf sttes, he coapleted
thla tr_t1ae on the of JUJIId& a1-Akh
1
r 803/3lat January 1401.
168
o
V&c1ft wr
1
tea th&t tbe lj&fI' lr ... the th
l
rd work lIh
1
ch GtaUd.
1
rEz
.... jealoua of. He fUrtber reporta th& t th. ,bay.kh ued to co.pare
. 169
th
l
_ork of h" "lth SawlnlV rt &1- I.hg of &l.-Gbas&l.i.
lv) Kblt
1
utu
170
G!aud
l
r1z co.plled th
l
vort ln Gulbarga. ln th. yea:r .
50? /1404,17
1
as a suppleant to of bis coaenta.rip 011 the
a1-Murid.tn ,of' 111,.' &l-Dtn AbU. a1-lfaj
t
b ai-SuhraW&Z'dt.
l72
That 1. th.
n&lSOIl 16'hy h. call. it the Khltl!!!b or Kblt
l
aah.1 J:d!b
v) MaKab..1 IJzdah BaBi'1l,1?3 tbla 1. a collection of tell treat
1
s8S
of GtaOd.ldz',174 ed.
l
ted by s. o.u,a' lSuaayn. It alao cont&
l
l18 7 OOIlMD-
ta.r1ea on one of hl. treat
1
.ea, Burhb al-C,!ahigtn The foUow
l
ng 1.
the 11.t of the tan treat
1

1) Tat.
t
r-1 Srah F&t
l
h&h.
d&r Mu'al&b..1 RIlya.t..1 MJ:t Tacll.i "a X&rIJIIt:'
l
Awl
l
yJ' J
J) lat1ga-t be,1'artg &l""Uag*9at, vr1t.ten in th.
1e&r 792/13891175
-----.... ......----____ ', .... i'_l_1H""t'jl' ... k ...... 'M' ..
,.... .f.l"" \ . '1: ". 1: __
't
.
','
,,;
"
,
, ..... ...... -.".. ' .. N'r ..... JIo:"r-." ....... __ ; .... YtJ! L :tif l' l' .."';oItlilS<1l ... __ tP __
1
,
-;6-
love, .
"\
6) Rls1lah-1 ManzOll da.r adhki.r,
7) a
1
dlah da.r Murlgabah,
8) ai dl&h-1 AdhkI.r.J." Ch1shtt :q.h,l7?,
,
9) Sharb.J. Bayt..1 lf!4at..1 Alltr Khusraw D
1
hlaw
t
,
, 10) Burhin al-
C
Xsh
1
q
t n, It la alao Imown as Sh
1
k1r 'Niaah.
.
y1) Sharb-1 AwEr
l
t al-M&cIr
1
r. GtsOdlrb coap
1
1ed two oouent&rie.
OD the cAwlrif a1.oM&lr1t of Sh
1
h&b al-Dtn CUII&X' al-8uhraward
t
The
fint. one he note ln Ari,bic dur
1
ng his star ln Delhi, and called. it
Ma
c
lrl t Sharb-i cAwlrir .178 The second. oo_entary vu ,.rit.t.en in Pen
1
an'
a.fter he l..tgrated to Gulbarga.. Th. 11&%" of the ooap1l&t.lon of th.
PCf8ian version 1e ,iven &a 810/1407.
119
vii) SharQ-1 FutP! a1-Ulkaal th
1
s work of cArabi 11&8 one of thoae
Gt.M
l
rEs taucht to SOM of his d
1
sc
1
pl.e$;18O VI
C
1,1 writ ..
the OOIlMl1t&r7 vu vr
l
t.t.en vlth a cr
1
t
l
oal approach ln Sultanpur
of' Guj&r&t) CIl the way to Gulbarga181 (betv.en '801/1398 and
803/1400). It. la unf'artuuat. that th
i
work i. not.' exta.nt tod&y.
, 1
ylii) Sb!.rV-1 Quabayrtya!u 182, th1a couentUy i. Incoaplete.
... It ends w
1
t.h the ch&pter tawakku.l tor q.o obvioUII r_on as &lao
obeerved br lta edit.or S.cAU: Th. Intrroduction tO- the
co ... ntary waa not vr
1
tt.en by Gt.Ud
1
r.1s bUt br a d
1
sc
1
ple ot hl. who 1
1 _, f F. -.-.--- - ..... 1 l'
, 71 Jill
i -
.
,
.:
:
,





t
f
" !

(
-37-
1
wa,a a.sked to write 1t. lSl. The cOllllentary was vr
1
tten ln Gulbarga ln
the
, / 18,5 ci L -1 _",
year 807 1404. ii ,. lIent""'OllS & second couentary on the
Risala.h cOllP
l
1d. by G
i
sd
1
r'z earl1er in Delhi, but lt 18 not known
to ex
1
st.186
187 '0
lx) Sh&rt)..1 colllilentary on the Ta.mh%Mt lof Ayn
a1.oQU4&h la 8.lao one Dt the 1.portant worka ot
It vu wr1tten ln Delh
1

188
It ls a very couentaryJ the
liere 80 bec&uae G
t
IlUd1r1z llkecl. the TAl1hiat a lot. At tilleS he
dieacrne v
l
th Ayn al-Quph, but he cr
1
t1c1z811 b
1
in a peOul
1
ar IIty-le
of his ovn by _king an excuse for,&DY axeessea of' the author. SoDt.1.es
r
. he wr
1
tes, "our Qqi: 18 1I&d" (914i:_l III d!winah .189 It.1a also
evid.ent th8.t the Prs
l
an style of ciaQd
l
r Maa .lnf1ueneed by the

x) TariaMh-11dib al--Muricitpa_, th
1
s la a Pers
l
an translat
l
on of the

. .
Idl.b al-Hurid,t
p
of' AbU al-Na al-Suhrawa.rd.
t
, eoapiled ln Gulbarga. ln
the yea.r 813/1410.
191
'B .. lde. the translat
l
on, it alao eonta
l
na 80"
lnterestlng ooaaents by hl It 1a reported tbat. Gia8d
1
r1z wrote thr.e
other ooae.atar1e. on the XdIb a14hu:'t:c1
i
n (one ln Arabie and tllO ln
pen
l
an). th. Tarjaub ... the fourth t
l
.e he .. ent.ed on the IIOX'k.
192
f) "lectll&neoua
1) Ants al-eU hshIQ ,193 lt. 1. a cOllec:t.
1
on Dt: the poet.ry eo.P"OSecl by
\ . .
C
t
.Odlr1s. The poe_ were collected by one Dt his d
l
ac
1
plea on the
"':
requeat Dt S. Asghar Huaaynt, secODd SOn of G*sUd,lrb .194
, .
,/
,
_ ...
.. ':!' ...,:. ''!'-' ..., '.,., ,.. ...
r
"
.. -_ "" .............. ... "" ......... ' .. _*_ ........... 1 .....t'.t...y<oIt\"' .. ........... -..". __ '" __ ..:.
,
-38-
, .
19.5 ' ,
11) Makttlblts these lattera were collecte4 by a AbU al-Fath AU'
, 0
al-Drn in the yea.r 852/1448.
196
The ed1 tion contains 66
letters of wrltten to his,disciples et. al. It also oontalns
letters wr1tten by his sqns, a disciple of his and Chishtr suti.
'"
iii) Maltflt (Dlseourses)a there ls mention of 4 colleotions ot the'
dlseourses of CfsUd1r1s. ho of the ere comptled by his eldeat S01'1
" ,
S.' Akb&r the thtrd by 8. QI4I a1-Drn Bahrtloh, a disciple
r "
of and the ooapiler of th. :Courth ia not lIent101'1ed..
191
One of the two, ... l.f!!IIt col1eoted br S.A.. wu ooaP1led in Delhi J
while the other he collected 'lot Cujar&t on the te Gulbarga. 1,Uhe
t
third oollection by QI4t I.lJI a1-Dtn oontained the, diacourses of the
1
Sha.ykh in GulbBrga. Hone of the molflldt are knOWl'l to mst tociay}'
! '
except the 011. ooaptlecl CIl the tI&y to the Deccan by S.A. Hua&1J1I \Ulder

the ti tle Jawlal .1-ICal1... The work ia very .-11 orga.niaed and 1&
chro1'101og1ca.l.l.y arrangecl. It begina trOll the lat of Rajab 802/27th "
February 1400 and eada on 22ncl of Rabr
c
al-Thin): 8OJ/10th Dec_ber ,
, ' ./ "
S.A. Husayn! etates that he had the whole tlork read out ta GtsUd1rlz
. ,
who correoted. lt 1fd. br ward. CIalld1rls le reported to ha':.,. praled ,(
198 0
lt. ?-,he Jawla1 containa a ain. of 1nforat1on on all aspecta'
of Yslu and i.a an laport.ant louree on the life of GraUdirlz. 'Becently
thia work bas been an&l.yaed ta ahow ua value in aenes
of &rt.1clas by K. Aalall.
l99
.
__ "'11'_'_' ___ '_'-_____ - _________ ............__
, '_
4
, '-

'!
" .
..

'.
,
r'

1.,
r
f'
"
.-
"
r
l'
i.
' -
14
-l
<


'il.
'f
(






1
Cl
If
l
2
)
4
5
6
1
8
.9
10
u
12
l
... ... q:,;;:_:;g.jfJi31i'i$,'"&S>l
-39-
NOTES Ta, CHAPI'ER l
r:
Cf .L. Massignon & L. Gardet, "&l-Ha.llIdj", Encx:cl0?l:edia
of Isla.lll, 'l1.all ad., Vol.l,U
t
L.1d,n 1911, p.100 .. ,
,
idited by K.A. N1u.a1, print.t A
Prlnted ma D'lh1, 188SA.]). \
., \
a ... uPE!' note 3 \ ,
K .... Niu.a1, "Gt.Ud.1rIa
1l
, iRoxcloP!!d1t ot Ika, nell , Vol.lr,
Le1den, ,1965. p.ll1S. 1\ \
Cf. !!ta, n. 75-
s Appad,ix, D
f
\
1
K .... H1aa1, Tlrtlsb-1 Muhl'lkh-1 Ch1aht, 1953, p.l)5.
Ib1d.,
\
\
\
\.
"
.- ..... _..,
-
c
('
1)
15
16
11
..,
'.
...40-
'/
o
ldell., of Is)all,"'''new ed., VOl.,il,
Le1den., 1965, p.SO; idem. t Tlrtkh, p.1J7. A. Ahma.c:l;, l ntellectual ,
P.J7, see Append
1
x A for a 11st o'the-ea.r1y Ch1shti ehaykhs._
& p1ty trt&t very little le known about tne Chiantis
of Khurasan. The folloving ho are the earllest worka ln M'hieh
Short uot1ces of some are ound.. Alltr Khurd., pp.4044; ,
Abd. Jb!, Nafa.b&t al-Uns, ed.. M. Tawhtd.tpUr, Tehran,
13:)6A.H. t pp.)22-J24, :340-)42.
K.A. Hl .... l, "Oieht'! .. , EnoYClo)2&ecUa of ne" ecl., Vol.U,' .
L.ld.n, 1965, .p.49J id , so At::ts Y4 Pi!1tios ln Ind1a
dW;1g tb! thin nth centLl. Al h,. l l, p:4. It '.
reported bat tlfo othe: Ch ht1a had 00 .. ' t 1nd1& e'Yen befor.
Sh&ykb Mu ta al-D"tn. Jlllt .rites that SbayJ1 Ku9&a-d. Chiaht!-
(s Appeadix A) bad &oco.tu1ed Sultan Ghunawt 'to
1Dd.1&, Ha.f&b&t, ,.)24. 'Another Chiahtt 5&1114. A.pad., kDOtID
aa ,SaJrh!:s&rwar (cl. S77 IUS1), a cl1aolpl,e of .wd.U. '
Ohuhtt ( ... Appu41x A) l1'Yed la Multu. Ct. S, MolnUl Haq, .
"larl:r Surt Sba;rkba ot th. Subcontinent", th. Pa.k1atan
H1at9Ft:l (1974),' pp.14-1S. "aG. and
&xpua of th. lihhtia lD th. Slibaoatinut", Journal of th.
Hiatgtioa1 Society, Vol.XXII (19.74), pp.;6J-64. K.A .....
ft , TlJifkh, p.142. "
J.A. Subban, Sune., p.197.-
"
,
K.A. lfiS&ai, SO" uJ)!Cts, p.184.
/
18 S .. Appud,1x B.
19
" c
21 "SOU o't Xhanq&b Lit. 111 Kecl18Y&l. ,
I
nd1a", St_la
--II .. a, Vol.VnI (19.51) t p.Sl. . ,
22 lbicl., p.SS.
23 p.S9.
24 .bis AMad, "'l'he Sut1 &Pd th. Sultan. 1n' pt.4c1lP,l:1 Mualla tDdl&" ,
Der Ia1&_, Vol.XXXVUl (1962), p.143. ' :,.
(
" ,
)
,/
, r .,,"
'.' .;:
, ,- '1
"
..... , -
, ,-
,.,,- ...-
, .....
-41-
o' r Q

t 1
,
. '
l '
"

N
V
S
'f1!t
Ati' HUsayn,
25
lia,.fd. S. Kanpur, 1356
(,;, . .
A.H., p.219.
l ..
.
26 K.A. Nizam.i, The fe d Ti!lles of Sha kh Fa::: duddin an-
Shaer, ".llgarh, 01955, .105. M. MUjeeb, . Indian, ,p.16Sff.
, 1'" ,P
t () /' '.
27 Az1z Ahmad, Stdies ln sla.tnlc Culture in the, Indian EnV1.ronJlent,
O'xt'ord, 1966, PP.134-l3r5. .
28 N1Z&111, Lye and p.105.
, 1 n b
29" A. 4hud., Der Pl'142. " .
, )0 K.A. Nlzud, .E.I, p.SO of.' 'M. Mujeeb, Indlan, p.l46, M.B. ,
ReliSo. Thought, #p. 4, 22.
1 . # 1 . Q
)1 A.' Ind\an ,
'1" It,.".
)2 S.A. Vl.lAYU!, Jadld C , '1 p.
1
172. of. Rizvi, Muall.' Revi vallai
Kov eut. in North ndia in th. aixt nth and 'ae"lenteent.h oenturi
.
1 3, . 0,1: 0 r ' ,
'33 s. al-Dtn cAbd BaSa-i. ytDb, Aze.-garh, 1949,
PP.55-S6, 82, 3.50, cf. M. Muj b, IDd1y, p.l3? A. Abud.,
1ntell!9tual, p.)4ff. 1: r . 0
" 'n ' C ' , ,
)II. Qf. M. Sban!, M&"41}:' ecl. ad tJ:au. S.S. lf&'dhtr
QM,rt, Ilydera , 969, p.92. , ,,' '
" .
.
36 For cletaile of th. S n.rdt attitude "'"tO'llarda th . Stat. a.. ,
K.A. Niuai, SOM As ta, pp.i48-256a !m., "'n1.su.lin.wardt'
Sila1lah &III! 1 ta iD! C "" 1Ie41-f&J. 1Ie41!!!l
'M_l1a Hyatioa and th ir attit.ude tovaria th. " 1a
1
,,0
InC1& 9rterl t IDClo- '
Culture" Vole.XXII' (l! l, pp.387-398, mtt (1949), pp.13-21,
m (19.50), A. Ialu,
p. v.4.' , '"
Vol.XXII, alao a .. 't. -Ah,!ld,"
o
)8 ll!14., vc.mn, p.l
" , , . '" .
: J9" CAbd, M. Vaai l, Urtkh:'1J!btbt, tranali.t., iAto Urdu
'. lk Qac1, l H.,
, "

j
l
.
t
' ..
-- --. r
"
. ---- ---- ----
"" ,4'
.. r' .. ....
a
) .
o '.

.r
"
-42-,
>,
40 M. Kujeeb, Indlan, p.l40.
41 A. Ahmad, Islam, pp.142-1lJ.J.
42 f.lci,r, Habib!, p.76.
4) A. Ahmad, Der Is1&lI, p.148.
o '
)
Il
'"
44 K.A. Nlzdat, pp.5O, 5S,. cf. !S!!..o, SOlIIe ASpects, p.l84,
ide!!" "t{a4rat Sh&ykh-l Akbar MuQy1 alSo.Drn Bln cAra.bt aw; Hindwitin",
Burhln, Vol.XXIV (1950). p.20. The wu later printed. in
,Tlrlktii !WJ.llI.t,De1h1,1966, p.Jl. Haq, J .P.H.S., p.l72.
45 A. Ahad,' llitel1ectU&l, ,p.J8.
,
. 46 S.A.A. Bi.n, BetlvaUst, pp.54, 43.
"
47 btr Khurd, J.m", p.4SJ r. K.A. N1ZaJlli., Some AS:pects, p.J.84, ;f
S.K. Haq, J.P.H.S., p.l72.
48 K),{. Babl, pp. 80., 89-90, 122-124.
49'. K.A. HIuai, E.I., p.SS.
.50 Il!., p.lllS
"
-
.
,:r _.
52 . Mtr Val! Khdjah Bandah navls ici T&f&1!!!Ut a'lr SulUk,
DelhI'} 1966, p .$8!! .. .
"".
5) S:04.A. Rt.Ti, ReVlv.allst, p.54.
. )
{ .
, "
(
S.e the wOrld-v181f of GtaUd1r1z, infra CH'.II, section Ba It
la of' tb1a rl&8011 tb&t v. haY. ca11ed auflaa
as & tn- ,of !!bd.&t eJ,-WUj\1d, lnfn., Ch.IU, aectlol c.." pp. 193 .. 194.
55. K.o4. Blsa.ai, lurblBt pp.19-22. Ble_here Hl ... 1 f la th.
, vor1c8 of Ibn Arabt reaahed. Ind!&. throug. Fa.kh1: &1-Dtn
althougb iD the ar.ve artlcle he wrtt .. ibat. 01111 th. nu. ud
, of Ibn AJ:abt vere ezpoaed. bl' "Irlqt. Cf. SOI. Aal!!Ot!,
p.S6. -.o!.. A. 1Junad, Der X-W, p.145.
"
, "
. .
..
a
",
'.
57
K.A. N1zall1, v ... Islam", Encyc1o)?!.ed1a of, IslaJD, New
edition., 'Vol.III, Le1den, 1971, p.Lj.29. '
/
.58 Sa.llttn; pp.)89, ,42.5-4281 14!.!.., Burhln, pp.22-231
o idem., Maqllit,. pp.JJ-35.
59
60
61
62
63
64
Vol.III, p.429r Sa.lIi1n, PP.389,'396-398J'
J .P.H.S., PP.237, 239.
1
Idem., !:l., Vol.III, p:429.
M. Mujeeb, ladian, p.1l7.
M. cAUShlnr, MWaMdl, pp.)-4. ThES ia a cHffetea.ce of' '
opinion rep.rd1ng the d&te of' birth. VI 1fr bu 1t as 123/1323,
ijabrb!, p. 7 Th. diacourees of' S. 1ahraf Jablngtr S1D1nr
aention 110 u yuant, L&tI'it; Delhi,
129.5 A.H. t p.J67. Min AllIh VuaaJD!' acr ... witbVrr,l, Talf.'t
al-Khadrlqlt, ecl ... tnna. by S.M. Barat, HyderalMd, 1 .
Ve foCcept the dat. unUoned br S6lInI bec&ua. he pute torth an
guJIlent. in aupport. of the date 121 A.H. aad. think ne 1.
e .ot. Cf. A. Idris QJdrI who alao u.kea &Il argwaent &ad
e nclUd.ea w1 th 721/1)21 as the right yearJ H!YIt=1 Baqd
h
-
vlz Karachi t 1965, pp. 15-22 , . of. K.A. N1J1&111, !:l., p.lll4,
thinka the yur to be 720/1320, fol.l.ow1Ag
VIOttI, Kb!Ij&h GXa!rUrI!, Karaohi, 1966. pp.28-29.
.
Vt:t,1 atates, on the authortty ot GlaOd.1rla, tbat Sayy1d AbU .
a1-lj&.l&n-1. J&Il4I (12tb &IlCeator of Cit.\1d.i.tIs) oue fJ:oa KhurIaID
to D.lhi where h. wu killed. H. IIP burlecl ln th. o.OIIpound.
of a aosque caUed !I&!.11d-l'aglrt 'H H&bDt. f!.7-8, of. Abtl
al:-FaN Min SSw!f.1 tt.,r_1 dar Shed Il al-ICu.l., Xerox
. oopy 01 th. lI&Iluacr1pt, Ali &l--Drn JunaydI COUeot1OD, Gulbazoga,
f.1S;' -
- , \
Thia, clar if1oat1cn -.d. br Aahr&! Jablngl'r Sln1d a rel1ab.
Makt1lblt, Dup,b L1bJ:uy. Gulbup., Lett Do.32, t.1l7.
T)ler. an wo otbar YUa10u te the .uru.ae Ctaliirla.
Cf. Kin Tal:!t1at, pp.6-1a Abel 1khblr al-AlggIr,
Urdu traulatlO11 by A. J1au1, Delhi (D.d.), p.237', A.I. Qa4rt,
HuIt, P.15, -a.4, loAf-4, Te"bJdt'!b, pp.44-4SJ S.I. Haaan, Dl!
Qbi.lJtt, p'.l,S6. n.l. ,
Hta ltunm ... 1bO. and, beaid .. GtaUdirlz, h. wu alao
down as BandlhllPls, al-Drn, vaU a1-lJt'r, For
&Il uplaDatlon of tbue .urDU_, . SI""'t, Mub&p!!!dJ, p.46."
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66
6?
68
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-t.
-Min AllAh, Tabtirat, pp.4-SJ cf. A,l. QidrI, p.1S,
n.l, 2, J, 4. Besides, GrsOdiriz had 99 names too. Cf. Min
Allih, 'l'a:bSlrat, pp.99 .... 100. For GIstid,iriz' ancestral genea-
logy, see simirtr, Hubammadr, p.8, Min AllAh, Tabv1rat, pp.102-
lOJ. A.I. Qidrt, Hayjt, pp.22-2)1 p.48J.
For his sp1r1tual'genealogy (silsila.h), see Appendices A and B.
{
0' '"
,VI i,t, ljabl'b!, p.8J Siminr, Muhumadr, p.91 of. K.A. NiZBJli,
E.l., p.1l14.
Sbini, KuballUllLClt, p.?, ija.'btbt, p.10. of. A.l. Qidrt,
p.29J K.A. Nlzaai, E.l., pp.lll4.
69 l!!!!.. p.lO.
70, GratJd1rh bad thrae brothera &ad a siatera (1) Sa)71d !J.U8&1D,
Jmown .. Shah CbaDdln (2) Samd Ap.ad. fiaghtr who
in inaUC1J () Sa1)1.d AU' {iwsayntl (4) Btbr Unt. Cf. J. Al!
Shib Alt, Xazftftt-i KMnMn; KpQt-Md, J{yderabe.d, l)l&.a
p.lO.

.
71 Sh&n!:, KUbpmadt, p.l). VI l,t, ijabtbt, pp.lO-ll .
12' na., p.l? lJab{bt, p.lll Shavla1l,
1J pp. 17-:18. ,
'
.,.,.' lJWi., pp.2J-24. VI 1,r, 1jabl'bI, p.1S.
pp.24-2S. Wloi,r, pp.16-l1. Acoordiq to &'
supp1eRent found att&ched. to the Khayr al-Ma.1Il1s (ooaplled b1'
H. Qeledar), wbion dula the life of Sha.1kh Nattr al-Dm
HelplUd, the aba1kb did not nOlliDate aDJOIle as bia sucoeasor.
It adda tbat on the da,.th of Shaykh Natrr al-Drn. Gratiiirls 1
waahed bia bod1, &Dd took out -the tr:oa the cot on wbicb the 1
Sha1kh wu waahed. He put the ropea &rOUDd. Ms neck &ad aa.id, \
"thl. la autnolenl .. & kh1;gah 'far R.". Khayr, p.287. 1
K.A. Misaa1 18 of the oPinlon that tMa suppleaent la authentl0 1
Ud wu m.tten bJ R. Qaland.,. bUMlt. Cf., lb&xr, ln\1=od.,
On the bula of the 8Uppleaent /I08-t of the' aoc1em aqbol&ra, III peel
of North I1&, beU8 .... tbat DO cme 8ucoeeded. Sbaykh lfqtl'
1'h., l.pare the otn.d1otOJ:'1 .-tataenta al Sllllnt and lfawt,t. \
Cf. X.A. Mlsaa1, T&rtkh, pp.181-188, H. Khant, editer's .,
introd., p.67, D.2, S.N. HuaD, The Cbiabtt, p.l.56. M. Hablb, .
Poli tics &Dd. SoolW, p.J84, lu Ahad, Der Islu, p.1S2. K. Mujeebll-
1
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76
77
78
19
-lnd1an, p.16l. The north Ind1an > 1s evident trom the
follOlting atatelllent of K.A. Nlza.1l.1 "grea.t as an organizer,
erud1 te as a sCholar, GtoOdiras did not, however, sucoaed. in
tnainta1ning the pan-India.n of clibtr sadjdjada.
which he occupied. The e1."'a. of the great Cishtr sha.ykhs gf the
first cycle ended 1fi th his master, 'Shaykh al-Dm 1r!gh
of Delhi", E.I., p.ll5. On the other hand, there &re some others
'who at least malte te the of Gtstk11r1z.
Cf.: M._ Ikram who refera to the contra41ctorr statements rCzarc11ng
the nomination of Gts!1i1r1z, found in the biographies of Grsu ...
d.1riz and Shaykh N8Jfrr al-Dtn, see his Xb-1 Kalfthar., Lahore,
1966', P.J67 and n.l. 8.l-Drn a.lso refera ta ,.the contn-
diotion betlfeen H .. Q&1&Ddar. and SlMnt, see WII, pp.y"l-y"Z
and p.490. GtaUd.1rk lI&kea .. referenoe to the 1I&li'Uf Khayr !
a1:11a,1&11a as an 1naocurate and untruatworthy ooaptlation. He
add.s that SbaY'kh K ... rr al-Dtn once re&d. 8. fn parts of the d1aoouraes
and thrfllr the. anY' 8&)1.n,,, tbat they gontained lIa.!ngaS wbich he
, ne'Ver' sa1d. Cf. S.A. iluaayn!, Jawb1 , p.l34. VI 1,1 .entions
that the d1acipl,tJa of Sb&ykb had a grudge aga1Dat .
GtsUd1r1z beca.use he WIL8 the favour1 te of the Sha1kh, l;Iabrbt,
pp. 16-11. No wonder, the Khayr al-Majll1s neve%' lIent101U11 Gtst:Jd1.rlz,
&n1Where except towards the end of 1 ta aupploaent when 8. reference '
1a aade to the 1nci11ent oonnected w1th the d_tb of the Sha1kh.
Heverthe1ess, 1t 1.'diffbcult for ua to deolde wh1ch atateae.t
(e1ther of Silllnr -&Dd, -Wi 1;r or of QaJaodar) la trustwart;hy. It
MY be aa.ic:J., hcnrever,th&t GtstW.rlz' serv1Ag the khlngah in Delhi
as the rigbtfu1 succ ... or of Shaykb NSfrr al-Dtn for l.J4- yea.ra 11&,. ...
be taken &8 a proof of his be1ng noa1p&tecl. Thia also shows tbat
GraUd1ds 1fU accepted. in Delh1 as the aucceasor.
Silllnt, MuQ&!Ndf, p.26, Wl:ci;r Nrttea that GtsDdirlz took charge
of the khlnqah 14 days &fter the death of Sbaykh NSfIr al-Dtn.
s.e HabN, p.l8
.
0
,pp. 26 , 127ff 1 Vi l;r, JjLbIbr, p.v..
lli!. '!:.tP.2.6.
Ibid., pp.26 " 67. M1n Alllh, T&btirat, pp.31-)2a A. AhII&c:J.,
follOWiDg al-Drn, writ_ that CtaUd.1rC11 .... sent to the
Deccan br hi. preoeptor, P!r Ia.1fa, p.l.52, cf. !!" p.J49
Sbaykh "attr -al-Dtn h&d diecl 44 years priOl:' to GtaUd1r1z' .
ea1gration.
; a
Il M
c
1. 81
;;
!Ir
,.
82
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83
84
8S
-46-
, .
There is again & differenee of regarding the year of
G!sd1riz' arr! val at Gulbarga. mentions only thS yea.r
801/1398 when Crsildiru left Delhi, JIluba.mmad!, p.26. Vi
g1ves the yur of arrival as 804/1401' ija,btbr
l
p.91. Min A1Uh
wr1tes that Crsdirlz spent 22 yearB in Gulbarga, Tab/sirat, p.102.
This impl1.es tha.t the yea:r: of arriva! was 803/1'400, beeause
Crsd1.rlz died in 82;/1422. Sa.yy1d AU 'fabl\&bi states bis
arrival umar the evants of the yea.t' 802/1399. Burhln-i Ma.'lth1r,
Hyderabad., 1936, p.4). M. Qlsil1 F1.rishtah gives the yea:s: &8
81;/1412' Culshan-i Ibrihrllt, known as Tlrrkh-l fUj.sht&h, transe
hy J. Briggs under the ti ta, Hlstou of the Rise of the Huhamma.dan
Power in Ind1a, Calcutta, 1958, Vol.l1, Part IJ p.64. The year
81;/1412 1a incorrect as ctstW.rh son ijuaa.yn1 dled. in Cul'barga
ln the ye&r 812/l4Q9. "H.K. Sberwani gives the yur' aa 80.5/1402.
The Ba.bu.n1a of the Deccan, Hyderaba.d, 19S3, p.l'l. In bis recent
publ1C&tJ..; hovever, Shena.n1 s.... to chaaged hia opinion
as be givea the yea:r as 803/1400-1', "Th' BahaniS",I in Kt_tory
of Medinal Deccan (1295-1724), Vo1.I, ed. H.K. Sherwani,
1973, p.l6). probahly fOllowing F1r1shtah, _entions ttl_
yfl&r as but he stat .. hia source as Silllrit, Taclbk1rah,
p.63. S.N. ijaa&n &lao givea the yea:r u 81.5/1412, The Ch1shtl,
p.l;1. A.t. QIdrl argue. for 9031l4O0 and aubatantiat.s It wi'th
aatiaf'actory erldence, lIMob lie '&ccept, ijaz!t, pp.6Q-62.
Sbt, Mub'aNdt, PP.33-)4. Fir1ahtah states that the Sultan
na pay on &l'1 exped1tlon .hen Ctsl1d.1r&s arrived. at Culbarp..'
On hear1Dg about the arrival the Sul:tu returned. to Gulbarga, and
&long w1th bia noble. paid a Yisit. to CtaOdirlz, Tlrtkh; FWShtab,
p.641 cf o(fH.K. Sherwlnt, Bahaan1a, pp.1S1-1S2.
See S.A. tabl,\&bl, Burhin, p.44.
F1r1abtah te. th&t Sultu Fl'rtIts ShIh 1dtbd.re1l hls fayours as
the Sbl.ykb wu clefioient in leam1ng. Tbe hiatoriaa la.aed.iately
&tter states ttat the Sultan, bav1ng a.oa1aated bis son a.a the heU
appareAt to the throGe J Bent hi_ te Gtat1d1rls f b1 ... 1Dp.
Gt.Ud1rb 1. reported to "Te aa1d that God bI.d alread.;T, l.cted
the Sultan'. brother, Apad SbIh as the nut klzag. Tbla al&raecl
Ftrfls Shah lIbo theD requeat.ecl GtaUd1r1s to .ove to anotbsr -pl&<se
a ... y froa the palao TlrtIth:i Ftr!1h't!!i. pp.64-6S. '- We tJl1nk tbat
Gt.ld1rIs' re1'wlal ta hw. tn. Sultan
t
SOIl _! han heen the
r .... for nros ShIb'. See a.lao S. A. tabl,\&bI,
. B1I1"bb, :,.46, B.X. Shern.ll, p.152. X.A. 111&111, .&.1.
A.l. QIdrt, I!z.n, -pp; 11, S.M. Haq, J.P.H.S., p.m.
Slalnt, Mybaap4I
t
p.35. -"I
0
1,t, Habtbt, p.1l1, Min iJlIh, T,Wint,
p.102. "
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86
87
88
89
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94

o
p.10.
l.2.14.
S.A . JaviM1
c
; p.38.
sldnr, Muh!-"madr, p. 16
t pp. 16-17
Ib1d,. ,tpp.'11-18.
Ibid., pp.22-23.
:,
",
v ,
S infra., Ch. II, B, pp. 113ft Oh..ln, aectlon B ... ,p. 184.
S .. SllllnI, I!'!ba!"dt, pp.52-,54, 58, 61, Min Tabe1r&t,.
p.)OJ of., GtstJ41rb, Aadr ed. by 8. AtI' ijuaayn,
pp.142-1 ). ,
95 waoi,r, Habtbt, pp.19, )4-)8, 62 . eaphulzes th&t CraU-
d1rk vu a sunnr.
91
98
99
100
lW,., p.J6. 1t la reproted tbat, du:r1ng a d1acusalon 911 th.
oppoal ticm. of juriate t GtaUd.1rb aa1d t11&t the onl,y W&1 auna
could. pt. riel of thea &ad. tb.1r oppaillOD .u b1 liY1ng lib
ud. aaOGC th.' juriste th .... l.... ... Abel al-\faqq, Alcbblr, p.241.
o c
SbIn{, "Tawa4t. PP.91 &JJd. 95, VI l,l, Habtbt, pp.S5, 86, and 124.
VI
0
1,t, UabJbt, pp.61-68. 8.N. Huan n1.tea, Th. Sa.1)1.d wu &
t1P1cal .utl t w1 th a narrow outlook aDd. DO proficlenc1 in th.
menc_. . . S&i1id. Mt)a.Md Gt.tId1.ras wu Ilot a philoeopber
nor a aaA of .14. oulture t but .u U ..... eraed. in theology 4LIId.
.1lf1. J The Cb1!htl, pp.1.s7 &ad. 158. S.K. lfU&r1 d1d
not Gr.Ud1rb. Hi. source a"_ . t. bav. beu M'.Q. F1r1sbtab.
Cf. 'l'ktJcb-1 Fi:d.abttb, p.64, Sir w. H&i" Caa'br1dt;e Histm ot
IDCl1f:, Vol.ln t Delhi, 1965, p.)9). It would be intenat1.r1g to
S.lf. HasaD. d.f1n1 t10aa of -t1Jical 8Uf'1. -. " -urrow oatloot-
&Dd "ac1ena ..
., 1
S.A. I$ua&JDt, Ja!la1 , pp.ll8-119. M1D Allih, TaM1&t, PP.9-14, 1
cf. K.A. Mi ... i, &.I. t p.11l5, A. Ab&d., Intellectual, pp.68 &Dd '
94\, M. Muje.b lIritea tb&t ,th. Sanakt1:t book probabl1 .... th.
:MabibbIr&ta, IDdiAg, pp.1.65-166.
SI'''Dt, Mubaltapd.t, pp.ll and. 16. Waal,I, Habtbt, pp.10-U.
,
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101 Cf. -Breekelman, Cesohihte der Arabischen Ll t.teratur, Vol.I,
Leiden, 1943, p.352, Supplement l, Leiden, 1937, p.5l5. SiminI
q , (Muhammad!, p.16) does not give the full name of 'the work, but
just mentlgns MlftJ.b. We, therefore,presume that he lleans
Miftib .1- Ulam whiah la a well-known work on rhetaric.
102
J
Cf. ibid., Vol.t, p.J51, l, p.514. Again, W1Cl;I
(liabrn, p .ll) only menti oiii 'the-we' of th -work as -MUbib "-
a,l-Nabw and we h,e lleant m!bAh fi al-NaQw.
lli!!., VOl.I, p.612.
1
103
104 For a 11at of worka refea::ed to by S.A. 1 the son of
G!sDd1ris, ee nUl &1- Agl'id, ed. by S. Ata lJuaayn, Hyderabe.d.,
1366 A.JI., tor'. introduction, pp.2-3. FC?J." & .are geneml
105
106
107
108
109
110
11.t of _ popalar during aed1.Y&l India, 8ee K.A. Nlzaa1.,
S_OII=._Aa=--....... pp.26,S-280.
Cf. K.A. lf&ll1, Sou Aspects, pp.27)-276. "
For instance, e lnfra, Ch4nI,. .ectlon C, p. 168
.
Cf. G!sUd1rls, J;Jyi'ir &l-9uda, ed. S.A. lluaa.yn, Hyderabad, 1359
A.H., pp.39, 174. , ' " .'
, '
N...an'. Tanst1 al-Arwab 1a apec1:f'1ca.lly quoted 'b7 Gratw.rlz in
p.26S." ' ,

'le aenti6n th1a aourca ainee it W&II on. of the baslc Wxta
atudled. 'by th. Ind1an sulla. Nlf1a al.-Dtn Av 11 yi , la reported
to have 8&14, Mfar the on. who bu DO sp1rl:t.ual guide, the
K&ahf al=:MabjUb la anough." Cf. K.A. H'-Z&Ill., !.:l,:., p.5S.
III 1t la reported tbat Ct.Od1r1s taugbt tbe-work iD Delhi. H. alao
r.fera to lt. Sblnt, Mpla dt, p."" Gtstld1rls, UY"lr, pp.106 ..
lP71 S.A. tlueaynt, the SOD: ot GtaUd1rb .rote a COIIMI1t&ry on
Sawlnlb. Ot. sa .. nr, Km"Ndt, p.131. l'
, ,
112 S infra., aeott'Oll C, p. 196.
113 GtsOd1rls, Khlt1Mh, p.i48, Para.2n.
..,
,"114' Probably Ibn Arabt' .... jor _ark, M'bit al-Makk1:t!h, &Del otber
tr ... tiaea ver. aw.Uable to In one of th. biographi.s,
the 1. aentloned. ct. 'II 1,r, !i&btbt, p.56, S.A. Ifusaynt,
Jad!i , pp.2ll-212, -21.5. ,_,
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115 . Gtsild1rtz, I<bItll11ah, pp. 18-19, para..J4, cf.. S.A. ijusaynt,
.' Tabslra.t al-Isil11blt a.I=Ufryah, ed. by S.A. ijusayn,
1365 pp.?I, 73,79. _
116 For instance, !S!a .. lja;K'ir, p.166, 'idem., p.)1; S.A.
Ivlil!.hlt,. p.n.
117 S.A.A. BlzV1, Revivalist, p.55.
ll8 Infra., Ch. II, sotion B, pp. 87-88.
119
120 Cf. A.S.B. Andrt, .. A.br&! D jabang1r", of Islu ...
new'ad. , Vol.I, p.702.
121 N. Yau.nf, KW'if, p.)67, 'Aahraf J&hIngi'r SlJ1D.1Dt, Maktnblt,
l22
123
124
125
126
121
128
129
Letter no.J2, f' .U7.
N. p.297, Ws aaauaed tbat rlalt wu a.fter
the d_th of Gts6d1r1z, because 1 t 1s stated. tb&t the d1aclples
oaaped ln the khlngh of GtsUd1rls by the oourtes, of his son.
Bint n1.tea tbat -disclples- of Slu1nr b&d viaited. GtsUd1l:ls,
Berl ..... ast, p.". But the Latl'if cle&rl,t _18 tb&t the1 ",," 'th.
disciples of Ashraf Ja
Kl
ng!l' Slan1.Dt (faqarl' -1 a.shraft), p.297.
Sll1111n!', Haktblt, .U7
rau.nr, t..l"lf, Vol.I,
Slan1nI, Makttlblt, t.ll7.
Abd a1-ttaq,q wr1t .. tb&t he uaecl to CX1.tlo1se Fuflll &1-
H11ra. in Delhi 1 taelt, AJchbir, pp.2lf4-245'.
ct. H. x..nd1t. "Sla1n{ OQ. 1f&t}da.t al...njti", CoUected fU!1::s
on Ialaa1c Ph1loaog and M.utio\ , 1ICl by M. MOr &Dd H.
LaD401t, Tehr&Il, 1911, p.99.
Vl
o
ltI; 1I!.btbt, pp.6)-64. "
GraUd1ris, A.aIr, ed1tor' a lntroc1uct1on, pp.l.-2.
1)0 K.A. lf1zu1, &.1. , P.1115. A.I. Qsdri, p.8l.
'J
...
.....
..
J
, .
;
1.5
1
152
153
154
155
156
1.51
1.58
1.59,

-51.-
'...
GtEJOdlrb, Asmlr, 'pp.1-2. The manuscr1pts that the editor
found had li5 cha:pters and, therefore, the printed text 4180
contains' 115 chapters. The editor 'ieela that l';'obably .. _chapters
74 and 75 be10ng to orle chapter; ed1tor's p.6.
Mabtbt, p.66.
Gts'tldlr1z, AsmEr, p.246.
S.A. ijusaynt, Tabtirat al-ItllAb1t:al-Sttfi:(!h, ad. by S. CAU'
ijuaa.yn, Hydera.bad., 1)65 A.H., pp.121-122.
, .
In the autbor' s tntroCl:uctlOQ, the. date of cOIIptla.tlpn la given as .
1PAJ/IJ784lir1ng the reign of rtrUz ShIh Tughlaq of Delh1.-I'i1l1p1t,
p.4. The ed1tar obeervea that this ... y be aD: error cm the part of
tAe acr1.be, and he augpata that the aarrect date Il1ght be 8JJ7/ .
ttW4, ed.itor's introductlon, p.ll. We acree tb&t lt -1 be the
scribe's .istake, but the oorrect date oa,nnot be either 7PJJ/1318
or 8JJ1/lA04 becauae i t haB been d1sauased abon that the "'dr
ltself' W&8 wrttten between 8ll/1408 and 812/l409. lnatead ot ,
Sbib BahMDr (&JO/1397-825/1422) the --could -han'
19norantly wrt tten FtrUz 'ShIh Tughlaq. .a .. ides, are other
inconalstenal_ wbioh point tawaxds l&ter additiona in the texte
As the ecl1tor obserns (editer'. introdlJCti, p.12), in the 5th
abapter (p.93) of the ten there are quotatiOna froa J'IIIr's faaoua
work, Lad' (l.'lbah 5) beginn1ng ftoa ..... as (line l, p.9J of
1 1 t to the end of the second quatrain, gblb kan!
l1ne 7. The JIJI{ 18 lIentloned on the A!l\e *ge &Dd. anether
qu&train ia quoted t'rOJa kd'il}: 6). Jild d1ed. in 898/
l492 and. be could net bave n1:t.ten &adlb before 812/l409 wb,en
he auat bave been 14 ye&rS /old.. Tharefore, lt la telt th&t the
yNr 700/ 1318 .entloned. 1h the introduction of the Iftillblt ia
inoorrect. The altematlve yeu aug.steel b7-the ecl1tor la alao
not .acceptable.
p.S.
l' 1 f _' - -
The *a.\1ISor1pt la p:esernd in' the At1ftyah Libra:ry, HJder&b&d,
TfI!'!!!Ut, no.v.64,\ ,
_/ 4
Asdr, Vol.II, f.514b.
. "
160 GraOd1rls, dr, ed.1tr'. introduction, p.4.
161 Anonyaous, Asdr, Vol.II, ff.J68b, '4-9Je.,' 514& etc.
"
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164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172 .
173
174
-52-

For examp1e; ibid., ff .J66a-J68a., oOllUllentary on chapter 78 of
cf. S.A'. ijusa.ynf, pp.81-94.
K.A. Niza.m1 lfr"ltes that it iS-PEinted in liajmn
c
-tls
c
R&Sa'il,
Delhi, 1314A.H., p.lll5.
ijabrbf, p.66; S4dnf, MuJta.mmad!, p.li5.
" <t,
Samn! j Mv.ba.mmadr, P j95.
1
Edlted by S. cAU' fJ.usa.yn, 1359 A.H .
. )
'
W& tfr, Jlab{bf, p.65.
GraUdirb, M'1r, p.185.
vaCti!, iJabtb{, p.65:- ,
,Kd1td. br s. 'oAU' HY'\erabad, 1J56 A.H.
.
,
aratfd1r1z, KMt1Mh, p!' p.J, para..194 .
Cl' ''-
VI it!, BabDt, p.67.
. . .
--
Editecl-.by s. ijua.YJ1T H,,era.bad,'-1360-A!,u-. ' .-
"
The ecl1 tiOl1 contalna il. t.re&t18., but one of tbe., Bla1la:h=1 .
Tawb!d-l Kl)awlt he 'wrong1;r bec 1JJc1ud.ed. as a worx of
It wr1ttcm Dy IJuaa.yn Bal.khl:, cf. A.t. fSaxJt, p.?-05.,
K.A. N1Z.Jd, L!.:., p.l:ll5 ..
'175 IatlQbat, p .. 2.
116 Hf'MbI,"p.67.

\ .
171 This treatl na not w.r1tten br GraOrl1.rb but, pro1:ably, on.
of hi. diaoipl_ lt oOlltaiDa atat.Mata auch .. ':fit,.., .'
W..h, son' 01',,8&1114 Mut)anad. rsOd1r&a aa1d" rie.,' pp.J, 4, 5,
6, etc., of. ec,l1tor"s introduction, .
178 A MAuaortpt ooPt: ot' tl1e text 18 pre8med 1.n the Darph
' '. . . .
"
179 . ilbN, pp.65 &ad 66, SI ... MVb 4I, p.1l5. ' A me
.. of th1s Peralan ftra1 lis F"erYed in the SIKr
Jang Library, no.lOl.o .
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180 Slminr, Hub&llIl1!gI', PP.54 a.iid. 143.
181 Vi
c
l,r, Habrbr, p.651 Mypammadt, p.115
.
182
o .
Ed.1.ted by S. AU' ijusayn, Hydera.bad, 1)61 A.H.
\
183 Grsadiriz, Sharb, ed1tor's 1ntroduct1.on, p.;2.
184 U!!.., Sha.:rb, p.7.
185 p.19.
186 W&01,1', RaIDI, p.65.
1
187 Ed1ted. by s. Ata' l.iwsa.yt1, Hyderabad, i)64 A.H.
188 W&01f!,o HfbIbtt p.65.
189
190
191
J 192
193

195
196'
197
198
\
Sl'!!rt)-1 p.293, ot. 2a., Aslllr, pp.49 55.
, '
.f.d1tecl b1 S. CAU' t{uaayn, Hyderabad, 1)58 A.H. The ec11.tl
ooot&1na, th. text of Xdib al-Murt"'tn &lao

1 1
Ibid., p.), Vloill, H&btbt, p.66. Shlnt .. tla 0I.1' t a
ocmaentariea, one ln Arabio and. the other ln Pta:aiu, !lpM dl
p.115
Ed.1 tecl by S. 0 AtI' 1S\Wa1D, HJ,eraa.d, 1j60 A.H., aH" alao
. A. Sch1De1, Xalaaio 'Llteturea, p.20. a. cr1tlcal
of the .ort, T .. N. Devare, A S H t ot P 1. 1 t
Poona, '1961, PP.29-J2.
1
GtatJd1rb, Anta,ccmpUer's introc1uctlOD, pp.)-4.
'0' 1
!d1tecl 'by S. AtI' ijU8&JD., 1:362 A.H. "

GtaUd1rls, Mlktgbft, ooapller'. 1Iltroductl_, pp.2-).
Q
SlaInI, 111!,"dt,. pp.7' &D4 131. ..
, ',' " c " /'
S,.A. (Ida! p.271.
199 0' M. A.lu, .. atwljah Ba,Dd.hllawls .. , al Ct. t
" Vol.YIU (1915), no,.), pp.lO-24. no.4. pp.23-)4, no.S, .29-,
110.6, pp.1O-20. " "
..
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fro'Phet.hOOd (nubmnfah) and S&lntah1! (w&l.lDh)
A) BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM
\
Islam del1ne&toa 8. cOllpletely trom the point
of .,1ew of His"orea.tl0n. On'the ether band, 1n 'His
J '
very oneness (!!!.lJW 1 "And. 1t ca.nnot be for man tha.t Cod spks to
,
h1., axc.pt revel&tlon or ,frOIl behind a. Te11 or sencling 8.
- "
aes.encer." (Qur'in This 18 "vhere th.' propheta (anb1x1') or
th. choaen ones 00" 1Ji, whoa ba& a.lected to Con"8,. Hia .. _ .. aga to
, , ' , ' . , .. 1
the rut of , ln the 'couri. of t1 .. , 1t ac.ptecl
ecbolara that. t.he thoqt1 t'ro. &lIOn, the people, hol.& statua
blth .. thu by virtua of propbathoOd (pUDtPnrab)
. --.. ,. , , ,
Do
"
. (). .
whlcb a1gnifi .. th.1r lHt1Dg in COldlUll101l vith GCd. by r .,.l&t1cm,
, Q \
ancl act1q GD ar;h 011 bebal:f. of God. ,Th. propheta.ue, thtrefor.,
who ooqld ut'.. tntCO"'o:r:a tor tbeSr people. The,. are repzclecl ...
. "
.. '
1n!.p1ble (!!t!!!h>, &rad 'th.y U8 attriillted v1th .1nenalo. powen
"P .,'
Sufia.! 1a beU..,ed to bave atelllltld tu1ea
11
1 trOll aacetioiaa
, , ,
(!l!b!l> aa a rea.ot1on or prot_t .... 1nJrt the _ter1a.llat:UJ att.1tude wh10h
.... to haft beC .. Jn4o_t factor in the Mua'tia
, .
nI,
oa &laaIIt aU the .. ot ut,1 -:peo1al1t 111 the ucU.ftl. pu10cl ot,
Muau... sutis. _the .... pYfIIl to atrugle ot MD to '
, ". 0
OYcoo" _t4u:1.t.l1ail ("" ...... ;$ al-gafa), u4 te the .. .
81cnlf1cuc of 'X.3d 10 011.'. own lite. III abc;rt, lt' <oll)J:1aed MD'.

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-sS:
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endeavOur to COM into cOllUlun1on "Uh God. The suf1s d1d thia by
trying combine shari
c
3.h (e:<:ternal aspect,
(internal aspect, . The Qaloah '
( )
l l .1/.,' , ,.
re:9-11ty. It was natural, cHaim for the::uselves a h1gh
v
\
sta.tus on. t.h, ,ba.su of the1r spiritual exper1e!10es Tht,ta, "
, they"came out 1dea:a 11ke "closeneaa" (gurb) to God, "a.nn1h1lat1.on"
.(fW') Cod,' (baga') through Gad a.n.d. such. They
r
... .. ..... proc1A1med to & very special or gnosis (ma. 'r1fah)
- .
of God. Explain'1ng th .. e concepts, ihey ta.lked. of spir1tual. inspira.t10n
_ 'V 0 ()
, (UhI!) as one of the lIItI&D8 to acb1eve gnos1a, wb1ch idea. beauu. ,coa-
- prophets.
1
sur;",
..
, t ' .
to the orthodox vas lheory regard1:lg The
, , ....A .
w1th Gad tnrough an intermsdia.ry. but the ,sufis
. ,
- ,
1 ...... ..; <t 0 (,l l' ..
: have coUUD1on vithout any $uch mea.rus, . i.e. ,
a. ,p' < ' \
' - > "'Ii!
J '"
. "
"Sa:1ntsh1p" ("aliyah) covered aU these cOIlC?epta and 1t .1' be
l ... t ,
.. id to been the very of whole structure of auf'1.s:a.
, !1Rlghtly 80: Hjwh-" "the 'prl.Da1Pl and founda.-
i ' l " n ,. f
t1QJ(of suf1s11 lalowladge' of.' God on sa.1nt'h1p .. ) The possessor.
, . ,
'> l' ) f)
of th,Ls eaoter1c knowleclge of Gad vas a "fr1end" or "saint ..
, ,
,( He W&8 attrlbuted vith a speo4l type ,of 1f,)
, In the sense th.1t he' was ur4er 4 0 He was
, , ' \ l ' .
. alaC?, &ttributed with possess1ng poW'ers, "wonder-work"
, ,
(Ica.rilna.h) cOllPfrable to the ,.( IIlU' Jizah) of prophets. .sut these
f
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-56-
potiers regarded as special gifts 'of God..
S
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These sufl 1d.eaa and provoca.tlve t once bac&usa
, "",OIlly the prophets "re regarded as po.aus,1ng such qua.l.1tlea. 1'0 put

lt in anoth-=: wa" the sutis b-eg&n to equate tbemselv .. wltb propbets,
/ '. 4
perh&ps u;Wrare of vhat'they were drlving a,.t really, at J:,eaat dur1ng
tbe early stages of developnnt. LaUr, ho.evu, sa .. af thea cl&llIled
a. h1gher statua t-thellHlYes than tha.t of the Tbe problea
1
, 1-I" '
of aa.tntahip, the:refare, ra1sed' mny 1aa\1aS wb10b baa1cally 1nvolved,
proph8thood, a.ACl the suf1a exponded. defenaive theort., sucb as
sa1ntshlp w the inner aspect of prophetbood, arul that a prOpht qua.
sa.1nt ftas tban prophet qua p::ophet} OtheJ:a',wha wanted ta
<
within 'Islamie baunda.:r1es, argued th.t, "are sulll;1ar ta
sainte,
8
qua prapbet Vu &lao 'h1gher thaD qua. saint.
. . ,
'\1 '
It took no 1t1me, 'for, thaolog1a.u au.d to
concle .. th&t the conoept of saintship in auflaa wu infact a. result
.. , ,
.1' '
ct the of 'the Sh!"! id. of (imimab) flh1ch wu
&lao 1 Ibn Kba.lan, for 1rta.ncfi!, cl.ea1:l1 states that
the auf1s wen 'bl the, dOgJl&& related to L.'"IImab, and.
, !'- .
7
, . -, 10
their doctrines lutte th}lS :'satun.ted wlth Shlcah (theorles";. NeveJ:the-
l:esa, l.t 1s not' pouible,_ to dtsrmi:ne who wnoll, but thls
pUa.uel1s'.i, battit.en' tAe sufta ana the 5bl
Q
Ia la in lteli
of to aboJt.
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the S1:UU1t' doctrin.. oonoern1Dg succesaorah1p" (kh1lUah) U or th,
rel1gio-polltical. leader of Islam ma1 al80 be o9J1S1.erecl as another
concept so.ewbat silllilar to wallyah &ad lmimah.
The term waU;yab (or wiliyah) , la the verbal Iloun of the Arabie
waliy! wtt1ch me&nS otto be close", "to be ,a fr1ead" t .. ta a
d
!litl.1ster" t
"to govern" &ad 80 on. In pre-Ial&m1c Ara.bia, the act1ve pa.rt1c1ple
!!i:ll Kas ta.kaa. to liMA "helper, fr1an4" eto.
12
In the Qur'lD, 9l!
bas au, Wied At, 1ilnWl.era.blA instances, for both God and 1118A, meaning
'\ " .
," ,
, -protectorl. ar-trand" etc.
l
' This tara, h01feYer, becaae very
t &
1n the sect. &8 1t fa:rmed the buis ot the1r' 1mJma\l
doctr1.nea, and later on, lt ca.a to be appl1ed 1n Suta ...
-.
\
Aa an introduct1on to our section of GIsOd1J:iz, \fa will st-y
the ooncept of wallyah preaented b.1 a tew important' sulis, so that
1
,
'-
lt wottld g1Te us A Te1:"J' geDeral idea ot the nature and a...,elopent of
th&"' problea. Far the parpoae we ba,ve- selectecl al-ijakI:I
, "
al-T1ra1d.ht (d.;rd cantw:y centl1r1 A.D.) who as'
r '
the t1ra:t sut1 to bave el&boft.tely deal.t v1th th18 problea in one of
bis cla:ss1cai warka: '!(hata Al-AVxl
t
, lJI, wh1ch wu the of ins-
, ,
1
piratl'bn the-J&ter sufisl HW}Xl al-Dtn Ibn. 'Ara.bt (d'.6.38/l24Oh and
'Ali' .. bawlah al-Slmraint (d.136/13)6).'
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-58-
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).. &l:,ljakIm. al-T1r1d4ht (d.)rd A.H./9th oentury A.D.)
/'
SalntSh1p (wa;li:yah), for T1rll1c1bt, la of tlfO k1nd.a, genenJ.
(al:-ea:aunah) and special The former 18
sa1ntsh1p of the r$.ght. 01: Cod (walixa.t 9Y9{!g AllAh), and the lat'ter
sa1ntsb1p of God (vaUyat AlJAh.). 15 On of thia d1v1s1cn,
. > " ' ,
he a.ga.1n dJ.yidea the salata 1l1to two types .. sauta of the r1gbta of
God (a.vl1Yi! haQg Al.li.h), sa1nta Cod. in re&l1ty AlUh
hao
Q
IQ).16 The 11:z:1rt:. type ue thoa. who eIlP88
in a atruggle aga1q
a
t carnaJ. des1rea. t1ll the, overcoM the1r mte-
As T1rm1dht "yS, 110 1a the struggle te) taka oontrol of the'
limbs tUl they are, eventually, guided and the SQu! beooMS tranquU.
17
Aocding to T1rmid.bt, 10h18 18 a long PI:09edJbtrt b)r the
'. . l8
of Cod, the saint 18 gu1ded &rld thws d:rawn nea.r ta Coel. The
, ,
a!{11;Y!' Al.llh a1p1f'1 the stage of beg1nners, for 'l'1r.I1dh1 gi'les
a genera.l eXPl4Dat1cm to deaor1be theil: stat.. The second. group
, ".rJj,
of saints, ll&JlUtljr .. wllxl' AlIih J'J&99, are the ones who 11014 a higher
plt1on. The d1v1d.1.ng line bat.een the t.o, gz:oups oflaa1nta, aa
, ' 19,
po1ntec1 out by a.e. to be the degr.e of ,.a:rness Ccxi ..
Once the 1S&1zrts ami are ctn.wn nar, they &eb1.v. the position
,. " . ,
of aw11IJ Al.lJJ;l. But then, thore are 10811 levela of a.soensJ,Ol1, which
l .
T1rmid.hl ,as tenbquallt1es
20
al-'ashar) necessary
100 b. achievecl 'by the so tb& t the 13 oOlllPlftted.. A.
, , 1
saint 18 full.y qua.l1.:f'1ed to b. of Gad Hhexr he' possesses aU the

1
... '" fi"F '7f41Zl1R
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21
ten qual1t1ea. Tho final l.evo1 'or :the tenth qual1ty, howeveJ:, 1s
that of (fardinlDh), wDea the saJ.nt la 1aola.ted. vith God
... -.- ........ - ' - ,\
In &1'1y the' s!gD1f1cance 01- 11815 in the, ach1eve1lODt
.
o{ tb1a b1gb stage of "isolation" wh1ch 1.mpl.1ea "onen ... ". It 18 heJ:'e,
a.ocording to T1rm1d.hI, that God. .... the IIIYIIt1ca
f
hearillg, e18bt,
b&nd etc. ,Thua, the saint. bave &Il i.na16ht lnto the fatu:re (gha.yb)
. also.
22
Prophethocd and Sa1:p.tab1p
Tbe lIlost controvers1a.l. aide of T1rIl1d.bt' s thought waa- hls
1llca.
t
t tbat saints Jdght ho auperior te pr:ophets. He -..... oc"",,"'"
o t ,sucW unorthodox v1ews &ad. ex1led. fro. h1s native town T1rmih. 2)
p ,
T1m1dhI t.r18d. to defend. tl_el! aga.1Ast saoh clw:'gea in bia auto-
blography BmUWlr ShI'n. He wrltes th&t he lf;L8 accuad. Hot aU
th&t had nevar occurred" to bia m1Dd.
24
,
1
'"'-,
lbe of sa1ntablp 1nc1.eed, as po1uted. out by
Hujwtrt, the basis of T1nddbt's suliam,25 and, of course, foller.fing
..
blm lt became the founc1&t1otl of auf'ta. itael!. +,1rDddhI writes that
sa1ntsh,1p 1& theln1tlalst&ge q! lIlean1ng tha.t a prophet
/
first :rea.l1zes aa.1ntsbip and 18 then ,,1 th prophethood. TheJ:'e-
'1 Oh,' aU are neeeeearll1 sablte1
26
a ... later
acc::ented, by the ma.jorlty of sut'ia. GeyoushI states that lf the saint-
'(
---............ -
j:-------' -
. \ > "
,
\ 1 ....... ....... y- ... , ....... .".n---.. ____ .. __ ... ..... 4!J.tkW4ylp;siPtth:tJIM,wa iX's 00;;;&1
a
shlp of a propht "rates hi'gher thaD. hi;s he ranlcs high8l:'
th;Bn as prophet ... 27 It 1s :rnsslble that'Urmid.ht mea.ns w!Jat GeyoushI
ha.s stated but it would be more logical. wlthout .an,. condition; 1..
the saiDtship of a prophet 18 hlsber tban his prophethood.
states tb&t no one C&D eveD COIleelve of tbe1r be1Dg superiar to th.
--- ...
. .
It 18, no doubt, pu:a4ox tbat' the saints are still
br i.be p:oph.ta aDd 29 Althol;l8b, T1ra1dbt h1D1Mlt tr1ea
to just1fy th1a prophetle traAU.t.1on by say1Dg tbat th. sa.1.zlW &r.
envied becauae of their prox1m1ty to and place . lth Cod ... &114. appro-
JO .
, quot.ed Py C.youshI whO" 1& trying to refute 'Attf! .. ;:.. we might
point out he. tbat the ?t"0phets the_elves bad been given th. sa.me
beatowed on ea1nta. Neverthelesa, lt 18 noi: so aay to dec1d..
4 . : \
wb& t ThmidhI actually belleved in. FrOJI the extarnaJ. point. of vuw.
he to bave emphaslzed the superiari ty of the but tha:t
was wbat many other sulls to do too. On the other band, the
superiorlty of the sa1nta can alao be disoemed 1A T1rm1dhl:'a
, 2'" .,'
The 1JIporta.nt point for the purpoae, however, 18 that 11J:mldht

was th. f1rst to have dealt wlth "the. subject in extenso, and. he was
1
the source of influence for the later' sutis.

2. al-D;n Ibn 'ArAbI ( .6:38 A.n.)
r , ,
(wa.l&xah) f ifor Ibn . 'ArabI as was the wlth the
-.
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,
_jar1 ty of suf1s, 18 the h1gheat stage of the JI1IIt1c. 1118 the
atta1n1llent of "a perfect knowledge of the ult1mate truth concerning
, \
the Abao1ute, the vorld, and th relatlO1l between the Absolute and the
worIdtt.)l It sign1f1es the .Aoh1evement of the states of self-ann1h1-
, .
l&t10n (fanE') and subs1stance :(bagl:') when a myst1c. eventual1y
\
on611ess 1n ault1pllc1ty and IlUlr1Pl1c1ty in onenesa. '"ln short, 1t 18
. .
the "conaclouan... ot the ult1mate and .. aent1al Onenes8 of Being
The here 1& in that
1
a ayat10

vith al.l hi. att.nlnrta .. & sen&nt ct Goc1, aJm1hUat.s hia.U in the
ultaate That 1a t,o 8&y tba.t he traucead& tbe le .... l of .enl-
tucle ('ubt1d.bh) and .. puta hiMetr in the ot LoJ:da!11p (rubqbtxab)n
arid in .0 doiDg be beoo... unoo oiOu ot bia 0IfJl sertl tude,)) but
cOll8Cioua of th. nol.ne8s of be ". Theref'ore, far- the

"1-
buia of Ibil 'ArabI's doct.r1ntt !!Mdv al-wu.. Aa 'AfUt prta lt,
'n'tb. diat1ngu1sb1Dg .ark ot will ... 18 gnoals '(.rifah) &Dd posia '
of .. str1ctly panth.1at1c charaC ex' too ...
J4
The a,yatlo who &Chiev
iauch & pOsa 1& o&lled. saint (w

lla 'babl dl.,1dea P:opbat hto two,
,,,-
a.ad special, (&l-1khtida). The eral p:oph.tbood 18 .o ..... b1q wb1cb
..;" i
,
111 vithout any 1utltutlO1l ot Lav, &Dd. thia 1& blpl1ed: to he IIdnUhip.
- \ .
JJ!be .pecial la ia .1:1r\cJa-r CIDlI' to th.
\.... CI 4"
It 18 wbat be oalla gn'8nr1 propb.thoocl that God tw.a Ilot
1 "
, \
c
cloaed, in contrast to the special prophethood vh1ch cea.aed. to ex1at
-
the Prophet M PI8d. This la ao, Ibn 'Ara.bI feela, beca.use
the DalIle "aa1nt
N
(!!:!!) 18 one of the d1vine DUlea of Cod, shared. alao
br 11&11, whereas the nue "proph,t-'--\na.bt) belonga exoluslTely to man}'?
The ,special proph,thood concerna th1s II&terial vorld. and la rela.ted.
to 1t t in the senae that the propheta introduce lan and. set, a. code
1 ,
of conduct for their people, wh.nu general propbethoOd.' or aa1ntablp
bu nothing to do w1th the world.}8 one the con't2:&r7.
1a relatec1 to the spiritual world., &Dd. 18 A special tne ot fiIlOllia of
God. '!'herefore t lI&1ntahlp ton. A bul8 for l'bD' ArabI
wr1t .. that A propbet U A saut 18 ae perfect tbul'bbaelf as &
..>
]!It'Opbet. Thia. he 1a the M&I11q of tbe tbat aa1ntatdp
18 b1&her tba.u prophethoocl)9 for' Ibn 'A.x'&bt, u.1Dtah1p wu '
the _oterle .,Jpect wbile pr}lhethood. the' exo\c'1o, 40 the
.... d.efinitelT hiper tb&n the latter. But lt lIhoul4 tbat .
,
thia 1a -the aue niJ aa far .. sautah!P' of & l}la.t 1. oOllOemed.-
,,' c
It not ..aD 1oh&t an., aa1At, 11 nrtw. o.f ,b1a 18 lgber
tbaD & pro]lbet.
41
Tbre 18 &Il upact, b7, vbich &IQ' .. aa1nt

lie repried. U 811P.8J:1ar to- A ' propbet. The> "pqea ... iq the eIIOtmo
, t - '.
kDowledce (OU. al .. ta ,At the ..... t1ae C0II.801oua of tbat Ialowledp
but the 18 Il.t an.re of tbat Imo..lqe wb1ch be hi it ...
la tb1a DT. the ouper1ar1
t
7 of a..".,t """ & L 1a

'NnertheleA, the IdDta &Dd. }z:opbeta 'belcma to the ... (lnup
becau. of tbek sa1l1tabip wb1cb la' A COIUIOD thea.
4
) The
,
FR. 1 Pl III
. .
,
"
t
1
propneta 1nlt1all,. rea.Use iD aa.1ntahlp, after whieh the,.
are chosen for the1r 1I1as101l. In this way, saintsbip wh8l1 it 18 quall-
fled by anotber special quaU.t,., 'becomes propbetbood. Tbis qua.lltl' , 15
perh&ps, the institution of law. But tbe saints. (ether than prophets)
also hav a rigbt to abrog&te Iala.a1c lawa tbaJ.1 t.ho.e aentloned )
in the Qur'in and the prophetie The criterloll for the abro-
gation or altezatlon, &ccoxd1Dg to IbD 'Ar&bt, 18 tbe Jl1St1c&l renlatlO1l
to ... U.
44
lIil 'Aftbl 18 s1YI.uc p_ & YC1 _t ... tG
the a&1Ata 'beoa he 18 eca.ua1olllg the. "ith Ibe p:oopbeta. Mareonr, he
r-' sucb .. 1Dta ... Jnph8ta.
45
Siwnlnt .... b&aioa]]1 "or1\1c&l towarda l'bD ArabI &Del wlU,
\ 0
1ohentore, " 1at .... t1D& te &D&lJse lIrietl.7 bU ri. regari.1Dg tb1a ,_
proble.. . Sa1atah1p 18 no 4oubt, &&&1D a YfIrr b1gb stace far hia 1000,
. "
not D&tun. ,It la the &OhUTeMDt of "bat S1Imb!
\ 1
e&lla s.oret ot UIlit7 (am vbiob 1a MA'. be1Dg r1chteoua
(tI!!ll) 1J:l oa.rr,:1Dc' the truat (,MlDah). jf6 ru. th1a la QIl ,
th. of the 100 atqN la the atage ot aervltude (ouDtIdah). 41
wrltea, the .1If1, aob.1e ..... the ,-PlUl of the on of De_", u4 h.
\ .
a .. (a.ta" la the r-.l ..... thua. he 1a qua.l1f1ed. u
r1bttul nao ... or ot the Propbet and 18 capable ot beiq
oalled. preoeptor (ab&Ykh), pole ot guidaDoe (ml) &l-irabKd) , or .. int
\
(pp>.48 :t'he 1ortance ot the -tac- ot .enltD1e 18 th&t the !W!
.
-_._ ........ _F_ __ .. Q_t .... -.----. _. ---,- .... _ ....
1 ,
.

c
or sba.yk;h sees the "one colournesa" (mk m-OSI:) of th. pr .... temal
world, through the sye of oneneas (cbaaha-l waQd&t) &Dei f1Dds the
JI. "reaeaberer" (dhikir) to be th. ..r .... bered" (!!!adhki11j) and. the
"obaerTer" (!!!tir) be th. "obaerved." It 1& here .tbat
. he f1.nda hia '!.ap1r1t
tt
De s1a1lar to the of the Prophet MWJa."d.
50
This 18 lfbat, presuably, ll8ILU br "achlevlDg the pearl",
bec&uae the ex1ateno. al :the Propbet MWJa_d 18 terMd "unique pearl"
/?
(durr 8th) .51 Thenf:e, f: SbmlDt, th. 1d.e& of 11&11$ ooutltutea
&ll the aDon
Ve a1ght J01D.t out bc"e th ... 10 at le&at
wardl.:r. Nt ... I1IIl '.uabt &Dd. S1MIDI: th. aotual'satlOtt oT
aa1atahlp. ba., en above tbat, 'aoo:dlac to Ibo '!rabt, aa1Iltablp
. .
"
18 a atap 1fbea th.'.,.-t1c beeo ... of bia .en1t ... (cvl!Pdtyah)
and. p1&o .. bS:--ll the plt101l of Ld.ablPI thua .,1ewa _ .... of
be1DC. OB th. OOD'tra.r7, accordh.& te the a1lf1 beco ...
) J
of bl8 aerrlt1llle (!:Iah!H,b 1 th. bec1zm1Dc &ad. tb. eDC1 of bu ap1r1tual
joum.1. Th1a 1a th. re&aOIl wb)- h. .QbU1s .. that 011. &Oh1ena OD th1a
stage th. "pearl of the oron. of Il..4'' How..,er, the proble. 18 tbat
}S1dal" ,.t. }lnbabl7, li)' the vhl'!!!'h aoaeth1Dc oth .. tball the
bQdIph fit Ibis eA.ztt.bt, &Del, th. latter tao, ..ua
-.twi_ tMM wo t.na. As ...... ei. ltJ Prof ..... H. /' ..
..
Ludolt, there are iDdee4 r .. ooa t.o th1D.k tbat. S1lmEDt
t
s .. oteJ:1c aOAcept
, ,
'ot "aa1Dtahlp- (glIY&b. Ilot v111X1b) q_ cU.,h 1a vbBe hia
, \.
newMeta ttat of Il. 6Aft."', 1up1<te fit b1a f.t'8ft Cl'1<t1e1a. fit the If
" 1
_. __ ...... ';,..,,._l'+_J''"''''''''_';$ISUI..,. ... ,.... __ .... M .. _. _.,...,.._ ..... , ...... ..., .. tdit .......... ... "_IN""'" ""]j'!PI __ b .... 'i""!!l'_;R __ ____ .. .... ..,- ___ . _,_, __ "
c
-65-
WalID! and wll1xah
.SilIInInt the lettera of nulnDnra.b and. waliYah*
thua aJtea
J
a diatlnctlQ,Cl wal&$ and 1flli$.5J It MT be said
tbat tb1a d1.tinotlon 18 pr u.bly bued 011 the speculation of JfajJl
al-Dh a1-KuD (4.618/1258) OVE the ",It (aUf), .. ..
.
of the w:da al.:a9!!!. 1C1lbr& nlt .. tbat .1pUl_
, .
alde., a1pU1ea -.rth, wb1J.e "1" . (wlw> aip1flee tbat wb1ah 1& lA
'betlfeeD the sa.
S1dDl 1uiata tbat tara wll1nt aboul4. be uecl in cu. of
... .1nta bec&lIH glln.t repnsuta the }IrOpbeta. The OOllaClll cleAoa1Dator,
_. ta _ttO.. al: B1nait,. (!!l!IIlIUt> 1Ib1oh fiDt ntlecta
ln propheta u4 th_ 18 pasMet. on to the people (UPIh). He wrltea' tbat
... tlOD 1. puud t%tSa the .llf of !1lh1nt. to the d!. walIDt.
V'
. It la then rece1nd. br da. of ,nu1!u!!!at &Del ca lt goea to the !!!!.
of vll1za}.


of

(e ... '!l')\)
i
""
!I!.
t-,l,)
-KaS )
"' '\


DIa.
(c.:>y)
of .
zatltnanrat

!I!. <. ",\,,)
of
-!.Hat
)

,/
1
1 un 9' FI bd rIA
',-1"",t? 1
. ...t. ," .... "' ... ' " , ,.
",
...
... 1
,
1

-
.J
. , ,
_Ii fut ... "".. Hb .... ,.;::e ..(t_& Di HL !! !!!Ils
1
b ....
. -66-
Silmlnt exp1&11U1 that tbrough the !!In of nubu1nrh a prophet ofi'era
.
guidaDce to the oroation. Through the !!I!!. oi' 'the aQ! of nUDuwwab the
foUowera reaeive .-.nation. Thua representa propheta, and.'
, <.
1f1l1yah repreaen'ta saints.

SiJldn% 1& &.e:tually 100 prewe "th&t 18
h1her than aa1lltah1p. 'l'bat 18 th. r-..on why he lD1nP iD th1a
, -'
bftw .. aJ.IDb: ADIl wUlm. S1Jmb%'. .pecula:t.1 1. in or1- >0 ",
101018. 100 s..4 .Ijudl1ab (4.65O/1252? wbo .... to baYe aaJ.d.'
aa1atab,1p 18 hiFe tbu p:oJIbethoql beca.e it la olCMler te ulIIb%at.
Sad, &l.-Dtn cU4 Dot baft 1f1ll.t&t, tbough, iD, hi. apeoulat_. ache_.
56
Jinertheleaa, ,_lIu1= &Dd. 1llat an the ...... nat1on, eTea, for
Ss.&D%, &l1:.hoqb h. cUat1Du1ahe. Morewer, hl., 411at1Ac-
\ ....
, .
t10a u.. caq 1Il the appl1oat1G1l ot -"e 10 __
Propbttbood ""' S&1p:t.ah1p
1
'51"';". apeculatiCMl OD "the lat-tera oi !&lIyah &Ad. RUbmnrah,
, J
obdoalJ' aDIl los1cally wo, Il ... tbe 1apr ... tbat glIDt., 1t Det
.11Izat Sa h1cMt tbaa ppbpg1o. He, tbanta:r:e, fel10 the lIMCl to
ellpbaaise tba10 110 1. 1OIII to derl.ft .1ICb & 00IlC1U81. ae "'p, "a1th01lCb
da t4 q,bwnri.t a""iata (g-I'1a) "Eoacb tbe di ot 9
llT
:, lt. _t Ilot'
be thoqht. tbat the ,!!l'Dt ot & 1a 'b1&hcr tbu bh D..:....1o."!/!
'l'b1a clarit'1Qat1oa .... a1'" at s..cl al-D!a but S'''llIt
" ., , <
bad alao 1. 1A aW., 1fbR he crS:t.1ois .. a.l.IaM1o 1'U18Cl1&"11. III
r
f
,- __ .. --'"'l'.-n ............. II
&
1
fJ
J
c
-;:-

,,.
1
f'
,
Ir
l,
'f
)

a
his Ibn CArabl COIlPlJ:'ea 8&1ntahip' to. pt' phet- .
hood to aUver, iaplying tQa,t the foaer -1s to th. latt
reacta to thu coa,Pa2:iaon, "far the Suf1a (.hl, ... :
/
... C
a1
) 18 purer atrOilger thu goldJ 1t' 18 onl1for,tb
, externa11ata (ab1 ... 1 db1r) that gold 18 aup.rlort,.59 "
'- .
shtalnt .,re .. with hi ... ter Itk al-l)1II (
1)11) tbat trOll the poiDt '(If yin !barrait ODe aigbt 8&1 tMt aa1Ilt- \
. ..,.
ahip 1a h1cbm: tD ID otbtr "U, lt, 18' GIJ a
.. ter. the l&n (!bElon) l&1c1 don bJ tbat. 18' .
" .
. ,
1n1t1&t4Ml 'OG th. JI1IRlo path (iVJ.g&j). rro. th. po1at ot Y1aw 0 \
o '

r WJgat, boIrenr f 18 h1pe:r beoau. __ ._ J:e&OhU
\ . ,
lut t&p ot the path, h1a spirit reewlell the .,.. of the

, !ha, the -.,1ac - the end. ot .. '" ta the bec'ftaiag e'l Jh'....-.... - -
riptq .. hce.
60
/
,

he tries tG be .. thoclGz .. posaible. "ror b1a tOo; ,
adDtabip 18 the srOUAd. far all p:oJb .... 4 .....4ta. ......,.
'PI:Otut 18 DecMII'lrl17 a ..1.t bat Dot Ylo ........ 61
ah!p 1a the .. J:'1JrterI&l 'of ,.aU It '.., \MI l&1ct.
- , 1
o '
thoap, tbat w11b &l.l. .b1a ,tt .. pta te " iD 11D. wltti":tb040X7t Sl .... %
'" , .. t
63 ,.
ooapar1q th. _1ata toi pt'Op.ta ..... P--JIB he o-
,
. .
, \
a1d.era the aaJaata .ftIl,b
1
pC" tbu' the JR"OPbeta lOf lIa:l, tboqtl he do..' "
_ o.
'" ,...." r
IlOt -7 ao apeo1t1o.
1
V. It 'abo.ul4 be tbat. 'tb8'.PJ:olIb,et. MaIp_4
1
. \
\ :
\
"
,fi
''', " ..
.'
.
)
c
'.
" L

i
,
'
.
<1
,)
()

.

.
.
.
III
..

"0
" i'
,
-":: ';
L blIIt ft &4 ,MM.C4
. ,
f. 'r
\
-68-
hol.da th;e h18b_t poe 1 tlan ln COa}l&1:1aOD to .&rUer propheta, &ad lt
, 18 onl1;'tbrough the bless1ng (barakab) 8howered. bacauae of toUoW1Ag
him a persan beeo.es a . et10ugh, & sba.xkh
18 'to the Prophet alBo.
65
But he can, neTer be
J - \,-
cons1dered h1gher thlul tl1e Prophet of Islali.
"
, '
, ",
...
\
;
1 ...
" ','
.'
" ....
. -
....
li
)
o
, '
..
.It.:
(


1
..
' .
\
..
'.
..
Q
,1

f
.........,., ".-. ......... ... ..,."'tf ... ... ::. n ._ ..... ). "'. ... .-..' ., ...... .., (!
t'
-69-
, "
.
. .
, /
...... ..,.. <i
.' .
,- .
. ' !
" B) CISODIRn ON PjlOPHETHOOD AND SA'INTsHIP
f" {j
f;
J,
; 1
1
,J
.'
Il
, 1
'l' '( Il',''
';! (; " 1, i
-) I/.I " /,
\; ,1 If
t,
(' "
, '
1 ) . PROPRET Al'ID f.'IYSTIC HA .. 'fI! {SAnIT)
1 4
, J
The problem of walayah, a.S W9 have seen above, 'Was ot the
ba.sic and important cQncepts deve10ped by sufis.
. '
It to, be Vi'W'ed alongside
, the idea ott nubuwwah, f'or it \>laS mainlY. becuse ot the 9quation of saintship
J , , .... (j
., /'" - l'
, (waliyah) with (nubuwwah) the do01;.rine of' 'w&s
"
100ked ppon with Bl19Picis eyea by the and 1gal schools ot
, - '
Islam .. ,
_ " 1(:..*_ ... ,.J. c , (
'This concept haB &lac been discrusaed, therf}f'ore t by the,
,. ". '
,Stis'i It' may be noted th&t i t was not as controversial a tapie o"t discUssion
" Q
amODg su:f'i's ot the aub-continent, as en in: the -
, "i?....;' 1 ., 1 ... 1.
o'entur,y'A.D. al-DI:n Awltyl.' (d .. 726/1325)
. \
.bas disussed' the of but in a. W&T_ign_
,. ,
. th' concpt of prophetbood.
66
Sbaykh Na,Ir (d.m/l'56)
/'
o
discussed it, but he cleals a1so, though superf'ic1ally, the crux ct the 0
'}. 1< "- ; - 1. ?
" 'prOblem, tran the, po:fnt - ct . , : (d.8as1 .
1422) \f.1 a' more "elabora:te of' the probltm, . ing 1 trom almoat
: 1
flVerl angl:e .. This wu ,th,e resul t ot a major cbange 1li rf'1a1OUS,
, ct the "period under and thia change wu due' te th<-e
, \ " 68
1.n:tiltl'at1a1?- ct the doctrines of Ibn Aral:)I, into Inct1a.
-' \
0
, ,
\ 1
1)' 1 JJ il' .
How tar the ideas of' Ibn CArabI in Indien S\lfi
. '
t and eventully apread in the cClIIIDImi ty, i8 d1acerned pres.nUt U'1f
f '.. l ". '/. (.;", ......
:tar as the' doctrine ot saintah1P 1a concerned,' when one anal.7.",a latter of
-;, ' , -.
;" ,',' l .... ta aD.f>ther em1nel1t "l"ll4 Bq,69 (d.SOO/139'7-98).
"
. '"

"
i....
,0
r-
,}
'\
..,
. \
..
-70-
o
;
clari!ying his own stand on the problem 'Of prophethood and saintship. The,
1
J '
reply of ls arso signH'1cant, in th1s regard. As go into
c
of the views of Gisd1raz later, we will point out'here only that
\ ,'" .. '"
maintains i.. t.1is letter to tI.ascd' Ba.k that safutship
. '
i5 superior p aven the mystical stage of saints ls '
, ' ,
than that of prophets, 'or rat:p.er, of'th'e Prpphet !,:u..l:lammad.- He a),so '
, ,J "'>. ,
that a saint
J
preceded the
(wali) regarded superlor to a prophe+. who
- ..
, --,
Prophet but only if consld,ered relat1velY ,
'that 1a, by virtue of being the t'ollower ot' the Prophet. But
, enoush G1oiidiri. oaUs .. QIvp).
this,,1s not so in at least in the seoond The i-eal
peint seems to be: a), 1s t'rem point 0: view ,,"God" ,
the eternal'uncreated or1g1n, of (or Perfect Light'
,.J \!.\' t'
of macrocosm. e;to.); b) frem the poi.J;1t 1- view of "veat1ol}",
. .,., " ,)
1s man-in ... the-wozlld, prophethood 1s super10r, sinee '1t 1a the ult_te 1m 'P
,\ .. .
.... - ,
of t11:e preeeos wh10h 1s, the ,myst1c,ai ot bath a.nd. man.
\
'"
"
, - ", "
ci. A ',) .... l ',> f. ..
Mas Ud Balt agrees w1 th Gi8diriz only ,as ":t'ar as Il rophethOod 1a
, ,
:
the higber he goes . .on te orit1oist. He"'\l _
,j)' .
, 'wrttes that eons:1dering a saint h1gher in poait:$.on to a Propbet, g\'oauae he 1a '
... ,_ .. co _.
;::
uot ... the 1a, due to his 1Jidul.genc witb .
- reatiJ;m (khalg), 18 aocording ta the. agreement
'\, ,
the- myhi'USQ and ul'P' ,11. Holding that tbe Prophet M''2''"-d and the saintS'
, J
,<,
his people are superior to the p l'Opheta . 1s bel1et 1s eontrar,v
the ' oreed ,ot the' Sunnites. CWt Bak 18 implring that 1:t; 1s tl1.
-,
,
, ,
..
,
"
,:
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j

:'
-':


f-

. ,
0;..' ..
',1 . ,<' ..
, (
1 _
"- ,
, -
<
l' ___ ... ... ... ... .......-.., ... .. .. ",.,_ .. "
- .
-71-
'f
and 1nflus."1.cSe of the Shi c1 tes. HEtl fUrthar that, 1 t ls hOl:esy to
cons1der saintsh1p higher thn He compakes
sa1ntshlp to an1mal! ty (haywInIxat) and argues that to think sa.1ntshlp
1
in " praphet ta hlgher than his prophethood. 1s l1ke say1ng' his anlmall ty
'ls superior to hll!l. hlllJl&lll ty (lndntxat). 74 KaacOd, - Ba.k
1
implies.that such the influence or 1deaa expounded by
(
Ibn c Arabi, which are only (' H.e writes that are
4- _
"claimEld in the worda of Fusua a - which 18llbaaed on the 'blif's ot
p hUosophers (11*4') who deny the" principle ot prophethood (&81-1 nubuwwat 75
., "t
. i
r
We .will nof go on to our' . on GIsiid,iri;, and analyse his
viWS on (mixM). In th1s sagt1'On lol8 Will try to
discus8 all the .signiticnt -detaila of the were oontroversial.
, '
For the ot, olari ty WB' wU1 tirst w:i: th and a a.iJitship urider
",. .
wo a8 concepts and as stages, then caopare saints wi th prophets.'
, 1 '" ......
, ,
Subsequently, we will proceed w1 th the discuss1on, o'f the doct.t1.ne of lIalayah
1 tselt which, will reveal tb.8 ot QfSd1riz. The tntluenca. 0; rn"
.. . " ,
'will be d141cerned olearly in .pite o'! beinS

,
critieal o'f lr1:m.. We JDIP.Y point out hen 'tbat Me m&y' hve to repeat oerta1n
" .
1d.as now and which 1s unavoidatlle if one 18 ta ba lear.
, , j .
..
,
' )r
,a) Prqphthood (nubuwwah) and SaintBh1p {w!lirah) a8 cpnoepts.
\
For GIed:tri.z. saintship 1a detiniteq hisher than prophethood.
, < "'- ,
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Even logically spealdng, his explanatj,on seems to be feasable. He says that
saintship nearness to Truth gnosis and realization (itlili
c
) of
. ..
the secreta of 'Oneness (wahdat); prophethood meall.$ invittion (da c
wat
)
, .
and mission (risalat) from God.
76
He further' expla1.!#s prophethood. as the
f c'.
, . C .. c
propagation, 'among the people', of the k;nQWl.edge ( :pmI), actions ( amA1I),
realit1.es tI:) and gnosie ("Critat ) the propaga"t9r bas himselt
fran God, either a mediator.
77
aprophet
1a the on!! who bas realiled in himaelt Gad. It 18 only
then' tbat he 18 tiven p.rophethood. Saintabip i8 the foundation, whereas
18 its building. 78 GiSd1riz explains thia :1# anothar way.
elsewhere, by saying tbat prophetbood 18 like, sameone "at the door" (bar tr),
1tIIile sa,intah:j.p 18 1ik. perSOll (dar t
J
li torall:y. the bosQlll"
of the friand). Al though GIsdiriz does not cit1cally state bere the
aUp.,ririty ot ver,. C\learlY impl1es 1t. He ,teelf tbat 1t 1a
/ .
. 80
the orig1n ot. the &ffair (a81-1 Moreover, Ma SOl'1 San-id Akbar
, ,
) ,.... "
"\? HusaYn! quoting tran Asmir al-Asrir the implication of Hat the. 'door--
" .
"(bar dar) and K:lna1cle" (du bar) as b'eing the super1on'ty (atdal) of saintahip
, . i
1 eneX" prophethood.81. It should be kept in mind th:t; GISdiriz 1s b. a
period which wu illlDediate17. b1' & turmoil-in 'the religious tbo,ugbt
uncSer the Wlu.noe ot Dm' QAftbI, bad" tQefttore, 'ta rema111lt.th1 the
, 4 " , 4A ..
of Ialam1a law . One of the cr1,.ter1on ot teating a se ..
have been to bave him pl&1Jt oertain 1MU ot Fuee:. al-HilSM, which Were thou&h't
1 " ,(_ .1" ..
, Oie! .,f "1
to he contrar,y to the' tenete of Ialm. ... a .na1t. _te
, > tJ
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approach to certain problems like the present one. ,On the
, .. .
contrary. he ar
, "-
es and he seems very enthusiastic when 'he mentions that
uper10r to and higher saintship as a,stage.
'-'lA.... these concepts trom a d.:iff'erent angle, GisUd:i..raz writes-,,-
- t:t-...1t:;1 - \. .: -
tbat the relati of p ropbethoad with 8 aintship 18 lilCe tbat heithe: .....
(n1ylm) wi S+.83 A.
\ .
" ,
t This tringa us ta tbe unders'tandinc rit- the relat1.p between
prophethood. and a1ntship in more I,!neral terms.. . The .
ot Aei!: al-Asr- . ata.1oes that the relationship betwaan them 18 tbat of' the
exOteric (z8.hir) esoter1 84 &xotrio1sm (zihir .
J(' , .'
wast!) 1a pro ethOOd and esotericism (batin para.sti) 1a 8aitah1p. The
," '
(oalin) 18 thrOU8h exoterie (,hir), wbile
1 1. J'
" subsistance of oterie 19 throush esoteric. "Both ar one ,lIlQ.). J{e" 1a the
. . '
/
_ 0
tirst He ia the 'l&st (al:'i.khir!, 'He, 1\ the
1a the:esoter Q (al-bitin)11.85. , '.,

\
. . '
8w'ord - saintship - esoter1c1sm
.-
_-eheathe - - exoter1e1sm
was aupQ1.or a intship.,o. that it prphthood were exeluaive+T
_ th then would. (.
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-74-
,
have been'higher. "But prophethood means "unity' of unit y" (,1am
C
al.1am
c
) in
1
the' yery robe ct mu1 tiplicut '(clar cayn_i libs-i kathrat), and buaying onesel.f

with th reation not t'rom the Truth (haga,}, and
J
.. 1,,'
(therefore) this multiplicity 18 not harmful to him (prophet). (In' reality)
this 1s the dm (matlb) of creation (khilga t), that 1a to see If oneness li
. ' ,
(wahdat) in the "very mult1pl10ity', (dar cam_:t 'wahdat bInad) " .86
. --.
,
In words', prophethood.' 1s higher only if considere4 as a J2I;y:atioal stage.
Dealing nth tnese ooncepts the point ot view ct love,
GISd1riz wr1tes that saintsh1p :J.a purelY Godworship (JchUdi panstI), but
,." (t.. -
. '
prophethooci 1s an (r1<J!',1t1). ,"!! . tinda tut the
\ .
"beloved, 1s \ pleased wi th far away, is sui ted
t
his the beiaved:)". The bave given themsel-
/ :es in to pleasEf' God. '87 .
.;(
, )
,
The .co1llD8ntator ot. turther that God-worahip preoedes
'. 88
!it>ef'tort-to-please which 18 the end of the Ju:rney. ' "Saintship 1s God-wor8h1p
,
and 1t consiste ot the "drink ot sou1 '1 (,harb-i natal whi"Oh is the aot of the
? ' ...
Il'
,eMnt (oabd). "plea.sing" Gad and. the 1a opletely
'" 1
oon.qerecl' (nats kullI maghl:r) in it".89 'l'he tOrmer 18 th tinite
. '
" .
wcrld (oilam-1 n1ebat l!! while the la:tter 18 ta int:i.nite
WOl'fi (wari' "' eiio_ ' - aU b bebind":90
J" l' ,
1 " -\. ' "
'lbere are two th1np we mi8:ht {Qonalude hen with., ,U'
, 1 ./_-' ,
1
insista tbat prophethood 18 te sa.int8hipt he reaJ.4r meput a peouliar
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-75-
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mystical 'stage given exclusively to1. pr"llhet as "Perf_ct Man" (insin-i'
kimil), as be explained later.
91
Secondly that saintshiP as a
experience is to as a institution.
b) , Pro'Ohethood (nubuwwah) and Saintship (walayah) as m;ystical stases.
!
.
.
. ,
In this section Qf our chapter we will discUse prophethood ,and
, " . ":.
saintahip purely 'trom pJ1nt ot of lie Wril see
, .
. ..
presently that are two stage., reached by both & a:a4 & lt"ophet.
,
5.
- ". ....
ia 'to SQ', the D\Y'st1oal atage or 1a, ot CCNrS pecul:1ar
to prophets, but 1t bas. lUtvertheleas, an anal.d'SY in the hisheit' stage "reached
by a suti, namely the stage called of unity" (j..:n
c
al-Jam
c
).
.
Expla1ning the ot Ab Yuid al-Ba.stmr (d.2,34 ,or '261;1848 . or
t l '
874) -the end ot the atage ot' saintsh1p 1s, the beg1nni ng of atap cit
, '
, .
,
prophethoxl- Grsdiriz that & prophet (nalli) firSt becaaes a S&:1llt (!1!J!) ,
\' . . \
t'ollow1n8 which he 1a chosen tor \ miasion On
this bas1a, every '1a a saint. beoomes the highest
stage, wh1ch i.amediately tollows the stage sa1lltsh1-p.92 Gene.raUu ,
.
Q.inthip 1a & ata.se 1a reachad by &11 the
-..c:iI'" , 0'
them the prophets who not yet as
. ..
among the aa1nts & rew as RiS" pr;,pheta and sends
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ints, which 1ncluda amcmg ,
1
h. 1ben Gad selects t'ran
.
1
on missions' to the' 'W'Orld .
')
In other vords. saintship ia the higheat atage o't acension ot the aa1nta

inol,uding :Drophets, 93 and 1s oauparable to the a "armihilation" (fana')
1
", or "um
c
>; 'wh11e 1s 'anly whioh ,
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. 8I\d is comparble t.o t.he stage of "S1,1bsist.ence" (baga') or "uni ty of uni ty"
. .
c L c 94 '.
(jam al-!larn). This is verY clear trom how S.A. Husayn! puts it, nSaintship
. ,. J' P
i$ going from here t.o whereas is coming back fram t.here to
here" .9
5
The sarna thing 1s irnplied by Giscraz hicself but in a different way.
One of Putting it his def'inition ot.?:prophethood and saintsh1p as the
1 .'
former being and the latter That. ia to say the stage
of' "1ns1de" precedes' of' being "outside
tt
Again" he explains tbat
the Prophet ,Mlb'mriad wished tbat God 'had- Iiot created him because by doing so,
i..
Gad sent the Prophet traD Hia anpanionahip ch!!. &qcept the
. \.. "
ottice ot portor (darbii:). are two 'kinda in
t.h1s ACt. ot God. Firstly' , ltJle has ta invli.te the his
.
ubeloved" (1118.hbb), and thus by so the lover (cishigt 1.e. the prophet)
). '
. . . "
hs ta 'lOok at othera against his Own will in sp,ite ot the Jealouq. (gha;yrat)
. ,.
borne by his eyes. Secandlyl it that "aneness
it
.(x.sjn.ad) 1a
and (bts!nail).fJ'T . This 1a the
, "
, - .
s1griU1cance of "pleastns" (ridi
t
' Jii'l).'God. ln short, Gis\idirlz 1a connoting
li - . ,
that and with 1s saintahip,
and fail under prophltthood. U t
r 1
spaak of on:q the stage of asoension, saint.ahip becaDea the h18hest stag ,
l ,
'While if we t&l.k-in seneral t.errmJ, that 18 of the' DVStie JCJUl"J1ey as a wb le"
, .'
1 i . ,
18 the higheat because it impll:es "aeparatiop" (tEsJ &ftr ". t;y"
L . 1. ., " ,-
(jam?); G,iaudiraz 'prefera to diseuss 1 t fram the point ot'.
although he one, tbat saintahiP :ta . _ there 1a no
other ra.nk (darajati) w 'makinati),98 meaning it J.a the
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could get t::> God he has to come back to p.:Lmself'. It must
, .
'be noted, tho'J.gh, that these wo stages of saintship .andl prophethood are
like ones of annihilation and (bag
t
).
That i9 the why prophethood is considered a stage higher or rather
the last stage.
99
l '
GiSdiriz prefers prophethood. as a sU:ge to saintship. he
'does so 18 quite c1ear tbrough his explanation ot these caneepts trcxn the
'. , 100
point of .View of love, as we bave seen previously. ms
1 ,
te prophethood because it 18 a which demanda tran
etfrt-to-please the Wbe1oved".
Related staSes-.
2 ' Prophethood- and Mintahip are not the Olll.y stases tor GISd1riz.
. . ,)
'!'hepe are three oth, stages which precede these wo. GtSd.ir likea
, . 101',
the number f1va and therefora, he bas 'five Stace8. ,But thse stases are
, .
" ,
derived. tran the point ct Vi." or prophetbood and
, . ....,. .
-,y .
IJ
J
. 'saya, "there 18 prophethoocl thera 14 a&intabip
-JI .
(waliyat), there ia w1;: thera 18 attair (!sir) and there 1a
'102 .
burden (bar)": ," We :va. alread\Y d:iacuasad the two hisber S'tapa ct
.
.
prophethood ad aaintslrl: ,. which lavas 'us with the three lower ataae- ,of
-
"wisdom". "f':tair" and "burden". '!'he, prcblem hre 18 t.t Gisd.1r expla1ns
/
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'h'!1at he means by "wisdom" but he does not bother to other two
terms "affair" and "burden". Hia cor.mentator tries to give an exp1anation
\olhich is rather J.nSufficient, and in OUl' present discussion WEI will see that
, '
the cornrnentator i9 perhaps misleading.
,
It may be pointed out here, discussing their interpretations p
that prophethood, saintsbip, and wisdcm as three distinct- had alread1'_ been
by C Azlz al-Dfn al-Nasa:tt who ns' not a' stranger to Giad1riz .103
, /
Nasat.f explains theae concepts at 1ength bath in bia '.l'anzn and his
"" Kasht al_Haqi'iq.l04 Evidently, GiSdiriS m&T been
l
inspired through
,h
,
these worlts but goas bqcmd Naaatt' by' adding two more lower ataaes to the
tJ
abave.
'lhough "wiadc:m", according to GiSdiriz, ia a atage lower tha:n
sa4ntsfP' it holds sia\nifioant at least &$ as. 'its meaning
goe. It pointa aecret ot tbat lfh1ch ia in a prophet
and a saint. In tact, it reveals the secret. For a calls , ....
F "
, , ' . ,
bis people towa:rda God through prayers and' tast1ng, while wise man
exp]ains whr 'leads e God. -:Widan 18 (realiJr the unit,. ,
, . .
ot lmowledP and act1cm" (c
amal
}:05 By lmowledge and 'aetion G'iad.irK
means that knowledge and action wh1ch have taDght by God io prophets.
106
f ,
- '\ ..
", ". , ('" 'Il
". ,
,"Wisdoal" ma1na the clar1:ticaticm (bann) of the link. ex1,st1ng _
between the,lOW'er and the b11h-.r (ulwI). (mabdl'l and
the end (_cid). It 1nd.1cate the or man (tarld.b-i ind"n>, 1tt

the. spiritual (jabart) C1lh1:)
J" ...
"
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)
, ,
_"" ..... p.. ............. - Y<>" .. _
-79-
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are un1.ted GIsdiriz writes, '!prophethood. i8 like the illumination
of the SU1'l, saintship 1s like the.light of the moon, while wisdom 1a (that
which out) the e:r.a.'1atio:l (fayi') o:f one to the other" .108 The x:elationshiP
between them is in reali ty the same (yak!). It ia like joining the t'wo ends
('1
?/
of a string, which W'ould turn them into one attribute' (sirat) and centre
(markaz).109 This met&pp,ol" s1gnUicant for :l,t gtves a_ i..mpl:'ess1on
"
of GiSdiraz' su.t'1sm. It 'a.'i&'1' be pointed out hex:e that wisdom, WhUe being
--'
a lower stage, 1s actualized in the depths of its mea.n:ing, only when a mystic
t
has reached' tIsane parts ot" (giP,tt u.l"prqphethood. t.bfougb "unit,- ot \m1tylt
u-.ll_,1p1c). That ta 1t 1s' that sai.ntahip
"
and wisdom point to "unity of unitylt (jam
C
al_jam
c
), '''nityn, am
c
) and
'.
"separation" (tafriga'h) respectivel,., the or such a "wise,
(in real1ty) ,the. the re&lity 1hagIgat)
1 , 0
of prophethood. and 'sa.intahiP.110
. .
1 ..... '.
As observed, Gisdiriz does not elucida.te the other tWo
terms "I.ttair" and ''bu1'c1en'', we ae l,Ib&t 'bjt.,s CClIIIDentator bas abou.t
thm. 1b.e author states that prophethqod 1!\ ,(at; of aoar.
18 "(mit; or' God) and wisdom 18 "acta'" of God)
.. '
.
which are' tbree staces tram the .point ot view of the "total Truth" (ha99:1
JwllX). 'Ihes8 are' Alao termed \.reality" tlpath" <1j&rtgat)and
(sDadaii), or "love" "noais" 1
emuCiglat}!ll He t'urtber expl.aina tbat "&t'fair": (Ar) meana
,
" .
busy'1ng of ... rf with and (bar) 1s busy'1ng in
, . U2
a'ttrtfJutes and acta.
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The above i!\terpretat1on of the c ome :f,mp11es tht ",a.t'fair
tt
and t'burde:1" a:e' :lot real-ly stages t but terms sed for a. experience,
of a sufi.
, h _0
;:oreover, he la clear that the 1 est stage s arJ. at corresponds
to, uwisdom
lt
The tOll,owing chut will clu fy h1Jl interpretatiorp
Essence = Prophethood li:
Attributes = Saintship
-
-
Acta = Wisdan
=
Path
Law
Love : :ttair
= :}
burden
. = Deal1ng:
However, the cdrDDentator here seema to verlook the tact tbat
Gi8diriz bu stages in,l1: Law (SharlCat), Real1ty
!:l. .
(lJa9{gat). 'l'ruth Real.1ty and R ___ ality, or Truth (\l&gIgat
al-haqg) 113 1 n asoending ordar, and' !'veUad" essence, "veUing" assnee.
, <l.
attributes, acta and e,ttects 1Ji the descending Ol'del- as will he pointed out
later. '
,;A. ,
Ve 1 theretore, that sinete Gisdi.r needed two more stages te?
. ,
be lower than "wisdan
tl
to complete his DUIIiler t;ive, which'would then
, ' ,
correspond te his otber t1ve he ment10nd "at1'&1r" an4 "burden". Our
" '- ,
. illustration woul4 he tbus, in contrast to the
(ve1led)

:= P.rophethood.,
(veU1n8) Essence Sainteh1p
Attr1b1rtes W1adcm
Acta
J.ttaiJ"

;
Ufect8 .. Burden
\ .
/
1
. '
:' Realitr-' or 'rruth
. .
..

iii

,
Tru.th of
ReaUty
Path
Law '
, .
,
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,
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The point here is that aIl thcstl stages are one and the sam!
, 115
in reality. Thcrcforc, lieS in,their found united
, ' ,
,
,
, ln a _pc,rso:1. ___ Gjgdiraz m'mtiornng, that prophetho',C?d,
l ___ .. ' 1
and arc uultcd the case of the resolJte Prophets (l,
J ----
, '
al_
c
azm).6 His 'corr.mcmt'ator writes t'hat che prop:-,::!ts
., .
" '
namcly, Adam, Abrnhrun, f.coscn, Jesus and the 'Prophot aach ono being
in himsolf a \>lOrkshop <.lslk. khi'i'lliilll of God. He i'urther implieo that stage
corro:Jponds to one of thorn, trot ishAdE.m to 1.'1.\'., Abraham to Path;Monqn
Rcali ty, Josu:J to Truth o'f: Reali ty and the Prophet Mu...'Jnmmad: to Reali ty oi'
\
'J.ruth.
1l7
1;10 might as weIl a.sk a quc3tion hare: can thase five stage3 be found
united in a 'sufi Or a Gaint aIoo? Before., He try to ans"t-rer the question vie
i
migbt n:.ention tha.t for Gsdiraz, prophethood io the highest otage, arld only
n8
atter reaching it doeo one He implies that it i9 on
that particular otage that aIl the arc found ta be united into one.
. , v
Besidos, prophethood canccptually ia particular ta the prophets, but as a stage
corresponding to "unity of unityfl is c9MIDon ta bath the pt'ophets and sa.ints,
Although he does not say it specifically,
, ,. ...
implies that tbis unity of stages i3 found in sa.ints or sui'is t.rho have reachcd
the highest stage. Horeover
J
he impE03 that he himseli' i8 l'rom that
In one of hic Gsdirz Bays that hm;ever
'\ '
,1
snarp the of a saint might be, it can nover perceive the rank of the
120


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-82-
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;to;r.l.C,
:';1.;'Ot3 ar"'. ci thor cqtlli.l or !J
1
1perior to the P!-,Ophct3, as preaented
, , .
by r:ri - }' t' t .. \., b' l . d '1" .... olt
.11.., t l.,;'..1.Z ,;rN. na, :proper ,';l'OllnG$ ",.:1'1,;<) e,m aJ. " He lU .J. .I.J.nd.J.. casier
,
,'! ,
'ta und.crotand thJ.:! aide of the;. V8r'J intercsting because
1 f 1
'that :Jaintohip in conceptually ta prophethood, but the
, . Il ',/ . ,
(at leust the Prophet ,f.'iuhalnm:1d) 1'3 than: the saint. Yet a
Ir" "
. )1 < l,
sufi rcachesan bqu1valent stage to that:of'prophcthood.
.- 1 fi l '
Here wo
l'}, ."
"r,i.l l11<linly be discucrsing tHo prophetie tro.d.i. tians quoted in tho suii
' 1 1>
, , 'c"
li tcrature,; a) the learncd (..,llltprki') ampn5 rr;.r pe6pla are 3imi,lar to the
, ,
( . 122 ' ,
prophctn'of the ,people of Inrael; b) among my people are
. 123
superior to the prophots of the people of Israel.
Thore are t\.fO important points-in the ,above traditions, which
'c c
Gisiidiraz clarifies, tm ( L and"knowledge ( ilm). By the
0
Hord "learncd" is the @t ostim <:uJ.ci' 12.i-All@). or saints (-a",.liya
r
)
. . (Ci ,r l' - ) 124 l
and ,by kno;.rledge HI mec.nt -.lm lah The mowledge of the
gnostics or saints i8 rn::dnly divided' into wo types: a) that which i\3 gaincd
behind voU ip,,.illpJ; b,) that ..;hich II wi t;?ou.t ...
.
mediation 2.!-ghaXr:-i wasitah). 'The first type i8 frther divided into wo:_
.
through manifestation of Gad in various shapes (ta.r.aththul) or

r'orms (tashaldcu'!,.), or an other than Gabr:i"el.
$ "
The second 1 type
;)\ .
,,,
is abo divided into' t',.;o: knO'dledgo of Ged man achieves through hia henrt
1
(di:!,), or hio hearJ.ng Isomethings from the un3een his ear.
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Gnosie i9 related ta the "essence" and
' l ' fil.:
l,. , ,
"attributes" of o.od, which ia achieyed either through the manifesta:tion o
1 -
<l. ' l,
, \ , l'
Gad in ahapes or in forms, or througb the heart, which ia a180 cal1ed_
';inspiration" (ilham).'lf..
S
-'
p
. Knowledge (0 iJ,m)
. ,
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tbroU&b an angel
otbe2: tbaD G&=tel.
.... '
-.'
..

ca'lec1
(llb1a)
1.
Jowledge achleved through
theaei.Wo w&yB la eaUecl
gnoela (ella bl-AllIh)
or knowifidi relAted. to
God's "essence" aad
"&ttr1butu"
, ,
. -'
According to the above analysis the learned are thoae gnostica (cw'amI' b:L-
,) . ,
mlh) who are the possessors ,ot the Godfa and "attr1bu:tea"
or snoaia .Theae gnostica are, aalled saints (awliyi')
..
"
'1) The lemed a.mon IllY people are simj,lar ta tAe Prophete ot the People ot
' .. lara_l.
GlSdiriz wri tes that outwa.nu.y the sa.ints are sim] ar ta the
prophets 'because they too are counsellers and advisors like the prophets.
) . .:
r
.
. [
" .
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- ,'" -- ---
.. -
ioportant ia the :frIward Q.uali ty -ot the saints -to' the prophets.
,
This likeness is based twC' aspect;: wonder-working (karmat) ,- and the
. - .
, to give lite and: death. Brea1ting, t'im (khix-ig-l --cda.t-i
: .i1; a prophet, it
1a termed miraole (muCjiZah), .;b11e it 18 called when 1t ooeurs
- .-- - i ,
through a saint (!!!!!). The only_ is is an
to a prophet s.a an eV1denc- ot hi; -and, a to an
. - '
(wagt=i tahadd1), Mceaiary (wiJib) tor a sa1lt to
. -
. 128 - - ;,
hide such powers. '!he ec:mnentator Wl"ites tbat both prophet'and the
- . .
- 129
saint -'Ue' regarded as si.ntul 6therw1se.
From the point ot view ot givi.nc lite and death, Gta\ld:iriz wr1,.tea
...
that the prophte ot Israel are attributed ot posaeseing auch lXlW*l"s 'w'bich
, t
\
are a180 possessd by the saints. This power hae two 1D;>licat1ona, exthtAl
. \
(&1) and intemal (maonItr). The external aspect is the ,power' te reator
,
lUe to the dead, like .the one posseased by Jesus. The interxtAl aspect meana
tbat live throush know1edge (cnml, and. are tree traD ignorance (jahl).
GISd1riz cites three incidents, 'inc1uding one a:ttr1buted 1;0 hi8 own
Shaykh Nafir al-Dn Malpnild, when lite was restored to peraODs.
l3Q
l4il
El'8ewt\ere, GrSd.1raz Bays that he has h1msel:f' not made

distinction betwen the saints (buzursan) who preceded h1m and the prophets.
This quali ty 18 a180, impl1ed in anOth"'r trad.1 tion which "the $haykh in
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his circle \Of f'ollowers. is lilte' iL 'proPhet 'among, his peqple".
G!sdiriz believes that fram aplOng' the one could fnd an example each
L'1. the saints are of esch prophet
his wMch 1s .clearly from. (another
tradition, "there ia no prophet hose ex.ample (nazIr) 1s nqt,tound 8ln0Qg'my
:l'. '_ .

Gl.Sdiraz 1a very clear tbat th, saints have an equal. statua t<?, that
ot the prophets who -preceded the Prophet Mul1a.rmd., This 1s' alao appat'ent f"rm
.
our ear11er discussion oh stages .133 But, '1 t
ahould be notad tbat aa1nta ,are ndt equal, to the Mnbanmad becauae ...... '
- ,-- 1 -
. . -- -
,here the quest'ion ot tol1oWers (toi
c
) and the (matb
O
) 1a involved. ,
11) The ',learned. ot my people &re superior to the Pro-ohets ot the people ot rsrael ..
\ . l'or Gisd1riz,8aint.l an aa for
their s'Uperior1ty to the propheta 1s concerned, ,he not tO ccmDit
h:lIIself.. ae ca.1f.s those who impart such theor1es, "tbeosophiat su.t1s"
(milin--1 mu.tJa11iliah), and these 1deas, he wr1tes, are due te two fantasies
(wahm). The f1rat 19 due te the reason that saiil.tsh1p uane neamess, III 081s
ot whlle prophethood 1s an &ftau: (kiri) btween' \
-4e, by God, and His creation (khalg). The aecond tor
purporting such 'an idea l} 'bhat the saints are the of the Prophet
In other words, saints are ret'erred to as superior to the prophets
'only relat1vely, tbat 1s by v1rtue of the P.rophet Mlll]MlMd. This 1s so
, .
the Prophet an unique position and 1s attributed with: spec1al
1 >qt .'Si .
, .
,-
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-86-
.
(khas. liS), \ot-nic:h are pecuIiar only- to him in comparison to the prceclint
prophets. T'r.e!"efore, his followrs who with. hi.lll' sOOI. of those
, .
'," spec..,iali ties Il are ";h1...lght to be to ' the . other '.134 "

oi GfSdiraz' to this aspect of

1s quite lear fran the stand -that he takes. On one band, he calls the above
interprett;,on whUe on the other,..he says that superioritY of the _
-, ,If, ,
i.8 but One tMng 1s' tbat
the auperior1'ty saints ,on the basis 'ot saintship qua i.a not
, , .
possible. That i.e the reason why he aays tba.t "oriiinally" (asilat) it cannet
...-
. - 1
._ be a.tfirtiJed, but or by virtue ot' (b!-diq1rl.) the Prophet it
- j , . r
......... 136 "
iS'-:.possible to sq ,ao. The 'Prophet he1d a position' which was envied.
. "
by a11 the prophets, the reason wlly Moses w;1.shd tlat he were born
among the periPJ.e o"r lut Brophet.
l37
Besides, GrSdiraz thj.nks that the ward p+,ophets' (anbiyi r) in the
tr8.dit1oq under could al80 mean those propagators (munabb1San) of
--
Israel, wo were pure believers (lJlminn-i mukhlis) but - they did not receive '.
- ,
revelations (wahl.) or messengershiP (risilat). Tbey acted f9r the propheta
, --r- -
in absentia.1,s Probably he ie- implying tha.t if' th1a were the-'case, then the
saints are auperior te thetn
..".
2) GOD'S EfPERIENCEI CREA'l'ION
- - .'
\cie have studie se,intshi,p frO(tl the point of view (If Prophethood :in
,,..
- ........."'---,--._ ....... , ... ,!-"' ___ IT"" __ 41 ...... "-' _.0 _ ..... ' .... _ ...... _,._ .....
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-87-
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the,previous seqtion, and will now diseuse the concept a slightly different
angle.
, " c
J;n ,i ts reali ty, we' know.' tha t saintship is gnosis (rr.a rif'at) of Gad a.'1d
realities (haga'ig). It 19 to farthest a sufi can
, .
'gO be10nd which there,iS no other rank but ta return ta orieself.
wht dO,es a achieve at this point? \-lha t dos he realize' on thi-s stage ?
l ",
rfuat are the truths or realities revealed to. him, and whatJs the inos1s of
\ ",
.
. God? In the answer to these quations 1a the s1gnif'icanc' of saintship. It
;'\
1s only arter all the secrets are revealed to a person, that.saintship'is
. -
.realized in him, he ot being cal1ed a '"t'r$nd" or "saint"
'(wall) of' God, or a- Sfi -in the real sense ot the ward.
"
To GlSdiriz. saintsh?-p 1s the realizat10n ot how and. wby creation
,
tirst- oame into and What the of Gad '18 W1th His creatures.
We w:U.l t theretore, - discuss here the world-view of GIsd1raz, who specti"1cally
mentions at the end. ot chapter 47 {which deals with the proeS8 ot creation)
,
Asni8.r al-Asrar, that the very' "process of oreation", is a, full explanation of.
saintship (waJ.!rat) .139 The si$'Ilif'icance of saintship, ,therefore, seems to be
in the tact that Gad tir st manitested into a "perfec1; which
emerged as a "Pertect Man" (in ty), and to which he
ultimately. Thus, '_this becanes a two-fold experience: self-manitestation of
Gad in man, and His recognition of H,is own individuality througb, that man who,
, ,

-, 1
as a result, 'becomes transf'ormed into "Perfect l'.an
lt
(in actual1ty) or a saint
(wal) .140
\
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Simul taneously, we -will Point, out dertain ,similari ties in the thought
, .
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. ot Gsildiraz a.."ld CAli" al-Dawiah sim:nni '(d. 736/1336), the t'ormer living' first '
1
, in Delhi and tte:1 in Q'.llba;ga, India, l-lhile the iIl SinInAn, Iran,
, .
.. '
about 85 years ',.Je havello already discussed the p03sibili t:.r oi SiI:In3...rtI 1 s
" ,
- -. 141 rrr. . t . t t' t '
influence on which seems rmote. kne mas eres aspec 18
that both ,.ere severely' cirtial towards Ibn C Arabi, cri hm on his
o 142
.1 identification of "Absolute Existence" (al-wu.id al-mut1a.g) as God..
r \
it la' that Gisudiraz waS immensely influenced
c v \
by Ibn ArabI. ..,/ . .. \ .' '. , '
'f:he . t'ollowing discussion- an GtS'dlltaz s t'alls into wo
major parts; t'irst trom the point ot' ViW' of God.\ that is say the creation

came into being, the of vi: w of' saint or su:t
r
In
words, th Journey back to the point frlxn" wh re he wss created:, We -will
'.)
'retut'n to this aspect in our 0 discussion, of the
a) Saintshi
. ,;"
in the Creative Process
. . '
The secret of' lies in the qivine-
"'!
tradition (hadfth gudsi) b the sut'is. It waa e Prophet David who asked God
, !,,'rt'
why He created the cosmos r creation -(khalg).
. 1
treasure f and l loved
14":t
t l be known". Thua
is based on the conce t 9f' thephany (tajallI),
Ibn C Arabi and Simnin'i. 144
d replied
t
"I was a h1dden
liem. ot' '
"ttle case with
l
,
, 1
,
,Gisdiraz (.e..t) Gad meant His esS'ence (dhlt) .'
its of at1;ri ('U'at) lo/hich wc.lude attributes 6t' beauty (,lamn)
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fnaJsty (ja111)', pawer\ ,gudrat ,kn6w1edge .J:1E.L, hearing sam , sight, ba.;ar)
Il
and such.
e
are present in (bi-a1-guwwah) in"Gad, who
wa."'l.ted these to co;ne. out into the plane of fiC 1 ). His
- J l) l,,', ::.
was 1ike the, longJ.Ilg of a for 'his be10ved
(mahbUb}.14
5
This in i tself 16 important bec'ause Gd.iraz :fee1s tha t the
. '
origin (as1) and ultimate . (llikmat) of ws "love"
"" ,.' l " '...
, c . ," .'
(mahabbah)' and rit'at)'; the reason, why" Gad said, "I loved to be
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khownfl .'1.46 / "
, ,
There are twq In -the f.irst pPase, God created '
&. , .. ' 1, ')
'-- -the ditterent speies (and
e
) 0' ent1tis ,(dhawt;: for 'S'Wl
- ":', ....
, ,tar$, mountains,;tr'ees' animals .aild Sl.'lch, wi:th_ the 'exclusion of man"; in
." - T, '_.... 1 t -
. short, the universe, Another imporyant point here is "j;ha..t through each entity
'Was manif'este'd an "attrlbute" ot dod.
147
, .
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'.. tt. '
The tirst phase waS not enough for it i.d not tul.f'il. God
-wanted M: "it still needed that person <.!n.1s!.!) who would be ,able ta .fulJ,y
recogn1ze My in direct (ba- a1-ci:v:$n) Thus
" begins, the second phase of His creat::ion wh1ch 19 the emergene of man (insin).
; ,'. 1.. .. '1
- 'l'heref'ore" j'God i8 reported to said,' "I sat for a thousand years with J.tt'
, , ,
. .
head. knees, M;y eyes closed thinking and. for a' form
, (.
(5rM) If. 'manifestation (baYinah) which e"ould' know Me ,and perceive Me,
c
through theman1festation (mazihir) and' (manafidh). could thiiik
.
"'of' anything.but the f'orm ot man (Fat al-L"1San). For th!! reason
And purpoS (hiknlat) l the clay of Adam W'ith MY own two bands for
# .... ' -
:t'orly daYS .. he becomes a representative (khall"fah) on IVearth and
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-90-
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itself all or to
be comprehensive"of all trw categeri-es
, ' (asnaf) of ert t.i ' (:'ru.idat) and species of the
, .
'titi
t
, "
as to l,le (;& cri'fun!) in himself (fi 'nfsih'l)" and perceive trte
" 14q
, :
in his Qwn individtial being (shakh;ihI)".
"
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',Bi Arabie quotation in 'this fom of an ,
, unknown) variant of, qasth audsS: Inent1:o.ned :,
, ,t ' "/\\-{;!. r , \_ ...
. to ,stress a point which i8 central. te, bis world-view-. "-purpose" creat:i..Qn'
.. ," \ .... '..
_ ;: f' ...... ,...../
ia not,only maQ.ifeatat;i.on of Gad'a attributEis in the Dll))..tiplicit,.:,of' t:hiI1ga >
, ( ,.' .', , '
X dhawat, wu JdAt ) ,. 'but also' recogni tian o'f his own ty, '"
pnly through se'lf-;-cogrrltion of (another) individual being, the
(,perfect) huma:l person' ,< shakh;l; ?r ,acording ta the.' CQlIIIlentator, tly! of .
" ,. Muhammad"
.
Which is l118.Il-;.' s walzah) ,the totality of tlliIlga. :'Tbat 1
p ... 1
is why adds (in Persian): "As long as the does not
ft a thing in himself and taste such s it,is, he will not percive
. ,
.' l t:f'I #.':-
?-tlf..J II? wor5is, i t. may as the IQean!ng' of - .
'"
" '" "
a ttributed- by GiSdiriz, to cAl!. who knowa himself' (naf'sahu) knM' hi '. ,
. _ _ . ,"_-
Lord.
. -
. , ..
_ The cmentator *b! 5# thinks that the (SbINlQ) i8_
."11ght of (nr-i was and will aiways 1;>e the
. of the existing th1.n, and. every,
.,.-
other l1sht i8, fn:m it., and the lut,
f'olt1t 1s .the mani station of" 1;lie "essence"
. -
the external and. the
.15
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-Further, term vislon (Cam a1-
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1OO),. oommentator
clidms ,"1 t' ineans GEId f ,s placlng', (ta cay:yuna.b,). ,His own eye ,and
(Cam' khud) in the eye essence MulJammad Cam wa dhat ... i.
l '..,_
This 19 what CrstIdi'riz too 'ls lDlPly1ng .. '
, '
Thus the Qf would' explairi' the ,Of "emanatiQn",
, 154
in bis system.
To go back, to where we bad. left- our discussion, the form of man
, '
{insin) whom Gad as one who :'Could in return' perqe1ve Gad in
himaelf, 1I8.S a shap. 'AU the entities (bamab-i maw,1dit)
<' ,
were cauposed in the trsmework of man insin rDUra.klqb bishad) meaning
that al1 the attributes :t"oun in potent1a. in God were and man11"ested
;a actu,., (bi-al-fiel) thr?ugh man, with Ms he'U't- beii:lg'the'recePtacle.'
rus i( whicb is actUa.lly the .
(caks-i Wtaw-i j!),. Gisdiraz insists that this'means mor than a mere
"
phi1osophical 'recognition (chuninkih hukam' gyand) that man as microco:mt
1 v
. " , ,/
c ,., '
( retlects the universe (insin-i kabl.r). God cannot be known
through the world. Rather, o for' the "ral scholars"' 'D1l1lJ&9gi9ant {.e. the
au:tis) it ia' the other way rOQ1d. .They, there:f'"ore, say' (in SuMtan ri lam
c
. &rand), "travel whil staying at home ! If $%ld "search solitude while in
ocmmmity!tI. Tha t tbe univef"s i8 f'ound. in the v-ery essence of man' s ,be1.ng.
o
(dar WU'jUd-i ). in yoursel! ' (not in the world) nd
- -:r
will he 'present (mushlhadah) ta yeu" .155
. -. --.. -.
."
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'- - - -
. - -_.
-,.-'" ___ .-i. .... "-' - ..,::' r ... .. .... ... "!! .... .. .,
-92-
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.-; -
_ Agg;i:=t, 1 s' :nti- and _
';.
cames out the folloWing discussion where he wantsto stress
-.L
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;the'poin't "r..an" as such is thesilin-t"otal of ,thE;. this
r ,_ _ , ___
does not ::1ean t:;a t "a::.y" :::an is the su-n-total. Thus, he argues: 'if' He may ,
interp!-t the ward l'creation" (al-kha19) in th divine- tradition uncter
"
as to I:lean "manu (al-insan), thia can J;ZIean the t';a,n" (insn-i ..
kmil), bcause al-insan, -Just 1ike al-kha1g (with 1s
:tq be Wlderstood in the< sens (mutlag; i.e. the idea ot tlrna.i1),

of _" __ _ r_ ...
_ and "absolte" turns into "perfect". Now, the "most perfect
tt
tif' aIl perieet
ones :i,s ev:i,.qently '!the "eaJ. of prophets". Theretor.,- Ilr the'"
, "
- - 156
creation" mean;t 'l'eally III, created lvb1hamnad, ,the seal of' -tnessengers". , '
l' ; : - , ,
This may' further be fran the COlmlentary on Asmir,
" . , c
which states, "all,there ia in total existent$ :ln actu (bi-a:;L.":fi 1) ia present
. \ ,
in potentia (bi-al-gywwah) in the noble essence (dhlt-i and the subt1e
, :
(Cun;ur-i' 1a'4!r) of the (lJarat-i perhaps
the rea11ty ot Perfect Man), as a tree exists in a
. - '.
,
seed he i8 the first and the 1ast, the external and the 157
\
,
The commentator further e1aborates on the subt1e distinction
n
between "oreation" (!<halg) in an indetinite sense and. "the reat1on" (.!!-
khA1g) with the detinite article, as implied in G!sd1raz
t
texte
. ,
He Writea
that "the creation" means the "l1ght of MtJb.amnad", where as l1ereation"
.
(Without the artie1e) applies to 1ts rmmif'est&tion. '(f$Or=i ) . The article
, S-, J
"the" () indioates the oontract (e
uhdah
),' and the resolved OHe {machlld) is
the Prophet MulJ.anI!Iad (meaning the "light"), who ia the teali ty ot creation
".'
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.. .
... n_'._"_i 111 ____ --
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put it in another Hay:-, flthe creation" or pr'Qoably ff cc;mtains
the ::acrosm. Gis.::"raz hi:::s-;n uses bage of fine sugar (nabfit)
- "
is the result' of sugar cane (nay shakar) aLter it (:i.e. sugar oane) goes throgi:
_ _ ....... 1'.
a lengthY procedure he signifies the creation of the" ,
... -
'! l' , - 'c -.
, _ Prophet I1uhamnad (the primordial side of the Prophet) who, along wi th Ali, was "- -
./ . .. -
- ,
(, - .- .
, created from the same light about, four. thousand years prior to the creation of
"1 , _.
ldam.
160
Gisdiraz writs that prophethood nd 'successorship (khilfat ; meaning .
sa;ntShip) are rooted :irl the same
, -
A interesting aspgct of the divine -I was a hidden
':.11""'.
c ' " ,
treasure, l 101(,ed that l be Jmown (u raf),' and therefore,. l the
creation- ia G!sdiraz's iinalysis of the 1mperfect form of-the'verb "to
, f
,4 1
1tClW''' . for, thitl form ia to be underatood, he 'not only in thE! passive
but also in the active voiee, so tha t the traai tian means 81ao:' crea ted' . .
, . .
the creation in order to know myself" (khalq ra. fardam ta khud ra shinasam).
-- - Tha t ia .1(0 __, sa:r, Gisdirz explains, God was "all-knowing" (cal im) of
-- -_..._ 4 --. _
the things prior to thtr existence, He becarne "all-informed" of th""e
things after their existence. Vie may.funderstand this to mean that Gad' s
\c, '
knowledge, from being potentially univElIi'sal "before" the creation,
"
particular experiential knowledge tlaftti'r" c,reation, i.e. the type or
knowledge wh1ch G!sd1rz also terms 1td1l'ect vision" (Carn al-ciyan) in the
context 'of mystical exPerience. As the conmentator puts it, "God's being a
i
(crif) in (bi-a1-quwwa.h) 1s al1-kp.ow:ing, whereas Hi-a
c 0 163 .
becoming a gnostic in actu (bi-aI-fi 1) ia all-inforrned., "As a matter of

,
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fact, 'explains it by_adduing the image, from"human_
, .
e,q,e,rience, 0: self-perce1?tion'through a lnirror. ;';One Cl..'1Ilot by oneself
perceive Q:1es-:lf. 'SQU hav to reate a n:ri"or so that your
in tba t mur8r. So, 1001->. a t 'your indi vitfuali ty (Shalm']'"fi khd) , ,ioci, wiI).
,
-::. J - )
see ym (; oHn) beauty". He adds that is Layl address.ing her aw1'1'
o
beauty as r''!ajnn wile looking in a mirror. "He ,(Gad) ia in everything,
'With everyth;t.ng, (but) everything' is from Hiin and (sbaists) through
1 "
.
, He HilIlself see.s Himself and plys with H:i.mself', not that lIe (parzad).-
, [) .
"something other than Himself". T.tie inner meaning and purpose of'. the creation',:--
.. ,......_ t ..
. hMver, Gtsdiraz feels ia "lovell '(mahabbat) and gnosis (macrit'at) by virtue,
... :--:_ .... eu
Qf ," l loved tha t l be known".
, c'
If' there had not been "love Il ( ishg), he adds,
-"the, heaven would not' turni the/sea would. not boil. (nashrtdah), the rain
lfOuJ4 not fail, the vegetation would grow, the anlmalB would not g1 va
- .
(naza',ldah), the man lfould not' grOlf maturit:y;" God would not be
ltorahipped bl" anyone, and Gaies beaut:y would net be 3eert by &n1OJle.
164
above interpretatlon regardiig c aHin and khab1'r ia very
imp<llrtant for us, . because i t enlightens the two aspects of .G!sildiraz' s worid-
view, first from the top., meaning the creation of everything; and second f'rC'l1J
the bottan, tbat is- 'frO!Zl the sufi stand. point". In short, G9d' s being "all
. "
,lqlo'Wing" comprises pf the whole process of' and ,His becorning "all-
inf'ormed", signifies the retum journey. Thua the whole cycle ia completed
, .'
"
and Gad has seen in the mirror.
'\
,
"1
,
, t'
, '.
u
" - -
. "
-
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-95,-

of th? slii:
kh-ab'ir aspect.
Griunmatical level.s. "
,
. '.
hocess of_
e - -
creation: alIm
aspect.
v-
Now we ahall turn to the process of creation from the angle of
the f :i:ve "r.f:Lcal
V
levels laid down by Gislld.:i:i'az. In other words, the
l' .::
cosmic self-manifestation of on the -lev,els rela.ted. God
who i9' as the' '!subjeot
lt
of the creat:1ve procesC-
Basically, .this i9 a fburfold -structure f ,but as we ahall see la.tet:a there are
)'lot
tl-lO aspects ormacroeosm, both of which are- termed "essence" (dht) by
. ,
. Gisdiraz; have., _ t?erefore, fif,th level l'1hich in' fact appears o.nl:Y from
- the point of .view of mystiClil experiene. oth,enn.se,' he is ta
Simnan!, who offerfour levela, essence
(afcn) .
16
5
(dhat),'attributes (sifat), acts
- ...--- .
We face here a problem regarding the names (asma') of God. The
,
,,(> ,
_qUl!!stion-is-whethar "narnesff-"are also assigned a level.or not. For instance"
.'
Simnani does not give it a specifie level, but he thinks that "names" are
relatd to both the "essence" and trie "attributes". place daes it
-
have in the scheme of -G!sUdiraz? do not wnt to_ go into this prob1em j,n
- ,
getails but it is felt that a-mentionmust be made of certain.inconsistencies.
Gfadiraz doee not one of, levels anywhere il1
\
his work,166 bbth his COIl'IIlentator and' his son include it \, as a level beween
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:"cts" and "attributes" .167 This ia where oUr" conf"usion lies, because
Gi"sdir'iLz !nentions it as a leveI, nor does he s-tate the
, .
, ' .
".
0'/ it to eit:::::- one ot j;.he 'levels. _ It i'8 probabl"that the coornentator
'i . ,_ '
, . incruded ,lfnams" the scheme as there had to 1:)e rive ta correspond
q '
wi'th :rive s'bages ,ot G!sdiriz--.
168
Otbel;.'Wise, -the anon;Ymous author
talles ot three leve1s,_ hit mentions only t .tattributes" j and "acta"
-, " ,'c 169
to gO' Wi'th hag,fg,at, tartgat and shart at. On the other band, once he 'writes
, .
tbat 'are :tnOluded in' "wea", whUe he 1mplies tbat
, .1-'
. l ' J
,
l1
names" are related to 71 Yet he assigna one Ifrll ta "hames",
, .
WhelJ- he wa%l'ts ;to talk of :!ive stages. The :!ollowing cbarts woull probably
. ,
, '
clarity our poipt.
a} of -rive. corresp,ond:, stagea, the'
. ,
. .- 0 .,

"Essence"

::
Real,i,t:Y o:! &1".9) -= Ocoultt (khat!)
"Attributea" (et'i,t)
=

'Iruth of ,.ai
y
<1]&99' al-\lag!oat) =: (sirr)
'''Nrnes''
(anl' )
t!
. ,
.:' Spirit '$)
."
(a.tC11l "Acta"

"Etf'eots.'!
;(1
p,&th .. :: Hertr' (.!wl
(stWI:t') .: ",
'. :t"
and Real! ty. he ha.,: ,
" '
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n'
.. .' ....
a
"Esenoe"

Spirit
1
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Pth
-
Haut
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Law
.
!. . -"Aots" '
:&
- :':;.Soul .
1.
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Obvioualy the himse1f i5 confused because Gfsdiraz 1s
net c1ear on this aspect. On the other hancl., Cisdiraz indicates what the
t ,
l" '"
. ,
18, wnen he
, The fifth IIgrammatical" level 15 actually another aspect ot "essence" which
l , c..
t'aces -"beyond the beyond" (wara' aJ.-wara') and whiGh he
o. '
oa1.ls "essence" too '
. ,
',' 172-
a.s shall be later.
gacts"
hide the (dbat'. The "essence" Citsel.t') ic:s. a veil over the
1 '..' 174
'+'his last veU is never litted, even J.qt' a p:-opbet
Neverthelss, importance of structure 1s in .
. "
, A
the gra4ual manUestation of God througb. each level. In the liards ot
0 ,
"qod waa 'an esa_noe with a variety ot attributes. He wanted these
.-;
attributes 'Whioh in Him W potentia, to come out 'into the plain ol
.. , ..' '175
,-act., 'l'hus. the creation came into be1ng". "ar:.ts"
, \1
, and "ettecta" are aCtually four levels ot' ,the manifestation of GOO, with the
. .
..
tourth beinS the &m$rgence of creation. In other words, "ve ils ", and
"manifestations"
, , 6
one and 17
"
b) Deus Absconditu8: Bexond the Beyond
l
(warl' a1-wari).
, .' \
'!h concept ot' thE? beyond" (war!' aI-war') God
c'
;,' {or Goci's 'assene} in His (or i;ts) abso1ute remoteness. Most probably,
. ,
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Gtsdiraz COl.:ls: this ;term borrowing the cOI}.cept f'rem the Quran10 t "and
. ... .
God all tran behind" .177 His main purpose for using i t i8
, f
to ind:Lcte his own stand as a critic of Ibn Arab'!. whom he oriticises for
ident-ifying God as" "Abso';Lute Existence" (al-wu,1Ud a1-mutlaq).. ms objections
\ . ... .
to' fbn A1,"a5: are t'ound throughout his wo;ks. He writes that Ibn cArab!
..
ident!ied Gqd as, bein$ in 1\11 the f'orma and Shapes( a,hlsQ), and
o '-
... waS not cOI}scious (Dhu \Ir) of' "beyond the beyond
lt
1 tor Trutb (al-\taqq) i8
) Cl'
,"beyond the beyond". By th1s identification Ibn . Arab3: has "limited
U
178 . ,
(muganad) 0.00. '!bese forms and shape" f'or G3:stId:l.rtz, are, actuall.y'
, manifestations ot God's "emana.tion" <!!:z$), not He.
l79
FoX" Gistidiraz, the essence ot Gad is somathinJ ldrlch does not have
an end, 'l'hWi who 1S "beyond the beyond" can never be ientitied. Essence
1
ie aIl enclles8 line of' oceans. When one reaches the end of' .one ocean, he
thinks that he has attained his ,goal, but he sees ocean and so on.
EVen if' he goes Oh diving !rem one ocean into another for 100,000 years, he
will never reach ita end. This stage ot -''beyond beyond" can onl.y be
, Cl '
deac:ribed by saying, l ''he who Imows ( arafa. becomes duzIi) (kalla
lisiuhu).n
180
It is anly
__________ _______ 11 _____________________ ._,.., _" '.'
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...
"beyond the beyond"
-----------
essence
'essence
- - - - -- - -
essence
---_.----
oceans
essence ta . - ..
essenae
.,- ... -_ ..
.-
essence
-- --- - -
essence
.ttributes
, ac;ts
. f
eUeota
Gtst1d1raz write8 that the :last veil essenoe 18 not ra:Jae1'-to
.. . \", ' .
be 1t a saint or a ,proph$, t'or no one lIees th8 rf!lal "'essenoe ot' God
It 18 only God who sees Himselt" and. knowa HimseU t' and no one 1 (in the real
. .
sense) witb mm but H1msel:t'" .182 Th1s 1s the ot be1ng

,
with "beyond the beyond
lf
, tor Gtaild1riz. It 18 the real1za1::1.on O't one'.
. "
endles8 journey t'rom ocean ta ocean ta Wini t7 It 18 the 1.nabU1 ty to
l... 1 \
, 183
descr1be sanething that "takes a new grandeur every day", with. the result
. ,
tbat one 1s cb,lmbt'ounded .
l84
GlSd.1r'iz wr1ts to the et'tect that
'. 185'
aearching t'or Gad 115 like loe1d.ng. t'or pull" (mas!!!) in onions. Tbis
.
naturally Sivas the impression at:rauoUciental God. It should be noted'
. .
this aoqua1ntance Ot "bayond the beyond,lt 1.8 achieved 'OI7 when the
. -
iNti gOes' beyond the 4
th
stage, "1ruth ot Real"ity" (cOrrespond,1ng to lower
, 1 t ri
' Of' \
level ot or IIvelling" essenae, in the present Boheme). In other words;' when
.the thopheni' o:t' easence (j;A.1111i-1,dhlt, or the positive o't macrocosm)
1s manit'ested. him ..
l86
A sut1. dOGS expenence the "es-senoe" (clh&t) ot'
. .
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-
, -
n , .../ ....... _j'"' ... ......... 4''''' '!i:toIItILIII
c
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God, but 19 ur.able to Hint.
187
Th1s "cOnsciousness" 1a termed
, IJ - ,
"beyond the .. t ... hich i9 realized on the stage of -ty of Truth"
\-Ie might pu,; i:t i.."1 :mother way by say1ng that the consciousness of "beyond l'
the beyond" xa a secret revealed when the sufi annihilates hintself ,in the
higher level of or "veiled" essence.
c) Deus Revelatus: Emartation (fayd)

Thua tar, we have seen Ithat theophany (t..1all!) pays major role
\ .
in the wor1d-v:iew of Gis.diraz. We have also neted bis concept or, "beyond the
1
beyond". New, we will see tbat "emanat1on" <lm) of God. ;s beh1nd whole
crea1!ion. The concept of emana.ti}, for 18 actually the self'-
1
man1f:estation or (tajalli) of 00<1, as is the case w:tth Ibn cArabr.l89
It 1a th,ia conoept of Eml.nAtion wh1ch he, also calls "divine emanat1on"
gu,ds!), that 19 present al1 the ln this 'regard tao, G1sdiriz
1s very similar to Si.mni.r, for whom emanat10n 1s the lllt between Gad and
man.
190
\Ji
G!Sdiriz wr1tts there are two aspects" of 'al.1 existents.. one
t'aoing 1tse1f and the other towards 1ts creator. The second. aspect 18 'oalled
the divine emanaton al-guddUst), and the "g1orioua 11ght" (a1-rnk
al-su'obl), which. 18 W:i:th total tll1z:1ga. 'lbia h calle
.192 divine 1a (Cjad!m>, and he, theratore,
Cal18 i t ,somet1me& the "e-terna1 em:ana. t1on" (farQ-1 gadiin). 193 . Br virtue .o-r
th1s ema,nation, everything 1s connected wi th and subsiste through God. It
'" c
19 because of ,this reasOn that Mq;tamnad ibn Yliei (cd. 1201717) "! do
..
not ar.ything but 1; wi.tneaa God in 1't".. 'GIsdirb fae],. t.ha:t Wlai
Q
.
.. _0 _. _t,. ... _ ... __ "'" P ......... """ ... ru_ .... : '-- ...;...------'-'---.... ... ""OIWl .. - .... i$_17I1111' ili .... ,
."'" .......... _ t: :' {........ _ .,-' .. t .. ,: ... j <
, ___ 2.
c
i,
'\ -r ..
. -101-
"
uttered th'! aoov9 statement' because he experienced 1t through "direct vision"
(b
cIe. - )
a- ayn a - :.':a.:1 But he clarifies, probably with Ibn in mind,

that the s'ta :e-:,,:e,"1t ,of ibn c does not that God exists in ever-.fthing:
On the ft oens that it is' the "e:rA."'la.tion" of Gad Hhich is
found in them.
194
In this co
l1
text, -Gradiraz c:rl ticises Ibn cArabi at
"
iIlIll.lIllerable places in hi$ works. He writes, uHe (God) i9 in and with a11.
',- tllngs which (in turn) are fram and Him (az wa ... badll)fi ,195 but net
-'"'-- , to
-
He. E1.sewnere t he $tates tbat a su:f"f ie the one who perceives the "essence
l "
sun" sl1ams) 1t8 1thams}n.l96 As tor
vo
the relatiortship ot emanation with God, GlSdiriz maintains that it is neither
Himselt' (Caynuhu) nor something other than Him. (ghayrahu) .191
"
The sigrlitiance of emanation is also discerned it' we see 1t tram
"
. another angle, that tram the point of view of i ts terms., such as
rQ-i 'aCfam. rgb-i to indicate the same concept. This aspec-t
is more it will enlighten the reality ot emanation. We
1 .. '"
have seen that "divine emanation" is eternal. Its re;tationship to-man,
..
according ta GIsdiraz, is like that of a ''beloved
lt
with the ','lover". It 1s
ne1ther attached to man nor detached, nor is it internal (dikhil) or external
(l!hiriJ) to him. b8eause it i. pIjM (!I!U!!f,zzah:) tram the nearne
(g:m:g), distance (bucd), unity (itt.1,a1) and ,separat1on ( 1"). l'et it 1s
naarer to man than his dwn' Jugular vain o;r his pupil (siY&hi-i chashm) .198
The most, interest1ng ,aspect of emanation 1s that it has almost the Sam8
r9lationship with both and man.
" "
.,
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"
"

...
,
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-102-
\.
,
GIsdiraz states that divine emanation,ia alaq termed. at times,
1 199
the ,,'spirit of spu-it" _ (rn'Q al-t!J) and the "greatest spirit" (rh-i aCzam).
, . .
It is p:tradxical enough that thou.:;h divine er.'la..'1ation i3 eternal, the
,
"greatest spirit" which io9 one of thenames 'Of emanation, is somth:;ing created
and accidentaI because lt emerged from in between
Godfs attributeo9 of,beauty and majesty (jalaI).20l. Nevertheless, it
1s to note divine emanation 1s also addresaed at
t:imes, as God (khud), and as of evex-ythipg (khlig sbar) -",hen
it ia not advisable to reveal/its nature (whieh signifies the Cr$ative
. Ii ( 1- '
Fran another angle 1 s termed saint a..a.; .. .L.UCidentallt) 1s
aiso one of the names ,of God. c f. e.g. Quran 2: 257). Glsd:iriz' interpre-
o ,r
tation 1s very important here beeause 'by applYing the :term 'emanation" to both
the terms <fod and saint, he bas defined "meeting .. ot Divine
. .
emanation as thaint
ff
is, no doubt, the sum-totl of the universe taken as that
"Perieet Man" in whan or6d recognise His own- indirlduality Cshakh'l) or the
J
'.
pla-ce where, God and man \lllite . In short, that is' the plaee ftom wh.ere man
1
emerged and that i9 where he returns eventually. This, then ia the signifiea.nce
of saintahip (wal'ilah). 203
tlevertheless t the problem of terlDinology 1s tackled in' a more
, . ,
, 0
expl1c1t lII&M.er br GtstJd.1rlz' son S.A. !.il the llth oha.pter of' bis
,
work Tabf1r&t al-iiqYah., According ta ma.c.rOCOSIl
o .
( Ilaa-l kabtr) la the f1rst <, j!.wha.r-1 awai) wh10b wu the
1n1tlal creation of God. It ia ala.o
called, "relat.1.ve sPirit" i.4!!J)
, \
/ '
,1
c

.
. ,
1
-10)-
cOIll1ng into the essence of God (g;.iit-i khud) manifested i;tself
,
r?1:ative spirit has !T'Any r.ames, first (cea1- i ..
awwal), first pen (qalnm-i aNt-ral)., greatest spirit-(rlih-i spirit of
....-.-- ,
. (r>;r1-i and sa on.
204
Another important term mentioned

in this context 1s "reality of bing rr.u'oammad" r.1uQaIm'lAdYlll) which
1a actually the or1gin of the universe 205 On the oontrary,
man (insan; considered as such, i.e. without the perfection of "saintship"
!p actu) ia the microcosm (oalam-i or the second substanae (j<}whar-i
duwum) .206
" ,
The Obvious application of terminal ogy ,and concepts,
, c - ' <
in general, and those of Ibn Arabi in particula.r, i signif1oant. 'This, iri
taot,. assista in lnlderstanding the problem;in a bettez: way. ' In eV'ent, -
,
there are a couple of things which are brought ta light. 'lbe firet 1s that
GIsdiriz "15 son idntif'ies the "divine emanation" with macrosaosm or tiret
substance, and this with the "sPirit of or the "reality of being
fol.lowing Ibn This poses a problem With regard
to the concrete human of the, PrOPhet of Is his.plaae relegated
\ 1
to the "seoond substance" or microscosm? Bef'ore we go into that question we
might point out that, there is flgain a subtle 'dtff'erence with regard to
> ,
"emanation". 1'he tenns like "relative .spirit", -g:reatest spirit" and BUCO are
names stven te the manifestations of divine emana.tion froll ditfarent points
of view. For exaxlIple, S.A. rf'ers to the symbolism ot:
ocean "whioh is often Q.uoted by a:lsiidirtz himselt' 207 The ocean takes ditf'erent
7P 1I1f... ' ..... 1 'T.' ."".."
-. .' ""l' , .( n". i "
. " , ." .....
.\
(;
,
1
r 'lt'.. .
\, 4v 'c ,or"' .. ..__ ...... _
- . --- t
',)
. \
1
(
-104-
,
names li.ke wves, vapours, c1ouds, rain, stream, etc. on diI'ferent levels, ..
.... .f....... 208

to "It doea not perish but itsel:f from o::.e form
i:lto another a.."1d from one shape iuto another'. 20'9 The sigr.ificance here is
the innurnerable forms and ahapea in 'which i t manifesta 1 "taelf. Thua,
GI:sdiraz emphasizes that the forroS and shapes are the emanation of God, not
Himself'.
Iole will analyse the whole system of -di.stinction trom a slightly
di4erent angle, that ie tram the point of' V';Law of the beyond; i.e
. Transcendental God. We have pointed out earl1er
210
that divine etlanat10n .
1tae1f ia the manifestatiQn of God and His f'irst creation. On the other (hand,
God 1s "beyond the beyond" and utterly uncomprehens1ble. < He can nevar be
211 '.
pointed out or 1dentified. He 1e unapproachab1e frem the side of',
!J' ,
divine emana.tion or Macrocosm Which 1s the end of the journey. It 1e
here that one rea11ze.s that GOd 1s ''beyond the beyond", and that every'thing
ia tram Him, but not 212 Thisr 1a the reason wby GIadirz writes that two- ....
ness (c:m 't) remains for ever. 213
Fran the il1um1nistic aspect ot the problem divine emanation:.is
, ,
214
to bs understo04. as the 1ight" (nnr-i. mutlag) tt i8 1ight

215 Q
ot Gad which i8 attached ,to every1;hing. The tl abso1ute l1ght" ie probab1y
. 216
the "light of Mul)anIDad" 'Which i8 the tiret oreation. This ie the stand
\
the anonymous carmentator of .ymir al-Asrar takee, because, to him, the
" a
"light ot Muqamnad" is. the O%'igin of oreation (as1-1 khi1gat.), and is
i
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,
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-105-,
therefdre f the" macrocosm.
2
,17
We have reached 'a very interesting point now in regard to the
varipU9 terms used to express the same idea. Grsdiraz personnally prefers
)
"divine emanation", and" clearly i.mplies the concept of the Perfct Man as
being that emanation, th.ough he .also mentions as a1ready observed.
His son S.A. prefera tostick to Ibn cArabr'a terminology, "reality of
being Mul;lammad" and lI spiri t of Mul}ammad", which GIsudiraz himsell has tried
to avoid. On the other hand, the anonymous cOImlentator adheres ta "light of
as his:- macrocosm. ,
,--/
d) The Perfect:' Man (insant'j, kamil).
j
).
(
218
We have seen abovt'( that the term "creation" (khalg) in the
divine tradition -1 was a hidden treasure - connotes to the appearance of
the)..!.'Perfect Man", who i8 the first creation. The Perfect Man is "absolute"
(rml"t;lag) in the sense that the totali ty of existences (.jumlah-i \.
are comprehended by him. In other words, the attributes of God wpich are eacn
, '
manifested through an entity, are aIl together manifeated in the concept of
the Perfect Man. In the idea of the Perfect is th firet and
the perfct manifes-u;,tion of God with aIl His "attributes" and "names", which
takes place within His own consciousness. Thus, in this idea lies the concept
of macrocosm as elaborated by the commentaries. In the section on
1
"emanation", we have deal t wi th the synonymous terme like "reali ty of being
,
of Mul)8JlIDad", IIgreatest spirit'" and such, applie to
, ..
::r
express the idea of ma!rocosm or the Perfect Ma:n. We have tackled the
t" \
$,
f
1

-
(
f.
, i
, ,
t
,

-106-
prob1em brief1y side, 4:.hat is from the angle of God, and
concluded,that macrocosm is in reality the "divine emanation". Here'we
will analyse it from the point of view of man. In short, if macrocoam is the
- . , ,
Perfect fv'J8.l1, 1fho then is the, Perfect Man concretely ? fThen
J
we will aee how.
(
'this concept becomea the symbol for the microcosm in its return journey.
Gisdirz expounds that the Man is the Prophet
because he ia the most perfect, and is superior to aIl the other messengers.
t
Therefore, he was created as their "seal" (kh!.tim a:l:.-rusul). 219 He ia the
manifestation (maihar) of aU existences, and it was tor the sake of him
(
C-. 220
that God created Adam an the univerae Thua, Gfsdiraz does not
at first distinguish be
"mieroe oamie If "seal
identity of the two
J$nad and Mullwlmad.
primordial Perfect Man
l "
al-Razi to illustrate t
"macrocosmic" "spirit of and the
rather he tends to emphasize the
in histcase. He doe,s, however, distinguish between
e, he only alludes to the relationahip between the
1
the final outcOD1e by.an iinage used by Najm al-Din
"spirit" to ''body''.,
of the Prophet'Mubammad was 'the of a lengthy,
procelure, very 'lar to that of the fine st sugar (I11btit) which is the final
.
\
outcome sugar-cane (nay shakar). Glmidiraz writea that
(jumlah-i makhlqt) were sifted and the l'esul t was Adam and ,aIl the Prophets.
Again these Prophets were sifted and the result was the Prophet MUpammad.
This is the reason, he says, .why the Prophe;t, Mu\l8lllOll\d possasses in "cash"
222 ,-'
(naqd) all the perfections found in Adam, Noah', Moses, Abraham, Jesus and
- .. .,
1". 223 224 c
\ the rest respectively. Thua, he ia envied by others. He adds the Shi i
t
L
,
1
)
-107-
"
,'
d
c ..
tradition which says,' "1 an AIl. were created fram -.one light four thousand
years before the of AdamI!. 225 We may point; out here that it i8
by virtue of this quality of perfection in Prophet Gisudiraz
probably wants to show the equality of vthe saints to the Prophets af Israel,
when he mentions that each one of them is represented by a saint.
226
Bimultaneously, the quotation of the tradition indlcates the superiority of
waUiyah.
Besides, from the aspect of the Man, the Prophet
i9 totally one with (MtWarnrnad wa khud-i f1ulJammad sar ba_sar).22
7
It
signifies the "divine emanatlon
ll
whioh is the initial manifestation of the
,
e,ssence of God which S.A. ijusayni tarrns the "sec6nd sea" (darya-i duwum), the
first sea belng God's essence itself.
228
-<",
The erranation cornes directly
229
"beyond the beyond
ll
The Prophet I-fu:t1a.mmad is the manifestation (mazhar)

--\230'
of God's essence. Moreover, we shall see below that the two "essences"
in the ontoloiical mentioned above 23
l
may indicate the two aspects'of
'1- ..' 232
the Perfect Man, positive and negative, which we W111 dl.sCUSS agal.n below.
" '
/'
It may, therefore, not be improper to the first creation by or
manifestation of God in the fOrIn of the "Perfec,t Man" or "divine emanation"
or "reall ty of beil1g M\.lllammad" took pla'e in His essence itself. In
Short, this manifestation appeared in the consciouness of Gisdiraz
quotes the Quranic verse
233
IIwhom so ever obeys the Prophet, o'beys God", to
enlighten 'this unique, and paradoxical nature of relationehip that existe
between the Prophet and God.
234
"
From another angle;' there 15 a very interesting intepretation of
, -
\
, .
i
J
'C
."
(.
the sarne idea, by
C
i s
God manifested Himself on three
From "One" He ,revealed Himself to the "most praieeworthy"
and then te 1;-he "praised one" (Mammad). The letter "m" "(mm) in
is a veil ovez: 2
3
? This explanation may in i tself' be very sigrifi/cant
, ,
because it. presumably shows us the thr:e aspects of the problem.
b
'then, according'to our interpretation, points to the Transcendental God,
'.
indlcates the "Ferfect flJl.n" or ,"divine emanatiori" as Macrocosm, and
,
flrufammad enlightens the the 'It also maintains
" tbe distance betWeen the Perfect Man and Gad, as signified in the Quranic
verse, "a distance of two bow lengths or nearer",2
36
which Glsudiraz calls
!!!1!!! of [g,unaf.
The following illustration'seems ta be Gsdiraz's onological
process of creation, WhlCh will also give a general impression of the position
Q
of macrocosm in the scheme.
Consciousness
of God
1 "
,"
... { :'
..
wo b 6w
lengths:
mID
Beyond the

essence ]
essence
essence
essence
V..acrocosm: Apmad.- Ferfect
- - - -'
attributes
Man, Divine emanatlon
reality of bejng
flru:Qammad,
acts
__________ __ Muhammad: microoosm
We have just discussed the wo aspects of the Prophet Vruvammad,
one as macrocosm and the other as miorqcosm. If we put i t in another waY't, '.
.,
1
-, ..
-,
.,
1

Il
,,'
,,', )
,
1,
"
1
(
t' ,
-109'"
esoterida.lly' he 18 maoroeoslll and $xoterically he 18 mlcrooosm.
Thus, macrocosmlc aspect signifies saintship, whereas microcosmlc
0
qualifies prophethood. to the superiority
1
of the Prophet MulJammad to aJ.J.. belngs bath exoterica1ly and. esote-
.
rleally he ls taken "a!3 the, arche type He ls. to be followed. in both
Thus, externally, the sufi has' to abid.e by the !ailS and.
y,1,
n "
of conduct laid down by him, a.nd I,internally he, baing the Perfeot
Man, 1s fut he st one couid a.scend. in the my8tic .journey. This
{ .
81snifle8 tbeaecond aspecti of tbe ,theopha.ny of God vhich 18 His
-.nlfestatlori to mn (lndn). It 18 t'rom th18 &n81e tbat ve hAve
referl(,Ja to ,God's becoa1ng "aU-informed" (kbabtr), oarlier in this
ohapter/
37
...
, ,
238
Ae obsuvfll;l prevloualy.J the nuaber 5 i8 vtn:1 important: far
, ,
GIsUdiriz 1 he bai fi ve stages (ll&glmit) of IIIYstic progression a (1.)
'Law (2) Pa.th (31 Reallty (bagIqa.t), (4)
of ReaUt)' (ba9g a:t-q.aq!g8,t), (S) ReaUt; of Truth tb!9t ga.t al.:=2!qgJ.
2)9 .
These stages he exPla.inB as snohs "av (ahartCa.t) aeans the s&Y1n&
o - '_",
of thi Perfeet Man; i8 the ation (kard) o'
the P Get Ma.nJ Realit)' (pagIgat) 18 the s1ght (dId) of the Ptn:fect
Man. Truth f Bea.11ty (tw!9 a1-pagtga.t) ls th; be1ng (bUd) of the
Perfeet Mazu d Real1t)' of Tr1,lth (baq!gat ... 1-9&99) 18 the being of
.nOJ;l-be1ng '(bDd.-1 -biJd) of tlie Perfect Man.
240
; .
v. a1ght pOint' out, GtotJd.1riz mentions a. 6th stage elaevhere.
, "
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'Ji ,rwl/W .... -J ...... ..... ,-...._ ...
o
, .....
1
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, Il
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Oncre he ,refera .. ,lt, i.a "the Truth" t&l_g) &Ad explaha 1t '
. __ be1rif ancl 'being of (*-1 bUd wa. bOd-1 241
In another he 'the t,el:. "1'ruth (ba.gg-1 bagg) and
o ela.bora.tes 1t i.a '!be1ng' (btkl btld) .242 think
t.hese tlfO al"e synonymous ter\_ 1nd1cating transcendenta.'Cod -wbo 1& 0
, 243' '
"beyond the be,.ond", a tage w loh attiras "tvo-tless". Le:J: not
, - .
,
oarduae thla stage vith the oth ve have to above.
1 The atace of t. aya-tl0 1a "B 11t,. of Truth"; vher. he NoO"
,
,
Thia .... to be th.
, "
ooa.ao1ou qf, C()4. beiDJ "M,.ODd. th.
- \ . '\ l'
expl&aa-tiOQ "TtUtb" or Of""_ ....... ". III ahort, the,. a1gn1fy
" \ f
TraIlIIce.zadeza . God. ,'"
GhBd:- a"-. aeaUty;
of Boal1t.y; &114 B Ut.y o}' Tntb. fi 11' t.b&t I,m_bl. . ...,Ira .
..:. -.
:tIl lJIewbae. Genera\l1' apeak1ng, la . (aktOat) 18 th. requ1sit ..
. - -
, (Uti",) of (OubM\J!t.), tbat',ia io 'follow the rella10ua
, '1
'- =.U.no... Gta6crls dirid. .. thaae izato tvo 1dDda.
. \
to .sen. (bad) Goda far exaap1., by pralins, abeta1n1nc f'roa in-
. v --- -
dc.ci .. , not d.pr-l riq of tbe1r r1chta, be1ac juat, &Dd. 111 ,
- , ;
by re_1I1izag '.i thin the bouncS&:ti_' of nl1giOll_ 'l'he aecOlld " ,
\ l" "
la, to in servit .. (ba .. byclyt). In ,other
'.dnere 'f1:ral1 !LDd adapt to all tbat 18 worthy-
r
..
",
,
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\
.' .
. '
'" , .. ,.: . ...,..

"
o ' ,
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(u;' 19) of servant (baildah) &Ad set'Yltud.e (b&Ddag!). It 1. tb.
? .. y 1
, c .
rtrSt klnd whioh pertains to law (snar! at) saying of ihe
, '.,Jr
Perfect Man, and the second. kind 15 illplled to be (1pgIga.t) or
, the "a.!'tion (laI.rd) of the Partect Man. 245 ri,
(".
c
"il. ",'

- "
GtaM1rh cltes exallpl.e. ln trying to 4th
stage., or "s1gbt. .. of th. Pertect Mail" and Truth of fte&llt1
, . ,.,
or "bein," of the Perfect MaA. On. of the instano.. be 01 tu 18
tb&t. of Hoa.. &Del th. "barD1Dg buah", 246 "bleb h. "'Y. 1. ala1lar to
Ilr
uperlenoing th;)ri at&ge o.Jled Reallty.247 The "burn1n& buab"
J ..:'
and. the TOloe tb&t .poke f'ro'. behind, Ut ys Gt.Ud1rlz, are the 1'8n-
o
, of G<Xi, whieh are f'roa Hl. but not Ha. -'l'bia d1at1act1on
betweu tbe unif tation of Gocl and. Cod a1gAif1es thl. )l:d. stage of
. .
",1gbt" 91' th. progr... iro. the ataae
, .
.
"'1cht" to th. Itth ata.g., D&Hly "be1ng" of th. Perl8t. l'AD or tro.
r
, 'i
R",11t7 to Trutb of ft_lIt Y 1., &coop:l.1Dg to a YEy d1ffloult
6
tut.
248
Tb. Mb Truth of ft.ll t7, 1. leo upl&1ned tbroqb
ot Moa ... blD .1et*l to .1b ... God. GtaUll1rls
'.
wrltes tbat aotuall)' MCiI .. wanted to procr". !ra_ th. ataae of ".!pt
to tb&t of "being". H. dda tb&t It 1a lapoaalble to expl&1n th.
o .'
atat. (iatlQ1lttt) .hieh 1a r .. ult of "wantiq"
.... ,-"
(kbwiat) to HoOM "balDg-- of 18 .0 beca.uae
OQ thla 4th .taga, "you are ,ouraeU, but th. Truth ot Real.1ty (QIsg,
:>
tu 1nto (,lfat-1. "tU gardad). 18 '
,
,
- ,
r
\
-112-
\
\ .
\ '
poaalbl. that you'beco"'IDOOUc10ua(bt khucl> of Y0ur8l.f\ (az khud) .
and .turn into nOn-being (ni: in tbe biing of rea.l1ty \(W
o 250 \ .
bagtg&t} vh1ch tuma lnto TOUX' .pitbet (na t).11
1
GtaOd.lrizj f la tba.t tb. exper1enoe of th1s st&8e ot: Truth ot: Real1ty
, . . ,
cannot be descrlbed. tbrOugh' exallplee _ ll. ,:he eestatio uVer-'
,v ane .. of safis .. er. the conaequence of th1s exper1enb.,
ud tb. "lagiDatlona of 1UlUT' (0"'"-1 lt'Elb14>
a1lOh utteranoea r.l&ted. ta thia stage. 251
"
r
Gtatlllirb hiM.lf ftr'1 U ttl. to Al about th. f1uJ. or
Sth stas. of' th. su:rl journe7, 1I&lI817 lleal1ty of (bagtgat
al_g), beo&uae no on. can reall1 ooaprei1eM lt (tt :Qtt. th. tut
bu .J1!tt). bo 1t & prophet or & l&1at or &II al.e:ol. th.
Perfeot MaD. It _,. be Doted. tbat ben he dces not MaIl th1a
" L -:- ...
, \ - Y. f'.
-tac. ta 1.naC'c.slb1. to.. suil. Ca. tb .. a sutl raOb ..
!'.
tb.1a stag. of R_UtT of 'l'rath or "be1ng of non-beiAg" of tn.
fi
-" i}
Man, 'beo&1IIIe lt 1. the f1.nal stage for bia. MareOTeJ:, &I1JthiAg be10Dd.
tb1;a stac. O&DIlot De .tct..r.tood., "h1eh 1& 1apl1ec1 th. oc.pt. of
"be70Dd th. beJODd ... 2S) Th. id ... of pra ... .. th.
,
progr.. of". .utl . to a atap 18har. Aa l.oq... b. re_1u on on.
'atap, h. C&IlIlot re&ll7 rmd.e:ratucl lt. BNld.ea, the. ubta a TerT
1
e1.. rel&tloaahip th.' tvo -tac , Trutb of lleallt1 (4th)
&ad. ReaUtT of Trutb(-"th)OIl the buta of theophally, .. bloh ,,111 ,turtheJ:"
clar1f7 our, poiDt.
, .
..
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"


,
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____ norI'fJ._,.' ... .. -)l!JI;i ... ,,,,*,4IIMi 1." , ....... .. __ _ "\. __ ..... __ _."...,... .. "."
i
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-11)-
Thare are t_o leTela of theopban:y (ta jallt) ,each creapond1ng
to th. two ata.ge diacuss10n. \ The lower lavel 1& -.n1feated
OD th. stage of' Truth of Reall ty (4th stage). The bigher la
u.n1feat.ad. on the atage of R_l1ty of Truth (Sth stage). The forur
, ,
desorlbes the s.:tata of 1nt'Oxlcat1oD (aukr) 1Ih11e the lattr 1adl- "
"
Ctes "aobr1etY" (tY!. The 1011er leTe1 of t.heophan,., on the
atace, Truth ar a_llty, 1. t.he .l.ulfeat&tloil of' tld1T11. e..:u.t1oa-
1 2.54 .
(fam-i 9_t). In other wCll'da, 1t ia th. thtlOpb&ny of &ll. the
.. &ttrlbut .. (1ia:P.W-l ,1:t) ancl naaea" (&aIlE') of God..
25S
Gtatld1rh etat .. tbat, by rirtua of thS .. .aDlf .. ta:U. &ll the 99 ....
of God. beco .. the att.rlbute of the 1IPt.1c tranuer.2.S6 S.A. Il_pt
,
pate lt in another vay by .. ,.ing that the tn. ... eller la tbu deacrrlbad
. .
(!!IQUt) by the at.tributs of the real1t,. of beiDe Mut)& .. d., a.a4 be
1 \
repeata wbatn"E lt .. ys, .af'tenhlob, be P"''' 111 to .. lItter-
&DO" (talillt-l .. Upah); 257 becaua. h ..... b1aa.lf -.. God..
258

'GtaUdirls fe.la tbat lt s.. bers tbat the tz'a.ftller cief1Dltel1' n
hia apiritual preoeptor Bath and. hie aoa atU'ib.it.
thi. atace t.o the iDtoxioated. aut1a li.ke (4.309/922), AbU
Yut.cl al-But&at, etc.
260
Tharefare, the lItten.no. at thia atage
Il '
"1 &a the 'lntb.&DCl. "Gl.arJ be to ....
Th. h1cbat lnel of theopbany 1. ""-t of the ..... eza<a... (t&.i!.1l%-!.,
tbb> ltMlf. Th1a b1b tAM,.., 1a MAl:t .. t4Ml - tM 5th .... ,
a.J.1tJ Dl fztRh. It a1pU1ea \b4Iat.a.t.a of ... of tbe VaTelJa
1.
, -
.
.
it .... ut li' t ", .. ... .... e:.i1------.----'--.--.
P ...... ... .. .. ',h. .. ...fdlv.,; .. ..... J> _ ... v.J, .. ,
. - - -----. _._ ... --_ ....... '1_)t7"1 , .. "
,'1
. ,,,.
'. .
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. .
- , __ __ " ........ " _ .. ...... __ ........ _, ...
.:.
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Jall1festat1on, vhlch 18 sa1d. to be pure and ole&r; 18 the
"t,raveller' 1I&11J, IfGlor:r be to AllIh" and "He 18 the Truth
Jf
; in
. "
, contraat to bili earl1er uttera.ncea, "I am the Truth"', "Gl"ory
, .
bo to Ile" rel&ted. to the, 4th stage, Truth of 'ReaJ.'tty. 262
.
''q
Th. upartaDce of th ... two .tag .. 1a th. change tbat ta.bs
, . .
p)ac. the Jl11Itl0. It ta tbat, th. "I!': (an.f) vh1ch 18 pr.valat
\. '" : n
1a b1a on the 4th. ataga of 'f'ruth of a.Ut" d1a&ppea.ra ooaplete17
'.
_ the 5th'.tep of B-.J.1ty of Trath. 'l'h1a 1a tbAt. "1.1."- (9Pt. )"
of ',to" vn1ch Gt.Ud.1r&Is &ll ..... J26? ",. 1 be'i ">
- .. ,
1011 ... ..... But, aco02:\bg to S.A' . ij1l8&,...r, the t'Wc,'.tat .. of .
4 ". ..
" , .
".obJ:1et;rtt (u, &A4 (!I&l1f:) an botb .cu:k1Dc CIl the
, "
t.. 11" '"
Sth at&p of of The thMJlbU7o.t " ... ... obUten.tu .'
tl:ae ot th,. .,.-t1q add.l 1a Truth:.
264
'l
-'. ' "" , L - .
.' bat .... the tJrO stace. '00 bula
of tbeoJlbu:r. .. t .... :peota M&croco.a. .Th. "Y.SJ..in"
A. __ l;>. '"' ," \
.. pect, .h1oh aicbt th ...,.t1n upeot.l1a .ber. tb. 1 ..... -
\.
r. 1 _
" ,
}ll:'en.lla &Dl th. JQatlo uttara, "1 &II the 'l'%uth". TU "ft1lecl"
-.Peot .. wtiloh 'ire 'wiU, oall :poaltlft .. oz>,
th. "1-0 ... " 18
th. -lfe 1 .. th. Truth ... It ., o.'l1oted th&t tbt
!sae _"-
.
, ,
"r
. ,
-li5-
'. .
/
1. .,bat Gtaiici1ds lapl1ea when he nl t" t "two th1nga are ver1f1ed
(!llUta.bagg1g) trav$ller ,bas (lttl_t) vith the 11<:.lIes
.
(ba-asml') 8.nd bas a.cquired cba.racter par excellence (takhallug ba.-
- .
" .
akh}j9 t first,. wless pain (dard! b! n1h&yatt), and second,
1
wltneaaing (mushlh!4a.h) of infini te sea (ciaryJ J -1 bt JlI;yIn). Hel'e
b' Aoll al-ljaa&n Nor! (d.286 or 295/899 QI." 907) pointing
crJt thinS-, wheCl he aa.id t "If l &11 He 18 not and. 1f H. 1a
?
/
l' "
, . l &JI nOt (Wr -.na_ a ptat wa=t.p.r Qat MD D&h 0) .,,266 The "eDeU a
pah" apeaJca ot -1 aa Truth" t aD4 the "Wh1t. pOiDta to
1/# "H.;a Truth-, .h1ch tor C:;!aUr11ds 1a tl}. hipeat .tag . of the
ayat1c joun.y.- he aeana by "h.-n ..... (huw!;p;t). 261
1
Th. 5th atas. of Re&l1ty of Truth, lib the ...... nc ... 1s
aultuted.to the .,..t1c tn.Yeller ta, far GtaUd1:l:b, th. rMl!..at1oll '
ot th. tact t.h&t God 18 tn.naceadctal, &DI! 18 "beyODd. the beJOGd".
t\1a 1a the r ... oa wh,. h. upla1na ''lII11011
It
' (!!.tlYJ ... & ".pecial
... " (q"Ir-1 1!!!It!) 004 eert1t1ld.. <4 "yog ."., "ot, H. 14".268
det1u .. th. tC'II "cUacOYerT' (wu.1D4) alao uoouo1ouaaeaa"
ot beiag inforMe!. (1:111.&0).269 1t 1& real.1-
sats.,n. that h. tena "d.1not Tialoa" (cam al.01$). 210 Th. a!pl-
f1ouoe ot 1t la la . 1 ..... 1.q ......... (!'!tpI&t) la MInll<tiplle1't7"
(lpI.tbrat) &Ilcl "lIlllt1p1101tr iD "OD.-n ......
21
l: f tbla, aocOl'diai
"
1
to clou ilOt ....,. th&:t God e:data 1D enr,-tb1llg. Rather,
t
" 1. Hia - ....... tloa" (am> wh1ch la w1th on. uil &11.
212
..",.
Oh tb1a bu1s,
-"
",
-
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\

l,
-
C
.1
,/
. "-
-1.16-
"-
..0
the suii saya, "1 real1ze you in wbat,ver
l see". 273
The follow1ng is a. oomparative ohart showing the tvo a.spets
;iI
of froll the point of vie" of aration-, and
.
!rom the standpoint of ;the 1 s journe1'
Be10nd th,o Truth or Truth of Truth
eal1ty of Truth - Theo}lbaDl of essence.
lou an Truth (poa1tlye)
of ...uty - of attri-
but .. l ... the Tru:t.b (Deg&t,1".)
Beallty.
Path
Froa the point of Ti .. ot the coz:reapond1Dg
'1
st,agM vould be, 111 th. ucnd1ng arder, (1?k), "affa.1:t"(lsl;:),
.1acl0ll (b1b&t), " ... (!fr?::IDt) (nubUlnr.t). 274
The t.chn1cal tC'M uaed. f= th stq .. ; in COIUlectlon .lth "aud.1t1oll"
(sul), are "reaolutica" (qUM). arrldng (wurUd),
(shubM), ('!11.1!d.) J - .. 'extinction" (khudt) .215
In ter.. of "sutl P.yoholog)1', the .1lbtle .ubet&no (latl'1t)
i
.
",s .. peIIIIliq 'te the ..... -taee an ".oul", (8!:.t!), .. heart" (g&lb),
"spirit .. .... cret .. (am), a.a.d. "ocoult" (khatt). 276"
.... -_---.-----
- , ... ...
."

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NOTES Ta CHAPrER II
See the expl&n&t-1on of the terJlSby Najm al-DIn al-kubrl, -Fawa' 1b
al-Jallll wa-Fawl:tiq al-Jal&l, ed. Fritz Meier, Wl.abadn. 1957,
p.282J cf. AbU. a1-ija.sa.n 'AlI a1-JullIbI a1-HujwIrI, Kashf 801-
tranalat1on,b;y B.A. N1cholson, London, 1911; p.J8Jff.,
Oar Jah, SYlla. and. Ce!!E1 12veunt 1n West
A:f'r1C&1 A Case .3tudy of al:ija,i.1 'US al-mtI' 8 PhlloaophI of
';:l..
J1hId. and ita sun Bas .. , Ph.D. th is, Iu,t1tut. of Iala.a1o
.'
Stud1e., -MaG!ll Un1versity, Aupat 1973, pp.96-91. lt -y De
8&14 tba:t Oar Jah de&la wlth of wallDh exoluslvely
rro. th. Tl" po1Dt of hia top1c Mhere he h&d. to phaais. th!.
exoterto aspect _of But the aoat.,ba.slc of th!.?
extena1 a1d.., 1a th. 1Dternal .. PIO 0 w,lImo lt 18 ,wh.n
th ufl act_Us .. the .. otarie .. Pact ot .. lIDh in biaB.l:f
that h. beco ... & .b&Db or '
Althougb HujW%rI belle", that poeis cannet, nec aully &Ad
exc1ul"ely, depeD4 on 1nap1rat1 P.271),. be certa.1Dly
elaeMhere , direct oontact .ltb God, whu ne wr1tes, . "In
r 1 ty Ma.n'. only gu1d.. and' enllghtener 18 God.", SAd. when he
quet.. 1 AU, "1 knQW Cod, b;y God, &I;I.d l Jmow that 1lh1ch la Dot God
b;y the lJ&bt o"l God" pp.268 264, cf .275). Wbat 18
'1cnlf1c&at tor UllOW 18 the c11fterqoe bat1l'MA !!Y.1: a.nd
Cf. D.!. M&cd.oaalcl, "1lbIa", IpcxcloB:.fd1t o"l I.laa. ad tditlon,
V01.Ill, Leidu, 1971, PPf9-1l2O .
Huj1l'trt, p.21O. .
- ,
"
R.A. !f1cnola_. Th. Mnt1ct of' l , LODdon 1963, p.62. cf. M.l.
Ge"oub1, "AI-T1n1d.hi
t
Tbe01'7 of Sa1&lta &Dd. S&1Dthoocl", ls1&.lo
Qpatttrlx, .,ol.XV.l Huj1l'h't nit .. , "the .. 1Ata &1:'.
Dot fro in ( Da, for .1nleaaD .... beloqa to th.
l'ropWta, bolt tMr an 11<-- l"'U tb&t
1aT01TM, th. den1&l of thelr .. in ." lCMbf, 22S. AbU al-Qiaia
a1-Quba,rt, a1.-I111]&b al=9uahaHtDb, M1fr, 0 .... H., p.ll7ff. _
Ct. Huj1l'lrt" ISlaM, pp.212-21J, a1ao p.2l8tf. for , d1.cuaalOJl'on
K.vIMt. cf. M.J. GelOubI, Ialylo g\1&1j'tsl.T, p.J2tt.
Hlljvtrt, p.2)6. Of. B N1obolaoa., St1e. in l.laalo
M:t19l!I, ],967, p.14ll lbll Kb&ld.0a, M!!g!dttrb, t.raa;m-
lat1011 b;y Fn.u BCMlu.tbal, Nev York, 19.58, V01.II, p. 9.
1
:,
"
J \
-
, -
, '
>
...= , ""...... , ...
,. f .. ..... " ......
, \
"

,
. ,
-U8-
J 7 Il.A. II1rU .... St.Ml1ea, p.lIflJ Cf: '" Kitn
,al-Lu-. ; ed. R.A. London, 1914, Hujwh'I
a.lao 11lplles a much. Lh!, p. 2)6 ' _ - . -
Q
8 ctl...sa.r;Ij, for instance, that 1t 18 wrong to th1n.k tba.t
sa1ntahlp 15 8uperlor to prophethOOCl. Ho' feels th&t. a.. sa.1l1t who
actually 1. ! fol1ower of a cannot be auperlor to' his
load.er. pp.422-424. Hujw!rI a180 states that sa.1nt. can
neyer be rega.rdec:1 a aurpua1ng prOpbets 1 ttThe, &aConslon of
Ptophets t&l. place outvard.l.y &Ad 111 bocl1, wber.. th&t of
sa1nta takn place inva:edly -.nd in tb. spirlt, the' body of an;,
apoet1. r .... bl th. heart and spirlt of a aa.1dt in purlty and
D-.rn"S to God. This 1a a MD1f'eet auperlo:rlty." At th .....
tl .. , HujwIrt cl&1M apecial prlyll.eges for saints 1f a
IIIlt 18 ncxl: apeo1al.l.7 pt'lrl1epd. nlther la a prophet apeo1&lly
pa:1vllegecl". Xtaht, pp.2U, 2l5, 2)8-239.
, .
For 4eta1l.a about the theory, .ee W. Mad.elung, "I .... -r,
IpcYC10'1!!LfClit of Ielu, nd ecl.,Le1d.en, 1971, yol.III, pp.ll.66tf.
J.5lu. "1." 11111&", ,ip.c:rclopa!d.1& of I.laa, n ... ecl., vol. IV ,
fuo1aule 6)-64, Le1dea, 19'n, pp.19s:26. J .S,! Tl:1alnghu, Tbe
Slfl 2J'dw in Isly, paper back, U.S.A., 1913, p.l))ffr K. AJjOub,
B".P$l.,. Spffer1M 1Il I_ta. A Stply ot the Deyotloaal A.sPeCt..
of Aahtlrl' 1; Tw.lwr ShI 1 1n th' -MiMle HB"oPb,.D. thea111,
Hartud Unlveralty', Ma.rch 1975. Ch.Il, PP.91- AsI. al-DIn &1-
K1tIb al-1Mb al. ... ga11, ed.. M. Mole, 1962, ,
_ltor'a iAt.r04uctloa, p.l'ff. M. Sbabiatart, '\fi: ti8:!:'t-1
GplablA-19ft:' ed.. H. Corbin, wacler th. :tl tl., 1_ Up,
T.hraD. l: l, iAtroduatiOil. p.6)ff, M. Mo,J.e, "Les
Kllbr&w1ra at:re S1IDD1a_ .t Shl1a_ au Hui tle. et., H.uy1e.. _
e1.eclea d. l'Hegire-, Il,yu, d .. Et_ Jfl&!1gut! (1961), pp.61-142.
. ,
10 lba Kb&l4U1l, MM!4d4.b, Vol.II, p.lB6f'tl cf. Ibn TaymIyab. 1 s viw8
on th "bjct. K.I. Ceto_hl, 1.],,10 Q!lirt!rl.t, p.,S2ff. '
. ,
II Cf. T.V. Arnold, "J<ha.Ufah-, lDoYCloJ!Md.1& of' I.lHl, old. eclltlon, '.
Le1d..n, 19)4, pp.881:a8,. " ....,.. .
12 For d.taIua aH M.l. Geyouahl, Ialp1c Qpa.;t!T, p.l? B. Car.n.
... Vux, "VaU", leeYOlgedit Id H]!-, eJ ""''".. t
19)4, Vo1.IVI2" P.l109l th ... ,t.er1IiI.?e. !f!lIah -and w11&$
_,. COIl",," dlffcat -.n1Ap at tiM., but they baye alao 'Pee
lUIecl to CODye,. tb' ..... MIUl1Dp !'Yen grarulat1o&lly. Cf. Ibn
MaDfib:', L1ein al-Imb . :a.1:rt&t, 1956, Vol.1.5, PB.406 cS: 407.
'Tr{a1aIhU, fo:r tance, .es -llm far Sht I doct.r1Da, ud
"ll1Db wbu talk'ng of eut1 Sut! Ql:4era,p.l'3. a &lao
S. Huaa.iA Nafr, Spt1 Basas, LcmdOD, 1972, pp.107-109. F th.
aaJce of cOIlTen1euce, v. wl11 ua. th. tara w&llYJ.b iD our atud1,.
, .
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15
16
17
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-a.1thOugh la.ter w. will show the d1at.1notion between thelll acaom1ng
to t.he sufis themselvea., It 18 d1ff1cult ta i'lnd. an equivalent \f."
, the term walyah in Eng11sh, beca.us. 1t has different connotations
11ke lea.d.$rshlp, jurisd1ctlon, authori ty, etc 0, in different. contexts.
In IIlYst1cal senae, it could alao mMn saintship, which
we are directly conoerned \tUh now. Thua, we w111 translate
wallVah sa1ntship and sa1nt respectively.

'l'he work lias edited by cUtbJlin Yab-yi, printed ,in 196.5.
Il
Tira1dhI, e41tar' s lntr,oc1.uotion, p.10S.
c
PP.U7, 1)9. ct. editer'. 1Atrocluot1on, p.l06, C.yquah1
.tat .. that the t_o tnea of sauta are aubcl1Yis1on of the 1
a:Pe01&l. aa1Atah1p, Ia1aa1c Qust.rlY', p.18. In <nu: r ..
uthIiIn a 1nt.arjQ!'et&tion ..... to. be the correot one.
pp.ll8-119,
pp. 18-19.
120, 130.
18 \b1d. t 1)4:
/
19 M.I. 'Ceyouah1, Islh1q Qua.er1Y, p.21.
20 'The tan qual1t1es, .. tranalated. by 'Geyoaahl, ar., (1) ud.. reedy
<.' (11) r.touhticl (iU) d1aolPued .
( adda E(iV) ,ad v) CleJ:aaadS,' , (vi)
pur1f1ed , l TU) endowed. with oourtuy ( 11&
'reflned ( , (lx) ,.andowed vith podneu_ ( 0 J (x) .
1801&ted xutmacf) TlraUlit, PP'J-))4. The lut two
an .. tlO11ed .. oonf1necl ('ha.!;}! ) and d.lv1neJ..y pro-
tectec1. ( by T1rm14hl ela .. h.re. .p.)11 cf.
G4tJOlUIhl, I.ly1 QuartSltt XV, pp.20 r 22.., .
21 -rSft1dht, Jgaata,p. 331.
22 pp.332, )9lttJ of. M.I. Ceyouah1, Iala.aic Q;terlx, p.)l.
Cod'. beooll1Dl th. heariDI, .1gbt etc. ot
o
" rayat1cj' 18 a very
popular b.e4ttb,qg3.t &JIQIIg :the suris. Cf. Ayn l-4t.11j1h &l-
B dblAt, T&Ih!cllt (for dria.U.a .ee no. 76 ) t p.271t para.).54.
ftIII _a _ .......... t1:Mitt-. 'la ... I.t la ."'-l'
to show the .\di .ute of "8ub81stuo.- (egi'). For th. tull
ot 1t p.)32J of. L. ,Maaalgnon, assal. pp;2,,56-.2S7.
-' The th.- tradition e. to-bee1tlrcr: Mu9blbt or 1
lldhla ibn A4h&a (d.'lDo/m).
f.
/
,
L
. ;
-
-:;
2:3
24
25
26 .
27
28
29
JO
31
-120-
, "
. c
Sea M. K. Mas Ud., "Al-ijakIDI a1-T1rmidhI t s Buduww Sba' n" ,
Islamlc Stud1es, Vol.IV)) (1965), pp.J16-J1U Geyoush1,
Islam1c pp.25-26.
p.J17. i1.K. t1a.s
c
d argues in favour of Tirm1d.hI and
brings evldenoes !rom his otber warks. See 1bid., p.;27, n.l;;
Geyoush1 also thinks that the ,charges are ba.selesa and. "rare
a result of D\lsunderatandings, Is1&.19 pp.26-2?
, .
Hujdrt, p.21O.
H.I. Geyouaht, IslaJa+c Quarter1y, p.26, cf.' HujwIrt, Kaahf,
p.2:)6.
Ibid., p.26. Tbis 18 probably h1a own 1nterpretatlon a12d he
does not h_t&nt1ate bis atatslIeJlt. eau real.ly juqe
the aa1ntahlp or prophetbood of & prophet. "
T1ri1dht, !9l!a, p.394.
!2!9.. It 18. & prophetie tradition (bacitth gh1ptab), quoted.
qy auf1cs. Cf. B.Fir&infar, Abid.Ith-1 MatbnawI, TehraD, 1)75
A.H., 21'1d ed.ltion, p.105. L. Maaa1poa, Issal, p.127. of.
n.22. 1
of. Ca1ouhI, Ial&a1c QwtFl:r, p.27.

p.2,54.
..
o 0 '
AbU al- UU AfUt, The Myat1q.l, p.9).
IbD 0 Ar&.bIakea & betweell prophethood &nd apostle':
shlp, the faner be1.ng lIQre gener&l. than the latter, 1.e.
prophethoocl 1ncludea apoatleshlp but net dee veru,. Far
et&1la, a.e T. Isutau, Coaparatbe Studx, pp.253, 2.56-.258,
Artn, Th. Mut1c&l, p.92ff. For th. pr.sent piU'poae, .e
aball us. th. tara propbetbocd. OI1ly.
-,.. ... ___ 11'_,,_ ......... , .. 12, , .. ri , Ii II" q,.-.I ___ ..... _____ ...........,....

<l', t (, ,.,., l _
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-121-
\
36 cAfIft , The Mmt1ca.l, p.97, T. Izutsu, COllparative StudY, p.2,54. -
37 T. Commative Study, p,.254.
38 p.256.
. c ' -
39 p.2571 cf. The Myst1c.1, p.95. S. ijaydar
& ShI l gisc1p1e Ibn with his mastor here.
Cf. J'mi ed. H. Corbin & Uthmin YaQY&, Teh:ra.n, 1969,
pp. J6-J87. _
40 See Izutsu, Coaparative Studx, p.26J.
41 XIIiUI, being & Sh!'t, believes that & saint or !!I!.
qua his sa1D.tshlp 18 auperlor to a prophet qua saint. But
!!I!. qua !!Y 18 lower tba.n propnet qua prophet beaawse he
la alwaya dependent on propheta for la_sI, Jaa1 , p.)87.
42 butan, Coapati" StudI, p.26J.
, ,
4J See cAfIf'I, The M:rst1oal, pp.94-96.
44 pp.96-97.
45 ' Ibid., p.97.
46 The ter. aM'ap..b 1D. Suf18a 1a a referene. to the Qar'an1c verae,
"Ve offered the' tru.tt to the aidee, the ea.rth and the IIOWl-
ta1na, who refuafd. to aco.pt it out of fea.r, but MIl ,acoepted
the offer, for iDdeecl he 1fa8 unjwst and ignorant" S,))_72.
The ter. very oft. 18 to Ile&n th. Qur' anio cOIlcept
of the covenant (lltthIQ, cf. infra, Ch.IlI, setlon,A, P.1SO).
HeTerthe1e .. , wlth S1aa&Dt, lt h&a & nuaber of 1apl1catlona.
Br -wlnah, he aeua (a) the natural religion (ita !ltrin 1
Islaa, upon _h1ch eTery MD 18 born). Cf. 41- 'li-e.hl
al-kb&lv&b n1l-,1alnh, Xerox cop;y of th. anuacript no.l.58),
uatJ. Afandt Llbrar7, Istanbul, ff.B4b-8"'J th. achiev ent
of th. "pearl" (!l!EE.I actuallr, the of the prOpbet
JllutllMd 18 a "unique pearl" acoord:inc to S1Jmint, of.,!!!!!l.
f. b) 80 .... as to Deco .. the riptful allOcuaor of th. Prophet
of Iala., .ll.4&, (0) th. atta1naent of the "pearl ot the
orown of n .... " (dm 1;1;:\ e.l-1ftlgKr) wh1ch 18 the r .. ult of
th. glOl'1 of 8sr!1Dg Gcd. l t 18 actuallzed on the lut .. tag.
of 8errltllde ( ubUdah), lb1d.., "f .1l4a.
, ,
,
,
- '
(
, , ,
-122-
"

47 JlmI, quotes latter to KiahinI, bas, aeeording
to the ourrant edttions, ubnd!I!h as the 100th stagoJ
of ubdah or tawbId, Nafab&t al-Uns, edlted M;;

and not Cyblldah or tawbIdl cf." al-Dawlah
Encyclopaedia of Islam, new Leiden, 1960, Vol.I,
It should be noted that in his Urwah ( at least in the manus-
grlpt pres&ntly belrtg used), SlmninI speolflcally mentions
ubildah as the loOth stage whien he a.1so terms "seert of
unlty" (sin al-tawhW, cf. f.ll4a. It la posB1ble GthAt he
, 0 0
akes a distinction Detwoon ubOdah and ubadIY!h since his
Haja al-DIn l-Kubri also. doas 80, for wholl
ubf!lah was a stage higher than cqbOdtY!h, cf. raw' 1b , hI.86,
pua. 174. Dr. H. Lagdolt, who tra.na4ted SimnanI's letter_
toto Gu-.n, profera ub1ldah, and ha.a reaaona for do1ng ao.
'\ Cf. '"Der Brletwechse1 svlacben ldnt und SlsmlnI ubor
Band 5011 (1973) t p.SO, n.147. Koreonr,
eyen wlth Ibn ArabI, thero seo .. to "' a dtatuctioll betweea
th e tvo tlitt .. , dependug on th. cantext the, were applled.,
cf. 1nfra., nf52. >
,\ 0 J
48 l31mnlnI, Urwah, f.ll4a. W. M.n included. the tera lIalt:
a aharkh n-eceasarily II a 2!I.. t .86b.
49 Corrlsponganc. Nirodd1n
tfag.xoni et dqn disciple Ala odciaJrlah SeIllllinI, .d. H.
Landolt, Tebran, 1972, pp. 72-7J , para.4J.
SiMla!, Chlhtl *1'11.S (Discourses) J oollected by .Amr l .al-61 jlsth! ,.
'Xerox copy of Sd Llbrary \IIU1uscrlpt, no. 1446 , Oxford,
f.89b, ct. SiadnI, Urvab, ff.86b-87a., 116b-1l7a.. . ' ,
.51
52-
o
Cf. Id.m, UUah, f .84b
, c
H. L&ndolt,_Der Islaa) Ub\1da.h, for Ibn
Arab
a
1. tb. relat1Daahlp of the"per.anent archetypes"
(al ..... :rh al-tblbltab) to .. pria:dial stag. of
a1;1. ao.whue betveen existence (MujUd) and nOIl-
axiatenc. ( a4aa). It signifi.s the .id ... of th. Pert.ct Man.
One. th e perlllJ1ut archetyp.a ta acqu1i'e COIlerete
for .. the,. beoo .. qualified vith u*IJ!h. cCf. Tirllidht,
Kb!ia, S.Ua. Thua, for Ibn Arabt, ubU!h a igni fi .
Jl&Crocosaifand 1ncl1catea tho aicrocosa1 aspecta. It
., 'be aa.1d. tha:t. UbCdah, tor Sll11l1nI b tbe lOOtn,.ta.g.,
".pli.s tho unification of a1cracoam and 1'hera:f'ore,
S1JmlftI aeeu, bdeed, be nry close, to Ibn i'abt.
(' <0
.

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53
-123-
, 0
,
, ' \,
Tho dist.1nctlop, between waliya,h and. "iliY!h was ea.rller made
by Hujwtrt but with dlfferent 1mplications. "Wallrat lIle&ns,
etymolog1eally) 'power to dispose' (taear;uf), and w1liYat
means of command' 'Walayat a14o'means
(rubUb1yyat) Wil&y&t. means 'love'
(';M.bpat.f, .. 211. Shaykh Nlp:lD al",:,DIn AlIlly&'
a150 dift'erentiates between these two terms. "A sufl shaykh
"poasesaes both walAyat and wllyat. Wal&ru 18 the guidance
'and tra1Jting that he givas to his disciples. Generally, a11
thoae aspect.a rel&ted. to a ah&ykh and the people faU under
"A'lIJ!t. On the eontrary, wllAyat onstituta$ the rela.tionshlp
of' the shaykh w1 th God wh1ch s1gnifies love. Evenw,ally,
the shAykh d1es, he be his wal&nt on one (of his' '.
disc1ples) but takes' bis w111;ya.t Along w1th him". Cf. A.H. .
S1jat, Fa1ll'14'1 p.14a A.tr Khurcl., Slm, p.35l. Shaykh
al-Dtn , la 1.ply1ng that walint. o0ll8tlt.ut.ea the insti-
tution' of -.sterahtp (ahaXkhttkha.h), whereaa "ll1xat. coaa1ats
of .,-atleal aspect Bof tbe terll. ,
- '.- ,
>,
54 F detalla .ee Kubri, 1b, pp .52 -53, p&l:U. 108 cU09.
i C
59'
,60
, <
'v '
Sll1Dint, Cb1bll, ff 86a-87bl cUrv!b f .88b. M. translat.es
the .pecul&tlon in French, t.hough ,.ltb a nua_ of 'Y&r1at10na
probably bec&U8' he uaes & differant iro. ours, cf.
D,vu. des tpd.ea Islamiques, pp. 100-102 an &nOllyllOus
... jing wlth th. Alle iapl1cat1on, cf. Mo' Ha. tu. Sh1rht, l'ari'1g
'al-Hagl'1g, ed. M.J. MaJ;.ljtlb, TehraA, lJl&.H., Vol.Il, p.257.
.
Idea, Cblbl1, f .86b ..
f.87a.
o " o" 0
Ibn Arabt, . fut 0, al-Hikall, ad . A! Afttt, Be1rut, 1946, p.6J.-
cf:. T. Icutau, Coapar&lv Stud;c. pp.262-263r Aaft, The MY!t1oa.l,
p.10l. '
S1adnt, Ch1hll, tf.89b-9Qa.
"'Ib14., rf.89a-89b. S111DiDt quote. the whole lnterpretatlon &8
he lt .!rO. b1a .. ter. Ia.f&t&bls:. bl.el! refera t8 lt
1a hl ork Klah!! a1-AarEr,' "hen ee 18 interpret1ng Sa. d
lie X'el&tea t.h&t Sa li &l-Dtn wu a:t;trlbuted
"lt.h the lI&y1Dg tb&t. beg1Dning of saints .... the end of
propheta-. . I.farl' lnt wr1 t..a th&t be wu ahockecl t.o hear 1 t
At fmt, ,but then !t w!! r8vealed. to hi. l&ter t.b.@.t. the 8&y1ng
wu trUe as tu' as Sha.i't .t W&8 concerned. Cf. Jshlf a.l-AarIr,
,eci. aM t.ranal&ted ,1i't6' French by Ih-. H"" L&adolt., para.9Q.' The '
- "ork ,1& aoen ta apper t'rOll Vol. V, Wisdo. of Persia Serle
----.-- ----- -
.- ,
_ (
.1 .1
, " 1 4
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61 ff cUrwab f .88b
.- ,
62 Idelll., cUp'r-h, /:84b. ,.
'63 .!l!!S., ff .840, 86b, &U7&
64 Idem'; f .90&.
"65 51m:n1nI h,ea.rt 18 sll1,l1 to that of
the 'Prophet MulJ&uad.", Urwah, f 116b , "Hl. ap1r1t btcoua
0' alallar'to eye of tbe Prophet MutJalll .. d", ChUill. f.89b.
'- > 0 '
66 A.li.' 51jst, Fa.l'id, pj1.14, 93 and 253, Amr 'Kh
-P-&1- w ",J>eW .. 1)02 A.a."p3SOft., M..J. Q1,1I , Qi.1Il
o a - A , 'M .. 08.m.& Udiv..,l;ty Kyd abad,
,Xer' oOP1 of chaptc 6 t f. . .' '
..
61 H. QalaDdlr, J9!&Jr al-M&.lIl1a, Allp.r:b, 19.59. pp.1 1)5.
68
69
Il
Chapt .. 'l, p'. 12ff. " r ,
'Al)Ud b. lfakhabl.br Sher knQWD u Ma8
c
l1d ,
Bak, wu Ulotber cont porary of Gt.UdJrIz. tor d.t&1la
,abodtl hi_, Bbar. A-bd ) Akhblf al:AkhYI;, Urdu trana-
l&t1oA by J,.. Nlfl, Nlwlr-l SftYaht D.lhi, Il.4., PW98-299J
a.l.to S.A.A. Rin;1,'R,vhal1st., p.41ft. ' -l:
,70 K..kt.J1bIt, ecl. S. CA. !,f.WI&yD, Hyd.r&bad, 1:36'2
pp. 124-125. .
, '\- .
c 71 llWl., p,.129.
,
72 '

, .
c
74 Il!., pp .. 121 and 128.
75 . .JP:1)3-1J4. v. dOCDot. .1. 1e
l

cu:: ".-ober" Maa ad: Bat who 1. t&lJd.zag, beca ... froa
,Abd al..fj'aqq. ot hia, w. set &11 1apr ... 1OS t.hat ne na
& h1gt)l.y Int.oxioa.ttcl eutl and. ,& ot IbQ Az'abt'.
< doctrlD", :lkhblr. ,p.29.,8. Cf. S.A.A,. 111h1, BlrtYal1et, p.41ft.
'.16
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ...
. .
.',
<,
f
+
-125-
-t. inconsistent. In' h1a ether "orb, propbethood is .-
cf. Tamhtdt, pp.40,5-46, para.. 62 6), 'para..6,. Zy'b4a.;t al-ljagl'1q
PP0d<!-J Shalatata1:.ahaJ:tb, pp.44-4S. Teese works are ed.1ted
br A. Usayrin, under the t1 tle MUQa.nnafit Ayn al::::Qulh Hama.d.hht,
Tehran,' 1962. See, also A.J. Arberry, .\ Suii Martyr, London, 1969.
. '
p.8? " , -
.n
J
\
i:' . P.209. '
'79
80
8l;
52
8)
f
84
8S
86'
81'
88

G!sOd1rlZ.,,!!!, p.1..62. He adda t.t propbet.bood b&s oonou.led
aa.int.ahlp bUt u.1lltah.ip baS .anifuted That 1a t.o
.. y that propbethood coapreherpa aaintah1p (as 'ita
&ad ita tirat stc.). Tbe quoted 1n the coaaentary bu
exaot.l1 oppoaiW rea41ng, a .. Vol.I, t.2,54&. .
Anony.ou, !!&, Vol.I, f.2,54&.

'IW., Vol.II . tt.282b, :)60&.
'. .
\ 0
S.. a.lso A.. H ..... ft, l:!ID.t
ll!24., f.))4a, ct. \ntra, n.206. ,"(]J .'
lm-, Aslllr, p.18,. of.' Atpad _al-Gha.sl1t, SawIDih ft &l-?:.hg.
ed. I. Afablr, Kaj. Danishkadah, Supp. 5, 6j)lear 14, 'pp. 31, 37.
"
Anonyaoua, M$, vol.II, f.)62a. 'God worah1p' aad ... ftart to
are cQapa.n.ble 100 .. otex101 and SUPt
p. 73.
,
89. nii., vol.n, f.28Ib,
90 tJ!2Jl., ff.281Q-282&. cf. t.)62&.
. .

.. '
1<11 oIE 4
,.0>,._. ___ ,_,_, """"'!':_' , ....... ' 1IiiI1I .....
, ,
.k
.. }

f
q
, .


..
..

l
9
,-126-
\
See Infr, pp. 86. 92-93.
, c .
92 ' !!!!!.k, l>.181. idem., MaktUbit, p.1,?4 a cf. A. Nasa!!,
ljagK'1g, p.80. Sha.ykh N&fJ!:r al-Dtn expla.1ns the sa.ylng s.a', the
prophet recei ves prophethood af'ter he rea.che matu.:r1 ty,
but saint beciis periect only after recelv1ng by virtue
of the prophet. H. Qa.land.a.r", Kha.yr, p.l)4.
93 l4!m,., M&ktUbit, p.124.
94 S'ee int., p. in Sufl , the atage ot"unity of
pC
al
__ ) i8,consldered as a synonymoua' -
"subsiatence- tb&gl'). "The tera uaed. for convsy1ng thecaue ,
id .. are .eparation atter unit y" '(te bt d .1-_ ),
"second s.}arl.t1on- (t'sa tblDt) J etc. This atage 1. couidered.
""" to be th. b1gheat. For d.ta1la and explaDationa of th". in .
gener&l Sutl U4 Ph1lopb1, ... T. I.utau, "The Structure .
of Me'taphyalca.l Thtnld.nc iD Ialaa" J CoU!cy!cl Papen OR I.lMj,c
Phllpphx pd MDtlci , M, Mohagbegh ud H. Te1u:U
1911., p.S3ff, UJent.a. Ct.1Dtuprat,ing Quabayrt,
95
96
,91
98
99
of unit," la a b1gher than "unlty" \J!L),
ratllSX' 1t capri a of 'UD1ty" and. -s.paratIon-
(.1y ..... a. S. p.291.

S.A. ij,uaaynt,
.. ama, p. 72.

Aa!lr, p.181.
1!I.., MaktUblt, p.124.
. ,
.'
-.
100
AIiOl1Y1lO:U-' A!!It., Vol.Il, t .282&.
Supra, P.74. '
101
< 102
10)
104'
c
S abo 1ntn., l09f1 1Af;g, Ch.UI." uotl C, p. 187ff.
Gt.Ud1*, Y!J&., p.209
.
S .. UD, Ch.. 1. HOtiop. Bt P.1l3ff .
'A. TM!t1 t::o.-ApIQ 1. RfU iD -.nuacript .tora bt.lt
releftDt quotatioa u U as fJ:oa IMbt &l.=JIM1'19, baye
bau tn.nalat- tnto Ge:r.D lD, &Il &ttiole br F. "01.
SOh11.tten d.. Ast.t!fuatt", Zelt.ao!E1ft t'ur di., Kup4e 4"
Mo:rpnlaz!4 .. , 52, JlQtI.l aDd. 2 (19.5,3), p.l)Ofta of' .. Nuaft, ijsl'lg
, PP.59, 102-103
J
105, 1l,S--1l.6. Ct.1J41r1s Qp.Ot .. lfu&tt &lao.,
. .
....
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/
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106
_101
108
109
110
III
112
11)
114
us

-121-
-though wlthout revea.1ing ,his nuie. "It ,ls 8&1d t.ha.t & p.rophet
ha& the know1edge of the 'prOperlles of & sa.int
the knowledge of'/real1 tl.. (ti8:/l9) of &n &
'wlse man' (ba.kl'm) h.a.s the 1nt:orlll&tlon of the nature CaM'l )
of thlngat., Cf. Nasaft, !a.q'1g', and 102.
F. Meier, Z 'aK.D.H., p.l34 for quota .. j'rom ..
GtsQd.1riz, auk, pp.209-21O.
p. 72.
GtaMirb, !It., p.210.
,Ibid., 'of. lfuaf1:, Ia9I'b, P.l. Iptead of Q1lau.t, lf .... n:
bu hera. .
,
na., 'P.2U, of. Anon1ll0 US, AarJr, Vol.lI, f.;3)4a.
,Il!1Jl., p.21O. . }
Anonyaous, Aarlr, Vol.n. f .))Ob. aae 1!l.!I!.." 'Gr&IUI&tlaal leYala',
p. 95. '
l!W&.', fr.),)Ob-))la.
See p. l09ff.
SM 2.!Im, p. 97.
Cf. Anon,-.oua, Vol.II, t.)),5&, t.468&.
_ Gtandlm, Aas, p.2l0. Far tha IIlp1tlcanoe ot 'UDit,.-' <..:1!:l.>
ot pp.10-U, p.ze, p.lOO. 1B!'a. Cb.m, section 0, on
..... JH:.. p. 185.
4
111' Aarlr, Vol.n, f.)):3&.
118 S"!!!E!., p. 13.

U9 Gtal41rls, As., of. 210.
120 p.18). It .... probably du. to thi. that S.':A, BlaYi. taala
'that a p:ophat " .. hicher than & aalnt to Gtst:ldfrls. lfbioh
unl1.bl1 to ua, ote lley1yaUat, p.S4. '
121 It ahould be kept ln a1nd th&t Wh.ever "a ape&lc or ... inta &Ad
propheta, "e lIe&n RUts aracag the Musli .. J&Dd. th. PrQpehta
who prececlecl the froPbet M d
., ,
"
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122''-Cf. 0 Ayn a.l:..aa.m&d.hKnt, T&mhtdJt, p. 5 t Para. 7
12J We were unable to looa'te this tradition.
, 4
124 PP.17), 174. Elsewhere, he explains the
scholars who are reaerred to as establlshed. in knowledfe'
(a1-risikhtln fi &1- ils) in the Qur'ln, as lIlea.ning those who
racelve direot knowledge t'rOIll God. They!X'e &lBo called. gnostics
( ula!!' bl-Alllh) and 'divine sCholars' ( ula.m!'-l.rabbinr).
Ibid., pp.47>:48. .
125 Ibid., .pp.173-l741 cf. pp.47-49.
126 p.17).
128
129
l:a d1lter.nt tre&tia. of hia, GtsGi1r1z expl&lns khIrlg-i'
3t; .uat&Krrah. H. stat.s tbat Ibre&k1nc a tira bab1t
l
110..
not lIe&Zl to aocOIIpl1ab aoa.th1Dg laponl ble ('!WI1). I.t slmply.
lU&IlS aoaeth1ng wh10h cannot uaually be don. by othera.
'Vond;er orking'. (Ig!.!:'iet) la sOJl.thlng lUte reading the whola"
Qur' ln eTeral tiJJd in one da.y. H. g1 na another exaaple tha t
1 t la Lt1 &ftlraecl tact tbat anytblng b._vier thAn wa.ter 4rowna
in It . 'Breald.ng a !1.l:a habit' 18, ther.tor., on.ts on
lIater, etc. Cf. Rls1lah dar Has'a!lh:1, Rll'Dt-l ta III w&
K!.rWt-i Awl1Y1' J pr1nted in Ma.1mU ah-i iJ.!I il, pp.8-9.
l .' P.174.
ASrIF' Vo1.n, r .272b.
130 CirsG.i1r&z, pp. 174-175.
131 Id , Khltigb, Hyderabad, 1);6 A.H., p.78, p.,ra.U6. For th.
prophetio B. Ferozlntar, AQldtth-l MJ.tlpfnJ,
T.bran, 1)75 A.H., p.82. cf. Hujdrt, Kaailt, p.SS.
133
Id ..... A!!It,\ p.17S. of. lm. J KQlti!llb, p.78, For
the tr&cl1t1cm, of. OAyn TMh.tdlt, p.l8'7, para.24S.
He quot .. it, difterently.
Se. auS!.., p. 75ff.
1;4
", .
GtaUd1rb, Makttlblt, pp.124-12SI id , !!!Ii., p.175.
\
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*.1 "niJ\ID!t:t!&l\AI44 bj;Qk I.FZdQC:t;iWdt!)ititli.4\lU!Wl"'iA 4Ij2
J
C

, .
l,
136'
13?
1;8
,
-129-
!m., p.l?5, MaktQbit, p.125.
'Ibid. For the tradition, see CAyn al-Quc}Ah, Ta.tnhrdit, p.2,
, para.)'. p.40, para..64a p.l)), para.. 184.
Ibid. This interprettion of tg8 term 'prophet' (nabt) 1a the
sue &8 the one exPounded"br Sa. d al-Drn Ha.myah. cA. Nasafi,
Insln-l ImU, ed. M. Mol, Tehran, 1962, PP':320-)21.
1:3<) p.162.
141
l42
Ses a.lao infra, p. 102.
<,",-
Se. !l!m., Cb.I, Stilt10D :a, pp. 26-28.
Far th. orit101aa,by Sll1D&nr, Il. Lando1t, ,"S1J1dnt 0J:1 W&\ld&t
al-WujUd", Collected Paptra on lalaa1c Phl1oeomx &Ild Ml'tlo1a.,
p,lOOtt
a
For tha relatlonahlp
'
ot Cod lI'1th Ria ana.tlOll, acod1ng
to Ibn Arabt, a S.A.Q .. Hua.lnl, Th. Pantb!1at10 Mon1a. of
Ibn OArabt, Lahore, 197'0, pp.175-lBO, &l.eo A.&. oAttft, . The Mnt1oa1
p.B4ff. .
14)
144 S H. lADdolt, Collectfd ptpera, pp.105-106. ct. T. Izutau,
Co ..... """ Part la H. Corbin, Creativ. IlIM!Mtion 1n
Sutl', 01' lm CArlbt, translation by B. MaMeia,
lH7 '
l 9; p.1l4. .
GtsUd.1rh, Asal
r
, p.l58 ..... -
p.1.61. cf. M. Val! a1-Drn, 'Kl}d:!,t Bandahoawlz ka
Tyawwuf an' SulUk, nelh1, 1966, pp.43 I.e. alao'Ibn cAnbt's
rt.n. H. Corbin, Creative, pp.l52ft., &Del 84.
" ,
p.l58. The tvo phu .. ot creation are 41eoernecl in Ibn
alao., H. turther atateaS that thro1.16h each Qtlt1 01' th.
un1nne an .ttr1bute Of Cod. 18 ualf.steel. Wlth Ibo 0Arabt, too.
un's creat10n taku plac. iD th. aecond phu., a T. IISutau,
CON!l'!t1.n Stucll, p.210tt.
,
148
J.9 lSa., pp.158-159. cf. p.)l.
'.
,
... ,. ... , ! If.,. lM !
-__,_ .... ,
.f .. '.
C
6
0,
-130-
1.50 Ibid., p.159.
151 See his explanation ?f the saying ibid., p.30ff.
152 Vo1.I, f.24&. See l'Bn cArabr's news in
T. Izqtsu, Study, p.229.
153
154
155
Ibid., f .249a. See simUa.r impllcations of the term taCaytun
wlth Ibn CArabr; see T. Izutsu, Comparative pp. 14J. 229.
Seo p.100f;far the slgnlflcance of
-/0' " 'C
Ctsd.lrlz, Asmlr, p.159. For Ibn Arabtta concept of 1IIaJl" as
.. "a_ll universe" (Cllam gagh",), aee T. J:zutsu, Comparative
Stud,y, pp.208ff., ': 2i4ff. '
156 p.160. to Ibn Ara.bi', the Pert.ct Ka:Jt...poes.saes
two character1.stlc-fea.turea. He "synthesi.e. ln hiuelt" a.ll. , li
the existents of the Wli vorIIe, and he i. in a w .. y the UAbaolute
ltaelf"', see Iwtau, COIIP!f!tlve Studl, p.Zl:B.
157 Ancnyaous, ASrl.r., Vo1.I, f.252b. 'Far Ibn cArab!, the ma.orOCOSII
ls the unlverse al-kabIr) whereaa the Perfect Han 18
the IIl1crocoslI. T.' IzutBu, Comparatlve St\1d.x, pp.208, 210. But
Ibn CArabt, at the a&Dle tille, 11lpl1a the Perfet Man la the
u,orOC06., see FufQf, p:.50. ,
1.58 AnonYlloua, Asrlt, Vol.I, t .248b.
159 pp. 106-107.
lho CtsOd1rIz, A,mIr, p.160. It la a fuo.ua Shi cr tradit10n otte
q uoted by the suns too.
'161
162
lll!., p.240. S.A. explain1ng lt wrttes that propb!thood.
la in the Prophet Mutw-Md, (khillfat) 18 ln AU,
becauae the rel&tlonahip between the. 1. Ub that of the extemal
(dh1:r) W1 th the interna1 and. the exoter1c (,Urt) w1 th the
.. oter1c ( .. Ont). In real1ty theyare one, cf. p.1SO
The aff1n1 ty of a11 thia Ml th Shior IdMa OODOern1ng 'tihe "light"
, of propbetbood" 1. ev1dcmt, .Yen as far u GtaOdlr1s himaelt 1.
cOJloerned, aine. he quetes the l)adtth
t
'"1 &Del 0Alt were one l1ght
4,000 y8II befare Gcd created Ad&Il".
l.lilW., p.161, S.A. JawWc ed. K.H. Sld.1qt,
Hyderab&d, 13.56 A.H., PP.bO-61' cf. AnODy1lOWI, AIr, Vol.I, ,
f . 248b, f .25.3&.
... ,. 'f'
"
,
.
"
, ,
,
"
c
()
-131-
163 Asdr, Vol.I, f .248b.
165
Gtaildlriz, ASdr, p.161; cf. p.3J8. This dynamism of 'love' la
the reQ1nlscent of slmllar ldea conveyed through a rubCt,
quotecl by s. Ya.{lya Suhrawardt. It goes thus, .
f f'.;,J t.:.fs- -9 f ,
'4 .... l...J;,
(ser c1 hg nabQdt Ma gPaa-l iahg nabQdt
chandtn aulthan-1 naghz kah su,!tl' k.ah ahanUdI?
var W nabUdt k&h sar-1 zul.t 'rabtklt
ruJchdrah.:ft .cahUg ba,
O
lshlg kah naJI!fdt?)
Cf. n'n1a "l-cUabah&g or Ft Hagtgat al-clahq, ecl. H. Carb1n
o
&ad
S.H. lfur, TehraD, 1970, 'p.268. This quatraln la quoted by A.
H&aa:f't, Indn, p.)60.
A. Sianlnt, Urnh, ff.l2&-12b, cf. H. La.nd.o1t, Colleoted
PaJ!!r!, '
GtaUd1rlz, A.mIr, pp.5, 42, 128, 130,.
11:/1 lnatanoe, &I1!X1Y110Wl, Vol.I, ,f.lla. Vol .. n, ff.;3Jb.
490b-49laJ S.A. tluaaynt, IatllJ1lit, pp.62, 72, 79.
1.68 Cf. Vol.n. ff.JJJb, 490b-49la.
1.69, ft .JJOb-3Jla, 33Ja, 468&:
170
111
172
173
!l!.., f .335&.
lli.!l., f .)62&. Th. coaentator ..... to haye borrowed this fra. th.
.on ot Gt.l1dirls, becaus. th.' _hale coaentary ia a.laoat Identioal.
vith tbat of S.A. lSuaaynl. cf. .p.139. '
S infra., P.113ff.
Th. JlIl1,Ated. tut of .A.uIr bu factor' (a
o
l1), p.42.. Bpi; A.t la
froa th. OOllUllt&ry, AarIr, that it la 'acta' (arll) &ad
nQt Vol.I, f;'l2b.-
174 GtaM1r1s, Aalllr, pp.42, 1JOI 011: p.23.
115
" .-"'--- - ,
\ '
Gtaiidir&s( AuI p.l.58. -- the te. iitlA aud
:su.at. .?t.Ota), pp.42, 158. Hia ooatat.or'ODS. uaed . ".,
. _'lt, &nc\ at another inatano. uaed MiJCfl (bath are plural '1;"
fana of .CIl) .;tG MU '.tf.ta'. It la ..... OQIOept of-
"
f
,
,. -" - - ,.
c
, '
176
177
178
179
180
,,,
-1)2-
"
, ).
t
-61mnant who prefera the term ithEr far 1 t. Cf. Urwah,
ff .l2a-12b J cf. H. Lando1 t, C ol1ected Pa.pers, P
For eX8J!lple, see G!'s.dlriz. Asm!r, p .128 L
l ,
Qur'ln, 85120, cf. Gt'stldiriz, ASmlr, p.U. The.c cept of 'beyond
the beyond' la comparable to Ibn dArabi'S ldea of the 'Absolute
Absolute' wh1ch "transcenda e.lJ. qualifiea.tions and. relations that
are humanly concel vable" He caUs this aspec'ti of God tfabysmal
d&rkness" (Cama'). For details, see T. lzutau, C01Ilpa.n.ti V! '
StudY, pp.17-32. S.A.Q. Hussalni, Panthalatl0, p.67' H. Corbin,
Creat! va, p.197.' '"
'GtsMirlz, Kh&tll111Lh, Pp.18-19, para.J4.
Cf .. pp.)1-)2, S.A.A. RizYi, Renva.llst, p.54.
See 1nf'ra., note U2. _
p.264, Cf. pp.l4-15, <97, 206, Idall., Ist1gbat aJ.-
... t b&-T&ri:a al-Haatgat, printed in Y&sd.ah
Rad 11, p.4S:A. Jiuaay;nI, IsUlIQIt, p.27statea th&t the
J essence' of God haa no 8114.
181 IS.!!!., Ist19bf.t, p.16.
,182 p.42. of. pp.12-1).
18) Qur'ln, 55.29. tt ia ooaparable to Ibn stat.ct, "the
lmowledge of God haa 1),0 1181t at wh10h th. gnoatlc uy stop,
1 t f'eed.a on the theopbanl0 fana of' bf:tlng whiob are in
Jl8tamorphoals ... ", H. Corbin, Crea.tlv" p.200, &lao p.201.
j
184 p.14.
lB5' Ibid., p.240.
-
186 Int):a., pp. 113-116.
187 TbJ,s ls why Gtaii:l1rlz cri t1018e8 Ibn Arab!. ldentl:t1catlon ot
188
189
, 'Abao1ut.e Existenoe' as God.
Se. tutra., p.l13ff for the theophany of 'euenoe'.
Cf'. T. Isutau, COliparative Stydr, pp.37, 145. S.A. alao ,
atatea that fI..x H&Da theophany in sufl tera1no1ogy, .e.
p.12. , ,." 1

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190 Slmn1nI, 7b,9a the'signiflcanoe of
191


t
uses three terms to mea.n di vine', gud.dtisr,
and gudsr. pp.62, J...,56, 241, Ist1gwat, p.ll. Cf
. also M. Ghazllr, MishkJ;t al-Aml!r, ed.. AbD al-oAla' 0AfIn:,
Cairo, 1964, p.56. S.A.Q. Husaini, Pantheistio, pp.10J-104.
"\
192 A'm!r, pp.24, 62, lil; Ist1gba.t, pp.il, 15.
GrsUdirb further states that Greek philosophera call
the 'partloular soul' (al-nafs al-juz't). Kere he cr1t1oiaea
'Ibn Arabt beC&t18e Gts"Miriz feels thlJ.,t he belleved only in It
_ and called. It 'Abaolut.' (aslag) and. 'l1m1ted', (lllugayya4) In
other worc1a, GraUdirk IJ1lpl1ea that Ibn 0Ar&b:t Identlfled thls
lAt.!l ... God. For deta1la about Gl'sUdirlz' cri tiola. of Ibn
II' oArabt, ... Aalllr, pp.20, )2, 64-65, 161, etc.a Iatiglat; p.22ff
S.A. JSWI&1Jlt, IrUlplt, Ch.5, pp.61:81} which deals exc1uaively
'with the orttio '
193 GrsUd1rlz, AaaIr. pp.5, lll, lli!., Iatlgbat, pp.ll, 15. F: .
detaUa regard1ng the cono!'pt. of se. Iatigllllat, p.lOff'.
f, -
194 Ibid., p.25.14!a., HyI'ir al:9.ydS, Kyderabad., 1J59A.K . , p.20.
195 lli!., p.161. alao see pp.20, ,32, 64-65, 263, 267, 272. ide ,
Iatig&u.t, pp.22-2J. id , Khltg.ah, pp.18-19, pan..,34. S
al.ao S.A. lIuaaynt, t'lll1b1t, p. 1ff., p.9? ".
196 DWl., p.261, alao p.49. HowevC', elee.bere, GfsUd1r1z aaya DO
yel1 re.1na beat.een the "sun" and a pure h-.rt in vh1ch the ".un
qua sun" ls reflected, p.l2S.
191 f4ea., HyI'tr, p.l,34
198 I!!., IatlQ& .. :t,. p.ll. Ibn GArabt vrites that JIIUl la called UA
becauae of hl. rel&tiouh1p w1 th Goda "he la to Cod as th. pupi1
.; . (..1AdD) la to tb 1e u the 1natruaent of vi.ion'!. see T. Iztttau,
Co.ja;ative Study, p.218.
199 p.241. 's .. alao the different k1nda of "sp1r1w"
auaen.ttcl by Gl'atW..rla, PP.26-2?, ,58-61. See tans USK b1
Ibn 0Arabt bi l! to onlveY' "the Idea ot Pe:r:t'ect,fIa,n. S H.
C:b1n, Cr ... tiY., p.)l?, note 71. cAftft li.ta as JI&D1 aa lB
t81'M, The Mlati9!l. p.66.

200 Bleevhere, CtaUd1r1a eayas that it ls 9&U!. but the .ign of
l'wdi!th on lta forehead, !pIr. p.Z? ' ... '"
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201 _ Ibid., p.59' cf. S.A. ijuaaynt, I
9
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llA't, p.19. It ia a saTing
of AbQ Bakr al-Whitt (0& .3201932 quoted, for instance, by al-
Kubra but bardly with' connotation of buitlth; see Fa.;ri'ib,
"p.)l, para.6,.
202 p.20.
,
203
c '
See chart infra., p.1l6. Abd al-Ka.rrm al-JtU views the Pert'ect
Man as baing the place where Cod and, man become one. R.A. Nicholson,
Studles" p.64, see al.so H. Corbin, Creatlve" pp.188-189, for Ibn
cArabr. "
204' S.A. I}wsa.ynt, I,1:lllblt, p.l40. Also see pp.19,-:',54, 60, 86, 98.
205
.
206
207
208
209
llill., pp.,54, 98. -c:tl-Bagtgh al-Muba_cgyah la the aost iaporta.nt
concept in Ibn 0Arabt' a thought. It la relative in & sena. to the
. concept of "peranont archet1PU" (a.cJ!p thDi tah) whicb ia tbe
1nterzaed1a:ry atage bet.een God &rld MD' ,"the level of Being which
la nei t.ber exiatent nor non-ex1atent.". It ia also ldent1fled &8
the id_ of the Perfect Man. See T. COIllpe&tive, p.228ffl v
.. lao cAfifl', HYatlc&l" pp .. 66-81a 'Rea.Utyof MulJamNd' Is cOlipared
. by the aodern schola.rs to the Chriatian concept of logOlS. For 8.
diacusaion of the ldea of logos aad. the logos ln Christian! ty
aee A. Jetfery, "Ibn cArabr'a Shajadt a.l-Kawn", St.ud1& 18la!10&,
Vol.X (1959}, pp.45-62, CA:f!f1:, The Myatical, pp. 85-92.
GtaDd.1.rh, Aadr, pp.5, 242. idea,,- 18tlgbat, p.15. id ... ,
Ijyl'ir, pp. 19-20 , .cf. S.A. 1n1J.1hit, p.86.
, .

210' S:= p. l()2ff. -'. .
, "r,:' _'
" '
211 p. 97ff.
212 The diat.lnction 18 tbe aue as that of who ia very
pt.rtlcular th&t the lI&D.1ateatatlona of God ahould be percelved
, as being rroa Hia, but abould not be taken to be Hla, cUrwah,
f'f.l5b-l.6a.
213 GtsUd.1r1z, AslIIKr, pp.2, 13, '23, 37, 297 etc. J 1stlgK-.t,
pp.l;, 17, 19. ld.e Hyllr, pp,9, 132.
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214
21.5

217
218
Ibid., p .5. .
Ibid., p.20.
-13.5- ,
p.9.5, a.Iso p.96. For different kinds of 'l1ght', see
p.J35 J
Anonymous, Asr, Vol.I, ff.248a.":248b; supra., pp. 90, 92-93.
Supra, p. 92 .The term al-insin al-kimil seems to have baen first.
used. by Ibn CAra.bI, although, as Nicholson points out, "the
notion underlying it is as old as Sufism itseli". Nioh<hson
deflnes t!'1 s tent in a general way as desertblng lia man who ha8
fully reallzed his essential oneness w1 th the Di vine Being in
whOlft l1kenesB he Is mad" J Studi es, pp.??, 78. Tbis defini tlon
gives us a picture of the Perfect Man from the point of vin of
Mn J 1. e. the microcosm. But 1 t sbold. he noted that there ia .
ore to it than jat Its adcroo08mic aspect. Perfect Man to
Ibn cArabi', and aao to GIsMir5z, haa anotber, Ilor signtflca.nt
aspect, 1.15. It la the initial aelf-manifestation
of Cod to HiJlUSelf., which was ln the fOl:'ll of the l'erfect Man.
It Is onlt wl th thls MCrocoslllc afpect that th,! mlcroooell1e slde 1;)
of 1. t becomea clearly understood. Nevertheless, the term al.,..lnsln
al-kKmll was accepted in Suri cuelas J after Ibn cArab1' and
, works l1ke th088 of CAztz al-Dm al-NasafI' s '!ns.In and &Abd
a.l-Karla a.l-JIlr's al-Insan a.l-lJIlll (Mi,x', 1915> Here
on the subjeot. For JIl!' 8 view (d.832/1428), see Nicholson,
Stud1ea ,l>. 71ff For a "lore general ldea of the tera see B
.u.aldez, "al-InsI:n al-K.Im11", E.l' nav ad. i Vol.III, Lelde.n,
1971, pp.1239-1241. -
..
219 Gtsdiriz,
220
- . c
Ibid., p.161 . Ibn ArabI' also saya that the 1s the
cause of the unlverse,cAf'!fr, The Mysttca1, p.82ff,.
221 Infra., pp. 107-108.
, .
222 GtstSdiriz probably aeana "ln actq," by "cash" herl.
223 'Gts&H'xez, Aaalr, pp.160-1.61. It la comparable' to wbat Na.aa.tt
aa.ys, "men &rthe gist of the whole uni verse, and the Periect
Man ls the gist of total unkind", p.5. For the lmage of
sugar used. by NajJI al-Dtn al-Rizf, see "Mla1d al.cIbId, ed. H.A
Tehra.n,o 1973, p.40. .
224 pp.16l, 175. MaktUblt, p.125r anonyaollS,
Asri:r, Vol.II, f.47la. U
_________ .... .- ""' ...... .... --- _u .............,........ w. ...... .. iII! ....... 111I .-,-....
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225
226
227
228
,229
230
231
232
233
234-
235
236
23'7
238
239
240
-1)6-
Ibid., p.160.
pp. 84-85.
ctsdiriz, ASmAr, p.237.
S.A. lJusaynr f I!t1 ah:t, p .140
p.20.
. . .
r
S.A. l;lusaynr, pp.l2S,. 1)4, cf. anonymous, As.rr, ...
Vol.I, Vol.II,
P97.
p. 112ff.
Q\Jl:'Ip, 4,80.' k, If
,
crsUdirlz, Asmlr, p.16l, a180 pp.2, .96.
l'bid., p.2, Bee PP.95-90', idelll. liyl'-tr,
ijusaynI, Itilblt, pp.2l-22,.63. '
Qur'h, 5319.
.!mm, p. 93.
p. 77.
.'
pp.9, 112, of. S.A.
Undar Shatlcat, Grs1ld1rlz includes a.U the 'eay1ngs', 'act1ons' _,
($0_ fiCl) and &ft&tes of the Prophet Mul)aIDM4. Ge.nerally
ng, he uana thl 1Ihole Ufe ot the to be t&ken as
a perfect exup1e for ones,U to follow. See AsJDlr, p.28, of.
id_
4
o , l;fadI.'lft al-Uns, printed YIzelah RasI'11, twHqah,
no. , pp.lj-l -
p.28, lde , SharB R1e1lah, p.i8? 1dell, tlad&'lq, pp. 13-14,
Ide., JJyI'ir, pp.13?-1) 1 1dell, Istlgb&t, pp.23ff. In another
sbort -tra.tiae, Wu;tDd a1- Ashrgrn, on 'divine love' J GreUdiris
aentiou fiT. stages of ' love'. These are the UJle as t.he abon
!ive nth the exception of 'gnoaie' (_Crtfa't' which takea the
place of 'Truth of Beal1ty', and 'oneness' w!.bd&t) wbicb replaces th.
bighast stage of tB_li ty of Trut.h r. The other d1fferance ls in .
the explanation of the teru wbich 11 done UDdar the toPic of 'loye'.
Printed 1n Harma'ah YKzdah RasI'11, pp.2-11, GrsOd1rlz .eeu to baTe
be.aed his stages on the suppoaed proPhetie tradition, "Sharrc&t
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242
24)
244
245
246
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18' 1111 (agwIlr}, arr at' lB' my doings (af Ill), and
Hagfgat ls my s'tiates (ahwl1f ,f Cf.OH. XmlI,
. ed.. "K. Corbin 8.l\d
C
U.I. YalJyi; Tehran, 1961, pp. , J59. H. '1
Xmlllr expJ.a,ins these as, ShiiiCat lB conf'irming (ta,dIq) of the
of the Prophets (anbC'), Imm ls
of thelr dolngs nd code of' oonduct ,ijagfga't ls C
witnessing of thelr states by experlence. See J,.,c,. p.J4.5a A. ,
Nasafi has same explanation for the terInS under discussion,
as of GlsndirEz, 1f1 th the exception that he also has PrQphets
{anbfyi') Instead of the Perfeot 11an (1ns.tn-l kiliiil) of GIstldiraz,
cf. Indn, p.J.
GtsOdirlc, Istlqlmat, p.24.
lli.!., HyI'ir, p.1J8.
!!ru!. J SH !.!!e.t 104.
Iatlsau.t, p.24. '" ....... 4
Sharh R1s1lah, P.J6,jcfo pp;"J62-Jl,4.
t '
Qur'ln, 20'19-141 ,
247 . Gls1Jd1r!z, IBt.lq'-t, p.26 .... 27J cf. pp.27-29 far other examplea
expl&1n1ng d1"d and bt1d..
'248 Cf. lli!!., Pp.29-JO.
249 Qur'ln, 7&142-144.
.......
250 ,GtsUd1r1z, "'IatiqlMt, p.27.
251 lli9:,., p.JO. J
252 Ibid. Pe:h&pa it 1. an allusion to & vert popular auppoaed
ProPhetie whlch aa:ya, "There la & 1l01lent. (gg!) for
nth Gad, wblcb .caent n8i ther an inti_te angel
auga.rrab), nar & aesaenger-prophet (nabf auraa.l) 8iiii' 111 th
.e." , Cf. FerozlAfar, Ab!4It.h, p.39.
, 25" Cf. lbi,d., pp.)O-)l.
2:;4 !illbat, p.21, of. GtsUdirb. Ist1glat, p.ll .
255 . na-, pp.62, 72. ,GrsM1r1z, IsUgbat, 'p.ll.
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260 Idem., lati bat, 1'.:30. Asl!I;, pp;26, 59..60. GrsOdidz
8&18 tb&t on this atage the tr&veller i. akead.y a khaltfah,
. (or wal!' of God on earth. Cf. p.26.
<.. 'CI ..
261. ,S.A., Vuaa,ny, I,tiWt, p.21, 61. -
. 262
265


. J,B14., p.21.
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272 pp. lOQJrol.
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274 See!.!aS:!.., p. 77 ff .
275
276
,"

See infra., Ch.III, section C, p. 187ff. (,
For the' relat10nship of the la_'1f' w1th the t'ive ',
Grsadirlz, pp.28-29. For tha relationsh1p bet".en. the
latA'i! thauelne, sea ibid., PP.92-9.5. For a: ooapan.tlve
chart' of aU the stages, Appendix C.
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CHAPrER III
Al THE SUFI CONTROVERSY
, .
ce'
Sa.:a (derived t'rom the Arabie verb Sa:ni a) means a or
" alfdition ". The 'Word does not oceur in the Qur'n, but in elassical. ,Arabie
,.:i 1
i t seems to bave meant "a singing or musical pel!'formance 11-.
, -
We ftna a professianal class of musio1ana even in pre-Islamio
.
t1mes. Thia class w&s greatly reap8cted under the Cal.iphate, in spite of
. ,
the strict ruling aga1nat musio in Orthodax Islam. Moreover, singera were
2
patron:1zed at the royal. courts of the
)
' ....j
The lawt'ul.ness ot muaic bas been the subject or- 10na controversy
o
_in Islam. Importance waa attached to th11 question wben sama W&a ad,opted
, ,3
th
in Suti oiroles in the lat. second or the ear1:y tbird cen'tur7 HiJra,h (9 ar
lOth century A'.D.) 'as a apiritual. exerciae'f>and "as a mana or- revelation
4 - -- c
attained tbrough eo stasy " 'i'hua, it waa in Sufism that aama acqu1red i'ta
technical meaning ot "listen1ng muSic, 'S1.ngin.g, ebanting and measuied \
J reoitation in orcier 'to produce reliaioua emotions and ecst&ay
, 5
&lao suoh performanoe by' voiee or 1nstroment" ..
Sama beo$JD8 ve'r7 pI)p\.ar amcmc the suti. aa a ri tu&l.. 1d th the
, 6
reault that there "",re diverse opinions as ita lawtul.neaa. Conaequent17,
various tapies regarding sema
0
were rend.1l:l.c or- sarmenta in 'ecataay,
ecataq i taelt, musical instrumenta, ,danoing (I!94) and ,the like.
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The root the as by Robson, aeems to lie
the faot that music was genera11y aS80ciated with wine, immora1ity,
\
neg1ect of rel1gious ord1nances and other vices. 1 An eminent suti like
Hujw!ri (d.465/1072) Who felt that was sama
c
which made the religion
, 8 ,...
obligatory, a1so ta it as an amusement which is'the root of a11
iDmora1ity.9
It i. apparent traD 'the early sources tbat to SaDe the .sutis
spao had beCaDe more an entertaiJmlent than a suti disoipline. It i. not
.
po.sib1e te mention n&mes auch mis due to laclt intormation, but

we do obJeotions to and. warning8 aga1n8t them by the orthoc1ox ,utie.
'lna'tatlce, 0"U8 them "foolieh aspirants" and e1sewhere he
0 10
accuaes SCIDe them hav1ng made sama their religion. Mention may
be made hert Ab Bakr al-Kaliblc1llI ( d.385/995) who <loe. not sa .. te talte
, c d
.s&ma seriowsly; "auclition 18 a reat1ng after th. :tatigua o:t the (spiritual.)
moment, and. a recHatien for thoae who experienee (spiritual) state., &8
wall a. a meana of awaken1ng th. oonaoienoes tho who b\J.ar th .... lves
, 1fi th other tb1nga". 11
. ".
Above &li, ClllDOD. people l.1ao in auch ptherinp, 1napite
the' :traquent warn1Dp the ,lep.ta a. wall a. aut-i. th ... 1ve.. .. te
1 ta d.aD8era.
12
Conaequent17, the 1estata aIld juriste turne<l tON&rda the
auti., in whca thq :tound. pertect target. It i. true tbat the ,utia Da7
-J
baTe been pa;rtial17 reaponaible :tor the people'. intereat in 1lU81c, but' 1 t
.
ahOllld be 'tbat 1IIWJ10 va. alreaq of th.\ao.t develope<l arts
- 9 .,
')
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among the Arabe themaelves.
<
Nevertheles8, as Robson points out, the took an intermediate
. .
position between the absolute oondmners, on tlie one and those who
, " ,
c
sama as an entertainment or an art, on the sther. !lbe $oU.fis
not in l.t tor own sake and are to condemn it when
, .
.
employed tor more l!Jensual enJoyment. - But t1'1e,. oanteatt ardently with those
1 _
who declare all mua1.c tor the,. recognj.ze that it haa a power to
." "
stir the haut wh1oh, 1.t n&htly may lead to great spir,i tual
exalta tian" :t3 The poe 1. tian the. ,,\11'1. v:. in a 'nley- .ra
in a dileJPat th87> had to detehd themeely .. " tor oonducting samao wu
not Qur' &nio in orig1n; yet, tts spiritual value to sut:1s w&s aueh that
it oould not be abandoned. Neverth.fess, ; 'they bad a180
0
to discourage
1
.. tt ...
the eOlllllOll people and ot1:en novioe. tran in4ulgins in it.
'!'hUa began tuaale between the legal and the ,u:t1. cirolea as to
the lavtulnesa or permissib'il1 ty ot aama c. both the parties n.cS
. " , 14
to tall back on the Qur'an, Traditione and Sunnah to support l.ts arsumenta.
The Qur' an has notbing direetly to 8&7 &pin.t musio. wbile the trad! tione
contain statements both side.. An in'j;eresting aspeot ot the
controversy 1. that otten the canoernad parti.s interpret the s&me Qur' arllC
verse or tradition in their dW way. Ibn
tor 1nItaJ!t)e, l1eta a tn traditions trequent17 ctuoted\b7 the 05\11'1. in support
\ ,
ot and. reinterprete them te the .uti clai.Q1a.15 t.l.-GhazllT
(d.518/ll24 or 520/1126) in Bawlr1g al-IWO rebute the attacke ot the Juriste
, ,
- ___ ...... __ ... ,_. __ .11 __ ---- .----....... ...... " ,
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- /
-143-
16
by uaing' the s&me ,vereta and traditions quoted by them. At the lame time,
, '
e 17
he oriticises the jurists of his age.
Besides the evidences produced fram the Qur'in and
the parties also refer to dreams in which they were either permitted or
' 1
, -,
c
for.bidden, by' Prophet Mlll'}aJll!1ad , to conduct s!Ull4.. The Prophet had
',. ,
approved of li'stening to music in, a dream of MimShad al-DIlawarl (d.299/ 912),
. '. ' 18
but also asked al-Drnawari to reaite the Qur'in beiore and after.
Gisdiriz himaelf ia belieTed to sought and obtained permission of
.---.." '
Prophet in a tll;Ystioal trane
19
On the contrary, Ab al-QJaim al-QushayrI
1
(d.467iI074) reiawlI he ot a suti in wb.1ch. the Prophet eeema to bave
. . - 20'
diaapproved of sama C "
otten sama
O
waa usoc1&ted Vith Satan (Iblis). Huj1drI quotes
.
"21
an inoident when Ab\l al-Hir1th al-Bunini (d.297/909) waa invited by lblI.
. ,
to attend hia(JaslIembly' which cons1ated of and danoing. EventuAlly,
lbl!a i. repo1"'ted to have 'told al-BuninY, "I lead hOly men utray and c&at.
. .
\.0
them into error". Mter tbat al-BuninI neTer attended uma
C
22 A aimilar /
/
ane.cdote repor:ted by Sh1hJ.b al-Mn Cumar al-subrawardI (d.632/1234 ) // \
,regarding a dream al-Baghdldi (d.298/910) , where lb1I.;:;/-,.e
tbat he enters the on two occasions: at the mant ot eama
0
(Et al-
.. 0" and &t timl of a1ght (c 1nd ,el-Datar). 23
We &l.o OaDe a,.qrolle seme autia who di4 not want te- indulge in
, .

au41 tian. They held a neutral poei tion between th_ cODdemners and the
mpportera. Nafr a1-s&rriJ (d.378/988) give .. reaaone tor their
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Ab a1-:ijas&n b:lAl Salim w&s asked why he rejected sama
0
when al-J\mayd, Sari
al-SaQ.att (d.253;867) and Dh al-Nn al-Miqr ( d.245/860) partioipated. He
replied, ... can l disapprove of it
tt
25 :'1 llt .. ;'/i al-DL, Ibn al-cArabi
(d.638/l240) did 'Ilot look pon musio with faveur, althQU8h he did
26
it abaolutely. /
/
/
We Will now seme ot the aspecte eonceming the-
institution 01" sama
C
whioh were diseussed by' the sutia themeelves. For the
present purpose, lAt ld.ll dinde our atud1 inte two aectiOJ18 Il exoterio" and
If eaoterie ".
1 ) EXOTEIttC ASPEX:!T
a) Sama
C
01" eoamon people and Novice.,
The aut1s are avare the etteeta mus10 coulc1 prooduoe.
27
They
also kniaw tbat it IDight, theretore, be very dangeroua tor who laoked
,. 28 '
ap1r1 tu&l tN.1n.1nc and The 1egista hac1 attacked the .utis "tor,
, pr'aot1sing a ritual non-Qur'an1c in origin" &1ld permitting tb:e OcmDOll people
to induip in it. The euti. te1t, tberetore, the need to diacourage it
pnerally aDlOnS the populace. Thua, lima
0
waa di.ouslec1 trCllll the lepl. point
ot view.
aenerally, wa. divid.ec11nte tbree type.. AbU' 'fil.1b al-M&kki,
tor uample, olasaUi.. i t 1.nto prohib1 ted <ll!d!), lawtul <.Q!mJ and.
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dpubttul (shubhah). For one who part1c1pated in .am C wi th his camal soul
1
through 1 ts lust (shahwah) and desire (hawa'), i t i8 ., probibi ted It 1s
f,or one who seeks spiritual enlightenment; 1t ia
if one listens to one's wife or a slave girl, because an element of amusement
1s included.
29
Aocording to Abn (d.406/1015) sama
C
ia prob1bited
for the CCIIIIIOIl b.oaUlle of the orla_ce of thej,r ,oarnal
soula ihim); alloWable to the aacetic8 on acoount of the
actual1zation 0 their spiritual stru8gJ.e (l!-bu@ muJlhaditihim), and
1awtul sutis their live he&rta (ll-b!yit quJ.bihim 1.
30
In add1 tian, oondi t10rus and rulea vere laid daMn \mder 'Which sama c
vu regarded aa perm18I!Jible. Junayd obaeM'es three conditions tmder whioh
, -
samaO ahould be cnducted: tilDe (zamin), plaoe (makIn), and brethnen (ikhwinf.
Bath al-Gbazi1f2and bis ,brother Mtrn--d a1-GhazUl (d.505/1111) Agree
with him.
, ,
M"\Jannwd al-<Jbasili e1aboratea on thc! tvma l 'l'1me a uma c ahould
, not be be1d at the t1.lM ot .. ala, pr&yera or when one 1a bu87 wi'th ot.her
a1'taira; Pl.ce: It aboulcl not be h.1d in an 1II'lp1eaaant or in a place,
'f'
iD the houae of an unJuat person, or in a -atreet (rab sucJhar); Brethr8lU
It is nec.sNr1 tbat the persona part10ipating be ot au41 tion
(.hl;"1 sama
c
). The ptherina ahould be tree :traD the presence ot wor1dlJ
people, vomen and. thoae who want te crit1e1ze. the practioe rather tban to
u:perience it."
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Another signi:f'icant problem which. confronted the sufis was whether
,1 .
allow novices to attend. This question was raised due to the fact that
the novices, though they were initiated into the suti circles, were
inexperienced and may still have possessed worldly deeires. We find different
opinions in this regard.
Junayd 18 believed to have .aid, mwhen you see a novioe fond of
sama
c
, know that there is still a remlWlt of idlene in
35 -
pretere i t to b. the practioe ot rather than novioes. Ab T'lib a1-
vith Huj1drT who tb:inka that "it is more d 1rable tbat beginnera
ahould not be a1lowed to attend DlUsical concerts (.u.ma cha). The.e oOllcerts
. _ ,7
are extremely da.ilgerous and corrupting.... Aocorc.1in3 ta Mul]IJllMd aJ.-Gbaz6.l.I;
a disciple who bas not attained the states of "heart
W
(a.bWiJ.-i dil) must not
o,s . c
be permitted ta attend II&IP& '. Sbibib al-Di"n 'Cbar al-3uhrawardI al.o reJeota
the practice of iU:Ia
0
by the newly 1n1 tiated!9

on the other band, we tind seme suti. al10w the novice to J
indulge in audition. AbU SaC!d i1m Ab'! al-Khayr (d.440/l049) wa. ane of them,
and he waa objeoted ta by another abaylch beoauae ot h1a axee
4o
a.l-8a':ra.1 had cft"ta:1n ttnder whioh he allowed the ... 0 Cft novioe
He telt. tbat the pre.ence ot a abaykh wa. easential tor the .antrol
,
ot the no.1oe.. al.oGhasll:r..... also TfYr'1 liberal in thia at'tel!.
and wanted .. 0 to be enoouraced in nO'V1cea.
42
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-147-
Nevertheless, it may.be aaid that aven thougb tbe sufis were fond
of sama
c
, they 'issued warnings and objection$ to those who were taking this
,
ritual lightly or for sheer purpose of entertainment.
b} Mufieal Instruments
The plying ot musical inatrumnt& has d14)"s beeri a controversial

topic. Generally, &ll inati"UDlents are torbidden, accordillg to the Jurist
ot Islam, ucept pe'rhAps tambourine, lIhioh i8 &lao oontroversial.
Neverthelel8, ,t.aJI:t)ourine W&e widel)" uaad in s.ama
C
ga:therings.
al-GhazllI, tor instance, torbids 8111 the. instruments of diversion,
43
vi th the exoeption ot the tambourine. Elsewhere, he SAys tlloIt a tambourine
'r
without metal plates is explioitly permitted, but ainee thera wa8 no evidenoe
aga1nst or tor the met&l plates, that too remained allowabla. He ailows the
Persian &lao to be played.
44
Ibn al-Ducyl (d.28l/894)candemns all
instruments iDOI. the tambourine. HI.tjwir'r wri tes tbat the theologians
&gr'ee on the permiseib il 1 ty ot llIWIioal instruments if' they are net used tor
46 '_
amusement. In Inc1ia., Sbaykh N1p.m al-Mn Awliylt did not ,allow a.u:r
Se bel1eved that instn:aDenta were no means ot delight tar a
1
man ot taste" and -pain' (dbib-i dhaws a
0)
nother ot P"trr in a.ma
0
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was the recitation of the Qur'in better than poetry? Poetry was one of the
tir st few things foJ; by Islam. Yet poetry had i ts mm meri ts when
blended with melody for the sufis. Pure music was not looked upon with
favour. Interpretation of verses was, therefore, essential and it hAd te be
ei ther the Qur ''ln or poetry or both.
J
propounds, "the most beneficial auHtion to the mind and
the most delightful to the ear ia that ot the word of God. "48 He also regarda
poetry as permissible: He adda, "whatever is lawtul in prose like morali ty
and. exhortations and interencea drawn !rom the signa of God and contemplation
t
- -
o the evidences ot the is no less lawful in verse ". 4l.-5rraJ sees
objection ta the of poetry with musical notes and melodies.
50
," . .
Ab Tl11b al-Makltl classifies 118tening to odes of a religi.ous ' nature under
ttdoubttul". An anecdote i8 otten cited of how ruau:r ibn al-Buaayn eJ.-Riz!
.
(d.304/916) , ns lllOVed and:. wept on hearing a verse recited by' .Ab
al-Darrij he waa les8 excited when he recited Qur'n
tor hours.
51
Moreover, the a;ice of
al-Dinawart
52
impli4;Js tb&t the Qur'1.n was not reoited previoualy, in samaO.
,"
al-GhazilI' says t.hat if the singer (g,awWll) utters poetry
deacrib1.ng cheek, mole and stature, ,it should be applied ta the cheek, mole
1", 1
and. atature ot the 'Umar al-8uhrawardt. reJecta weh PoetrY' as
,
;
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-149-
In any oase, poetry waa reoognized as one of the media for
sama
c
and W8S probably Ilthe most popular one. Consequently, both the Qur'an
and pcetry came ta be recited.
a)
2 ) ESOTERIC ASPECT
C J
Sigaificance of Sama
Sama
C
w&s not an entertainment for utie, it had a serioua purpose
d
behind, it. As Trjmjngham saya, nit played a great role in the worship of
.
Su:f'is".55 It was a spiritual discipline which tended to attu;ne the suti,
in totali ty to the Infini te
relates, "audition ia a faculty to presenoe
(ri th God.), because love demanda ail; until the whol of the lover ie abeorbed
in the whole of the Beioved, he ia in love."56 Sama
c
, in' other
words, \laS a form of devotion, which st:1mulated an emot10nal approach and
attacbment to God. Mn.l?anmad al-Gbazili feels, "tor him wose he&rt is
overpowered with the love of God, Sama
C
ie manentous (muhimm )-, becaUS8 tbat
, . \1 ..
t'1re (of love) ia increased by it.,,57 When aeked about .sama
c
, Ab cAlI a1-
Rudhb1r (d.322/933) es1d; "Sama
c
the unveiling (mukiehafh) of secrets
in order ta see (mushlhada:h) the BeIOVed. ,,58 GIsildiraz states, "Sama C 18 a
61' love-malting <at-i c iahq !!!); if you have lOved an:yone, and
va.rious dealings have taken place between you (both), then eam& C ::Le your
, -
a:t'fair for only that person entera a garden, who seeu to behold the.'

,
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, ,
-150-
pageant of nature or to perceive its fragrance.
tt59
, .
b) Object of Sama
c
The abject of samA C to have been the attainment of "ecs-tasy fr
-
(wajd) Nicholson observes, "the sufia saon discovered that ostas-y-might
\
be induced artificially, not only by concentration of thought, rccqllection
(dhikr') and other innocent mcthods of' autohypnosis, but aloo by music, sing;ing
f "
60 , ..
and dancing." It should bo noted though, that this ecstasy wna induced
concomitant or revelationa during samn
C

6l
c) Sama C and the Covenant (Mithg,).
o
plays a oigni.ficant role 'in Sufimn. It refers to the
primordial avont whon Gad made mankind teotify'concernin8 ?Y asking
,', 62
them, "Am l not your Lord". They an6WQrod '"Yoo
lt
Tho myotical oignificance
, U '
of mithq io in the realization of onencso' (tavrt}'i,g) of Gad in ita truc sonoc.
In other \<lords, i t ia a atage whero thera io' no third porood invol veq in '
thia expcrionce between the \forohipper' and ;tho worohipped. It aignifies, the
return of the I1lYBtic to his "first otite that he io aa he was before he
krun !@ 'qabl 63
This avent enaets a 'very, impOrtant part 'in connection ,n'th samao.
Accord1ng to moat of the eminent sufia, there ia a Of secret" or Il Of substance"
in the heart of man, and Bama
o
atirs and stimulates that aubstane If;
thu8 produo ing Il ec susy n. 64
, "
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The or substance
8
which io placed in the heart.is the
mitha. Ab MU9ammad al-Ruwaym (d.303/9l5) saya, "the peopie heard their
il.rst 'remembranco' (dllJ.k:r) when Gad addrcssed thern, 'Am l not yOU!' Lord?'
-.
This sccrcted in tneir hcarto Sa whon they hea: dhikr, the
t th f th
' h t d th ' h"' d ,,65
secre 1ng3 0 ear,s appear an ey are raV1S e
, ;
al-Ghlzal, al-Hamatlhlni
and Shayk.h Fa'd al-Dm Gnnj-i Shh,lr a11 refor ta mIth1iq !ls
" 68
man .s c.xporionco of ocatnoy. Naturally, tho Qur'nnic concept of mthaq
bocomeo 1) tirat p:;u;-tioip.'l.tion in aama
c
and hia firot oxperioncc of
,
costaay.
n
\
Thin io an intoreating question, in the conte<. t, bocause of the
"
signiticant role ocotnay playa in Sufism itsolf. Here it may be tarmed as '
" c
the rtossance 11 of Oam:l. But the main" diffict ty ariaeo whon wc look for
\'
"
answaro to the quoot1on, bocnuoo ocstaoy if.! ooldom doocribed by thIJ
f' , q
sufis.
"" \ "
for "racla t,hllt the Qtate of ocataoy be
explained in \'lord a
. . 59 -' ci
He saya, "w.i thout expeI'1ence no Abu Sa., d
1bn trea.tioo'oD;. one or the tirt to da.l
J '
wlth the subject, io quoted in bySaa::raj 1::, of the aMIe o}>1n1on, "the
1.. "
essenco of ocstaoy and of othor states 1a ineommunicablo and 1a
'"
. 70
better deacribed by silence thaD,by
o Anrr bin c
Uthnin
al-MalI:lU
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(d .. 291/903) 9ays, 1'the

hownes8 .(kaMah) cannot be'
! ------
it 1,8 'secret .of All1h, \4hich remaine 0 With His
tt71
believM's.
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On the band seme of have ta it, and
. ,
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'desotiptions, Siva a vi.v1d pictre of eestas,..
.. " ...
, '
1tallb'&4hI wri tea, "eostasy i'. a sensation 'Which enoount4prs
, -
..rt, whether it be feu or grief or yision' of saae' fact of 1'\1 lite
, 0
, _. Q
Ol" revelation-or . cm state betweenr, and Goel." He t be .
the hearing and a1gbt of the heart.
72
Ab',-tI&aan al-NOrt 259/9fY7) saya
eoat&sy 1a a flame' whioh aprin&a up in',the
J
out .ot
=.. '"
"
Souroe
.
'" -' !
the
,.,
,
tbat cause' or the of
" ' i
ec.ta.,. i." Gcd. ft a -visitation" (Vl.r1d). whiob,'take. OV'er them,
-. .. . ':'"
. '
, .
Ctbr aqll, "ec'lItaq ia a rta1 tatian
if.. - J
tran, God." 14 He :;at 18
ap1ri t <a3
5
AbU al-1Juan a1 ... ttftrt al.o Jida 1:he aame tbat "ataIT 1&
, ,
Kalb'IdhIquots another euti &I&11n8, i, :the 8l.ad
, " t ' , ' . \,' , "
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, w
tid in gs sen by GoeL of the m;rstic es promotion to the station of His
contemplati ,,76 Ahmad al-Ghaztl! calle these experiences of rapture the
.
"unseen vi, :Ltations n (al-wri-dit al-ghayb!xah)
- /
and spir;ts (arwg) are nour1shed. '
/ "il
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with wh10h the hearts (Sulb)
\
! / -
-t)/ Es/sta!)" (waJd) and artit1c1al ecetasy (taW;tud).
/ /
/ 0
-, . / , "- - \ '
j
o 0 0 , ' Now that have discU8sed ec ,we will br1etly diseuss another
tec1m1eal tiwi,lud eostaay). Both ot these terme are equally
1 -
. // ta aama e, and 118 llhall see' how thelle are r.elated to and
: '\. 1 tran oth,r. 'Wa.1d 1s the "end ft ot Sam&
0
, wh1le tawljud is
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i1;s beginn1ng, it we may be allowed to put it this way.
Tawl:tud 1s an artitioial way to indUe!!!JS. In o;!oher "worda, dJd ,
t "
, (, '\ ... 1 .. f
18 a "viSitation-, 1;0 apeak. in sut:1, terminolog, whioh takes possession ot a
all by 1 teelt, tawi:tud is a 'adopted by the person to
achieVe or e%p8rience th waJd:, which tben "viai ta' him, aa a resul t 91: his
, , '
. ,
endeaitor., This relat10nahip and distinctiOn beoOQes cleu in the tollowing
..
UJ.\\IItratioil tran al-Sarrij. A suti, woae, name 1s not mentioned, divided
';
-
-ad !nto aesta.,. of poss.ssion (waJd and eostasy of enoounter
,. .
(wajd' 11g,& 'in). He who does notl possess ecsta (Je x:am11k.) IIWIt encounter
it- k.:Lnda are' expl&:Lned IUlOther sut1: "ec,stA..,. ot
\, ,
possession 1a that eo.tuy which tinda ;you and takee posse.sion -ot you', wh11e
, ..
_ the ecstasy 'ot encounter
l
' 1s that whioll' 1s tound by '1'au.. ,,79 In other worJ.,
, .
<
the tirst.k1nd 1e genuine aoetasy (waJd), where the eecond 1.
ecataay (t&1iIjud).
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'.
Acoording to 'the above mentioned sut1, tawljud becOII1es a part of
C,
waJd, in the sense that if a person is not p08sessed with waJd, h relies on
tawijud. Nevertheless, it may be said that tawi,1ud was not always q,ppreoiated
by the sufis, probably because an element Qf pleasure and amusement was
, ,
involved in 1t. On the they faIt .that self-control wa8 an eseential
'te
factor.
Acoording to "methocHcal n and. "sr_oe of gestures"
. go .- .
ab.olutely unlawtul.-, ae belieV8a that the ad.pb are tranquil while ,'-'
: .. \04'
the7beginners are agitated becauae thsir bodies ar oppo.ed to it. When th1s
\
(
'.. 81
agitation id.tkab) beoane. oontinual, the beginner too rf!ctt1vee 1t qu1etly.

ISl-Sarrij s&1's, "eo8taSl'! that 1t i, invC?luntary, 1a not improper
'\
for who are entirtly .detacbed from intereats. NQ.) one"
.however, ahould sssk to:,produce eC8tasy in h1msslf ln' Joining _ .nuiDbsr of
, 82..c . ' ,
, persOllJS alreadT Kal'lbldhI feele, a man;- 8 ecstasy ia
q
weak.', he,e.xhibits eosta8'1 (tawiJud) ... if, Ms ecstasy 1a strong
(" 84
he oontrols h:1.mself and 18 pass1vi". MuhalllllAd" al-Gh&2(Ul and Umar al ...
o
85 ,\'
Subraward! a180 asree with their predec,e.ora that an &dept 1, u;:ruIlVed and
. . .
li _/
"
that he has control aver the "rlsitat10na" (wlridlt). "But". ,al-GhAzll!
v
_ "lUOh 1a t:nmd". NajJII al-Dn 'al-!ubri ri
apreal.e hia viev by s1eses the abarth. Qn the oon;tr&!7i
, ' ,
he control bt the lutes tr
88 ' - 89
JWl&1'd and AbU al-l1&aan al..-NttrI are often reterad tq .,
Ir.
eon.trolled t.l1emnlves in the other li.tenar. wera dancing
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in eostasy. Aocording to SAri al-SaqatI, a man in depths of ecstasy would
.. ' .. J
nat aven feel the blows of a sward 'faoe.
90
.'
g) Dancing (rag,).
Although dancing (E.!S1) one ot the earliest tarma of expressing
l' .
it W8.S not always approved ot by the We!Day a. point
out here that wo danOlg are
P'1rstly, dancing as, a t'onu ot tawljud, tbat i8, ta 1nc1uoe aClltasy;
the tom ot 1t today 1s among the Mawla1dyab arder (named
--
a.tterJalil a1-Dtn al-RilmI, d.672/1273), popularly lmown a8 the "Wb1r11ng
dervishea".9
2
It was this' aspeot ot which was not looked upon
tavourably.
,
The second upeot 1a the dancing wh1ch 1fS an express10n ot eOfStasy.
" . othr, W'ordt, 1 t 1s the o'f a perfSon becauae ot 'intense rapture.
al:"nrn (ShaYkh d; 587/1191) writes that
'do6a not t1nd ecistasy (bllat) by dancing. On the oontrary,
. _ 1a tbe ot does not approve ot dancing all. H.
the 'aeoond tlrPe be oalled lIecstat10 ratherr
thoup, -he th... "rD!"ementa Il i 'if. n AlI toatplay (RI'
.. .- (1
18 bad i'n lav t.nd rason ... that agitation 18 ne1ther dancing nor
- , l
ner boti.ly .indulgence. but a di.allusion ot tl:)e eoul'. ,,94 al ...
, "
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. SubrawardI believes in self-control an4 untll i 1 bloQlD8. impo.i1ble
" ." - ,1
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_-156-
to control. 95 E1sewhere, he. classifies danoing under Il allowab1e" (mub!h)
and a1so under worship (cibdah) if the intentions (nlyah) of the performer
were gOOd.
96
Ab Sacid ibn abi al-Khayr fa1t that dancing-dispels
.' - - 8 c'
trom young men.
97
Al-Ghazal!' agreed with hi::l.
9
Ibn Arabs:' was
to ecstatic dances or artificially inspired
, Neverlheless, we are to1d that eminent 8\11'1 .. ha.ykhs like Junayd,
y"
a1-Shibll (d.334/946), MaCI'! al-I\arkhI (d.200!815-:'6), Abd Allah ibn Khaf!rO
O
(d.372/982), AbU SacId ibn Ab! a1_Khayr,101 rwi
fr
al-1;I&11ijl02C ,
cAyn al-Qu4ih al_Hamadblnl
103
(d.525/l131) and others have danoed iama
C

o
h) Rending of Garmente. '
The
olear manner.
on thia problem 16 by al.-RU1Iym ln a
that the people in sema ,8ee the re&litiea
very
(,41-ma
C
tnI). When the veil i9 raised, their pleas}ll't,. changes to
. 104
This ia the reason why sane tear their c10thes and others weep or Boream.
. .
Quahayr1: thinka that semao has a share tor eaoh organ." ltlhat desoerd s
, c, '
the hnd, maltes it tear the dress or sIal' oneselt
10
5
HujldrI says that it has no foundat1on in 8Ufism, but one may be
a11awed to do so under three when-a derviab tears bis own
thrQUCh eoataay. 'Wen a number ot hi. do 110 at the
Batanee of & spiritual direotor, and when they do it in the intoxication
of CUmar al-3uhraward!
t
a argument, on the contrsr,y', ie that
J
r
. ...
:-.
-157-
one ie expeoted to oontro,l oneselt tram any "movements" (al-garakit) and
screaming it 19 essent1al that he does not hie garments.
107
It may be said it was agreed that one should restrain from
tearing garments under intense rapture it was allowed.
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B) INDIAN CONTROVE:!.SY
India was no exceptiop to the oontrversy over samac, but the nature
of the conflict 8eems to have baen somewhat difterent as w shall very briefly
J
dis,ouse in. the following pages.
We. my presume that aama.
0
, as a suti praotioe', wa.a :tirst ment10ned
on the Ind1an by Hu,tw!r!. As 1a well-lm,CJWn, BuJwrr, travelled
ta, the Ind1an and 8ettled in Lahore whe" he 18 burled and
highl.y. venerated. Hu,Jw!rl: was one ot the supporters sam-., and there 1a
no evidenoe to show tbat he did not l1sten to it in India . '!'heretore,there 1s a
,
airons probability tbat he did practioe it andJpossibl3" .. even intrOduoed. 1t '
to India.. MoreOV'8r, the taot that he mentions the affeota ot muaio in deer
, .
loB
hunting (an India.n praot1ce) shows bis interest in it.
, .
N$Vertheleu, Shaykh itucIn al-Dm Ch1shtI' (d.633/1236), who
"'" 1D:m1grated to India in the year 590/1193, ie reported to have organized
fJl1D&c ia sa1d that he listened to music' eve" even1Dg.l09,
1bu8, with the establia1mlent ot the Chishtt order besins the hiatorT ot the
. )
, . 0 .
institution ct aama in India; the controversy naturally toUows. Besides
Shaykh Ml c!n al-Mn ChiahtI; &11 Ms spiritual disciples were tond or- sama Q. ,
.
S iIw1y of the aocltml sebol.lsra o'baerve, suie fa: the sutts c't the' Cb1antt
. ,
ofder, wu o:ne of the most important r1 tua.la ot monaster1ea (.'fa!!Iat
') ,
khina
h
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The other sufi order est&blished in India during the early
medieval period ,<laS the Amongst the ilnPortant BUtta
ot this order who settled and worked in India were Shaykh Babi' al-Dm
ZakarJ.ya' (d.661/1262), Qa1i al-Dn Nagr (J..643/124S), Shaykh NUl'
al-Dm Mubarak Gha2'llaWl C d.647!l24W and Shaykh Jali.l al-Dm Tabr5:zi'
'Who were a11 the disciples of Shaykh Shihb al-DIn CUmar al-
SuhraWardl:. the scopa of our present st\.1dy dos not include the" history ,
0
ot this order but 1ts association. if any', with the institution ot sarna
It 18 ditticul t to say whether the au1'1s ot the Suhrawardi order in India
praotiaed s&ma
c
, thOU&h mo8t of the modern wr1tera believe th&\ they

rejected tt,lll whioh does not aeam to be a justit1ed generalization.
It 1s, reported in hwi' id al-FU 'ad that Shaykh Bahl' al-DIo
Zakariya', .who i8 regarded 48 the ot the oroer in India, listened ta
sama
a
and eastat10 lIhen a certain Al.lih RilIJQ:' told him that Shaykh
S,hihib al-DIn cuinar al-SuhrawardI' conducted such gatheringsf1l2 The
. ,
\
impl1ea that Shaykh BabX' al-DIn did not liaten musio
be'Tore this inoident, beaause he was under the i,mpi-ession that Shaykh &1-
'"
Suhraward! i tJ but he realized thrqugh .Allih RmI that he wae
misintormed:
ll
, 'lt alao :1Jnplies that Shaylth Bahi' al-DIn wa8 wa1 ting tor
the opportuni ty to organize 8Ul& c. Qi4I l]am'Id al-Din NlgrI', an,other eminent
Sulu'awardi, 'ia purported to been one ot thoae who est&bliahed the
iruJti tution o't "ama C t:Lrmly in India. In any avent, aven it the Indian
did practise sama
c
, it was not (with the exoeption of
al-DIn) a aardinal teaturBof their kliIngab currioulum, &8 wa8 the case with
the Ch1shtIs.
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It ia relatd that sama
e
was popularized through th efforts of '
Shayk.h Qutb al-D!n BakhtiyAr-. Ktrkt (d.63:3/1236) and Q,ali Ijamid al-Dm,
of Iltutm1sh (607/1211-633/123h) and 1t was Minhij
/Siraj Juzjani (d. after 658/1259) , a q4i of Delhi, who legalized the

'1

The conflict betw8en the C ulamll ' and th sutis during the Delhi
Sul tanate (602/1206-962/1555) was nainly fooussed on the quest10n of sama c
c (
The Indian ulami', instead of condemning the 1netitutyon through treatises
and. books as wae the case in the claseioal period, tried to wt an end ta
sama
c
gatherings by calling meetings (mabW) be:t'ore the Sultans. They
endeavoured to make the Sultans issue official interdiots on the org&n1zatione
c
of SUla , but they were nevr success'ful.
\
The main reason behind this con:t'liot seems to bave been purely
,
rel1gious dogmatiam in. the new BUrr01.Ul.dings of India, at least during the
early stages. nie accused the suf'is of timovation not Just in order
o '
to prevent common Muslims fram engaging in earna , but because they thought
. that music was utterll" illegal aocording to fbartah, i . e. forbidden for
any muslim, the suf'is. Basides, it ia not possible to estimate
- . th '
the muslim population ,of India during the 13 oentury, sinoe there ia n
suf'ficient dealing ,with the subJect. It mal" be said, though, that
\ '
Mu91ims were a very 81D&11 m1nority, whih ia presumabll", the rea.son why
the cu1ami t did -not engage themselves in writing, but rather thought ,it more
practioal to the Sultan tor action against the lioeral suf1s.
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Besides, in t."1e ma.,}?ar on sarna C against Qiq.! FjamId al-if-lll Nagtlr1: and Shaykh

/ Qutb al-Dm Ba..1tb.tyr, before S)lltan Iltutmish, the Qq. 1s reported to ,have
/
sa1d that permitted for the sufis (ahl-i 9l) but prohibitted for
115
the ex a,...""tlalists (ahl-i gl) It should be noted ... that he naturally d1d
not g about its permissability for the Muslims in general,
i:1 'small m:inori ty Moreover, by "externalist" the
Qacp: could very well
,culami ' themselves.
,
could curtall indireotJ.y by binding the sut1s officiAl interdiots.
ln short, theologians, on the one band, trid. 'UMucceasfully te
, 1
uproot the institution of the1r zeal to preserve-the harr0ah,
"hile the sutia on the ether J 0 sucoessfully, to eatabl1sh this
institution which pro'bably was one of the tools of popula.r1zing their
ln the 'non-musl1m .ll:7 Azlz Ahmad observes, "Music
1
ls perhaps ooly art 10 semethlng like a sysnthesis batween the
Musl1m and Hindu artiatlc ,vas aehieved, though not without a
series of' tenaions.
lI
ll.8
,
The 1I0nastertes of aufi'8 attracted. lu Idnda of PeoPle, ir-
respect! ve or caste or religion, and sama
C
was posai bly one of the
)
a-ttractlons. Verse a.nd in hlndawr
1l9
came he reolted. in -their
,
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-162-
sama
c
gatherings
120
so that it might be comprehensible "1:,0 aU the
listeners. It 15 1nteresting to note that the objection of the,
culama' was always aimed at the Chisht! suiis.
A of Ajdhan \.sked the scho1ars of Mul tan to declare the sama c
of Sbaykh Farid al-DIn GanJ-i Shakar illega1. The sohoUrs deoli.ned to do
00.
121
When someone mentioned the dif'ferenoes of opinion (ikhtU.f') among
the culSlIli ' regarding sama. c, Sh&ykh Farld al-Dm ie belleved to
"GIOl7 be to God! See the diff'erence between the one who 10 (skht)
.
to aohes (kh1k1star) in sama C, and the others who about
it".122
TJ:le most important seema to ,have been tha:t waa summoned
the sama,0 of al-Din Awliy!', during the reign of Sultan
Ghiytth The BJ!l]gar of 253 c1.atni', aaked
the Chishtl. shaykh to appear befQre them, It is reported that they did not
:.:r
acoept the tradition (:bacnth) which the Shaykh presented in support of aama
c

Meanwhile; a Sum:mwa.ro;r sut:i <lrlmal-DIn, who wail a descendent of Shaykh
J
Bahi f al-DIn Zakar.1;yil, arrived and reported tbat during his travl abroad,
he had witnessed that the sufi ware permitted to music. Thus the
'I c
Sultan ruled that sema may be permitted for the sufia but prohibi.tted for
the rest of the conmuni ty 123
During the reign of Sultan F-:rz Shih 'l'ughla?
sane culam' reported to the Sul tan tbat the listeners prostrated bef'ore
..
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Gisdiraz in the Barna gatherings. Subsequently, the fi ul tan sent word to the
'1
0hisht oufl. :'0 sama C in seclusion (lc..'ul'.J'.:lt). Siyar-i relates
tha t sinee -::'::0:1 G!o,jirz listoned to ;ama C from inside a rcom wi th a curtain
, -l2
1
t
separutJ.nB' rum from the l'CGt of the listcnero.
r The Chists,'no doubt, woro quitc liberal 0.0 far in9titution
was concernod, thotieh thcy 'Noro rcgardod 800 an orthodox order along 't-1i.th the
Suhrm .. ardI .!!U'lgaJ:1:. They did declnre aama C forbiddon for 'ci thor the
oomnon poople or the novicca. Th0 rulo::J and condit10nn rogarding th:io
inati tution camo ta bo \11'1 t"Gon only trom tho dnys of: Shay1ch Ni;:am al-Dm
Avrliy 1. He fcc-l thr. l.ibcral ,'1.
J
(,titudo adoptcd by tho cnrliol' G,hilJhtI
Shaylth.3 ln'\y :ln n H:\y bo ,juntifiabla in viCH of the C'!nvironm'1nt thoy pranched in.
They 11;).d not only to adllpt thcmnclvoo to tho Indian ourroundint;o, but a;too to'
prEmont thcir religion in :'. moro ppoul1ne tU1d l'-ccept.?blc form ta t.he non-
e
I1unlim3 . In:lama they found trot appeal.
The SuhraHordi.:l, though they did not ndopt .:laI;Oa C in' the form in '\'
which i t oxioted wi th tho Chishto, may perh.aps be aa1d to have bean
...:-. .' -'
"genernlly but did not roJoct it complotely no most of the

modern scholars ohoano. .
c
The inoti tution of sama developed in Indill. mainly under the'
f:.,,'"
supervision of the C hinht:t.:l. VIo have but scattored vic"Wo of the onr1ier
Chishtn rogardtne; t.hio ritual. Therefore, n otudy of Giadirz, who was
-l'
the prolific among thorn and Vlho may be regarded as an exponent
of the Chisht"! doctrines, would enlighten the C hioht! viewpoint. on the aubject.
f
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)
D'
: -164-
[>
C) GISUDIR1r.Z ON AllDITION OF MUSIC (SAMXO)
1) ilxoteric Aspect
During. the time of G!sdiraz, the institutQon of sarrac'was a
highiy developed shape, but it was he .formulated its doctrines
,articUlated the tradition into a systrrnatic fonn. Ear1ier sources, 1ike
-"
.1' '" ,
Faw' id al-Fu 'd, Siyar a1-Awliya', ,and Khayr, a1-Ma,1alis, ds> have some matez:1a1
ori the subject, but ft WRS not dealt with as extensivoly or syst matically.
For the ChiahtI :'Jutis, sama.
c
was not Just an ordinary mode of
l
, J
Gisdirz writes that worship, but was a "specifie path" leading to God.
! sama
c
io one of waya of approaching the ,Beloved:
126
"Prayero; fasttng and
, . ,
Il
recitation of Qur'an lead man towirds God, 1ikewiac aama
c
draws one closar
ta Rim." Here Ab CAli al-Daqqiq (d.405 or '406 or 412/1014 or 1015 or 1021)
1a quoted that aarna
c
10 the c10sest path 1eading to God.
,
that th]-9 1a DO be'cause and contemplation
,
(tawa,jjuh) which are the of aIl the fortunes (jami, .. i s,a'dath1i)
C 127
1a mainly 'thrOlfgh sama.
,
Gl.sdiraz claima to bave achieved his own spiritual or in
,
biS own words "triumph, in my affair
lt
ifat!t-i k!r-i man). ow1ng to
" 128 .
c - .)
(tillwa.!-i of Qur'in) and sama
1 _
One might t? point out here ;that there seem to be WO oombi-
natim of a) prayers (na.mz) and recitation (ti1awat); b) recitation
, \,
"
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)
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, -165-
, "
and sama
C
The first ia ta the (zuhhad).12
9
, GIadiraz, c;ommenting on fear and hope (.raJa'), says that a
persan who thu{s that fear and hope mean fear 01 hell or the hope oi
para<hse, ia 'utterly wrong. Praycrs and recltatm are better sUJ.ted for such '
a one who "fears" (kh,' J.f hand such a one who "hopes" (ra,;! )13
0

, .
. .
second cotnbination ia more iinportant for him, be,cause it Beems
d _
to bear frui ta. "Shaykh Ni;am al-Dm MIll ya io dao for th1s combina tion t
,
as he 1a of the
mystic in c
opinion that tbreo kinds of l'fortunes" a
"'" 131,
and recitation (t11nwat). No prefera
'132
c
the recitation of Qur'an bafora and after saron
o
rt must be.noted though, that was very particular about,
prayers and shari
c
ah in general, but he doca nat 'oeem ta have bean a man who
would take any criticiam oawn
C
, in which respoot ho io comparable ta
al-Ghazli''>ao aoon through 'Ba .. i'riq al_Ilm1i
c
In 'the fol101dng quotation
.
of Shaykh r.1awdd Chiahti' 133 ( d. 52? (1132), ci tad npprovingly, by Giodir'z, n
. c'
clenr implication of preference to sarna over prayero i8 diac'erned. Whon asked
whether DarnaC '\-rat) bQtter Shaykh Mll. .. rcid Chiahti "a.
prayo with aIl its formalitiea, but otill he i8 not certain whether his
will be God might hear thom or roject thorn. For us,
sama
c
i8 ono ,of 'attractiona
l
(Jadhbnh) of' the Morciful Frayer
, ,P-? -t
1a in i ta being hoard (.9!!bl), wherea.s sa.mn C i9 acceptanco i teelf'
( ayn-i gubl) Il 134 GIBdiraz wri tes tha t C shQUld not
,/,-"
SOIllething trivial, because .all that 18 tound through Ifrelembrance J"
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"medi tation' (mur'!gabah) nd
.c 135
moment rI (naad-i ,oI8qt) in sama.
a) Perrnissibility of sarn!C
.
\
"
..
, '
(Valit), ,is ,.lready "oash ot: the
Il
GIsildirilz criticises Jurists ver:, severely, becaue of their
'.' \D'lo,ompran1sing and rigid att.i tude towards sama c
'"
He clas.sifies them along
wi th trom whose .sight one 1s supposed Jo abstain when in sabla Ct; and
(na
- mardin) .136 ...
calls them "oowards" ,
.. _ l'
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Gistldirlz wr1tes tbat thoagh the juriste declare , torb1Qden, .
tbir not bave &n1 bearing (.9E.s!) (plabY),
; ..... l
<.!) I.nd suoh. 'lbq. do not paJs this at aM theret6re, they do'
\ i t e1 ther. BaSides, he:.r
1 \ ' , ' .. ,
\ lYT c
. \" matters. "What an'stra.nge (ajab) man he (the 18 t What a strange
\ c "
\.( aJab) persan he is! He refera agitatiOn crying, gr1e: .
\ ' A.. . :3e
and aorrow -(lm!!!>, aa a If "
, ': He g* on ,to sema
0
tour typea, trom the legl point ot
T
- 1 \ li C) , f.
rtri-s _Pe#tted (eul), (garam), and \,_,
\tiere the the "iated exClUa1Vly: to . "
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Real1 t7 T:i-uth, sema cr Wll; the thoughta tend tbwarda wol'ldly
it 18 .. it
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b} Rulea and Regulations
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, at t1mes andoeven wept beyond
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the traditkonal of the classical sufis, lot to 'say about the
1
rule9 and conditions attached to thisinst1tution. He has dealt the
Q ,
problems in such tletail that stands out his predeceasors of the
G hiaht'i order.
, c
The circumatances described by him, under whioh satna should
.
,be conducted.would, no doubt, render,such Il gathering ioto a unique worship
regarding which even a jurist would have to think twioe befor giving his
opinion.
_" _ , .... - .,., " .. -
ObViously, Glsadiraz was' one of who favoured sama
c
ar&ently.
It wa; nct an ordinary for him. It bad great tlp<?Wer" whioh couJ.d
1
Il' 1'61'90n away bimself. Interpreti:ng a from Adab al-Mur!dIn,
\ l,
a beautiful voice do,s not add anything the hefU'lt, but ii: stimulatea
y ,
that wh1ch e.lread1 exista in it,' G!sdiraz wr1tes that has seen through '
his experience e. beautifl can a180 stir Il person whose mipd ie
" v" ..
void of (kh8.11 dh4hn!) ,140 This was the ex1iraordinary role that
J
,he was in certain.extex-nal like 8itting,
",1 ..
"1Watcbj.ng,i rpe<11tation, and suoh, he W&S, quite l1beral, ,when compared
/'
1,
to the lassioal suf1s.
One suoh liberality ia not exp11citly !orbidding SamA for the
common people. But neither did his'spiritual predeo$ssors prohibit it.
"
...
\ ,
,.,
"
,
\
, u
.

/
.'
-16t1-
.,." .
\
Gsdiriiz probably implieo lho exeluoion of eommon man from samn
e
, whem
he talk3 about i ta participnnto. Dh Elncwhcrn, he !Jtl.y!J t:1atp:he liatena!'
1
4
2
l ,c.
) nnould be an Intelliwmt perDon fir3:.1.t) to be ablo
!' fi
to d13tinliUish bctwcon the n'0:r.'-1ino l :lOtoncra tlnp. tr. '1"':. i:J, tho!3o v,ho

are worthy of aama C and painful in Iovo (bf. from thODC aroK worldly
(hawa' and vain (khud numtt). Ho\fcels that ono munt be oeloctive
in inviting people to attend for it io not efficaciouo for a
j C
W1 th "tnato" to partie ipa te O/l.l'M.
o
143
jina} of poople gathor to 4
"
(;1
ni:.t.r pInce typos

.}, ' ,
Eloowhere he wri teo that OtlIrul C ,1:a "dooirable l' to tho profic:Lent
/J) ,
(muntah;y:;lin), "allowablo Il to the beginners (mubtadl::[iin) and
'-e> 144
but "undesirablo" to common poople.
"
doea not prevex:: the beginncrn" or novioea from partie ipa tion
o 145 1:
in sSfDa, ao ia also apparent from tho abovc classification. Cormlenting, on
f"
c <1
the aaying of Junayd that if a diaciplo io fond of Barna , thora iD a
, 1 a
of idlenoaa loft in him, he aaya that Junayd did not forbid Bruna for a
novioe. On the oontrary, the aaying implioo that a novice pa.rtioipatea. Rie

interpretat1<?n of Junayd doea not Boom to bo 108ioal enough, for the aaying
oertainly forbidD l novice from partioipation . On the one band, he doce not
want to dioagroe Wi th " Junayd, while on the other, wanteCthe novices to
l "
attend GUeh gatheringa.
\
, \
He rurther says that a novice he ara audition BO that the worldly
f"
,t.> '
-169-
ff
dasires may purlfied by the power of
,\
c
sama Sama
c
doco to a novice what
147 .
soap (dii.'9tn) doon to li. dirty garment. Gl.odiraz that a dinciple
" ,tt) c
(murd) no other a1tornn;t..ive but to heur [.HlIlU'l J:t .1.3 intoroonnrr, kat
(
where Ab al-Naj:tb claoaifieo the hoarinlS of p'hn.znlG ard O:Jcripvo poetry (a1-
2;W2f), undcr ta i (!:11lkrh) for a novico, Giodiraz
1
>'
, 149
He just translates the atatement.
,
The novice muet relate auch poetry to
his preceptor (Rir).15
0
c) Timo place (makin) and, brethren' (ikhWin).
, ..
The word zamn meana time; place and ikhwan (plural
brother) moans brethren. AD t09hnical terms hero, they mean the
time and place 'for conduct1ng sama
c
, and the brothren who participate in it.
\ '
The tiret,person to have laid down these three conditions ot
,
selecting timo, place and brethron be:Core C eooms to
Junayd Of Baghdad.
151
Eversince,the majority of sutia have tricd to nbide
by thQm. Oiad1raz him:Jolf wae particular about them. Al though, he doca -not
torma epecitioally, they are Moroover, his
states that eama
c
neoess1tatea zamn, and ikb,wKn.
153
f
il
Wi th l'respect ta tima t<--Olsdiraz pre:fera n1ght to in Whioh oase
154 '
1t shauld be well illuminated. He says that during the night one 18 able
... ta h1de (1stitar) his sta'tes <un); but it 19 battez' ta arrange parnaO in
day :for li persan who has
l
., vis! tora (iyandah wa rawandAh). TheBe visita are
.,
ac'tu411y a diaturbanoe of the moment (parIsnan-t-1 waqt}, and if one could
.. ,
1"
1
i
!
1.
-170-
\
\
\
\
\
, \
find concentration in spite of this dioturbance, nothing bo bottor.
155
Samiin furthor e1.;1.boro.tc:; Dam:\. C nhould be honrd nftor nt1 the
", ,1&:;0
and !30C ial dut 1 ,,11<.1 vu bcn perI rmcd. 'T'nore s.1uld he! 0 or ev en
relifp.ouo diatrtllction tI10 cont1.nucd conccntrntion uboolute1y
1
01"
necosonry in oamn
AG for pInea, GisUdiraz writos thnt it ohould bo onelooed
wi th \-Inlls anti' ohould have Il roof. l't ohould not bo an opon opaco uhoro thc'

wind or voiee might ocho. Thin io 00 bocauoo the voiee got:J
oarriod nway by the in$tcnd of rcnching ito dootination
whicb io (the heart (dil) .157 Ho furthcr o:xplnino thllt tho pIllee ohould be
perfumod t and froo from dioturboncen. 15
8
. Aloeswood and
runborgrio ahould be burnt, floworo ohould bo kopt, for fro.grrmcc io 'vtoot the
a;pirit fedo upon. ifuon npiri t f'indo ito nOUl;'Jchmont i t bccomoo powcrful.
i
c 159
and tho "tnote (dha,1iS) of oama incroo.ooa. rolatoD thnt tho plnces
vlhero Goildiraz attondcd onmn c coromonios \ .. ore fUlly l:iehtcd and fillod w1 th
1
160
invigorating odouro of inconoG and onndal wood. Giolldiriz "la not in favour
c L 161
of holding saron. a.t gonoral publi gnthoringo or nt WQddin,&\ coromoniqa.
Neithor did he liko 0 be hold in mODquoo. Beoideo, ho saya that the
listenoro IllWlt noi thor fnoo H eece. (g!b.l'ill) nor hnvo backs towardo i
"
Regarding brothren, G!ai1diriz oxpounda that i t is botter if they be
l f
the diacipleo of the aarne preoeptor or tho people of tho oame faith
khirnawiI'dah)l6? Among a.thooo who are to bo excluded from partioipation in sama
c
,
'l,
aro the oond'mnor (@:!nl,:!.r), unaf'footed dise iplo {muta e nl1im'i bi !Wz).J Il
.'
/
1
,
--
.
-171-
,I
\
'jurist (matataggih br saz), merc11ess master (RtAd bi 'impure scholar
j
br )Jaf), vagabond (f!U1!U'h), royal t v (abna-i mulQ1<:.), worldl
J
r
(arb'b-1. 1.l11 ... and \.J'amen ::ru:3t not be allowed even to pcep through
ct
. ct ) 164
oors or ,nr. Q' .. m
\
d) Instruments of sama
c
GlBd1raz was very liberal where"instrumenta were ooncerned,
j
relative 'to orthodox Islam and the trad1tional views of the, sufis. He was
not absolutely opposod to the playing of musical instruments in aamao, though
he nimBelf d1d not have inatrument)oxcept a tambourine, played during the
\ .
ri tua1. It 1a reported that in the carly his Ufe, G!sildirz did
\
, v ,
not differentiate between the instrumentt. Onoe, he withtwo- of bis
l ' Cl
conducted a .. sa.;,na in which a11 the instrumenta posibly
, '
muster were played. when his preoeptor. Shaykh Na,J':to l-Din heard of
1 l '
it, he forbade GIsdiraz rrom conduc'ting sJ'oh a sama
c
From that time GI'atldiraz
did not desire any instrument ta be played, but he would not objeot to anyone
"'"
, 165
present playi,ng.'
1)-
He relates that thd invention of mUsioal, instruments '1s attributed
V; ta But he argues to the effe,9t that though the Juriste. forbade the
instruments, ita value and worth are known only to the "peOple of
. " '. '..' 166
(ah!..i ,dU). ,'Theretore, s:t.lnoe shO\1ld be preferred regarding the oontroversy.
Nevertheless, he lee18 that it io better, a euti shaykh (!S!:!
" c
1rshld wa da wat), to keep away fran those instruments which forbidden by
- li57 /
law Cabar
c
). ' , .) .'
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-1'72-
e) Poetry.
l'}Isdirii.:= 10v!,!d poetry, a fact 19 apparent from his 'tlorks in
Persian .. He a1low; description of cheek, mOle",etc., to be r,ecited
in ama 168 But the important 'faotor here 1.9 the application of the process
of to such
preceptor.
170
listener sijould correlate them to his
Simani writes that generally odes and verses were
o Ul
reoited in sam& because pretered Persian poetry. It ia reported
'""
that Gisdiriz aa1d, "Hindawi vei"S8S are soft, SWeet and touohing.
Il
?
The tunes are alao soft and tender like the oouplets, whioh induoes hurnil1ty
and subm1ssion; but i t ta possible or4y in the sweet and tender melody ot:
Persian poetry to do Justice ta the and emottons surging in the ,heart
. 172 ' .
of the singer." E1sewherQ he says that one t s disposition (maIl) 18 more
towards Persian and Arab'10 thAn towarda H1.ndAWI. 173
t) Guidelines
GIlri1d1riz has 1Irmunerable actrioe in oonneotion w1 th the rulel5 and
!{!
l ' C '.
oondi tiens for the piU"tioipants, ot sam& & lie will mf/ntion some ot them too show
- l v!'
the c1eveloped this wu in:. Very fine points are ;}11acussed _
o .. 174
by him, which sign1ty a sort ot "unity ft (..l!!!!:.) even in- external matters.
. ,
One must o1ean himsalt, pertorm ablution and wear ,white
olothing batere attending sam.
175
, . -
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.. .... a k ........ .......... .. __ ... _
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1
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-173-
)
During aa.rr.a C one must me di ta.te (muragabah) and imagine his "goal"
to be bofare him.
116

Ab al-Naj!b Gisttdiraz saya that the
Qur'an must be recited at- the beg1nning aud the end of samac gatherings. In
the 'absence of a reoiter
t
one must at hant the 'fatbah. It 18 necessary
to .follow t'his proced.t!re ,becaua8 the 1rst part of the midd.le (Wa.31) ia
J:!latad the beg1nn!.ng .. and" the la.st part of the m1dd.lil is conneated
wi'th the end. When the Qur'n 1a recited in the beginning and the end. ot
eama
c
all that which comes between beoomes the samao ot Qur'an.
This 18 the reason why the Prophet told IHmhad reoite Qur'in
\ c 177, '
beton and a.tter sama. . ' '
One should maintain vieual attention in audition. He ahould either
be looking at the singer (qawwll) or keeping his eyes glued to the' tront.
118
o .
During sf.\hla one- IJl'lUJt medi:ta.te (murrgabah) and practiae silent .

remembrance" (dh:1kr:"i khat;), beca.uSe elevtea the spirit,' and the
,
dhikr-i khat! quickena the manifestation ot ita eftects.
179
Care...--should be
.'1 '
taken that one doea not the "remembranoelt ot .1!!. Alllh (that
18 dh1kr-i .'alt) in a&ma :'like th sufia ot arder dOt he says-
c i- 180
because then 1t will not be oalled Barna dhikT
L
.,
It 18 DOt suitable <m;e drink water duririg aama
C
, 1f he
o 1a thiraty. 181
Ji
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III
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.
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It doee not become a disciple to disp;Lay any "movement Il
in the presence of his preceptor (pir); rather he should concentrate on his
1
,/
182
preceptor.
One ehould not be aware of ,the suitability or the non-suitability
of the verses recited or the tecnnicalitiea of poetry muSiC.
183
..
\
The singer ahould not be prompted ,or requested to 91ng a particular .
verse or tune to suite onele own state. becauee the seleotion of verses or
1 '
tunes canes trom the "unsen" (Shalb) and anything wbich ia trom the "unseen ft
(
c 184
1a taultless bi ayb) .
c 185
It doea not beoome a sut1 to both eiQg and danoe in' sarna
'1
-,

l't;',ls tortunate (!!h!) 1t the singer 19 trom among the' su:f'1s
'li 187
but ;i.t shouid never be a wom&:n.",
It 18 tbat the singer be clean (hl otherwise be
\0 88
oul
\ l
ah d be oleared out of the gathering.
One must cont0x;n <mufltag'at l to the movementa of the one in eostasy
who sbOUld nctbe left a.J.one 1n 1,..18
9
1
It one rends his garment or takes 1t ott in eostasy, 1t 18 given to
the ainger.
190
.r-
""..... --_'"ta"'<" .,-... ...........",....(. .,. .. _ ...
.. "f' . '
..
"

'.

'.
"
l
-
1
... 17,5-
One mu3t not ITte sama
e
his profession (pishah) by participating
-:m 1 t day and nlght, becauso tao mueh indulgence i:l na."lla C producco" hyprocrioy

After r.:amn C muot fre the heart {g"tU of othl:ir di vornono and
;
oonce:ltrato on his ., absolute goal Il (maqqd-i tamm), because
there I '1 opening" or"triumph" (futfWi) in it.
192
g) Artificial (tawJud) and conforrnitl (muwaf>8.gat).
,
We have alroady diecusaed the meaning of tawnjud and the 01a8s;+o801
views about it. f.1uwafag,g.t meru;10 "conformity" (wfaqa or to 8ogree, conform).
The distinction technically 10 that tawa,jul iD an artificial way of inducing
ecetasy or waJd, whilo muwafagat 1a a trPe of tawajud. That to say that
muwafagat 13 8. way of behavior a person adopta by following the
1 \
movementa of al/other already in wajd.
Gi,audiraz d?es not reJect taw,jud. He differa witlvthe quotation in
a1-Ris1an al-Qusha;n:1Y'al}, which states that tawjud ia not
( ;,
becauae artificia1 bohav1or (takalluf) 19 involved in it.
19
: On the contrary'"
he feela' thP.t tawlUud ie' npplied only to exporience wajd and wijdan and, there-
fere, should not be termed " artificial behavior". It 19 al10wable and ia
praiseworthy if the purpose ia to experience waJd.
194
Elsewhere, he criticiselll
the suiis of the KubrawIyah Order for the disciples hear sama
c
after
seven daya of occlusion (khalwat). Gisdiraz thinka thill to be "artificial
behavior It in order to make themselves happy. This way they are throwing
,
,
'\
, ,
,,\
. "
them::lelves by forco into ,joyfulneew, \>1hioh cannat be the 8am:3.
c
of sufis.
195
'
JubncquGr\L1y. cor.:mntl.l1i?,' on 1,11'3 "8t!.tC of qUl.nt" of Junavd ln
to hl:1 co) lct
1
['uen (11,0 cnquJ.!'od"{ h':! :-;aG Dot "movod", jn a
\
thinr;", Gl:;\1cliraz cont.inuca, "thora ure i1. fCH D.np()c ta uhich are
'nli,r,htQnd throueh the nnccotc of Junnyd. Firntly. in
wortlly (p}.l!fsii}h) ncc0pt.':'..blo (IQl9!ll"'!..:l:,) to the oufin. Socondly, if n,
ronpcci',blo oodo rcvcrcd nmi nam1. c, i t in
for oO"nJonc to move C:!El]2.:-:':,cl) in hio pi'o,wncc. ,'l'h:i.rdly, i t ia not
c
the cuno ::m.:o boccnn uncoIl:Jcioun (bi .kl1D.bn::;;-) in ::mm::l. , but thoy rcma:in
,
thio C o!''ormi ty in dOM. Tht1 f ir:Jt; i3 lIhon lIho io o.lroudy onovring
ccot..'1oy, :t0 confo:cTr:-::d to by othcr::l, 00 thn. t he m'ly not OC 1,Jft nlone in his
"movcm"nto ". 'l'Ilia iD donc bccD.uo'1 i t nuy bocoll1" the cauno of the uni t-y
.
CiIl.utI:w.!J of the p'Jrform'JI" n il1l1cI'oclf (le.,' by 1:'. conformi ty;; tho
porfornnr uill not bo by tho non-coni'oI'ininc; aUdience). Tho othor
,
migh t aloo recoivo fi ohnrc (Lb10J.y . ..,.h) hiD 'I :Jtl\tc " t'.nd '1 t'\oto 1'/.197 In tho
firot CMO, conformi ty io donc for' the on.!w of the p:}raon Vlha J.[J "not to' be
10ft nIone", \1hile in the cccond cnDo, ft in for the oaJw of the \IcoruorID;;r
Q

, "
"
Vlhy doco Gnudiraz not rejcct .la wao gonerelly done bY,the
....l
J
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, ,
It io interoatin.::: ta not'1 tha t dooo not dinct}rd the idcn
lof but, he prcfcl'n controlljnr; onMel! in On tho ono lvmd.
ho COOD h(:yond cli1:-rlicnJ. vj (;t[, 111lo on t'ho t he t:..'iOD ta ri1Lin
Hl thin i tiJ
HI) cnyn th'\t it)O .if cme dOO[l not 100') on'onlf but
rJ1,-"ino cOlwciourI.
199
The ont] "ho cl:m:J thi1. t Imu UIlconnc loGa (b-.1 lth:tbnr)
... 1 .. """',.".......-.-
c
'of hic "li10YCm-:lntt:: '\ j,a [\:') t\ lJ1'1ttcr of fnet, of O::lJrn.
J If 200
J. G.10
201 c
Junl\yd;J in t!""/inc: to COi."l.t.t'ol hinl:Jclf in ::lfl!:)'). , axclnjJTID;l
','Bravo! to prcccptor th:>,t .Tunilyd 1-1",0, for ho knnr the otn;l;')[) und
(rir.;htly) tho yOUU'j rJ1::m f'l'o.n cl:u;plD.yinG hi::: <1:t:.n). Dravo
to th1.c younG d!c'iplo Nho contl'o11cd h:iln::lCli' ta the c,:0nt :lb,J:t ho dicd".202
Elnouhcl'::;. GIr:'clir0.r: cn.yo thn.t tho d;plr.y of
b t
.. . h ( . f ) 20
3
0
', i
tl n,:tD hO to con,trol anoDclf t until hic
)
,
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-178":
,,'
',mn. t d) rl
to be i1.:JlI:<;d of '. nufJ. lilc.o GIadiraz 1'or ,Thom :Jcrrn
C
tl,tG not .... n ordinl\t;{ uor:::hjp,
but hnd en oxtrr.ordinnI"'J, "po:wr" Hhic:h could t;>Jeo him mmy inco the :Jplt'l.tual

"
holdn the "Lrvit.l.onD.l vlewthnt
f');:n::1riOnC0 In
l ...
CI1Ij1'); , con/\J..n
f'l!:i.:D. '1h1c pO:TCr1:' i3 the "v 1.oi tntion :0, vrhich ono i';'.'Z\".l fror.1 hj mClClf,
.:tnd it him
AGGI'coaol' (p3 . .tll]), ':.Ihich tr.:r:.C:J cn.e by ourpri:J.:; in the hogim nG of the :>.ucU tion"
uncontroll<:blo, bC1C2.1..l3C it n:"jo thm alrr:03
r
: w:;vl Tho 8'".!cond t;ypo
,"
of Q:ml:\ C io' [', viol. t'1.tion uh1ch t.'1k"o -,<.$r n p'.:lr::wn And docn not ler,va hm
"
tl.ll he! nchi<Noa porfcct:i,on.
. .' 'ft .'
B. 'J fi Il cl,irf <l Tho
"
.'
C'.:J to inucc (Lh},,1:!) through nnd to aCh:.1.c'"IC D.ctur.l ccnfoDn.it-.;
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-179-
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tt.L-."-L ... J
d.:.';:;.no ioJh,,'!:;. dri'\;;j ll1" ';'(":;','CL! '::".'uth
"
HhoGo')vor cArnnl ;wul 'd ln j n'Lo hor
n
;ly n :
GIndirz ,Hri t01'th1\t the Hord J1'.Q h:-".'1 cortr'dn J on:.:. li::Jtcncr
nttached ('lffilttr"nH) to <the n .. of rrruch (],1:':!:9.<1), nnd thDr0foro,
. ,
bccoTI1'Jn (:;uto'ntic<ly) cm' ndapi.. (,:. Hh. t;over llnten3
to 'of thl 'i'ruth in th0 r,l'ruth, ;tnrl ho ronchon God. T'Ile othcr type
uhc:n' thf'! Ij:'Jt0ucr (tlho l ".lrcf'.dy ;t.n f'.'lept by virlt!0' of hi;] nttchrr:r;/lt ta
the or thl)' tlnlw th:'.;'; ho l:1 l:tntcrd nr; thrcur;h, th') 'l'ru th , but; in
rcnllty h8 po:woaaoD. hio il nolf" (t,huqJ;,) !md Clll'rli ::J01.11 (nc::f0.-i }1ilJ'2f.:1i,vnt),
vrluch lOl'l.d'i hint ta hf1I'o,-y 2J.2
1
thought io hi8 roco[911tlon
of th'] art of llTUnic; ln tlo h-:: prohnbly c;,cCQd:' the limita a the tradi tion[\l
.' . ..
It iD chf fi cul to ho conrJid0rcd puro r::::ody )1i.Chol' t.han
1
on0 r;cht cuxmloc h0 b0Jj IJvcd in 'th 0\' thn:t nnld,v l't,-:;r] f could
['.lfld do.
"
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. 214' . C 0
He wri tes th&t del:ight (dhawg) achieved in ia the' l'esul. t of both
1
, " . 215
melody (nashnah) and the of The delight
t 1 1 ,. ...
exclusi.ely melody dces nct necessitate of
, l.
,
verses), 'but stql a .fe.eling (riqgat!) one 'internally,' (dar. ba:lin) .,
; l , l .. .... ..
Responding to tha t fihe feelini t the beautiful voice (husn":i '.!iaWt) makes., " "
- .' ( ... r) , ." ....
1- , ..
", " h1JD loite" hlpself f and $ccordingly he -moveil" (Jumbisht), he :Ls agi tat'd '
, . ,
.,
, , . "" c
(idtirlbI); he qites ($iryah). or ahouta (na: l'Ni). GtsMirllz explains the
, .
,
, reason on,e 1a through pure mel.octy. He quotes h:-S. preceptor'
\ Na,rr.' having aa1d that, ery beauti:tul tlrl.ng is j'ran
, the ("nt Cl!!!). 18 the .p lI\ce '1. t .... Go<!' 8
of melody far .fran 1ta origine the Pirit
liears melody (which \ separated from 1 t), ftr, pecanea happy anp
. \ 216?> \.
,& fine t'eeling. ).. "
..,
;rt 1a .. that a h1gher 'world than
'"
c ' ,
that of poetry. Moreover a&1U w&S_ & canbtnat10n of poetry" and melody.
.
What
result
..
- ,
.. ,
, .
hear1f' or pain ot love, though
to say 1a that at timea ecstaay may ce the
, . '
belongs to the
,.
. .
part from the rulea and candi tions previoualy
. c
aam& seema to of
,
,) 217
e may be involved in profane love.
'lbe importance lies in relating the metaphor (majX-!) to the reali ty (lJaqigat)
Which purU1ea. the one ,,1nVolved.. G!sttd1raz teels that re&1ity j,s an
"
.'
'.
-,
l.,
\
\
t, .

"
G\ '
,
"
..... - ....... -_i"'"; ....... ......... ,_'1!0!... _ ... f ... ... _ ... ,_"',.."" __ _
t -fl
J
(
,
'" '.
. -
..
, '

\
\
\.
" /
elixir (a.ksirI) turnt
rOle.?f sama
9
to
"-,, ru:lO"" - the 3 S .... ',''''
':*..... 0 ....... -";., ........
1 t touches pure gold (.!!!:l kh!.liS)
1s that of reality (bagigat). He says, "the!'e
thelX eyes roam (r:.a:;n.r ::'coking at ;;O'.;l'lg
\.. .
,tnen ('arnarid} 'and beautiful faes during Th'e people
".. ., ..
oire,lit} (rr.ardn-i a y at) do not consider this sama
c
and. do not giV' any
..
,-
(
,
i
,
impq,-tance te t4.p&in and burning (8Z) ?f auch sutis,. because men
... ' . ..
l
worshippers of form But sorne of these sufis make use
(k'IJrd:i! SarI) by pOlouring the DII1t&Ph?r_itmaj'lz) with oolour of
-
(bagIgtt'." The bagrgat, then, turns them into gold; but. every laverls
-.-----. .' 218
.does not reach .. th1s stage.
. '
..
There are three important technical terme used by GIsd1riz Wi th
\
1
regard ta majb and pqlqat; 1.8 the mea:iling cp the which the
,
verses convey; 1s the prooess o-r relating or at'taching ot the bamal tp
..... ,
SClJ!ething or saDeO'ne;, and mabmJ.l 1s the one to which the 1s related
the Thare is another term ?,llJ
anyni
l, meaning the verse 1 tseHO 9 wh1ch
1s seldom uaed.
219

\,
G!:Sdiriz says tbat when the verses are not clear in oonveying thei"
meaninB-tbat 1s t itl they have no relation wi th ID1stical states (magh) or states
., '* ( 1
_ r
<w,) one li.tans to them through the process ot tg.bmll.
<:.
1s by attac}iing, ,tdt' ?Ile to
, another universal, one state (.$) te anothe; stats, one ane;:.
s1
J\e (hikbat)
.'to another anecdote. In other we cah regard one
" ," .anecdote as marli!, while the other .. reality (QAglgat).' aZl.z says that
are two ways o-r talPll. First is the one
,
whe-eas
)1

,
'. "
'. ,
-
.....
','
.
"
+-


.,
"
..
tii' -
!/


:
?
0,
.'
;
"
"
t
'1

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'0
!
1
1
,
. ,

..
j
tf.
l
':

. ,.
./
.. __ _
-18@-
1
"
the i8 the relating of the Qamal to one'e condition. That i9 t
say, persan who lost his son, he ars a verse,
" , - \ -
the to his GO and will thus
[!: . 22"
feels that there i8 conne ":.ion between the" tHO{ methods
,-
of t!bm+l, thqugh he does not what that connection is.- In Any event,
.' e
the resul t of this process appears be:t'ore the state (m) ,of ,a,
and he experien's "taat
lt
(hW) and eC8tasy (Wi:191P). Subsequently, such
.. '" "
a persan ,is agi tated or he ,ories or he oirdlea (in This procedure-
1s applied by su:t'is te Yerses deler1be coquErt;r (kar1shmah), pride (DI!.) ,
cheek mole (!hIl.), separa-tion (:t'irig-), union (!!Un)., and such, be
, . .
. ., , 221 '
they in Arabie, PerSian or Hindawi.
{
o
d) SmQ1ic meanings ot di:t'ferent types o:t' dances.-,
.'
ile:t'ore we ,the symbolic .we, will how
, . -", 222
de:t'ines dance (.!:!SI} .' Hia concept' ot ia very, to that o!
G!sUdiriz defines t!9I aa the agitation
, ,
. '. , \ 0
(idtirl.b) which Detailla a su:6i .in sam&
l "
Wha.t he oU18 !:!9.l i8 aomething whioh HuJWtrt fe.la r!!sembles !:!Sll and
" prefera i t
"/
toIe 0 d -movements.
,
. - .'
Gr 110. that the .agitation be rh,ytbmic
l,
, 223 ' ' .. ,
(bl wazn') or note ,It may happen thl!-t a su:t'i who well-versed r muaic
to;pta the be.ta and rhythm (w..zn), due to the- sudden agitation ot the
'"
T (Wlrid). 'The oirclin& (eshtan1), nmning (dw'Idan1) and l"UMi.ng
, , '
and (i\1 'ldanI)
J
-Qecause ot the eudden seizur the visi"tation. - could
L
l'
\: ' .
"
__ __ , a ... a_] ....... l1l1I1 __ _
.....
-c
'"
,
. .
, ,
"
(),
"
\J
/ ..
;t WCw.1 have interestL;g i{ he
betWeen rhythInic d!mcing as a resul t of pure melody,
, ,
, .
""
a distinc'i:ion
1:1\"\
., :wV' \
\
,
..
and'nan-rhythmic due ta
. ,-
poetry and melody. But it is not for us to speculate, because we
/' t>
."".
1 GisOdiriz enumerates anet .. ts' va;"1m:s cft' eost&t1c
, 225 226 ,
dancing. We will discuas a few of them her , GisUdir1.z ,wr1tes l.!
tl t , ::.
a cireles in ecstasy, 1s tpat he 1s O'ircling xound

the world (atwir-i llam) in of h1s Goal (m98d), not from
, r ..
which path or through which door He mitht manUest Himaelf . It oould also
nuian that he cftcles in a state of' wonder (battin)"becaus he 1.S helplers. dt
a.ny dev1ce (tadbtr). 'lbe ocmnentary on al-Aarlr that the
1s related te the state of'.!Iill maJdhllb, thila the state of
. 228' _ 'i
"helplessness "is that of maJdhUb silik.
. . .
If -"!'lY0ne leaps or gallops (m Jahacl), his' action indioates that
. ,
spirit <a) wanta ta return t<1 the word <<=tlam-i culw) but his
,. . . ..
sO\11 'nafa) 'Whioh 1a the chain on. i te feet, pulls i t back ta earth (zamln)
.'. ' ' .. 229
Acoording the this 18 the state manit'eated hy 81ik IllaJdhtlb.
, '
might hi t the
. .
that he 1s annihilating (nIst wa nlbtld) everything other t.h&n Gad
by i t foot. The COOIlIentator aays that this cOI}di tian 1s of
"'"
, "
Q
M"dhUb st,11k.
230
, ri _ '\,
' .. _ "',,>;'('.4;',L;:," .,. A' ...
c
.,.
. '
, .
, .
,.
"

i ,
.
"
) / \
,
-O\O, ....... 14 r p>-J "''":,... ............ -...1"",", \. ""''7''''''''''''' r ......f,.!' __ .. ..... .... .....
'>.,
"
,
('
,
.
-. '
Another type of' r,ao,l ia that of' persan who lifts both his bands
over his them, them and then brings down. This
, '\ ...
signifies t1'!a+ le has the ".spir:.tu&l" the "transconscience"
and tw1sted chest.
231
,A pers on say ecsjasy. It'means that the persan 1S
) , - , . 232 .
-nothing ether than the of huwIyat (he--ness). Another might utter
'" .. . '1 _! 0",. 1
hY !!! h!.233 Olt meahs that ite origin (m) 1s the "dot" (nugtah). If this "'-
-' 1
,
hdot" ie circled "and taken up, the form of Job) would appear. 'When this
, .
\ rel.
f'orm ia vowelled, it ,aan only be nu \J'3:.sdiraz says that then,
, -
. . c . '
mylltic "1;ravellv" ia (real.1Y)in sama and. equally in that dot. In that'''dot' .
one-neS8 shows up, ,"I-ne8s tI,
0:. I....J '
(sm!I) gathers around the ot
, ""
\YmIyat) goes into concealment, two-ness
existence' (ralW=i He-ness
(huwi .. )234 in in ita 1 because there i", e1ae other ... .Jl._
yaJ'. rema a pace, '" W.l4U
ft one in one'" (Ylkt s!!: "
, ,
lt mAY' 'be assumed J 'utterane hg h! in c is, tbat of a
-. .fi>
who bas the highest stage. lt ia the stage ...men the "non-
vocal1ztion (.lazm) of' un1ty (HWId.) and (waQ.d&t) sit in one place
.. .J '\
, '0 c'
and (af'rjg): ,in (.1uL)
} . 235 '
0-1' union (JMl a1- wl) for He has Etstab11shed HimBe1f". This, -then, ia,
, , J
stage ,of :the -dot 1( (nugtah) lihicb i'" both 'and the . ' The
1:1 ,
D last stage,'1s vel7 signif1cant in as far as it, ConTaY. a general,idea ot J'
..
-GlsUd1r'h:" S\dism: a on which is'i.ts .... _.
... 0
end.
2
36,
. '
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1!>-,
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(
.. 185-
.
e) 'The State of J'uni ty" (#O) in sa.mac

\ ,
c /
As have stated earlier, Gisdiraz feels that sama is the Most
efficaciou3 path leading to God, because -unityq and contemplation are
- , <
possible rrainly in it. Here we what really means br the term
jarn
e
, and how this sama
c

One should also keep in mind his persistance on place,where
sama,C ,as heldj.t being open, because the itmd and voiee of the singer bave
to reacb the' heart8 of the listeners;2
31
in resera. to time and brethren.
tbat i t shoul.d pref'erably, be beld at night, and the ;l1steners should be the
.
ot the same .ha.ykh.
2
:38 All this points out, in a way, to a type ot
, . ....
-unit y" (jarn
e
) even in external matters
.\
t ia interesting ta note how Gisdiraz
,
<: _c
and their respective intere'sts in
regarcti.ng rules and regJ.a tions
, ,\
'\ '
analyses the inner janponents ot man
\
His als0)1lustrates the
'value of melopy and muSic in general.
arsd1raz says ('t.M.t man i", composed of tive nature

_, soul
240 c . . -' .:
(!!!!!.) , intellect (...!9.!), heut (S!!) and. spir1 t (Im1) , During
c
t
, 1
bsies ,itselt in the (r.st!) or crookedness (kazht')'
\1 Il)
ot the reed-pipe (msI9ir); 'the seul (.!'!!!!.) the (ri.stt') 'or
. '
crookedness (kazhI) in the poetry (na;m); the intllect (0&9l) eonside:Q the
..
)lidden wisdom (bikmatt)' ot tlie verses-; the beart (dil) engages itselt" in
- .. 1 -.
-
"
beholding the )Ought mtt1ttb); and the travels with'the;
sweet' sounds or, melody (naMt).24l Gisd1raz says tbat whe"n these tive things
'.
1.
, '
,
'.
1
, "
,Y'iiii1I ;Jl! ' -,-..,..., - '1 ....... ----'-'..,."..---r ..... .._ .......__ .....-
,7 .... ,\. \, '.
- -:--- ...
"
,
,,'
f

'.
" t\',
'


7\
l!,
l'
,
!
t'

t
:1':,
, .

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d
1
"i
O


'1
...
c
of
\ :
/
1.
-1$6-
"unit" (jam
C
) la calmness (gararr) anUcomfo;rt (arirnr)
,
. none- of the fi ve tbings CM. then. antagonize (kham) ea.ch other.
JO
l,'
"This", he says, lOis the re:ason why are engaged. (g1r1ftar)
He further. expla.ins that when people are engaged. in
" '
prayers, the taste (dhawq) 15 tht of' the soul (nafs)
<.w2.), spirit cS), I).8.ture and senses (hiss) are obstacles
" .
. ' , ,
(muzlChW) to that experienoe of soul . 'Ii' the people are busy in remembrance
(dhikr), through which' the heart V!il) experienC1!s ple&Sr.t the r.est
" , . 242 - . .
o't them becane. obst&eJles. '!he importance seems ta be in the unity
J, 1" ' "'
ot"-ali' the t'ive tbirigs, which he says, is .. I!'he "
' .
ot Asmlr al;-Asrtr-- gives an inter,sting '''l'he se
, ..
'live caq1 ; A!! and are the followers (tllbi
c
) ot the heart
(
(dil). When the heut beoanes contemPlative (mutawaJ.1ih) too, with' the r,est,
" ( ., f
it overpOwers (ghalabah) them and unites them iht? one (D!;!). Then it
\
i \
becomes perfeot. It seldom happens and it is rare ,that these, which tind.
'! .... '"
their respective rcods united (.jam
c
i8 the
, . _ 245 \ 0
path ot silik majdhUb and the ,other that of VlA.ldhb The implication
,
is that eQOh one, 9t the tive things engaging i tseU wi'th i ta .interest in
..
sama
C
is one path, that ot sIlik mA.ldhb, whereas their perfection aI2d unity
. ,
is ,Another, the path of !JdhUb salik. It 18 a180 possible tbat one patb is
l " 1> - '.
the BUte ot intoxication (.!l:!!g:), while the other is the sUte of sOori
, "\ " . " c
(a!ln!), tor it bas already' beeu d:scussed tha:t unity (.J!!!L) of the 't'ive
re8ults in calmness (qarh!) and comt'ort (Irlm).
Co
c .. ,
and dancing in sama 1 18 "due to the intoxication, whlle in .the lltate of soprietj-
"one is ca.lm.
246
_
1 1
"
f J'
)
-f.t.'t 4 "
; .. ..
.
: ,
---

\_ '1'1.,,-,<-. .. , "'''', ... """1'-.;",' ..... _ - ....... ,'1" ...... _____ .... '" __
-187'-

, .
TalkL"lg of the significance Gisdiraz says,that the best
\,
state of' sa!:'.a
c
and 'thlj! sound
1
st (slUm ''In) of 'the states (ab.wal) of ttuf
listeners 19 the heart gets deligh ed 'with (ma
C
a)
24
7 of
, ,
.Allah, because neither the ct th verse; (gamall) nor, the verses
, .
re:nains between them. -The heart.ls happy with Goc1 and 1s
with its goal (maqd). 248 This is the state of "urti.ty It ..
1
1 , ; 1
Basides the l3-t:ate f j:am
c
which 1s rarely GiSdiriz

,'wr1tes th t there are dift'e"nt states (il. hWl) , of th peopl.e of sama
C
(ahl-i
- --
, ,
o 249 : _. . . ,'. c '
JIml). 'One could find out the stage (magaml ,of & suri 'in'sama 'This 1a
, . "
..J <
tioing the ve;rses which moves hiJ2l. For instance, i.:t' a verse
. "
w
regd. agitates a suti, it means that, he is On the 'Stage
'( ,( ' ..
50 But he says that a persan gradually overcanes his Cbil)251
", . a:nd then becODes its (ptUSaytir)o. Re avercomes (ghJlib) the
...
..
J,
r '
ich no longer can overpoweIf hm.
25
2.. Such a person 18 regarded & '
. " ,.-'
(l:!k1d)
, .. \' C
(muUtmakk:Jn). 1s sa19. tbat the (dha'!9) "ror sa$
-resider-I At the same time, '\;he crying (gi;ryah)
, "
and agi ,tion (iCUirib) dso decrease in' him, 'in cauparison to the be'g1nner
l ' 254' '. ' l' '
mediocre,..- . othel" 'Words, a -resider!' has achieved. unity
or sobriety
(
C' f.
t) Sama as a aufi l?ath.
This S,Bct1on 1s impor?nt beoause concerne three
r <ore terms, wajd' and wujild . Addiiiona;Lly
out the ,stages (magimlt) one samao' and
1 .
t.o,other aspects of like- the
an<! As ha. pointed out, v:'lT r .... sufi.
: l ' ''1
, .
r
.", :.,
-, i ---- -.-..... ... : .... ... ...... _. _._-
.r;..,. _ _ l j,

\ \ ..., 1
1 .
.,
r,'
--
-lBS-
, -
,
, .
o ,
t ,.'
'.
1 :c
. really consists of, apart from singing ecst&sy
.
we find an opportunity.invisudiraz' thought to sorne of
c
major aqpects of sama .
1
This.is why we have this section
.r
'0
,The: Persian 'teri on which dis jussion ia based' iS
I
extremely
difficult and complicated; indeed at times it is incomprehensible'
j
We
the are confusiog from SharQ-l
Ris1.lah-i Qushayr!yah of Gtsdirz, and in dOing so lie have tried our best'
..
. ,.. ,.
.
\ to be as literal as possible. For conve,nience, nave also each
1 ! statement of al-QushayrI from Arabie, before translating Gisl1d1raz' comnentary
..
, -
..
on it.
Translations
i ) From page 284:
al:Q.u8hayrY: As for wujad (discove17), it is after the ascendon fran
wajd (ecstasy).
As for wu:Kld; &:fter rise's abcive D..1.!;! and the ai'fair (kir)
he l have deffued 257 1s
wen an individu4l1 (shakhg) becornes ,wuJt1d itself wu.1D:d.); (his)
. . .
becomes (his) goal itsel! (cafn-i m&gm); and the wujt1d of (his) goal (wu.ld-i
.
c '
magd) beccmes bris very wujQd ( am-i wujd-i h). Wa.1d 1s the finclirlg
, ..
(yUtn) Tawljud 18 wi th eff,ort the finding ft of scmething.
o-Firiding 18 that which 18 called wijdin. WiJdIn is eanething for :which there
'1
18 tawl.lud. 'l'h.$se wards of mine (ln sukhan) are the tfs!lence of that wi.lc:mn
,
c '
( aui-i Wben his being (bttd-i ) becomes th"e essence of' His (Gd)
wuJtld, he wuJUd
. .
,
,

1
,.'
"
,"
r .

,
t
)
'(1
1
-189-
J.
'From page ,286: .
, .
al-Qusha;rri:. 1 heud al-Ustad al-Imitn A'Oa. CAl! al-Daqqaq, saying t't
f
,
-' . c c '
tawaiud neces3itates encompassing (iat! Ab) of the servant (a1- wajd
...,; t. p
his drowning (iS"tighrg); and wu.itId pecessitates annihilation
. ..r " , J
C+stihlk). It 19 h{s witnessing a sea
T
then sa11ing on it and then
drowning in it.
91sdiri; : Tawl.1ud 18 smething tha t a person ee1zas a11 tl?-e Ume through
u (
.
Itartificial behavior ft (yakallut). neceesitates
P
drowning; that
". r ...
. ,
sanething, 1s found (ylttah') in which .he le engroad.
necessitates his annihilation'; (tbat 18) he goes' away but remains ,
,
(blql'ahawad) through it (wu.1d), wb1ch' becomes (the. cause of) his
\
he, (thus) beoanea the "demand of 'l'ruth" (ist!fI-i baAA). The whole aftam..
l ' (
p'
1a like a perscih who sees a aea from a distance; as though UpotIJud w1 tnesses
. .
f"ajd fran far off. W'i.1dln 1e. like a persan on the sea; a.q.d wuj\id .
"'1. ,',
ls, 11ke tbat' person in :it.' and to nothing (n:rst.!!!.. .
. r 1 (/ "
nlbild) eventually \oru.y the sea remains. saya tawljud
- l 'fil '.. _1 ..
,J, t
ls like person stnding on ',the shorfl, of the s"ea, , and 1 t 1a destined
.:- ' ....
(sikhtah) that he fall in 1t. Wijemn 18 l1ke his fa11ing in the sea and beoaning
, 1
<\ "
':f'a.fm.l1ar (!!!) wi th 1 t; and wuJIld 1s like bis drowning and mel tillg <,udrzad)
. \, l '
in i t, and everitually becaming the -Very sea -'Cc ayn-1 stanl.)
. '
1U} Fran page 286-287
al-Qushayrt: 'lbe sequence of affair 1s (resolutian),
.'
f
il'

Il "\
, ,
1
!
1"
l ,
--___ _, ______ ... .. __ ...

l,
. _ .............: .. -.-\._ ..... "7IlIi<'
" '
. .
"
".
1 ..
K
,
. ,
()
-..,.... -- ---..--.- --- -
.
(entrance), then shuhild (Wi 1 th en 1NjM a.nci ther1
kh\lJlllld (extrion) . , '
: The sequence of this sta:he (of al'fa.1rs) 0 which l sid -is '
- "
that, id the of this a.ffaj,r tm '--
. .
of (ia ca.l:\.ed wurlta). After {passing tbrougb.
g ':':
the stage 1t shuhgd. Shuhd.19
cames and grants 'a new wu.flid (wu.1jidI nA:i!) to him (i.e. the .1ndividuaJ. who 1s
exper1enc1ng). th1s wu.1jld h ext1nt Cmakh'dfd). l say that
, !
.phar1C
at
1s the "sayi.x)g'1I C&:Y.o.) of the Pertect"Man (insIn-1 klmil); 'tadgat
, ,
18 the of the Man; ll!Qigat 18 the .(dtd) .of.
, f ,
the Perfect Mani bas9 al:Q!9tg.t 1. 'the :be1Dg" (bUd) of the .Pertect. Mazi,
bMtgat a.l-pagg 1.5 thl"be1ng of non-being'" ((*-1 ni bUd,) Of the pertect.
Man. Here 1t 18 expl&1ited a,a' 8uclu 9J!di f,:cft al!arflat, 0
'=< ,. "
Wfgat, shuhi. taces '9taat, faces U&99 al-t!&9lQat, and khW!lUd. ()
faces l)agtg&t al-ta99., One encountera a he.re. Sba.ykb (al-QUShaYr!)_
- 111&1' Cod ha.ve on h1Ji :.... had sa14 ea.rl1er 'tbat' kbWlllii;
(extinction of lIal'l-neaa) pr:eced.. wu:10cl,258 but here wu.1tld preced.-' khum4.
l' ,"" -
That khum\1d (Le. khUll1ld; bubaX'tYat) 1s- due to the v1tnesa1ng 1ru;m
, ,
(ba-abuhd-l wu.>, but bc khualjl vh10h fol:.1mra_oR, bec ... ahuhd
(too) . The cause of: th1a a!)ubM-ta kJlUIIlJd-l byhaZtyt.t a:fter vh1ch he
bec0lll88 wu.,d..
) a
,'"
-'''7''- ........ ...... ... .. .... ""-t_"''' ___ ... ... u __ ............ f __
,
s -
" , (:
,"
! " 'Il- __
,,-
, :"191-
1 V) from 288 ,.' ,
j
al=SushaY1ij;:: the-state of his (1.e. a!b1b a1-wujd) " sobri et y" hi:$
, f
"rema.1nlng;' (baga') the Truth,"nd, the State of his "obl1teration"
.... - - 0 n "il"
... (
ma
b
w
).lS hls "a.nn1hllatlon".,(f'an
t
) "in the .. These wo states
.
follow. ther in Mm. '
-,
'" .
. ,
Ct.o .J r
_ :> rt) " . '-) '>
two "states" (lJla.t). The h1mself .(kW
, .
p....:.tchud) beCOD\es wujiJ4. He ia changed tbrougb kbumlld. 10 tha'b he bcOJle,f &Ilother
r 3. #' ,,' _ 6 ".
wu.1lld 18 (in. reality) the Mbeing"of' (bM-i The
wu.fd 1s served ljy two states, I!ll!! and!!l!m!:. Coming (back) tram h1mselt
" <J ....
tbrough himselt' to himl!l:).t (A!.' khud bkhwr!2l h!.s!) is callf/4 -'
l hl....l1' thrOUSh lrlmaol1' ta 'lrlmaol1' <u bakl1u!! :21'
khucf ,1he8e two states e&ch \ther ,:!;Ii ".
individual. . Wh!ID one st&te disappe.:"s, f...he other appears; is wbat
,the external, meaning ot the al-QushayrY demanda. 'Sut the esotene
. .
meaning i8 (tbat) &8 aoen aa he gaina.
aoon he 'he
. '.. "
,in' obliteration and obliteration"
. . ,
sobr1ety he is ind as
aobr1ety. Sobriaty ia (ambedded)
. - '
260'
1a in 'aobriety
.
. One 'can see thrO\J8h' the ab ove transla'bions h<* oomplieated tbe
\ n _ _ ,
, - ...
tut b, eventhough W8 have tJo:ied ta axplain certain aapecta m parenth.eaia.
Ve, will U7 our best to be as clear as -poSSible in t'ollowing d1scus8ion.,
, .
Ir
,
Elaboratil1g the terme tawljud, and wu,Nct, G!sfIdirlz wr1tes tllat
tawa,'ud,is in tact, besging _(i81i,11m) l'or ecstaay' CwaJd)"wh1oh ia the: ttt1.nding-
(yUtan). One has to BUtter ,be:rore experiencinl, W!.Jd, and he nabes that his
o - Il r... , <)
-taste- (Sh&S;,' 'wa;id itaelt'.
Gi8l!d1r& Salls and W'1.1di'n. But' S1'c{' (di.cavery-) Wben.one becancs .
. e '"' " ., c '. . 261' .
wi..1dn and ul'timat'ely turna ,into wuJad itselt' ":,1 ,wqJttd). .
- l, , 1
-- ,. " J.
-$f 'tf:<-
" '.,
--

.. ,.., .qd
...
,
f

r
.

'.,
i

t
"
r
'.'
: l'li
1
"
r


"
"
.-
i
'II
]ti


..
--
o.
-'
- .. --
\ 4-
\
4
The most interesting :point 1a that .... GTsndirz names the person who
reaches the stage of W'l.id, mi'i&d. He 'writes, wu,iOd""is "(the name of) a
pers on ('aUmd C!'\;:;';;"M az aJt) , who iS-vlU.1d itself' (cam-'i wu,jCi).
/ .. " ,
Such a person ia absent-. (ghayb) ',from . al+' the
throne and' staal (kurS!); he
'(ak:..rn) and f;am

, .
i3 vri th God (01 khUdI) I}I1d
t
,
.. 262'
t11erefore, does nt>t. possees the states of and awe (WtYbat)". '
, tl:t '
0 . t,
Ther.e 1a a imp1:1:cation lere ot ,the identification of God (khudl) with
..
.' . " . ,
_ c ur _ al-QuaJiayry in
distinction between taWl.1ud and!f.J.si. lWl.1uc1 1e "begging Il (18ti.11'.b) thrnn.,.h
'. ' -T'T-
, b ,
artif-icial behavior lM) to. aohieve !!!.J4, .wb.ere4's !!!J51 is a visitation Il
.-
(warid!) frem the "unseen" (ghA.vb) whioh descende upon' the heut (9i!), W1 tnout '\.-.
. 26'
anyone t s ' (11sbtixV). He again aQ'ees tbat wu.1Ud is aoMeved atter,
one ''18 e,ttair an4 lie ascende trem the stage wa.ld.
,
-
GIslldiriz turther explins wu.1Ud to be a stage, where a persan
.' c'" .
beca.e .. itaelf" ( &xn-i wu,lUd); his wuJtrd becClDes his "goal itaelt"
0' ,v
{carn-i above al1, the wu.1i!dpthi . goa1 "v't"1
(cam-i WUJM-i in).265 , It i8 that G'1stW.rlz ia talking of tbree
, i,""' 266
ranks in the stage of W;1d, to 'whioh topic .11 return
. '
,
,
l' Accorcl:1.nB to With 'Whem taw'ljud i8
the beg1nn1ng (b1d11ah), wuJttd, 1s the and wajd in betweeh
. \
..
,
.
"
1
,
,c
)
,
..


I-
l


J

,;.
.l
fi
F

,
r
J.
p
if
1
"
Q ,
..
" 1
-
which :i.s re1atEtd to bath ta'wlJud and wu.1t1d. a.l-QushAyttl' quotes a1-
. ',. . ,
. Daqqaq as saying that tawa.iud necess;.tates 'the encompassing of -- .
. ,
t ,-:.
man (al_Cabd), w&..1d ?eCeSSiUj:es hi S, absorpt-iori (istighrag}, and wu/d . .
necessftates . his anni:hilation (istihl!k). These stages p.r.e
'el\Plallld by aS ,the Witn sing,of s.a, sailing on it.. arld drowntng' f
:in i t. ccmnents Q.uat&tion and writes that tawt.lud i8 seized
'1
by a per80niall the time? ,e behaves artifio:i.ally (tap.i1.1uf mi
wa,ld ie the (yiftan) tha t persan be,a'omes wu.1d
1)
, 1;heh becQme8 the cause (mil 1b
. '
8 annihilation' -that he pasosea away
,
himse1f-but remar1a (blgi) through wuj1fd, 'l'hw", the bf3caDes the
af' (ist!tI-1 agg)
.
1
diff'era \Q. th al-DaQ.Q.aq in the
.
eecond part where the JDet&phor of the sea 18
r""'( t' \,0
used.
>
it al-DaqQiq. ,He says that tawiJud 1s a person standing
. on ,shores of the sea, t.or he 1s destined '(a&k:hta,fi) to f8J.1 into it.
"
"
Wajd 1s 1ilte his faling into the sea and beccming fam:Uiar (lshn1) with it
'bo
'" WuJd:Ls hjts being and mel:ted
-n- ,.
. 'f. < 0"-' 267
"very, sea" ( azn-i darz'1):
in and eventua11y "turning the

The abave iDt8rpretat1O.n or Gts\1diriz the metaphl' of sea
1s sisn11'icant ;pr Ms sut1du. The key term hera ia' the wor.
"destined - (alkhtah). indicates the m1ssing link wp1ch may have ex:1.ated 1
a pers
Ol1
and the sea, geto.re be came in't Ufstence. The ultimate
. .-
'1'
reaul t 1s his turning into the sea i taelf. which Was #e",w demand ot the Tru;th" ..
A.a we na.ve already obeened, the BUtiem GIsd.irQz 18 like a circle or a 1
. process which t'rom and ends at the same PC;int. ,It rDay be termed as a
1,


<. 1;g:,;-1'
p III
Ji .11'1 F r 1 ,
",
,. "'!nrtt!'MI+r, __ ....
)
i
c
,
\.
J'
"
"
f

..
i'
l,
...
'. 1
,
, 0
.1
,
-19lj. ...
...
1 f
1
type of "uni ty of being (wabdat al-wujd). ,No doubt, he 1a particular that.. ...
the middle part 19 with.both and its
\

. .
Another sirxdle of an ocean la also very interesting in this refja:rd.
GIsildiriz writes that when an oan 18 restless, 1s "waves". (o:a\fJ);
, .
when oit rises up in the air, 1t 1a called (bukhr); when the vapours \
(il. "
are condensed in the atmosphere, i t 18 "clouds I (sam); whan they
r ".'f
trickle down, it beccmes "rain"; when it fiows, i1; 1s a stream; and when th
stream marges i1to the ocean it turns into the ocean itselt' -(that it goes
" ' .
back to. '1 torm). In tact, "rain 1a f'ran the ocan and the, ocean ia
:traD, the ra\n ,; .269 G
,
,
- ,
'lhis aymboliilm &y ,&lso the dift'erent t'orDia otmanUstations
ot' God, and mai also, as pointed out his conmentator" d(note various attributes
,\. .
. Z'{o
Q' (fUIt), DUl.tiple names (aaml
t
Pand innumerable ac-t:s of God., Tbe
ben 1a that the "ocean""reamaina .. the ocean" andta not in
s ,
an1. vay b1 1ta varioU na.aes such a vapeurs",' clouds, rain, neither
, ,
do ,these Dalles ,M. anything to.1t. Bea1des, theae manifesta:t1ona aJ:e not
and. cannat 'he cal) ed Al'thOU4lh the)" are !rom the "ocean, the7
.are Ilot i t.
To 50 back to qur . Qusba.yrJ: mentiona "an hierarcby'
staD sz"resolution" (gfd),' "entrance" ;'discovering
(wuJ!Id) and "extinction- (khumad).271"' While on these
GIeildiriz writes that the diff'icuJ.ty hen is that Q.uahay:r bad mentioned
" ,
. 212
earlier tbt khumd precedes stage .wu,liId. while here it ia the other
.,0
. \
\
r. ..... '.
1
" ,
.,
0'
t
.

;.
-,
k
f

1-
"
t
t
r
o-
k
.
l
0
,,,,"

f
"
"
--

o 0
... __ .. .... ,.. ... _ .......
-195-
.
.
"
fil oy-\.

b-
r.-

l
way round.
,
He this problem hiinslf. He Bays goes

&1u:r:md preceded Wl.l,md earlier was the bashariyat (extinction of
o "
! manness; wnicn we snall call kh'..lIl':d no.:;' for convemoence), wh;ich "\>lasthe
t of of .nIji1d (shl.lhUd-1., we ahall caU ',nl'?d,
no .1. and this ahu.l.d., shuhd no.1). Eere khtmId (which we Hill c'all
khumiid no. 2) af'ter 'wujd (no.l), and i t (i'. e. khumt\d 2) i9 al BQ
,
(shuhd no. 2), the cause of which ehuhild ia baShart$ 273 (i. e
,
khuMd no.l). Glsdir!z goes on to say that,there wujud (no.2)
274
after kh'lmIUd (no.2). This wujd no.2, he saye,a the"being of non-beine/'. (btId.-i.
."..
nbd) of a m,ystio. On th1s stage, there are t'Wo sta-bes serving ltiJn:. sobriety'
(..e!:l!!) and obliteration 1s the .. coming back to self' from. self
through self" (az khud bakhud b1.khud !.yad), while 1s "passifig from
self to self' through self" (az khud bakhud b'lkhud rawad).', When one etate
the necesaadly saya, "l'n 1a
rooted in and .!!!!2' 'in .l!! '
, ..
of)
shUhds:
Gtstldiraz is actually talk.ing of two wu,1ds, t'Wo khumtlds and t'Wo
Tlle wj1s and khuIntids fo11ow each other successively, _
," r
higher in rank than the other. Tbat,1, to ,say, wujd fol1ows khumd no.l,
;la actuaJly the "extinction of n'Jan\-ness ", khumd-i bashar!'yat). WujUd
no 1 18 a h1gber than 'khumtld fhsnild no. 2 1s a sts,ge than
f 0 ,
wujUd no.l; at'tel'Whioh 1s the wujd no.2. Wujd no.2 is a
equi vpent to ":emaining" 0 (b;g,I' ), because a person beoanes wuj\Id al1 by
m .
himself dJ.1,J.d ba-kh') wnen the two states!!!!! and becane active in'
, . ,
f him. It 18 a180 implied here that wu.1\ld no. ,2 1s rooted in khumd no.2.
\,
, '
"
-,. '"",r"F ,\,-, ' , "
" ... """"""''''_.''''' .... ......... ... __ .. ..... _ ....... _,,,- __ ...
1 ( 'd,
. '
\
-1%-
, ;
ft
.. '
"
In other .... ord9, a .yho bAs reached the stage of khumiid no.
r , .. .
acquires WJ ";::d, ;:1-:7'>2, :no:2 and wujild no.2 are :f:nsepaI-able
,As for the wo shuhds, the only possible 'Way ta., 'tJ;leni'
.
1s that they accompany the wo kh\ll!lds. That 1s to say, sliuhtlda and khumilds
'. '
.
are the cause and .effect of each other. In the f'irs.t ase, khumttd no.:l. (i.e.
o '.
'"
khumtid-1 pasbAr'iyat) 18 the resul.t of shuhil4-1 wyJN),
. in the cue, shuhtId no.2 1s of no.l,
, . .
to GtS'ild1t-l.z, 1s (in real1 ty) khumild The on];y one
m:l.ght' discern hen betw8en the two 'sltuhttds, 1a. that shuhd no;l is the
wi'tnessing' of wu.1i1d no.l", whreas "shuh\1d no.2 1s .tbe Witnessing Of'.: sanething
. . .
i'"
det:1ni.tely higher than wu,1d Morecver, shu.httd no.l 1s sanething due to
.. . '
which lshurnlld no.;L aotualizee -that 1.8,' the' manness in la' ts extinguished-
1'- Il
wh1:!:e Shum:Id no:2 18, there:t'ore, a witnessing of' sanethiIig b.Y' th& ,in a
purer or a finer forme The :t'ollowing obarts, will show that qis.d:irh' 18
further than Qushayri and 1a extracting more thap .
QusbayrI intendd.
KHUMUD

VUJU'D
1'.
SHUHUn
1"'
vuaD
-r ...
QtUD
Chart accord1ng to
I$!. and !!!:Il!.
- Jdll.1JllUd.-1 basharbat
1ta;1d
tavliud,
'. -
"
o \.
( ..
. "
.
<
, "
.'
",
, .
, . . .
t
','
\.
,<'
'"
'"
-.. '- __
-
)
-197-
Chart GIsUdiriz:.
\.
(no. 2) - rvl:rstiC automatiaally becomt!s -this wu,IDd;
_ States and act.ive in it; It is the stage of baga. '.
earl1er.
(no.2) - Also called shuhild (no.2); It il! the resul.t o-r khumd-U!J.l)
of manness; H1gher khund.
(no.l)
(no.1) (i.e. shuhtld-i wu.1i!d) - result: Extinction Manness
..;, (khumd no.l of basharyat).
'1
)
"
We will naw go back to the ranks wuJtld we discuased
,
, c
, That is, we had said that shakh , arn-i w,lt1d shawad, wu,lnd-i
j! c
avn
_1 mag5id shud, and magft1d Cayn_l , wuJtld-i are three ranks of
the stage wu.1d . '!hese three raIlkS correspond to the 8'ta4iu .ahuhQd no.l,
, , 1
, wuJtld no. 1, and khuma'd no. 2.
. , .
(j
- KhUmd no.2 _ magp1ld caYnr!, wu,li1d-i In
v
Wu.ft1d no. l' :a wujQd-i li cam_l mag@
Shuhd no.l;ll !ba.kh C
ayn
_i wu'.1ttd shawad.,
' W\lrM.

wa,ld.
Qu{td
-
tawi,1ud
-
,
. "
other.,words, 8buhQd ,no.l, wu,lllg. no.l and khu;g1Ud. no.2 (whioh
" necessarily includes wu,l!ld no. 2.> are three deees of transition in a my'stlC
. '
traveller on the ata.,g8 ot. wu,14, which is reached, !ter passins
tawi:1ud and waJd. This 1a the point that Gsdiriz wants to malte. The other
)
.:
....

oo
;,
.
\,
;.
,
.. 1
1
, ,
,
, '
')
J
- --.-.

, J
__ _"" ...... 0:: ...... ..- .... <)"Iy." .. .,. ..
1 r
-198-
f
, "
,
..
the most aspeot 1s the definition
'.
l , ... '1 ( C )278
He 'l:tefines :l. as "cor:sciousness shu Gr > It is presumed tbat this

, .
..
:3 no.2, which special kind of ftconsciousness ina
mysc a't tne :-.::.ghest stage of hgigat al-Caoa. It signifies the "consciousne,ss"
and a state of. "awareness" that 'God" 1s "beyond the Il (wari!.' al-wara'). 279
. .
"
. The stages achieved in samao c!lrrespond to shal:'-ICat, i!r1gat,
ha9S al-bagIgat and MgIgat al-b!gg. and are, related to
. ' '. 280
the subtle "substances(latl'1:f) mt!, galb, khaft
.....

':
Khatt.. = ltbum1ld
IDt.go al-lJagt'ga.t
=-

= Wu
j
lttd
. Wujd
5laoIQat
=
!lm.
': ShuhiId
1)r!oat 'li
Q.a.lb
-

= W'a,1Q; 0
Sharycat
HW

.. ..
= Tawlr.1ud "
t --
'.
"
."

' t


.'
\
0
..
.
f
. '
,
,
. ,
c
.. , .r
.
o
'/
\ r _
,. " . ,
'''':.,.' w:;-- ... .,...-, .. ""f'...,..... .. .......... P .. e: .... .... .... ......... ,..""'. __
l
2
4
5
6
-7
10
\
-199-
. \
NOTES TC CHAPrE.t{ l TI
Ibn Talb!s Iblts, Cairo (n.d.). p. 215; D.B.
"sama
c
", Encyclopaedia of Islam (old ed.) Vol. IV: l, p.121; See also
J .5. Trimigham, Suri Orders. p' . . c '
. '. , /
H.G. Farmer,' 'ic", LeeCy of IS'aam. on"J l968, pp.358,
For det&ils reg ding music in loyal courte, see ;I.s!e./ A Biaton of
Arabian lthlaic. on, 1967. .
)' '. \
C ,
It ia dittfcult te say exactly when sam& came to be acoepted by the

sutia, but ft may be ta1rly correct te oonc1ude tbat ita introduot1on&L/
in auti cirolea w.a not later tban the llliddle ot y"d entutoy
oentury A.D. Moreover, fraD Ibn b &l-Dun:ri'lI (d.208/823-28l/894)tl"eati.e '
DhMm al-Mal.1hY which 18 suppdaed be the. work known,JFl oppoS!
ane mig:ht presume that aama had becc::me popular in :the y- cent.'
9 cent., which aeema te be the reaaan far hie abaolute, retut&tion. The
wo-k waa ed1ted and tranalated b1. J: Robaon, under th. titl .. Tracta on
Listen1n.s te Musio, Oriental Translation Fund, N. Serie., Vol,. XXIV,
London, 1938
H.G. Fumer, Legacx. p.359.
. .
Mcdenald,!:.L. Vol., IV: l, Pel21.
R.A. Nicholson, Mrat1c8, .p.69.
J. Robson 'I!!!' TraCll,Introduotion, p.4; M.L. Ray Choudbu:ry,
in Ialam
lf
, / Journal aml Ati&tio Society. Vol. XI:t, (1957), p.6" Abll
SacId Ibn Ab1 al-Khayr ta have negleoted the naon-prayers, having
tallen inte eoataq in 8am&.. When rem:1nc1.ed, he Mid, .... are at pra7ert1',
lIee Nioholaon, Studiea, pp.60-61; Alea s.e Ibn al-Jawzi, Talbts, p.239.
pp.401-402. " /
pp.398, 409, 416, 420; S,.. 'alao, MnJ(animad al-GhadlI, Xf
m1
yi!.i
Sa ldat, 'l'ehzeaV., 1914, pp.)'14, Ibn al-J3wsI, Talbb
j
p.239;
Sh:ih:lb al-Mn al...suhravard!, aleeoMa !rit, Beirut, 1966,
p.l87; al-Gbaslll, BadrJ a1-DmI , ed. J. Rob.cm, Tracta on.
Lietening te foilaic, 'Lorldi. 19 , p.l77. '
\
..
, .
"
)
. \
t
..
1
.. .
-",
-
Il' (,
, 1
o ",-'
Kitlb l-Ta arru!, Cairo, 1960. p.160 ,Ab translated by
A.J. Arberry', lahore, 1966, p .. 182; Robe on , Tracts, intr. p.8, quotes
a8 saying something which himself attributesto
Ab a1':'QlLsJ.m al-BaghdidI Tac arruf, p .161.' c , '
" -
--
.

'{
,>,
112
f
'1
certain fraternal bodies were also formedwbose members were ( ..
c a.lled fityin (pl. of futuwWah). They lived in -donvents, tmder 'f '
,the guidance of a oltie! (!!hI), tlIld tpey passed their eveninglil,Singing . ' ..
and See van Avendonk & Bicbr "FutuwwQ.", EnOyclopaedia
. of p.lag., ..
13 Robson, Tracta; Intr. p.ll.
l , ..
, 1
14 HujwirI, Kashf .. Jf.398, 411 ff; Ab Na,:r al-8arriJ, KiUb al-lAlma ; ed.
R.A. N1cbolaon, London '1914 .275 ff;' al-Quabayri; al-RisUah al-Quahayrf.yah
Mitr 1320 A.Hi, pp.151-.152; Ibn al-Jawz,:. TalbIs, ,pp.221-223; Ibn Ab! al- .
Dun.:y'1, DbaDID. The whole t.reatiae ot tradit:1ona and.
vere.a, M}anrnad, Ibla' mb al-mn, Urdu transl ... brM.A.S.
NInttta'd, Madhlg al- Irifin, wcknow,"l955, Vo!_ II, pp.336-345J .A. 11- 1
GhasUi, Bawlr@ft' 139, 14:,- tt; s. U. alo;SumtawardI, cAwirit .
pp.175, 181, Aleo R7 J:R.A,S.,. pp.78-80. . 0
15 Ibn al-JawzI, TalbIa, pp.229-231. ' \-
16 For a list ot the quoted and Traditions, see
al..,NuwayrI, Nil:I1rat aljArab. Mi,r 1925, Vol. IV, ,pp.133-1;59; . Quahayri,
al-Riaalah. pp.151-15.3;, Alao aee Robaan, Traota, intr., pp.l':'2;. Roy
J.R.A.S. p.57-70, M. }ti)U, lA !Te Ert.ttme en Islam,
Sources Orientales, 6, Paria 196', Parmar, A Hiatsa7. p.
22tf. , ", . ,
17 Rob son , Tracta. pp.7-118; A. al-Ghazal!, Bawirig. w.182-18,.
6 _
8
0 ...3'- C 8'" '.
1 S. U. Awirif. p.17 ; al-DIn AbU al-NaJt.b &1-
Subrawarc1!, Adib fl.-Murif;' Xerax copJ" Tub1Jlen University I4brary
Manuaoript, t. a; AmIr Si,yar, p.494, it fram
AwirU fl.-Mt int: See TratJ. 1'.3. .
19 Uablbl, p.81; Min All.itl TabOirat,' p.7}.
i,
20 QuabayrI, al-Riallah, p.l58".
, ,
21' rn. . QWJhyrI. h:La 'name 121 given aa AlN al--tarth al-Awlal.. 'Jlie .pera1in .
translation-of the Riallah US al-Awlia!. Hia full 1.8 '
pym in \he the. a8 F&74 bin &1-lOliJF. ct-..Ab Ali
b. Al}mad Msllah-!, ed. B. Fer.ozintar,
Tehran 1967. pp.620 789; Awlls was the name ot a art near Tarsus on the
Shore. oi the Med1teraneail Sea. It wa8 knowh as fort ot asoetio-s .
cf. Ylqt, !th
0
jam al-Bulcii. ed. Heinrich Ferdinand, 1965, p.407.
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22 HujWirI, Kashf .. 411-412; Q;ushayr1', al-Ris11ah, p.157; Ibn
Talb!s. p.242; . '!'he version of Qushayr! is dit'fer..!lt trom tluJ,t ot tiuJw'irI.
, Ab according t dreams of the of !bUs,
which gthered on the roofs of some housea in him
that h'e could not entet the bodies of suf1s 9xpt thrOugh SaI:la c. The
23
24

answer;of Iblis seems siWil'ar to that given bY.him to Junayd
in ano'1>her .incidept quoted by S. U. Suhraward!; For a,rJbther
18. repo'ted to have s"n, dancing, cf. Min Allih,
Tab,s1rat. p.28, no.28. ,', .'
"
s . cJ. s'Uhrawa;tdT , C Awit-tf: p .177 ...
, .. "
al-Luma Cl, pp.29B-300; See a186 al-Makld, Q;qt al-Qultib, Cairo,
1932, Vol. III, p.91.
,. . . .
o' J 13 _
al-MakkI,.9nL Vol. III, S. U. Suhrawardi, Awarit, p. 174; The
name Abn b. 18 -mentioned b7 Suhrawarctt, wi th the add1 tian,
ot "when persona better tb&n me have eJ.iatened and perm:l.tted it-, to the
answer ot Saldm. '
\ 26 .Asiz An Intelle tuaI Hiate ot Islam in' & Edinburgh, 1969
Trata. p. f note 1; The Shi law does not -&pPtoove of
sama at a"11. See Robson, Tracta. Intr. p.3; ROY' Choud:byry, J .R.A,S."
"( pp. 86-88; M. Mol' t 1& Danae:, tt.. .'
2!l See HuJwfr; Kaah:t, pp.m, 403, 407;- Quebayi-l, al-Riellah, p.157, whera.
, he quOtee AbU-""'Sj&ymin al-DirInI (d.21S1830); For an anecdOte reg&rding
Di.'d ';D!nawr! ret"er Qu.ehay1'TJ<Al-Rial.lab,
p.lS), Sarr'&J,' al-Ln,. p",270;. mmr .. pp.4H51 Also
Robs on , Tracta, in'tr. PP.4-S; N1chcri..an; Mrstica.
1 .. '
. c ' ,
28 See.. Sarrij, al-Luma:p M. Mo,l', 'La Danse . pp.159-176.
,,' \'f c
29 &l-Makld', g.?t! VOl . III. p.90, '101. I, :p.ll$; s. u. Sunrawa.rdI" quotea
al-Ml.kld:, Awarit p.17S; For about o1}er claasitioations
HuJwiri. bah:. p.402, 406 ft; 5arr'lJ,' al-yn , 277 tr; 1
al:-Risllah, M. al.:..obu'll't, pp.371-,-r4; u. 1",
.' SUhrawardI', .Awirit. pp. 17S. ,196. .
l ' ,
30 Quehayrl, This 18 oompara61e to the eaying of
grand:tatber ct that ahould be he-F. vith a heart (galb)
,and a dead BouI (Data mItah).. S. if. Suhrawardt, AwIrit" p.lT7;
A.N. ldib, t.' QuahaT.I'I al5'o mentions this lfi'th
a verbal d11'ference, but <!oea not attribute i t to aDJ'one.
. . . t._, t.
__ - 0' , ,-l, ..,
31 'SarrIJ, al-Luma, pp.l86 , 272,; Quahayri, al-Risa1ah, M. al-GbazllI
. . .'.

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32 APmad does not mention
place and Baw'irig. p.123.
1 'j '.
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33 H. 801-Ghazll. , hlJty!', p .;.NV.
'.
, ,
Junayd,. when he refera
34. Qusbayr; alRiS1.1ah. p.155;oD.A.N. Suhrawardi. d!b. r .:;3480; S. cU.
SuhraWardr, Awirit', p.187; Al' ta I...'! Budd n:
al-Dn, Xerox copy ot maIll.lscript :t'rom As ad 1 Library, no.1431,
Tebran; f . Hujwiri another of giving the
8.ame meaning. Kash! ,.. 'p. 12. .
1
, ...
.
,
35 Qusbayrl, al-Risilah, p.152; se, nJ p.34,' note
Robson, Tracts, intr. p.8. r )
36 &1-Ma1tkI. p.91; S. U. Sulinwardi .. P.1
87
. .
Hu..jw-!, > hah!," \ ..
38 M. ,KIm1ylt p.375; al-Ghazl.1Y as . v
novices ta at'tend sama , but witb Traots. intr. p.6.
cil>, - l
39' s., u. SuhraJrardI , Awarir.
40 _ s .. , . . . .
41 SarrJ, a1_Luma
c
, pp.287-288;' Ses Hujwirl:, hah:!, 419.
,
42 A. alo4baz&l!; Bawir1si, goal aa tar AS te 'say, one ,
ot the omon peoplt!! 1a moved in' auditi,QJl in reaeDtllence to
aeek1ng aeme ot tbej,r ... , he 1e l:l,ke p.151. ..
.... ' 1 ,. ..
43 IJW1.. ," '. . It 1a re,it that al-:-ObazUI can" be
tikei as the 'IDoStsu:t.tabla l'epreaentat1ve ot 'sut'1si to be
t
quoted etsgecially
in p1te bains very in bis outloOk on,sama ,
doea DOt:, al10w in8tru:ment te . '8Xcept toz: a ,oouple ot
" .
44 !!:W1., .,
46 Hujwr1, Kasht, p'.401.l
-"" .. c
47 A.H. 61..jz't, Fawi'1d,
48 Hujw!rl, heht'; p.394 .
49 Ib1d.." pp.'Yn, 398.
50 Sarr1:J. al_Luma, PP ,276 , 283.
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5l. Qusbayri, al.-:Risnah,
52 See Supra. p.
P .fst,; SarriJ,
o c
a1-Luma , p.291.
53 ' A. Baw'irig, p.l.75.
0
5
4
55
56
57
58
S. u. Suhraward!) cAwirit, p.175. "
, .
Tr:iJiingbam" Suti Qrders,
.
Hu,1w'tr'r, Ka!!h1' , p.4OS.
.
M. al...chazal't" KImilil'; p.3'10; ee &180 Ibn objection that
God uan l\,eve'r be the (ma sbUq) of man. 'l'.1bIs,p.238.
,.
_ t c
Qushayrl,' al.
7
RisJ.1ah, p.155. ,A 8''&yiDg against sama 18 a1so attributed
to al-RudhbJ.rI, p.154.
. .
59 Kliit1mab. pp .. 44-45, J?&l"a. 6l..
. . .
60' p.63; RObson, Tracts, p.9; Trimingham saya,
<! "1t farit a degeneration wh1ch the- mastere of suf'ism
and'W$.rned against when .w1'tb the question of SUla
, , Suti Qrders, p ..... 195." .
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A. al-Ghazil! ,BaWr:tq. p.159; Ayn al-Hamadh1ul:t, TamhidAt,
1).113, para.161; Shaykh Far!d al-Mn Gan.}!. Shakar say8 lthat unoonacious-
C '
ness. (bThiIshr) in sama ,i., d.lns to the oavenant.'When it took place
everyori.e }]ad becerne unconscious becauae or the expertenoa ot ecatasy.
Khurd. Sitar, p.499; There are other views a180 in rega1'd to the
cause of eostasy See'" on;tmous, Khulioah-i Sharb-i Tac arru:t Iran;
The .Khul'lVab ia an abridgelform of the Srtt 0
Ta arru:r f AbU Thrhiii hin al-MwJtaml!' Buk:b'Al'I d.
The work was compiled in 710/1310; See a1so M. Mol'. L& Danse" pp. .
. 207-211. '1
.
69 Hujwrrr, Kashf' , p.416.
" .
70
71
72
7-3
74
- 1 c q
Sarraj,. ! -luma , p.3l3:
'- .
Ab Abd j'abAg!t . MifJr, 1953. p.?02;
Sarrj, al-Luma. pp. 300-301. - e
o
;. Tac arrut, p,112. Translation of Arberry, p.116.
... p',113
. c
S. U. Suhrawardt eAwarif', p.:J.95.; SarrlJ, quotes "wajd ia a reve1ation
God". al-Luma, p.301, see al!!O p.310; Rujwfr!, p.4l9.
75 . S. U. SlihrawardI t cAwirif', p.19J}:
c.,
',76 . Ta arruf', p.113.
77 ,
(. ,
Junayd ia repor,ted to have said that Gad t descends upon the
stia On occasions; wllt!n, they eit; whe!1 they spaak and when tlley
in sama :'Quehayrf, a1-Risllah,'p.153; Ka1tb5'dl}1 . Tacarrut,
al-Maldd, Vola III, p.90; Sarrlja' a1-Luma ,'p.272, Ibn al-JawzI, .
,Talbl." P.21i1i S. U. al-Sub:raward!, AwKrit, p.176. 'lhe vith
Sarrtj, al-Makk'!, Ibn al-Jawzf and Suhrawardi' seem to be almost the ,
s&me, . w'bereas t.here J.s a .s:iight di1'ference r in 'tlhe' versions' between tbem,
Qusbayr"l and KAlbldhY. But al1 canvey the same meaning.
.
. .
. ,
. 78
A. Bawarig, p.l77 .
. o .' ,
79.. Sarrj, al-LumlI. , p.30l. Bee' al80 p.3Q5, fQJ' a d:1atinotion between
.. WJaand :!,!dJud ano1;her Sbaykh; Alac. aee Cluahayrt, al-Rtsilab,
'. pp. 35; Rujw!ri, Qlbtl pp,,413-416; For al disoussion On If&WlJug. wajd,
. an by Section 18Jff-
'. H 1:.
80 "Hu,1W!rt,:Kaahf. p.415.
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Surlj, al_Luma
C
, 293. He dividea those '\oIho8e t's
genuine (al-wlUdn) tboe8 whose ecatasy :i8 (al-mutawijidn)
into three lasses resp8t3tively. W.302-303.
C *1 ,0)
Kalibadhl, Taa.J;"rU:t, p.1I2; For a disoussion on ,whether the state of
tranciu:Uity is perf'eot or the state agitat:iQf1, see al-Luma ,
pp. 306 308-309. ,
,
84 M. al-{}hazill, 1GiDirE',p,386.
85
86
87
88
. '0 '
S. cU. Suhrafra.rcrr " Awl'rif. pp.l95, Suhrawardf. bel:ieves that self-
cOntrol 1s necessary in 8&ma
C
, to the extent that it beoOln8s ihy'8ically
impos8ible to control an;ymore. p.200; Also see,' Kallblldl, Ta arl-ut, p.161;
Simnln1', MILl Budd, 'f .62a
M. al-GhazilI, K!m1y"..1 p.387.
1
Najm al-Dtn al-Kubr , Fawl'ib, para.94.
, ,
o (
Hujwir'i, Kashf. p.415; Sarrij" al-Luma , p.294J al-Kubrl, Fawa 'ib, para.
93; Qusbayrt, al-Risilab, p.J4;! SimnInI, MILl Budd, f .61b. .
al-Kubra; 'Fawi'iR, para.
, 61
c - . c' c
Sarrlj, al-lAmIa ,p.306;. S. U. Suhraward1. Awlrif. p.200, Many :inStances
are- also related wHere people liage died de tp the
inten8e state of ecetasy in \ sema. See QusbaYit,
Bu.jWlrI, .!f!.!ht, p.396 .. 409 ,ff; Sarrl.1, al-Luma , 285 ff, p.2 9; M. al-
RhazUi, KiwiIk'. p.387; :p.A.N. Suhraw&rd, Lb, f.33bl s. . Suhraward:r
Awirif, p.l99; Ibn al-JawzY says to the effect tbat if the BUti8 are
true in cla:lming tbat they e.xperience eOta.,., and do not know what they
do in tbat state, tben t.b1e ecs't!1lS1' in not.hins but intOxioation
which is torbidden in Ialam. Talbrs, p.252.
c . .
al-Ruwaym'e description ot suf'i sha.ykhs in 88D1&, as re8embling that gf a
1"look 01" sheep attacked by wolves, im,plies dancing. Sarr'lJ, al-Luma
QushaYrl". &l-Ri,l.l.ah, p.l56. The incident, related by Qu8hayr ,
regardplg Jabm al-DuqqI -.mo 'rQ)"ted a tree and 8tarted oircl1ng :in
ecatasy also indicate8 a 't1pe of dance. al-R:isllab, p.j5; Asain the
about ,Ibrlhrm Khawwl, (d.291/90') who i8 su:PPosed to have danced
:in art.:ifio1al eostasy (tawl.jud). HuJwtrt, Kasht, p.410; See also Ibn a1- .
Jawzt,. TalbiS, pp.249-251; Trim.illgbam, _ Suri Ordera, p.l95; Nicholson, ."
Mystics, p. 3. .r--;
/

92 Tridngham, Suti Order8, p.l95. '
9' al-Ial1ra
q
),R18ilab :cr b!lat Tehran, 1970,
p. 266, para'. 20.
94 p.416.
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s. watd! 1 cAwir11" p.200; For expression of ecstasy as portrayed
tbr pa.intings, cf. T.W. Arnold>, Painting in ISlam, Oxf'ord (n.d.)
pla 8 n.II, XLIII8., XLllIb. -
. .\')


'. '
1 , Co. ,
Nichol.son, Studies, p.58, p.2Yf. Ab Sa .1d says, "if' a young dervish
claps his banda, the Iust of <hi"s handa will be 41ssipated, and if' he
, tosses his feet, the his feet will-be Shaykh
Niiim al-DI'n refers to the jJlterpretat1.on ot AbU ,id" .though
witn .. Dtntioning his 'name. AmIr SiYAr., p.504. .
, .
al-Ghazlt, j).155; M. al-Ghaztli say.s 'tPat dancing (!:!S1I.)
:1s not :forbidden (Jarlm ,. KImixa t., P.Js1,. .'" ' ,
#' .. J :
, ,
99 Aziz. Ahmad, Intellectual
j
'P.ll46.
1" -;.. \ ..
. '.
.'100 A. 'Bawarig, -p.15S. ". ,vunqd bas always.been menoned by ,
other suiis as remaining calm, in dt experiencing ecstasy.
'" ... 'li ..
.. : t , s \, '\
NiC!1lson, d
w
.60i6l.. '.
L:o MasSlgnoh. La I,\ Tome II, p.
." .... "., , q t.) _
(.Ayn al-QudAh al.:-H.madhin! ./NImahl'-i cA:rn HamadinI, Beirut
1969, pp.374-315,n para. 624. Write 't.bat he was "
:}.02
10)
dan1ng With his :fa"bher who saw that al-Ghaz1.l! too had
them in ft.. . , ,
1{,}4 al-Ris.1M, p.1541 s.' CU., cAwir1t' ,. p.1J6.
lOS Ibid." p.a57; a1-Najtb Suhrawardt mentions a ahorteried of it.
Idlb, ft. 32b-33a; also see al-:-GhazI1I; Bawlrig, p.122,_ :
-
4
106 HuJwirI, Rash!, p.
, '
107
108
109
<
(. - 'C
S. U. Suhrall'ardI" , ,Awarif, p.200.
,
,
Hujwrr'r writes how' the use music to huitt deer, what effect music
bas on deer. p.4oo; ,This account is corroborated with a later -l'd
source .of AmIr Khusr&\l , Nuh Sipihr. ed.' M.W. Mhza, Calcutta, 1948,
S,1pihr, 'pp';l71-l72;. Moreover, when Hujwir'i miated to India,
w&s ,the territory ainee 411/1020. !kraur. MusliD1
Civilizat10n in '"lndia, 'ed. A.T,.Embree, Coluu:bia University, 1964, p.25.
, ... ( .
H. R1zV1, in Mualim lndj,8,", l,lamier Culture, Val.l5. no.).
(l94l), p.33].; 4lijo seJ-S.A. 'ablf al-Dtn,Bazm, p.4; Aziz Allmad,
Intellectual,
,
1.
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S.N.H. iUzYi, Is1. Cult.,.p.331; N1:U' a1:"Haaan, The C4ishti. p.I84;
M. Mujeeb, Indian Mus1ims, ' ..... ' p.I37; M.L. Roy _Cboudhury,
,;J-.R.A.S.,p.89; 'l'rimingbam, Suri Orders, p.66; S.A.A. Rizvi, Reviva,list,
P.17.
111 . 'Trimingham, Suri Orders, p.66; M. Mujeeb, Indian, p.2g8. Rizvi, laI.
. Cult., p.334; Rizvi, Revitva1iat,"W.23, 26; AZiz.rqFad writes
Suhrrawards vere @neral1y indif'ferent tow'ards sama. Inte11e<itual,
p.144; Nul' al..:aa("an, Th!! Cbishti, p.292. .
H2 Fawi'id, p.l37; Amir'Khurd, Sizar, p.525; see :;abi\> al-D1n,
Ba pp.lOl-102; Rizvi, lsl. Cult.,p.334; Aziz Ahmad 1'eels that tl1e
f
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ecstatic danoing attritubed ta Zakariya" be regarded
as in view of the Suhi'award discouragement of music n J
. Inte11ectual, This assumptiob is without any' evidence;- . i

18 there.fore c Moreover, Shihlb a1-Dn Umar a1-Suhraward 1


c .
d not reject sarna , neither did his unc1e Ab
as we kgow f'rom their own works. QAQl,.. JjamId al-Dm NigOr! waa vel'Y('l'ond
of 88.ma ' Later on, dWing the a desaendent of Babi'
d ,,;ub?ae:rdi
needs clarif'ication. . Se a1so Tarachand, Influence of Islam on
,Indi'lm Culture, Allahabad, 1936, p. 83.' )
1
113 There to have been'8 tradition, 'regarding Shih!b al-Din cUmar a1-
SuhrawardI, prevailent among. the Indian Sufis, to the eff\,ct tgat
God bestwed o:q h:n every b1essing except the ."taate (dhawq) of sama
See Sijzi, Fawl'id, p.34; Amir Khurd, Situ, p.524.
, , ' ,/ ,
114 S;f.jzI, Fawl .239'; AmIr Khurd, Sirar, p.519; K.A. Nizami, .
p.303; SalitIn, p.120; Rizvi, Reviva1ist, p.23. S.M.
lkram, C1vilization, p.lOl; .Ahmad, .Inte11ectu&l, p.144; Roy
ChoUdhury, J .R .. p.85;)Iw" al-Ras8Jl, The pp.34:, 292.
,r ...
115 c1,J, Futb a1-salilin', ed. A.Si Ush8, Madra!" 1948, pp. 117-119;
N.izami, Sorne pJ'.302-303; idem. SaU,t!n. p.120; Rizvi, Is1. Cult.,
PP.332; Roy J.R.A.S. p.a5; Nur al-Hasan, 1rhe Chishti, .pp.216,
3""57. .., .
j . 117 0
118
Rizvi, Isl. Cult. 332.ff'; Nizami, SaDe; Aspec,ts, p.303; Aziz Ahmad,
P.14\r "; -
Rizvi, Revivalist, p.17; al-Hasan, The. Chishti, p.".
w l ,(
Aziz <Ahmad, Intillectual, p.143.
)
1
'\ 1 \ '
\ 1
The )nedieval historians and bagiographers used tbe word "Hipda..n." for'
. tbe vernaottlar 1an:gu&ge spoken by the people. 0> r,
'" \ P
,'"'
"
., ..
..
!-
\.
.
G
___ ,.,...L..... _. -
... ... --,.--.. t--,...,....,.--------------- ..
.

, '., ," 1
_ ,j .. .li
t '
t.
,-

",w. __ .... ", ... >QI1/"{'"P XI_ l' ''Il'''. _._""......,.. ,..-, .... .-- __ ...__ ._
. ,
,.
\
120 Aziz Ahamd, Intellectua1, p.145; Jtl.tjeeb, Ind:l.an, p.170.
121 S1Jz!', Fawi
t
1d . p.96; N1zami, Sorne Aspects, Nui- al-Hasan, The .'
Ch1sh}1, p.339. '" 1
:--
122 Amr Khurd, Siyar,.p.492.
123 lbid:,.pp.525-530; This event is referred' ta in S1jzI also:. vben a
person to1d SbaykhcNi;1m ajf-DIn Awliyi
t
that it bas been permitted that
the o,ould saina wh,enever he wanted ta. The Shaykh replied
"Anything which is forbidden (b!rim) by ):&11 cannot.h permitted (babU)
py anyone' s order (pukm), 1ikew1se nei tl'ter can anything permi
(balil) througb an order". f?=wi 'id, p.227; Amr
Siyar, p.531; Also Bee M. lobjeeb, Indian, pp. 75, )1.72; Niftmi, Salitl.n,
pp.315-318; "Ear1y Indo-muslil;p mystics and their attitude towards
the state", V:ol. 23 '(l949) p.318; Aziz Ahmad, Inte11ectual.
p.145; fdem." The Suti and tebe Sultan in Muslim
-.!!!1!!!, jr(1962), pp.149-150;.!!!!!!. role ... of Ulama' in Indo-Muslim.
History", Studia Jslamica, 31,. pp. 3-4; RiZVi, 1sl. Cult. pp. 334-335;
Nur al-Hasan, The Chishti. pp. 353-354. Nur al-Hasan writes tbat the
ma.b<}& consis:ted of 53 theologians; al-Mn, Bazm, pp. 205-207:
-
,. 124 .S8mni.,
MubaJmlildI, pp. 87-88; al-Dn, p.494.
125
126
127
128
Ahmad, Inteectual, p.Ih4.
.
. C
. Shaykh Farid al-Dm i.e reported to, have'" said, "sama moves the hearts
,(.9!!!!!!l) of the liateners and 1tincUes the fire of yearning (sbawq) in the
'chfJ;sts (eudr) of the yearners" (muShtlq;in)" .Aniir Khurd' Siyar, 'p:492
. ' c
S. Akbar Ijusa.yn'I , ;Tawbi ,p.153. On the same- Plge GIstldirz explains
tawa.l.1uh as being the ,"cpntemp1ationof the hearl oveT one' thing and
treeing i t frOW everything other .the o. What he ree.lly means by
#!L will l?e discussed la ter. See' infra. , p . 8Sf f. ,
Simi.ni,' Mubamnadi, p.90; WiCiti, EablbI. p.8l; Amlonymous,dAarar, Vol.l
!.153&. r
J
GIsdiraz calls' an "aac'etic a coward- (nAmard)
, .
p.l02.
Idem." TarJMnab-i ldb Hyderabad 1)58 A.H.
Shaykh Ni;am al-Dm Awiiyi
1
that three kinds of fortunes (sacldat)
descend through samac'and t:l1iwat: lightstl "states
and "effects" {ilthlr )'.. They are fran three different worlds, and descend
on three particular 'lights descend tram the Il spiritual ft
woz.ld (c1ll!D:t=i on spirits seoondly, that 1Ih1c}) appears
in the heart (lli); is called .. states" which descend trom the
"

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-209-

"transconscienoe" wor1d (c'.lam.. Jabariit) Up0tl the hearts (qu1b);
thirdly, the 11, crying", Il actions" and .. Illovements which are
(by the person) are effeotq (itnir). These desoend from the
'Imater1a1" loIarld (c1lam-i 1JlUl.l5) on the "limbs'" (.lawiriR) ., Sijz'i,
Aitr Khurdc! Silar, p.497; s.
- pp. 2'2-233; Al'A' al-Daw1ah Si.mrWl1 wri:tes' tbat one
c
sarna
"
132
133
135
\
136
1Y1
138
139
" .
140,
141
142
143
"
'" 144
145
witnesses (Im.lSh'lhadah) the "lights af eestasy" (anwir-i"wa.ld) during
. Mal Budd. f.59a
.
.
See infra., p. 173.
.
His, naIne 1s Qutb al-DYne For his 'lite fiee JImi, Nafab1t al-Uns, Tehran,
1337 A.H., pp.326-330; AmIi- Khurd, Siyar,
GI'sdiraz, AsttJ8:r, pp.103-l04; Shaykh al-Din Mahmild says that the
jadhbah is aotual1y "divine love Il (m1bbat-i khl) ';'hich is peculiar
-only ta those braught near (muqarrab'.n. IJatdd Qalandar, Khan,. p.28.
isdirlz, AeIIilr" Ii is oomparable ta At-ad a1-Ghazi1i' who says,
J'he who .engages in audition rises to the high stations and the divine
favours Which one cannat attain by a thousand efforts and the most perfect
x-e1igious exeroises". 'Bawiriq,p.l66. Also' pp.163,164j. Sinm'ln'i a1so
fels that if one abides by the rules, sama
c
raises him in 'moment
ta such heights that years of struggle (mujDhadah) and
wrcises (rf'yitt) could not make him attain. MI V= Budd, f
, ,
; Gisdiraz, Klitimah, pp. 34-35 , para. 48.
pp.21-22, para. 28. Alsa p.35, J)S.!a. 48.'
Ibid pp.34-35, para. 48"
",
o 1 C
M. 'Umar , J.Ilat-i Dilgudaz. Delhi, .1320 A.H., p.35; sarna bas a1so beeft'
'identically by Shaykh al'::'Din Awliylt. See AmIr Khurd, Siyar,
p.491.
" .
Asmir, P.99i Khitimah, p.21, ?If.,
, ,Probably t he !1ans here the organizer of sarna c
.
[dem" Khitimah, para. 48; Also S. U. Suhrawardi
,
See p. 144ff; feela that sama
c
af the
peaple of T.tuth '(ahl-i b!9.> 1s' a' fine rnedicine -ror the and c
midd1era. ' But he feels :tbat the novlies "lllUst nat be a11awed' to .hear sama
toc Qften. 1 1.& eudd" .61&, 61b.
- -
?
..
(.
146
147
148
149
150
J
t.
,
151
152
"
f
153
f
,
.,
/,
,
-.. t
,-
t
!:
i
154
Ir
, 155

i
156
!' ,
t
157
158
159
160
161
/"
162
..
,
.
SUpra,Sufi Controversy,p. 146.
GI8dirlz, 'l'arja.maQ, p.a69. ' \ 0,.
\
Khatimah, p.loS, para. 180, p.l28, para. "
Idem., Tarjamah, p.268.
.
Idem."Khtirnah, p.68"para. IOl;'See' the "process of tabmU
u

..
See Supra" SUfi p. 145.
See Gisdiraz, Asmar, p. 99. ,
Q
, 1
Simin!, MUoamnadI, p.155; Shaykh Ni;am a1-Din 'Awliyi' ie reported to
have obael"Ved the aignifioance of time, plae and brethren-. .Arrif.:J' Khurd,
Siyar, p.4Q}; Elsewhre, it ia related that Shaykh al-Dn felt the'
of four eSfentia1: si1;lger (musmi ), the verses
(masm\1' t, the list'eners (mustami c) and the instrument,s Oilit-i sam C).
The singer should be' an adult, nd not a boy or a woman. verses
should not be obecene or sportive in nature at aIl. The liatner must
hear sama
c
'witb th Truth (ba l;iaqS)' and the 'instruments sbould not .-
include lute and rebeck (rubab)., Sljzi, Fawa'id,
p.246; Aniir,Khurd, Sl.yar, pp. 91;:492.
Gi.adiraz, Asmir, p.99; p.34
c
, para. 48.
Kh8'timab, p.34, para. 48.
SJimn, MUoamnadi, p.15S.
Gisdiriz, Khitimah. p.46, para.64.
p.99.
Idem., Tarjamah,' p.69.
Simin, MubamnadI, 'p.90; .;5abibi, p.
Glsdiraz, Khiti.mlJlt, p. 34, para. 48; samanI, MallamnadI, p .155.
, rbid.,P46, para. 66; A:tunad al-Ghazali fee1s that mosques are more fitting
to sama. Bawiriq, p.123.
.,
:,Asmi.r, p.99; p.l, para. 37; See a1;so Sm1.n1., 1
ammadi. p.155; S. U. S award, Awar1f t p.187; Sarrlj too :feels
bat if the speaker ald hea"er (fu.e one in feeling and intenti,on, the
c '
ecstasy will be stronger. al-Luma ;p.2g]. '

" .
..
,
,1
l,
l,
c

-,t
-..
z.
C
1
-
..
.
.... .. , ... ........ _-....__ l' ........ .... .. .. ...4 _ ......... _ ""' ........ _.
1 164
165
166
167
..,. 168
)
. }.69
17
171
172
173
174
175

177
178
179.
180
18r

182
183
184
-211-
"
Khatimah',' p.21, para. 37, p.22, para. 29,. $)p.33-35, para.48;
1.!W!l ... Asnar, P.99; Smn'i, MUQamnadI, pp.155-156
S.AM.usayn, JawSmi
c
, p.263; SamIl!, pp.88-90;
1Js,blbY, p.80; Shaykh Nsgir al-Dm Ma.l;Imild felt that musical instruments
were forbidden by Sharl J1amd Q.a.lander, Khay!, p.42.
Gsdir8;z, p.36, para. 49, p.39, para. 52.
48.
Supra, .P 169,
For the process of see p. 180ff
Supra. 'P., 169.. \\,
'J
. -
Smn, MUQarnmadi, p.90.
S.AliusaynI', Jawimi
c
, pp. 172-173, Samini, Mul)amnadi, p.90;1 Also see
M. Mujeeb', Indian, pp.170-171.
Gtstldiraz" p.33, para. 48.
'"
Infra "p. 185ff.
--.--'
Gisdiraz, KhtinJah, p.20, para. Yf.
<, ,
For similar views Mo

Khatimah, 'para. 48.'
\.,
40.
para. 54,.
Thid.,p.42, para. 56; Shaykh al-Ishriq a1aJ implies that one does not
----- c
drinkwater during sama. But saya that one drinks it only after
the ri tuaI, because it he does not do so, he will be burnt by the fi"e
ot love. Tgfl.!Y!;h. p.266, para. 20.
. GXsdiraz, KhAtimah, para. Yl.
"-
37,
v
40. Ibid. ,p.20, para. para.

40; a190 see Hujw:i"rr, Kasht, p.419. para. 58. p.23, para.
.-
- 1

l'
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c

".
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\
r

"
.(;
Cf
----- -
W
.... .... ,....,..,. __ '- _. ___ ."',.. ..... .. -.r...,. ..... _...,.,..... .. _ ,. l ",,,,,_
.

para. 58. p.40, para. 53.
186 Ibid.,p.34,
. n resrectab1e
para.48; Hujwri that the ang&r should be a
persan.

para. 48.
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
191
198
para. 51, p--:43, para.60; See a1so Hujwi"r'I, KaeM, p.411;
A. a1-Ghaz!li, Bawarig., p.175; Shaykh a1-Ishrlrq exp1ains why one
conforms to -the.other in dancing. Iuf1UIyah .. p.265, para. 19.
Ibid., p.43, para, 57, pol46, para. 65; 1!:lsewhere Gladiraz saya that
tiii was the cuatom of Shaykh Ni,im a1-Dn but wi th Sl1aykh
al-Dm ent waa returned to ita owner, and the
compensated. Gau' az himse1f aeeme to pre fer the ofShaykh .
Ni;m al-Dina T "amah, p.280.
,
Idem.,Kh.itimah, p.41, para. 53 &;,54; &.lso see a1_Luma
c
; pp
186-187; Rujwr, Kashf, pp.418-419, but Hujw1r! fee1a that one may
cease to hold sama
e
in reverence if it waa made a habit.
See a1so ApmGd Bawiria,
,.
Idem.!! Khitirnah, p.38, p,ara. 51;
p.l11.
\
Qushayrl, a1-iliaalah
J
p.34:
Sharb, p.280.
Jdem., Tarjamah, p.261.
Idem. , Sharp,
Tar.1arnah" p.264.
See infra.p. 137ff.
199 S.A.lfusayn't, JaWami
c
, p.l52'j Gsdiraz, p.2 ;, idem.
p.281; See also'Najm a1-Dtio al-Raz!, Mir;ld a1- Ibid Tehran 1913, P:J6,3.
"'<
200 GsUdiraz, p:32, 48; S.A.Husayni, Jawimi
c
, PP.329-330.
p, \
201 Qusha: ', a,l-Risa1ah, p.l56; .\l .ii.\N. Suhrawardi, 'A9Ill, t'.33b; Sarrj,
al-Luma ", p.285.
. 1
202 Tarjamah, p.26S.
203
,.
f
f
t
\
\
j
.........--.pl ... " 1 __ ___ '''1IUIII1'''1.I_l.18 ... __ .... ... iC(1..,.'_''l ____ ,Ii __ ..
'.,' .. \ __ , . ". "..1- . \.. .
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204
20
5
206
.<
207
208
209
210
"
-21)-
Gisdiraz explains term warid as that which befalls the heart f'rom
God, without any 'atrife, or wish or imaginat10n. It i8 something
praiaeworthy. It ia like aup;gestions" or If thoughts (khawayir, PI. of
khtir) but i t a certain POWe,Wh:1.h ilr not possesst;!d by
khtir. agitates and stire a person. Sharo.', p.374.
. ,
See Supra, Suri eontroverSy, P" EleewherecGisjidirlz says that
whatever is from t,he "utlseen" ia related to sama. Tarjamah, p.261.
'Giadira.z
f
p.23, 40.
Ibid.)P.32" para. 48; Elsewhere he says that the visitation" from Truth
ie th cause of the crying of sufie., Tarjamah. 1>.254.
Q ,
KhAtimah, p. Yf, Para. 50; the first and the third type of ,
sama are compaz:able to wajd and wajd 1iQ-'in. Supra, Suri Controversy,
p.153; Shaykh Ni;im al-Dm AwHyA' divides sarna into wo: 9!Ji!!! and
ghayr.:.i haJim. ImJim ia that w:hich agi tates a pers on in the beginnilli...
of audition itse1f, through a verse ct voic. hi,lim ia that -,
state in which a person, after being by eama , ,9onncts ... it to
God, or to his preceptor or to anything else which 1e in.his heart.
Amir Khurd, p.500j, Sijz', 'Fawa 1 id; pp.,113-114.
211 Gisdiraz Kh8.timah, p.38. 50; For cIaSSiCal view on tawiJud, see
Supra, Suri Controversy, p. 153. " , ,
, ,
212 Gisdiraz, Tar.iamah, p. 257. The text here ia not oomprehensible, and we
<t.ried ta get the only possib1e'meaning out of it. As for tba...,.-'
concept of an individual being attached to the attribute (,ifat) Of
Truth or God, Gisdirai 'himse1f' le very clear elsewhere. a He writes '
that the "withness (maCiyat) of Gad is with Samar
4, p.17. b) Secondly he states Vry clearly that through el1ery creatd.on
a ifat of God is manifested, but as man (1nsiln) canprehends (mura.kkab)
aU the exlsting things (ma.w;s..dit), he created witb aU 'the Si
5
at of
God. Asmir, Samar 47 t pp.l 159; Moreover tbe "emanation
a
of
213
214
. 215
Gad is with everytbing. Supra. ch.II, Sect.B, p; " 100ff.
e . .
See Gisdiraz, Khatimah, p.35, para. 49.
, Dhawg has probably used as a synrnym. of waJd. .
This 1s cauparable to Shykh al-Ishriq who hold$ that the m,anifestation
of state" (bal) in sama c is because of the sound of tambourine, the
the voice of the singer and the verses. 'fuf'li:rah. pp.263-24. ",
fi
:; ... _;dI ,
-- - -- .. __ ,,,,,,, .... __ .... r __ 1_1 'lIWI! ... " ..... ' ... ""I""4'd_e' .. _ ........ _ ...._ .. _ ...._-_.-...
.
-
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"
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..... __ , .. _ ... __ ... "'" __ .. _.
,- ,
-214-
,
1
216 GisOd.1rlz,_ Khitima.h, p.24, para..40, a.lso 'pa.ra.t48.' Idem.,
Tg:la.!!!ah, p.68, Hujwtrl says that the spirit is subt1e and there
1s a sublJ.ety in soundS" 50 that lIhen th,ey are heard, the spirit
inclines to that which is homogeneous with itself, see Kashf; p.399.
21'7 sun Controversy, p.149oGrsUdirb, Krl&timah,
64. glsevhere GisOd.1.rIz wr1:tes, nu' there 1s an affair going on
between lover and beloved., then the 19ver attends sa.ma. t., Kh1ch
lI'Ioulds h1m
'
"stra.ight. for an C!J3hig i8 l1ke a ba.lm for the
burnt part of the aldn, wAich asauages the paln and heals" cl8 h
RlsDah d&r baxin-i CIah9 " Urdu translation pr1nted in Tu .. 1
YIzd&h Rad'ili .Wachi, p.259. Shaykh Nltb l-Di'n A"r yi
aaya t:h&t S&JII& . 18: like a stlck (la,lchtt) Jar men. Si-.iZt, Fa." d
R.45. Sianlnt feela tbat la a me&.ctne. Ml LI Bud, f
'2J.8 GtsUdirlS, Khltl.ah, pp.)l-)2, para.47.
219 Idea, AIsdr, 187:- ;
220 Tbe second Ilethod wu not preferred 'br GtsUd1l::ls, for elaewhere he
eapbaalzea tbat the heart should he pure aQd UDStaine4. He relata .
how Shaykh Jllf1a al-Drn Awllyl' ablltained trOll ..... 0 for slx aontha,
bec&uae of tha sor.rolit of his son ... death. KhltlMh, pp.22-2J, p.ra.
221
\.
223
224
'225
29. ,..., Ta;.1y&b, p.274. It ls fel<t her. thougb, that Gtandirlz
.. t. OOfttrad1ct1ng hi .. elf, acoord1ng to Sll1D1DI,o aucli a .... 0 la
c" ",* -h!.hv!pt, ni LI Budd, f .SSa.
...l '
1ig., ICbIt1-.b. ,pp.26-29, pa.ra.s.44 and 45 .
Hujdrt sa,.. tbat ecstat10 aoveaenta and pr .. reaeable danc1ng.
Kl:!!!!J p.416. Sba;ykh Nl"" al-Dtn Awli,-' doea riot call 1t D9.1., ..
but or It".ctlon.. iTen tbougb h ... tbat th .. e aove-
unta are related to the ... ter1allforld, he calla th.- -fortune",
'

GtaOdlrb prob&bly .tiffera. 'here frOa Huj1rf
J
who rejecta
d&Do1l1g, &Ph!, p.415. .
.
CtaOd1r&a, p.24, para..40. '
al-Ghult 61"" I.D tnter ttng 1nterpretat1ca of dana1Dc.
"D&nc1Ag 1. a rafeel1ce to the olCllng of the sp1r1t <;9) round
the 01018 1st1ng th1Dga (dI'1.rat aJ. ..... wMt) " , s Badrtg,
p.159. Gr.UdirIts "')'8 that danctng ln circlea aeazus the
or the IliU of existence (lalx1':1 vujUd), a .. Khltl-.h, p.29,
para.46.
.. .
1
l
--
J
- .
, .
J
, J
.. __ __ ...... _.,.... .....,...
-215-
. \ ,

,,226 For the va.r1oua types of dAIlCGS and their interprtation, see
arsiIdirlz, Asjl!&r, pp. lOO-lOI. These are, a.lso des.cz:1bed in bis
ether work, wlth a few variations and additionsJ see Khltimah,
pp.i9':'Jl, ,para..46. A fel( types CrsilcJ,1riz seems to have demons- 5
trated. and expallned to bis f'ri.ends. S.A. I,iusayn't, Ja.wimi
C
,
The concerned passage trom Jawlml
c
ha.s been translated into rrenoh
.see M. Mole, La Danse , pp.22/t-225. The type of da.llcing we are
atscuss1ng presently are all-selected !rom Asmir al-Asrar.
227 Ses a.lso GrsOd1riz, Tar.i&JDah, p. 67. J
228
229
nOIlY'JIIOWil, Aarir, Vol.I, f.157a. Silik Ma.jdhtro (one who atriva
tlrat and as .. reault la attft.Cted ft towa.rd.s GOd) a.Dd Ma..1dhlIb
Slllk ( .. penOn 1n1tl&lly .. ttracted bt latex- on strtvea for .,
ap1r1 tual atta.1I1J1eta) are t.chn1l teru uaed. by cUflar Suhr&waidt
to claaai fy the ab&ylcbs 11lto folU:' klnda. The other tvo lover types
are :tiftUb (acl.1m1vely att.racted., signifies rupture)
and @jt au01!Z'r!d exclus1 ye11 atri rtng, ane who atops &fter
reach1ng .. stage of warah1p aDd cannet proceed -.headJ 1t probaDly
slgnif1es uoetiois.). The aign1t'1C&11Ce of tbae la"that the fint 1
t"o typesare bigher in rank, -.ml}) "lik the higbea.t; and
&t'e capable of be1nc sbaykh8 or gu1des for ethers; 'because-" they
have ' stri veel and puaed througb th necesM.r1. stages. For dtails,
see CAwlgf, pp.87-88 1 Sha)'kh lf ... rr al-Mn t&kes theB. ,
concepts froII SuraW&1'CiI, but bas the Alle th1ngs trkY a.bout
the.. Cf. H. Q.alemar, Khayr, pp.47-48. Later GtaUd1J:ls .laboratea
on th .. e terM .. t leDith, &1thougb he apeo1f'lC&l.l1 atat .. that
f there la 'no ditfennoe bat en _.jUjtlb Ak and !Il1k _.1dhUb,
- for they are lib t1l1na. Cf. A.alr. pp.2;4-2)8, S.A. ijuaa.ynt and
the couentator of &pin diatinguish betveen the tvo types
.and lib Suhra.ward.!, .... 1gn eJdhlIb aIl1k the highest su&e, which
the,. attribute to the P;'ophet Mnl}IWMd. Cf. I.t1l1bat, pp.128-129.
The couentator t':ther u.1gna the atace of !Il1.k M:):lhUb to.the
of th Propheta. Cf. t\!l:k, Vo.I)I, ff.J,59a-j62b, &lao $1.
47la-471b, ;o4b.' The co.aentary OU tHe conce.rned chapter trOll
!!!I:t 1. iDcOIIplete.
- v
t .1.58&- Sbaylch &l-Ishrlq "'JS that a persan dalc .. bec&uae
hi. apirit. 1I&Q.ta to ri .. up. The sp1rit la lib a 1n .. cage,
!roll "hiob tt ,,&Dt. te t're", p.264, pua..16r .l>ooA.N
SuhraV&1'dr wo bu a alJl1lar 14._, bt e ac1 tatiOll ln S&IIo ,
la betVHI1 the a &Dd!!l:!!:. The foraer 1f&Dta eleY&tlO1l, tbe
latter pW.la lt be.ok to earth. S .. IdIb, f.7a, .ee Uso the '
ooaentary of Ctatti1ds, Tar.1u!h, p:os.
230 Anonyaoua, 6It, Vol. l,
. .
J
-... ..._,--_._ ... '''!'I,'-_ .... , ---' .... I-'.--------..*-, ....... .. .
1, ...... ..
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231
232
23J
2;4
,
, If 1:. - 4'
-216-
a
. .
.,.
The commeir.ta.tor .. has nothing to say a.bout this type,
, In Grsd1r!.z exp::'a.ins this utterance as that
. [ isbuwa and 1s no one other than him (li),
para..46. ;/ , ' .
. ,
f (;::-.. co ..
The 'text of haB hull haha. hihi bah huhhl hih bah
hih. 'There are 'tltb, variations mentioned. on the margin, hu ha: hi,
and huh hu.'1'jh hlh In the commentary, Asrir ,,1 ...
ASmlr, th1.rd. v::ria !ll hama,h ha.mah hamaJu vol.I, f.
l58b. ' MV rat variation, beca.use, ,aooording
to the !nt, ' It!ff lt su1ts 'better_
The COJlUlent.arr .ys, tlHuwtY&h lB ahadi1ah", Vol. l,
f. 1,;8b, aee ai!b}' Ch.II, Sec1:-1on B.',' p. 1:4 far the Ha.llKjlan
.. 1-0 ..... {annt_ or'" ,
235' GIstldirls, AI"!, p.lOl. Ve preauae ;thls to he. the hlghest stage,
becaua. th. stace of SO _1-Ja,aC ls' the hlgheat .. ou. go_
It slgnifles "the "conaolousness fi ln '1II&Jl of God' a being f'beyond
the beyond-, a uttera "He Trut.h" (Hwa =Haqg),
instead of ft l aa the 1ruth (al This 18 the a,lgnlf1canoe
of "be:-n ... (h!1!JDt). 1 deaqri by the tradition, "he who
Imowa Gad duab"; see!.!:!SA., C .11 set1on.S', pp. 113-115.
for d.tallA regard1ng the warld-view of GIsOd1riz. ' ,
2;6 S alao 1pfra.,p193, aupra,'Ch;U, B, the
Yin' of Glatti1rls.
J'
" 237 p. 170.
238 169-170.
239 , IIhen oOllll8Dtin on th quot&tlon that la lfdr1Jlking. (shEb)
in f\lr h . s:P1r1ta, and soula, GiaUdirlz mtes tbat
there fi ' thinp " and
Tar,1tuh, p. 1. <
/
241 Bl.aewb,,' ," that'an _ l'bel! in o .... lder1ng"
,sIsIA aDd. of d.&Do1nc (E!:9.IJ. Tar.1a!ah. p.27l.
Aliso hOlt the aP1r1 t 1s d.l1gbted br aweet sounds and. lady
acoarding to S.cU. Surawa.rdI, Awk1f', pp. 194-195.
.
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242
24J
21.J4
245
'246
24?
248
249
250
251
, <
,
... 2) 7- <
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pp.99-10oi idem., Khltim&h;" .p.)?; :Para.49J ,.J
there -"S a. sllght d.1fferenoe in the wrdlngs of the works. ' .
. '
GIsOdirz, t);p .100

Gtsild1rz himself' says that each one of them f1ndS 1 ta food.
.Kh&timah, p.)?, idem., Ta.rjamah, p.2?1.
Anon,:(lIlOus': Vol.I, i'.Qb.
G!sMirlz, 'p.1OO, idem., p.29, para..46. it 18 the
residar (llUtbakkln) who ls, ca.lm. See infra , p. 187.
. \ . . . . ......
See,A..Qmad al-GhazIU "hers he tafks of ",:,a, Ba.wlrig, p.16;
GrsUdirls, Ai"'I, p.102. The atate 01' del1ght of the heart nth
Cod 1. tnat ot &Il adepte See lS.!!.., Tar.1yab, pp.6), 68, 274'J
14e., Khlt1Mh, p.25, pua..40. .
, S.A., tlusa.ynr, Jadai
c
, p.15J. Also see Kaahf, p.406,
Sardj, al-LWI&O, p.289, s. 'u. Suhraw&l:dt, CA f" p.176J .
al-GhaslJr, Ba.'!Ir1$' pp.175-1?6.
G!s6dirb, Khit1ah, p.25, pr,ra..4-2, fJuaa.yn!, Ja!l!1, p.l.50.
f:'
Hujlr!rl S&yII that lIhea. the divine 1nfluance beooaea oont.1nuaJ.,
the beg1.Da.er recelyea lt quletl.y. Kasbf, p.408.
252 > F.d'lb, p.45, para.94, KalIl:IIdbt 8&18 that .
the aptr1 tual state g1 one the power te control, oneself .- ..
253
\ Tacarruf, p.16l.
. cl.
ijU8&yn't, J&w.la1 " p. 3. Gt.\1d.1rIfJfar.1yah, p;274. The atate of
.. realder la that hle he&rt la deUghted. n'th Gad. Ne '$uPt&, note
'lO?S-,. be coa:pared to KalIbIdhr, T' p.ll, Sa:l:r&J, al-Laa
O
pp.294, 300. The 1f tal.wtn &ad _ are tlfO technical teru.
Tal.!{n liter&ll.f lIeaD "001 ngtt. 10: sutl , it 1. &Il anb&l&llc.L
ooDd:1 tlan ot & rayatlc on " cil one stat. descends and di*,ppea:re,
"bil anothe' a &rld Il cl1aappeara. T&!lcJn 11 texally lIe&IlS
It eatabllah1ng-. T , 1 t la the "eat&bUahed." etat. ot a
aptlc in lIhoa ocoura cbaDge.' Such perIIOD la called ata;ta .. kJd.n
"., realder" . This state, 18 partloular to adepta
bagl' tg. Greaurb calla the. "rMld1ng lords" or ubD=1 ta!JsIn.
TM. etate le achlend after one pua .. througb th. states of ttlvJn.
A ralder la cme who bu l:e&Ched the stage of um.cm (itt11Q). For
aore detaila, see G!eOd1rlz, .Sba.t'g, PP . J42-J50.
" "
[.-- <>.0< .- ........... .. ... ..... "" ..... "!". __ 1 ....... -,-, ------,-- -
. .
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2
-218-
\
.tIusaynt, Ja.'IIim1.
0
, p.153. AQmad U-CM.zlll that there
are thz:ee ranks: ranks if' men, ranks of angela and ranks 0:(
10rdship. At thtLra:nk ,of LONsh1p, one attains absolute 0
tranquilli ty (al-sukUn @,l-rnu]l.aq), Ba.'IIirig,
2.5.5 ' Su"Ora' , P.186.
2.56 'l'rim1ngha.m, Sut! Order,' p.195.
2;7 GfsOdiriz, ShaXp, p.279.

258 p.284, Qusb&yrt, ql-Rldlah, p.)4.
259
The sequence seau to be thUSl '
'.
(l.e. khuatkl-!
.... KhtUdkl. (&lao called 'ShiPUd).. C , t,
260
,
261 Gtaad1rls, Sb&rb, p.219.
, .
.
262 lliS,. S.A. ljwsa.ynt, ln his ooaen;ta.r1 t9 -one of the ch&J)tFB of. ,
AllaIr al-AarIr, the olaulcal di vislon of 111$ b
al-wjM (neoeaaar117 ex1st'tant), JlWIk1n al-vujUd, (possible ","litent),
and. awrtan1
c
&l-wu.iUd .(lmpossible existent). "Tc: thse he adda a. '
fourtb type, nu.li Jr1f al-wujtti or gnoatlc of He'.
explaina th!. th. guidance of "God guides He '
l1kea to Hia l1ght" (Qur'in 24135) .. rat:tli9't,t p.31. _la '.
al""'ll1l;1Ud tbe naae of th! persan wh6'hu bCoae !!1,lj!kJ. ?
263 GtsOd1rb, Sharh, pp.282-283.
. -
264 s 'lIujwM' Il d1souaal_ on Tavl.lud, bJ!!, and. , a. f la
that 11 hlgher tban wuJM., s Kashf, pp.41) 1;, alaQ
M. Mole, La, Danse, p.l90ff .
GtslJd.1ds, Sb!.rb, ,
266 Infra. p. 197.
261 GtsM1rls, Sbarb, p,286
268 Se. sum. pp. 173-174.
\
269 Suar 6, pp.23-24,
270 Anon1llOU, t.Sla.
271 Quah&yrt, A;lduf,lWb PP.34-35.
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QushayrI, aJ.-ftis.llah, p. J4.

.,po,288.,
I.'!
274
275 IM&.

..
276 Ibid. , 'See 3.lso PP.:305-)06.
277." Supra, p. 192.
278
279
280
/

ASmlr, p..296.
;-
See !l!m. , Ch.n, section B t p. 114ft..
f'
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Supra, section B, p. 116.
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,
CHA.Pl'ER IV
1>
CONCLUSION
"
.


'Being h1tllself a practislng suf'i,., G!slld.irlz' major contribution
, )
1)
was in the of sufisml there is hardIy any concept or idea rela.ted
to thls fie?d that wa do not flnd hill d18cusslng. It ls & pit y that
...
, n
G!sUdiriz' achie'le!Dents in sufism have been neglected today. As. an
.
\ \> j tJ \ '"
opening into his sufi and t:a:actlces, we have,
studied very sensitIve issues, sa.lntshlp (walKyah) audition
of musi,o '(SBJrJIC). we have attempted to trace any
posSibI;connectlon betwen his theDry'of waliyab and his practices
of
..
As the case W1 th tolu;' major! ty of sufis,
l
waliyah plays a
" .
,
role in the sufism of thus, oontalne in
l'tiSelf ,hiS werld-view. let 18 not as saple as that elther. By,
his world-view is JIleant how and why the creation came into
,
and what reaUy ls the relationship of Gad wlth the creation and
vice versa. It i8 this reciproclty of relatlonship between the Lord
and His servant wbioh & sun exper1enoes or rather real:1.zes in hlJl1Self.
He, therefore, sees unit y in raultipl1clty and mult.ipl1city in lUlity.
At tbie stage wa.lKyah 18 act1p111zed and_,he becom8e rea.dy fat the epithet
-220-
,
j
if
5..
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. .
.
. '
"
"
......
.. .

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'1
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-221-
, .'
walt. The approach ta thls problem indioates, no doubt,' a pro;ound
, 1
of 'Ibn cArabi , tr.e of suggests
that thls uni ty in mftltipl1ci ty and vice versa ls not of the Ibn
, ,
f', ' ...
CArabt type; 1 . ". he cannot be :reJ8.l.'ded as an of the doctrlnes' " , <)
. . .' ,,"
of wa,bdat b;t he ts incl1ned towards those doctrines
whioh ar termed. wagda.t al-shuhtld. This',is' ,the" reason why we have
D ;;., </
, 2 0
Il

called: his suf'ism "a type of wal')dat al-wujad.". In th1s x:egard.,
. ' .' ,
c:tsUdir&s 1&, probably, the lil}k between cAa' al-Dawlah al-8imdn!
.
&nt{ j h_t4 S1rh1ndl'. .
-,-
" .
ln theraohievelMnt of th! ultiate g()al in auf1s., 'the 'ellphaals '
bas ,alway& beu on lIlYBtloal .. of the lead1ng to ')
that goal. The- path donalsted of (magWt)"aDd states (alJwU)
1
Thua far 18 on. such path. The hipteat stage (1
on Ws pat\ la -:he of walIY!h (or his warld.:
v1ew):'\ FrOll the externa.l point of oourae .......... 0 (being the
(Jo Il K
."udl of lIlWIia, e-ta.) was queatlonable to the
, ,
jurtat" and theolog1ana. therefore haa
and 'regulatlona wh1ch he ,peraita such ga;ther1ng. At the Salle
, '... l
tlme, be. '1_ 'ffI1:1 11 wu 0 he 1_ apared to _Olle of the orthodox
,,0
, / -----
au:f'1s. hi .. eU wu, 1ndeed. , an ortbodox sUfl. he e.pbaalzed
, ...
Sh!.rtCf;h and even hillSeU a jurist.
4
, What 11e did not
Uke wu .. the ,wopahiP of rel1ftous (sliarlCat
.. 'for 1 ta cnm aake. He la COIlparabU, no doubt, to 0 Ayn al-Quqih &1-! - ,
'''! ".
"
,",-0
1
J .... ' .. --..----..... 4 ..... '''I"l),,.,..0&-,,, r l
t"&b! . ' .t .... ... ".,'.<. .. t',..: ..! ... , .. ';' ... ' '.' ...
' .. ,'. .... ..':;' :""," .'., .
. ' ,
-_ ...... .:- .. _._ .... _.':"" ... _' .....,.._ .. IIIl' _IIIi O

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NOTES TC OONCLUSION
K
,
l See Ch.II, section A, p. 54ff.
2 Sea supra, section c, p. 193 .It ma.y be sa1d tha.t w!lxla:t
al-WU.1Ud and w!bd.a.t al-ehuhtld., though ta..ken -as tlf'O types of
.sufism, have strldng simil..iLrities. They are, perhaps, t'irQ
wa.ys oftackling the same problem. Dr. H. Landolt points ,eut
, that the forur i8 "statio being", 'while the latter i8 "dyl'iamic
becOaing". cf. Der IslaDl., p.6o-61.
o
Se. oOllpa.rative ch&rt, Append1x C
. ,.
4. Supa , Ch.l, section B, p. 21.
m \
lt" i8 .. tera wsed by Ayn al-QUIJah not GtstW.rit.
ae. 1nfr&, n.6., . . "
',S,
6 " H. Laad.o1t, "Mystique Iranienne, Subrava.mt Sh&ykh al-iIahrIq,
(549/11.55-.587/1191) et C Ayn al-Qudt-i H._Bn! (492/lO98 ...
.525/1131)", Iranian Oivil1u.tion and Culture, EsaaJS in h0l10ur
of the 2.5OOth AD.n1veraa.r,r ot the f01J!1tUng of the Pers1&r1 B:llPire,
8ci. br C.J. Ad.&ma, Hontre&l., 1972. p.26.
, '
0 , ,
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.... uJ Qi Ii t iL 1 d $3 "JI!JIH;ea. ;l8> it J1 PA 9 id.
Q ,
,
-224-
,
)
APPENDlX
'THIi:, CRISHT! bILSILAR '
,
oThe Prophet M.mIIIId
Ab! 'tl1tb .(d.40!661) "
). 1j&aan al-Ba.p-t (d.llO/n,)
1.
,
, .2.
4. cAbd al-WKhid bin Zayd (d.170/786)
, ..
,. "11 bin c11f4. .. '
6. Ibrlht. pin: Ad.baa a -B&l.kht (4.l66/78) .
7. Sadt4 a1-DtA lCh\Jllba ah &l-Marcunt (d.276/890)
8. AlItA &l-DtA Hubayrah ai-Bafr% (4.287/900),
10.
9. M1..n14 (d.299!9U)
AbU. Ial)lq sbbt Cbiahtt (d.32,/9)7)
AlJUd Abdn Chiabtt {d.)S.5/966} 'll.'
12.
14.
"
16.
11.
Rukn al-D!u AbU MulJ&a_fb1ahtt (4.411/1020)
N'tir al-Dtn Ab Chiantt (d.4,9/1061)
QUib &l-DtA M&1rd.Ud Chiantt (d.527/1132)
UjI Sbartt Zendlint
cutbIIID HIr1Int (d.6i7/1220) i
al-Dtn lja&D Sljat Chiabt! '
AII'tr Khurd, !.zs., p.20, Q,1ancJar, 'Kb&Jr. pp.7-8. Sblnt,
pp .. 8-91 cf. K.A. 'lf1s&a1, TlrtJcb, pp.1J9"l4O, .!Ya. t
!.::;:.:., Volo.n, p.SO, S . M. \f.aq, J .P.H.S., p.164.
,.
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-225-
..
APPENDlX B
"
THE CHISHT'r SHAYKHS OF Ii1DIA
MuCtn a1-Dtn ljasan (d.634/12J6)'
1
1
Far1.d' al-Dtn Ganj-1 Shabr
(d.664t126S)
1
1
(
f
Badr .. l-Dtn Ghaznawt
di
AlI' al-Dtu
(4.691/1291)
Burhlll 'al-Dtn Gha.r%b
(ca. 741/1340)
,
For .ore, oh&rta, of. li:.I. , Vol.U', pp.Sl-54.
\
, "
1 ..... l' 1
.... *111 ,TlI.
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--
APPENDIX C: COMPARATIVE CWT OF STAGES1 AN]) SJJFI JOURNEY
Beyond the Beyond
J
,
Essence ('
.-------
v
Essence
--- - ...... -----
Essence
- - - - ....................
__
- --
REALITY OF l'RUTH
--
ESSENC' .
<TRI
JLlTi
_
.,.
z
o
H
H
<
Z
<


"'?'4

ATTlUBUTES
0
ACTS
"0
__
1>
Process of
Creation
"
REALITY
PATH
, '-
LAW-
- - --
Sufl Stages
\,
ASTONISHMENT'IN ASTONlSHHENT
"
,
,)
PROPHE'l'HOOD , - .
.

SAINTSHIP

: -
WISDOM
,
AFFAIR
.j
,
BURDEN
Stages from the
polnt of vlew of
Prophethood
.. '
RXTINCTION "
-
DlSCOVERY
1
0
WITNESSING
.
,
ARRIVlNG

RESOnUTION
Stages from the
polnt of of
!.!.!!!! c , '
..
s
......
OCCULT
.-
"1
1
SECRET
,
.


SPIRIT
'Ir
j
.
.
.
lIEART
.
--
SOUL
.--
SufL psych!>108Y:
subtle substances
o


"'1;..
,-
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" -. "" , ... __ ,,, .... .I< .. .. ..... .... ...
r r , 'f 17 ta .... '."'r' t n .. htU - l ", F i .. ,
1
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-221-
A:?PENDIX D
-'
)
SOURCSS ON GSDIRXZ

Theo prima.r:y sources for tpe life of GIsild1r4z are t'Wo. Siya.r-i
HnbaD'udt (ed. and trans. by S.A. NadMr Aljmad Qidrt, Hydera.bad, 1969),
wri tten in the
l
" 'Ie&r 831/lJ+27 by ShCI cAlI Sbant, & disc1;le
, , '\ f
of GtsUd.1riz pp. 1-2) It 18 & biograpb1ca1 vark wbich d.la l,
1
alao .ith the f'aaily and the d.1aciplea of Gt.Ud1.rim. Th ork lB
.
div1ded 1nto' nine chaptera (the present ea1.tiOD bu only SeTeD ahapters)
, .
and 1s It a rel1.able souree siDce 1ta author W&8
t
, 61
. in Delhi lfith GtsOdirlz and eventua.lly &caoapu1ed tbe Shaykh to
'Gulbarga (af. pp.4, 26, 1l.6, Anotber aspect of' thls
fi
biography'iB tb&t Slalnt wrtte. exact dates of porta.nt occuis.
th1s 1s in the bag1og:r:a.ph!cal tradition,
) .. ... t __ 1Dg _:les, the author _ .... ta _p tMa ta a
1I1n1I1U1l and.apparentl; ai ... at wr1tiDg a bioa.phy.
second biography 18, the Tlrtkb-l HabIbl .... Ta4hkirah-i
cpiled by bill Sbtr-1 Malik bin " .... d Vloifr, _b'o
s.eu to bave been & di,ao1ple A,gh&r ijwsaynt (the son
of' Gra9d1rb). The -.nuacr1pt copy, of' the wcxr:k i!S preserved. in the
Library ot the uiatic Society ot Benga1 (see W. lvanov, Copalse Dea-
.....
ortptive Catalogue of the Peraian Kanuacr1pta in the collection of the
"
.
(
f
" .
"-
i:
",
, ,
i
1?
;
1
-228-
1
Aslatlc Societl of Benf5al, Calcutta, 1924, p.90, nO.246). 1'hough
original is, .still to be edi ted, 1 t was into Urdu by :1.
, cl, c
Ma shtIcr ,t!usayn Kh&n, ;::nown\"a5 Ma shq :ar Jang, ar.d printed 'in
Hyderabad, 1368 A.H. Wlci;! wrote this blography the yea.r P#9/
- '1 ' ' .
144.5 during the reign of Ahmad ShIh TI BaJunanr (838/1435-862/14.57),
. .'
as he states in introduction (see Habrbr, p.4. cf. lvanow,
, 0
Descriptive Cat&lo,gue, p.90, no.246). 1,t was aware of sadnt' s
"-
Slm-l Muta_d!, which he calls Muba .,.g 'lnat!" (s
,
Habrbr. p.6), but he Ilever quotes It. He d1v1des 'hia work Il1to
ten ohaptera, and ne tries to center i t &round. tbe famil.y oi' GtaUd1dz
This wark ls more hag!.ographical in' nature than tha.t of $I'mlp!. He
. devotes two to three cbapters to descr1 b1ng tbe sp1r1 tua.! &Ohien.enta
, , ..
of GrsUd.il:b (9f. Habp?t, Cb.I and n). But, it It is lIore
a ,
,
\
that G!sGd1;r1z 1f&8 a S1.JDt, and in anotber Chapter vn, he arra.nges
.
the worIas oi' GraUd1rCz ctmonologlca.lly. Nevertbel.esa, there are 1
o '
inatances men these t'Wo biographies d1ffer &180, .. peola1ly ill regard
to date. (cf. Ch.I, n.62). In sp1te of th.1r band1ca:s., th ...
two biographies are rel1able, and if & critical llRady of th .. ia-II&d.,
they should auppl,y ... pla 1nf"armatlon about th. l1fe and. worka of
.,"" /'
B.sides th. above tlfo biograph1oal wka, llentlon may' &lao he
-.de of Jawbio al-Kall. (cf. 'supra, Ch .. I, section. B, p.38 ), 'th.
.. .. j ':.. -n-'" "'-j'( --, . _IIIi._ ..... _ ... ___ .Il_ .. __ ..... _4 __ a
. . ' .
,
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,
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-229-
."
.'
.
. '
discourses of C!sttdirA:z. collection enl1ghtens S0J:18 important
').
aspects of hi"., Another ma.l:fjli which containe information on
the lif of GrsUdtriz ls enti-tled Shawimil al-Jumal d.ar 5hama' il
(r1ss. cAli' a.l-Dtn Juna.yd! collection, ',It is
a collection of" the di,scourses of Sayy1d A bU aL-taY4 'Min AllJh lf
, 1
IJusaynr (whose shrine 18 in Deccan) 1 & grandson of Gl'sMiriz.
" .
Theae discoursea of i"ear 874/lA69 to 877 Tabe1rat
&l-Kha.1fIr1gKt (ed. rand trans. by Hyderabad, 138.5 A.H.) is
a l&ter biogra,phical work an GtatH1.rb cOIIpll.ed by S. Min Alllh
ijuaaynI in ,the year 981/1573. The author 1fU a descendant of G!sUd1rlz.
As the tit1e suggeats, the _jar part ot: the work conta.1na ver:( inter-
esting stories descr1bing the ap1.r1.tual powera of Gl'stldiriz. In the

latter part Cf the wark, the authar briefly dea.la 'Id th the' lif, of the

Shaykh a.nd his fui1y. Min AllIh's soure .. were lII&1.nl,y those which
we have diaCNased above. These werm fCXl:'ll the ba.aic sources for a.ll
the l&ter hagiogra.phical. l1ten.ture dea.l1118 w1th Grsiklirk (for such
,
l&ter llterature, K.A. Nizam1, E.!, Vol.U, pp.lll,5-lll6).
AaCDg the earlier h1storical worm th&t ta.ke notic. of
t.here are bo, the Bu:rban-l Ma 'Ktb1r (Hyderabad, 1936) of Say;y1d cm
Tabl,\:&bI:. wntten in th. '1e&r .ork deala with

the hietory of the Nl,... SbIhI k1ngdou (896/1491-1044/1'33) of AhJud-
D&g&r of the Decc&n. The work la xartlY" devoted 'lfo the h1atory of th.
'r
Bahlll.nl KinadOll, .bere lt GtstW.r&z &lao (for deta1la about
o
J
o
,\
. '. + .. "':.' ..... ....".,.,.... /'--"""; n,. .... T-.'l' .. .... ',-. ___ .,..,... .......... ft<.....,q __ .... ...... ..-t_ ... ...." ...... , .... .. _ ...... __ .....,.... -"._ ......
(
,
-2)1)-
the lJork see H.K. Sherwa.nl, The Da.hmanis, pp.43l-4;Z). The
historiaal work 1s the well-knoun Gulshan;;-i Ibrhi:tI, kno.m as Th'ikh-i
F1r1shtah (-cr. infrat Blbllography) of l-1ul;a.mrnad Firlshtah, a
., '"
"
of th' a.uthor of B1Ir'h!.n-l work
of Flrishtah 18 a very popular work With the modern historians. It

,
lIaS compiled ea.r1y in the l1th centurYJ . .f.l1d lt dea.lB wittl Medieval
lndian history . As far as the hi.tory of the BahJIanl Kingdom 18
onoerned, H.K. Sherwa.ni wr1tea that the B.u:rbln-i l'a'lthlr 18
- r 1
accura.te ,tbaD the latter.(aee H.K. Sherwani" p.4J2. for
, <
deta.1la <,about Tartkb-l r1t1ahHJlt 'see "Con-
\
t ,:.: 1
tellpor&ry H1stori.8S ot the Qu'tb Shahi Dynasty of Golkond&" 7 Histartans
of MecU.eva.l ed.. M. Hasan, N. Delhi, 1968 .. pj.84-81).
Innuaexable .orles bave been wr1tten' on the life of GIaMtrlz by
, .
aode:m aoholara. Ve 111.11 liat hen only thoee 1fh1oh are well-reaearohed,
a,..t .... tl0, &Dd. oonta1n .. cri t10&l of ld,a life. Note AJ:pIad, .'
Idrla Qidr!', Bazlt:1, BanQf.hn&dz (Karachi, 196.5). Iqbll 4l}ud, Tadhld.rah-l
.
lChwl,iah GIaiUr" (Karachi, 1966). NUIII' 0A.l.{ ShIh Chiahtt Al&vt,
Kayfi'zat-l KhIildIll-l Ku-d t mown &8 Tlrrkh; Muball.dryab (Hydera.b&d.,
1318 A.H.h s. al-ntn Abet al...ftatulln,
1949), pp.48)-,520, M. Ib-l Kawthar 1966)" pp.)66-374,
K.A. N1Ul11, "Cr.Ud1rb", Sno;rcloped1a of la.1'. (New Id.), Vol.II;
. . -
pp.lll4-1117. MeIltion -1 be -.de hen of two d.1saertationsrt int tht!
of pre M. entltled Persian Llter&tUl'ee UDCler the
( ./
-_._ .. .. _ .. _ ..... __ ....... ____ .... _, .......
.....
,
. ,
<,
, 1
"
!II +< .......... ___ _ .... _ ...
, -231-
... Bahmanl Regime (unpublished doctoral thesis in Urdu, Osmanla Uni ver-
si ty, 1966). Tne thesis ha.s a ehapter on the life and ,works of Gtstldiraz
'"
(pp.219-270) lt ls surprising tha:t. this chapter ls ,'rary simila.r,
and at t1mes, 1'dentica.l ta the work of A.l. Qidrr mentloned above.
"
The sedOnd. dissertatlon 18 tha.t of M. Sulayman Sldd.i.qul, who recently
. . ,
,submitted l:lls Ph .. D., Ii1sserta.tion (Osmania Universlty, Februa.rY. 1975)..
. ,
His thesis ls about 'the suti, MOYe. apte in the Deccan under the Bahu.ni
K1J'1gdoa (I do not have the exact' tlt1e of the lI'ark)'. During my visit
to.Hyderab&d. in samer of l had. the ta read the
dJ.'a.ft pf parts o-r th. tbeais. In parts III and. IV, Siddiqui dea.la
'-n 'rl;t.h a orltloaJ.' &I1&l:ysiS of the aDd ,orles oi: cts1J!:i1rb.
Basides the alaost .Veq ed1t1011 :Of GfslJd.UCz',
, )
,
,bas an of his lire. written by ita e.1tor. Very hand.y,. but
short &CCOWlta of the li!;e of are found in cat..logu .. , 8Uch -.
, ,
as'H. Ethe,
Office (Oxfam, 19(3) 1 W: lva.now, Deacr1ptln ,C&tal.osl.!t ('8ee above),
I!o ,.
. ,
C.A. Stcttey, Pers1&n Liteture, A 'Blo-pibliomJ)h1ca.i SUE!!l (Loadon,
.
1953), etc.
It, 1s a pit y th&t no OI:\e i)&a ,worked on the thOUihtof GtaUc1iJ:lz.
The onJ.y atteapt -.de. la b1 Mr Wall" &l....ntn, Kh!IiLh J3a.ndahefds kt:
Tyawwuf aft SulUk (Delh1"l964) Which 1. neither a vwy systematl0 -
1
"
. , '"
nor a cri t1cal' atudy. SiII11&r "" -roUid WI\1&l.l.y in alacet &ll
_ l .,/
the conteapor&ry b1ograpb1cal on Ctstll:lUlz.
> l
v' ,t . .,.".. -: ..

.. . . " (:, .
,$ $ qLO$ 4ZlAl""Wi6WW't'J4p; * , ...
fJ
-2)2-
The present study on GtsMiriz bas been based on original ,
) sO}lI'ces, especiaUy on bis more important work, Asmir a.l-Asrar;.. but ,
h1s other compilationS have not been As Gisd.lraz did.
not discuss. ,in ASM::-, his works, had to
. ,
be consulted frequently in chaptal:' n!. Even in th:e parts other'
,
than those on Crs\1d.idz, an attempt bas been made to use .ori8in&l
sources &8 far &8 poas1bl.. The aecondary sources were utll1zed
for cOIlparati ve purpoees.
/ ,

., '
'1
Il'
.'

,.,. .
"
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,
.
-(.,
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"

,"
'Abd al-BarI,' M.Q., l.t:gaq al-Sama', Lucknow, 1318 A. H:
Akhbar al-Akhy!r, Urdu Translation by M.A.
(. '
Delhi (n.d.).
'Abd al:-hm!n, S. Bazm-l Azamgarh, 1949.
, ',' Mln A 1111 h. SbawllmLl 01-J .... l da. 11 hamli Li al-K_l.
. x rox copy of the anuscript from 'AliI'al-Diu Junaydl Collection,

!barga IndLa.
Afifi, ',Eo. Ahe l1ystlcal' PhUo8ophy of MghYld Din Ibnul Arab_f., Lahore,
19 (reprint).
\ .' '
Ahmad, Azlz, Studles ln IILamle Culture ln the Indian Environment,
Oxford, 1964. ".
HLsto,y of Islam Ln Indta. Islamle Surveys 7,
'''"
Edinburgh, 1969.
"The Role of 'Ulema. ln Indo-Musllm Ristory", Studla
I,lamiea. vol. XXXI'(19.6?), pp, 2'-13 .
__ ....,... __ ,_:. Sufl and the Sultan ln Pre-MulIhai "'1011 .. Iodl ....
Der Islam, XXXVI,II (lg62), pp. 142 ,- 143.
, '
--t---" Attitude and Contribution to Music' t.n Indla",
Zeltacbrift der Deut.chen Band
. 119 - Reft l, (1969), pp. 86 - 92.
AiJmad, Iqbil al-DIn, ta4bk1,'ab-l Dwitah qIaCHriz. KarachI. 1966.'
Ahmad, H.G. Zubald, ihe ontrlbutlon of Indo-Paklstln to

\
Lahore, 1968.
,J,
233 -
\
\
\
.. .

o

1
tsJIIf" ,_.'.--
Ci
'-'
...... __ ........ __ __ n", JO,,! ____ _
. ,
-234:- -
t'
.-

,""
'A1aw!, Jahin cA1T Sfi!b.
--
, '
al-ma'rf I!rlkh-i 1318 A.R.
AmIr Khurd, Sivar al-Awllya', Delhl: 130f A.H.
<\1.
AmIr Khusraw, Nuh Sipihr, ed. M. Wahld Mirza, Calcutta, 1948.
Amul!, Sayyid Jami( al-Asrir wa Maqba( al-Anwir, ed. by
H. Corbin fnd U.18m3'11 1969.
Anonymous,
Asrir al-Asmir al-Asrir, copy of
the manuscrlpt of Xfaftyah State Llbrary, ftYderabad. Dn., Indla.
Fann-l Tafawwuf, nQ. 1464.
_____ J Khulisah-I. Shar\l -1. .a'arruf. ed. Dr. Al}mad 'Ail Raj3'l,
Iran, 1349.
1
Ansari, A.S. Bazmee, Encyclopae'dl.a of Islam,
new 1960, vol., I, 702.
Arberry, A.J., A sun Martyr. London, 1969.
Tbe Doctrines of the Sufte. Translation of\lU..t.i!t,
.
al-taCarruf,
J ,
"
Arnold, T.W., "Khaltfah'l., EnoyclopaedLa of Islam, old edltion,
Lelden, 1934. vol. II:2, pp. 881-88S.
"
The Preachlng of Islam. 'Lonn. 1935.
PaintLng ln t.Lam. Qxtord (n.d.).
"al-Itl.in al-KlmU", Jp.cyclopaedLa of Islam, new editlon;
vol. III, (,alden, 1971, pp. 1239 1241-
Aslam, M., ''Malf,it-i I(hwljah BandabnWiz
vol. VIIl 3,
pp. 10 - 24; no. 4, pp. 23-34; no . 5,
pp . 29 - 3.6; ,no. , pp
10 - 20.
...
1
.e,


.. .. ,
'.
,
,

II;
'"
'.
-
-----
. -
,
"
.. etja--*uc;:wt1fj1i ,_ t t "If."" . __ __ .... _ ....
'r


,.
-235-
o 1

Fartd al-Dtn, Tadhkirat R.A. Nleholson,
L id en', l'}O 7.
, .....''\
,\ J
, ,
C. Farls, "Futl\wa", Shor;er Ency,clopaedla of
Islam, "L,eiden, 1961, pp.'

CAyn, Namaha,.'l, CAyn l Ramadan!,
ed. Munzawt and 'A. CUsayrin, 1, Beirut, 1969
.

" Tamhtdit. Ed. by" 'A. Cusayriu,'under
, the 'Ayn Ramadan!. Tehefau.
1962.
____ ...... __ - ____ 'Zubdat al-USgi' 19. Ed. by cA. 'Ua4yriu,
1
under 'tit1e CAyn Bamadin!.
"
1962.
Bedemptlve ln Islam: A Study of the
-
Sh!C1!m ln the Mldd1er
Ages. Ph.D.. thes la, Lty,. March,
, 197$.
,.
A,h&r, Apad, ,to 1526".
\
.... B&:l;.:,;:l]-:;:::.d. 0 Vol. ' lIt 'Arabt Ada

712 -
1972). eds. S. Fayyl4 'Abd'al-QayyM,
. -1972, pp,. 0 - 2U.
,
C G!!8Chl.ht der, A-rabLscheu LLtteratur: 'vol. I, ,
Le1den, 1 SUP?l, ement I, 1937. .
'') , , 0
" , M. t: R,oy $ ''Mu! ln Islam". ....J_ou .. rn=-;a=l_o_f::....:R:::;o ..
"
COI J' ," -
. ;Soc'Lety.
_. >i ','
<,
-- val. .XXII!, No. 2, .1957, pp. 43 ... 102.
.." "
, .
. ,
'i;
7.1
, ,
, '
.' f ' ..
6
li
!
( ,
,
1
-1
1-

,t-
,
j
f

i
,
.
..
..
.\
C'
.,..
- '-
...... ..-=.. __ __ "' ___ ... t''''I':'(\s'u""" ..!/ .. 'iSf.9Ai;&"fotIttiJ'jI'\J""," .. ... _ .. .. ... _ .. ...... " ... ___ ... __
1
... 236- >.
Corbin, eatLve 1ma lnation ln the
Translated from the French by ,Ralph Manhetm,' 1969.
" .
T.N., A Short Hlstorl of PersLan LLterature at the BahmanL,
, ., " .
the AdllshahL. and the Qutbshahi Courts - Deccan, Poona, 1961.
,
Eston, R.M., Folk Literature and "the Expansion of 1adian
ltlstorr of Re'USions, vol. pp. 1;; - '127'. "
, .
Eth, H., CataloSlle ""of Pers Lan Ln the LLbrary of the"
- Indla' OffIce, Oxford, 1903.
Farer, R.G., A H.L8t?ry of Ar.blan Music t the X1I;th Century,
LOndon, 1967.
___ ''Hus Le", Ahe Les.cy of ed. by Sir T. Arnold, ,
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lJ
FLrlshtah, K,' Airtkb-L FlrLshtah. Translated by J. Br LgSS,
. .
,G
and tttle Ui.tory of the Rlse of the Muham- r
\..
madan Power ln Indla,. II, Part One, 1958.
'.
Fre.man,' The Musllm and Christlan !lendars,

tondoq,
G4rdet, L."and G.-C. Anawati, Kystlgue HUfulmane. Aspects et
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.
Fund
J
!t. vol. XXXIV, Lonsion, 1938.

0
:{
" .
" ,
"
'*T1'!',I1' lia i'tU"., t'
.,
.
,
,

l
1
<.
i
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.'
. : .
>,
(
--
. '
. .
1
{}
-137-
,
" .
,J..-,
o ,
:
., "
al-Ghazal"i, M. At:mad,' Risilat ar-Sawinll} n: al-t.I;shg. Ed. 1raj -1

Afshar, prlnted in Malalah-l AdabTyit wa cUl m- 1
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, .
" .
al-Ghabzal:" Z. Mul}ammad, ll}yi 'Ulm al-PIn. Urdu.tr,anslatlon by i"
,
under the tte1e of a1-'XrLftn,'vol. II,
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----------------------
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1
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'Xshlg. Rtsi1ah dar bayan-i <1shq. Urdu translation by
f
Prlnted wlth Tarlamah-,l 'Yzdah Rasa' U,
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Asmir al-Asrir. Ed. S. 'Ata 1350
'A.H.
Il 1'"
_________ a1-Uqs. Ed. S. 'A. Prlnted ln
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l'fi'lr a1-Qyds. S. 'A. a,derabad, 1359
A.H.
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A.H.
Khit lmah. Bd. A. CAU !fu8ayn, llyderabad, 1356 A.a.'
, ,
<
.....
..
. .. l: ..... .' J.
-"
)
,-,
\
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Ed. by S. ,cA. Hyderabad, 1362 A.H.
al-Figh alAkbar. Ed. by S. 'A. Hyderabad,
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, ,
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Hyderabad,' 13

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.1 ;
'Ed. S. 'A. \kts-ayn, Hyderabad,
1358 A.H.
,
'iluHid Ed. S. cA. Printed i.n,
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(1960), pp. 260 -
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l'

" .
1'111'1['. Sd!
.w
, '\ ...
-_ ... .. -.. ...-..
l,'
-,-_ .... .. q ...
, '
-,' f:'" ..
l
,

,
..
.
f
(
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.--"'-
no. l, pp. 9 - 32.
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