Project Undertaken for Automobile Engineering (MEE 428) 2012-2013

Analysis of a Vapor Absorption Machine to Air-Condition the Cabin of a Car, using the exhaust gas heat from the Diesel Engine.


Amna Nashit (10BEM0064) Shadab Khan (10BEM0103) Kanav (07BEM)

Project guide: Prof. Ramesh Kumar C

Abstract: On an average, 30-32% of the total power produced by a diesel engine is lost as heat of the exhaust gases. A vehicle consumes 15% extra fuel when air conditioning is switched ‘ON’ [2]. Thus, the car air conditioning system causes approximately 0.5 l/100 km excess fuel consumption on average [1]. A study of vapor absorption system, which runs the a/c using the waste heat generated, is imperative to a better fuel economy. It not only eliminates the need of an engine driven compressor but also reduces the temperature of the exiting flue gas. Also it increases the gas mileage by 5 to 10% as a consequence (an SAE study). An analytical study was conducted on a vapor absorption machine, which uses LiBr-water pair as an absorberrefrigerant system, to find the change in COP of the system with load. The absorption system is assumed to be attached to a 10hp, 1500rpm four stroke compression ignition engine. The exhaust gas was used to heat water to temperatures of 48.5 oC at a pressure of 2.9343 kPa. The super heated steam was then used to act as a refrigerant for our absorption machine. This system is acceptable since the generator temperature needed for a LiBr-water pair in a single effect vapor absorption machine is 75-120oC (Fundamentals, ASHRAE-1993). The COP was found to increase proportionally with load.

Introduction: In the vapor absorption system, a physicochemical process replaces the mechanical process of the vapor compression system by using energy in the form of heat rather than mechanical work. The main advantages of this system lie in the possibility of using the energy in hot waste gases. This study investigates the performance of a vapor absorption unit utilizing the waste heat in the exhaust gases from a diesel engine that is used to represent the main propulsion unit of a road vehicle. If such a system could be used to provide air conditioning, there would be no need for the IC engine and the compressor of the vapor compression system. There would also be a corresponding reduction in exhaust gas pollution. Besides optimum fuel economy, another concern which has emerged in the last five to ten years is the search for environmentally-benign refrigerants and techniques. Wide-spread efforts are currently underway to develop replacements for the traditionally used halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants, which contribute to ozone depletion and greenhouse warming. Here yet again, the vapor absorption model provides an elegant solution.

Safety. high safety and high latent heat make it ideal for our system. largely established by the physical properties of the refrigerant. should be moderate. 9. Stability.65 kg LiBr/Kg of solution) and the systems need to be designed in hermetically sealed units since they operate at vacuum pressures do pose a challenge. 1993]: 1. because fluids are subjected to severe conditions over many years of service. 4. It’s high volatility ratio. thermal diffusivity and mass diffusivity are all important characteristics of the refrigerant-absorbent pair. Absence of solid phase: The refrigerant-absorbent pair must not form a solid phase over the range of composition and temperature to which it might be subjected. Evaporator temperatures are limited to above 0 degrees as the refrigerant (water) freezes above that which is ideal for our cause (air-conditioning). Corrosion. 8. Almost absolute chemical stability is required. the tendency of crystallization of LiBr salt at moderate concentrations ( >0. But LiBr-water pair has been found to contain several advantages over others. high stability. Pressure. . Operating pressures. No known refrigerant-absorbent pair meets all requirements listed. corrosion inhibitors should be used. (3) reduces the size of liquid heat exchanger that transfers heat from absorbent to pressurized refrigerant-absorbent solution in practical cycle. 2. Latent heat. 6. Refrigerant’s latent heat should be high so that circulation rate of solution can be kept at minimum. Since the fluids or substances created by instability can corrode materials used in constructing equipments. Affinity. less pump work is needed compared to other units due to operation at vacuum pressures. Fluids must be non-toxic and non-inflammable if they are in an occupied dwelling. (2) reduces the amount of absorbent to be circulated and consequently the waste of thermal energy from sensible heat. This affinity (1) causes a negative deviation from Rault’s Law and results in an activity coefficient of less than unity for the refrigerant. Also. Although. Transport properties. 7. Volatility ratio. solids. Viscosity. high affinity. surface tension. 5.Selection of absorbent-refrigerant pair: The materials that meet the refrigerant absorbent pair must meet the following criteria [ASHRAE. or corrosive substances. 3. Instability can cause undesirable formation of gases. The refrigerant must be much more volatile than the absorbent so the two can be easily separated. The absorbent should have strong affinity for refrigerant under working conditions.

Single effect LiBr-water absorption cycle .Absorption System: Fig 1.

State 5: High concentration LiBr solution (low concentration in water) is sprayed over the incoming water vapor in the absorber. Constant pressure heat exchanger. Heat is produced during this exothermic absorption process which is continuously extracted by cooling water circulation. State 6: High pressure weak solution (high concentration of water) State 7: Temperature increases from state 6 State 8: Very high temperature and highly pressurized strong solution of LiBr (weak in water) State 9: Temperature is lower than that of state 8. State10: High temperature. the fluid undergoes isenthalpic expansion.Cycle description and assumptions: State 1: High pressure. high pressure liquid. State 4: Heat gain in the evaporator is an isobaric process. in an isobaric process. in the condenser and turns into low temperature. The final state is low temperature. low pressure liquid. high temperature pure refrigerant (here water vapor) enters the condenser. State 2: Water vapor loses heat to the surrounding. It results in the change of state of the refrigerant from low pressure liquid to low pressure gas. State 3: After passing through the throttle valve. The resulting solution is a low concentration LiBr solution (high concentration in water). low pressure strong LiBr solution (weak in water). .

2.Psychometric calculations: For the Capacity of the system: 1. T1=32o C RH=80% V1=10m3/min (Data based on average conditions for Oct. RH = 40-60% 3. Air speed = 15m/min We have performed the following design calculations: P=1atm. Optimum temperature for an air-conditioned space is 20-27 o C. 2012 over Vellore) T2=20o C RH=50% Plotting the data on a p-h chart: .

91m3/kg The Qout found is used as Qe in the above calculations Equations used: A flow analysis of the system is carried out with the following assumptions: i. No pressure drops due to friction iv. Steady state and steady flow ii.225 kg water/kg of dry air hw (at T=9o C) = 37. Condenser: m1 = m 2 = m Q c = m (h1 − h2) .H1=97kJ/kg of dry air w1 = 0. It is given by: λ = mss/m This implies that the strong solution flow rate is given by: mss = λ m The analysis is carried out by applying mass and energy balance across each component.08 kg water/kg of dry air v1= 0. 4.8kJ/kg vel =15m3/min ma = vel/v1 = 16.6Tons of refrigeration H2=31kJ/kg of dry air w2 = 0.5kg/min mw =ma (w1-w2) = 2.9kg/min Qout= ma (h1-h2)-mw*hw =16.323kW This is approx. Changes in potential and kinetic energies across each component are negligible iii. The circulation ratio (λ) is defined as the ratio of strong solution flow rate to refrigerant flow rate. Only pure refrigerant boils in the generator.

. then: WP = (1 + λ) m vsol (P6 − P5) = (1 + λ) m vsol (Pc − Pe) where vsol is the specific volume of the solution which can be taken to be approximately equal to 0.Pc = Psat (Tc) where Tc is the condenser temperature Expansion valve (refrigerant): m2 = m 3 = m h2 = h3 Evaporator: m3 = m 4 = m Qe = m (h4 − h3) Pe = Psat (Te) where Te is the evaporator temperature Absorber: From total mass balance: m + mss = mws mss = λ m ⇒ mws = (1 + λ) m From mass balance for pure water: m + (1 − Xss ) mss = (1 −Xws ) mws ⇒ λ =Xws/Xss − Xws Qa = m h4 + λ m h10 − (1 + λ) m h5 or.00055 m3/kg. Qa = m [(h4 − h5 ) + λ(h10 − h5 )] Solution pump: m5 = m6 = mws WP = mws (h6 − h5) = (1 + λ) m (h6 − h5) However. if we assume the solution to be incompressible.

QHX is given by QHX = (1 + λ) m (h7 − h6) = λ m (h8 − h9) Generator: m7 = m8 + m1 Heat input to the generator is given by: Qg = m h1 + λ m h8 − (1 + λ) m h7 or.Solution heat exchanger: m6 = m7 = mws m8 = m9 = mss Heat transfer rate in the solution heat exchanger. Qg = m [(h1 − h7) + λ (h8 − h7)] Solution expansion valve: m9 = m10 = mws h9 = h10 The COP of the system is given by: COP =Qe / (Qg + WP) ≈ Qe / Qg Solution heat exchanger: εHX=(T7-T6)/(T8-T6) .

034184e-4 G4= 1. Refrigeration capacity If any 3 out of the above mentioned properties is known. P = exp( C + D / (T’+273) + E / (T’+273)2 ) kPa Enthalpy F0 = -2024.16976 B1= -7. E = -104095.133362e-3 B2=0.97668e-5. the remaining properties can be found from the given graphs or the stated equations. C Pressure C = 7.95090e-4.2829 G1= -1.49.00755 B0= 124.913705e-4 G0 = 18.9116628e-7 H4= -4. Effectiveness of pre-heater 4.1313015e-5 H3= 9. Refrigerant temperature A0 = 2. B3=-7.4441207e-9 kJ/kg .1691757 G2= 3. Weak and strong solution concentrations 3. Operating temperatures 2. D = -1596.To determine analytically the complete state of the system we need: 1.152286 A3= 1.8877666e-3 H2= -8.248041e-2 G3= -4.8520569e-6 H0 = -3.33 F1= 163.71649 0 A2= -3.7008214e-2 H1= 2.88161 F3= 6.937 A1=0.05.302948e-2 F4= -2.309 F2= -4.5.

3 Duhring plot for LiBr-water solution .Fig.


0044 0.934 9.323 kW 6 0C 90 0C 55% LiBr 60% LiBr 65 0C 85 0C Data for single effect LiBr–water cooling system Point # h (kJ/kg) _mm (kg/s) 5 83 0.66 9.2 2628 185.053 0.5 85 44.Design parameters for the single effect LiBr–water absorption cooler Parameter Symbol Capacity Qe Evaporator temperature T4 Generator solution exit temperature T8 Weak solution mass fraction XWS Strong solution mass fraction XSS Solution heat exchanger exit temperature T9 Generator (desorber) vapor exit temperature T1 Example-value 16.0044 0.0486 0.0486 0.934 T ( C) 34.8 44.934 9.9 34.3 185.3 6 6 0 X (%LiBr) 55 55 55 60 60 60 0 0 0 0 Remarks Sub-cooled liquid Superheated steam Saturated liquid water Saturated vapor .66 9.0043 p (kPa) 0.8 0.053 0.3 2511.0486 0.4 212.2 144.9 65 90 54.66 0.053 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 83 145.2 144.934 0.66 0.0044 0.66 9.66 9.

25 4.84 0 10.645 0 24.25 4.75 41 50.44 19.44 19.993 0 1.31 20.58 SI.964 4. kW SFC Kg/kWh FP kW IP kW m % Heat I/P kW 11.39 19.8 0.1 1552 1520 1506 1500 31. Load kg Speed rpm Manometer Reading (mm) 255 245 240 235 Time for 10cc of fuel t. kg rpm Time sec TFC g/min Torque Nm B.47 13.Tests on the diesel engine: Performance tests were carried out on the diesel engine and the results tabulated as shown below.4 14.89 18.475 0. No.5 18.91 18. The Greek alphabet SI.1 14.31 0.39 14235. that pool boiling dominates in the generator and pool boiling equations for zeotropic liquids are used to determine heat transfer coefficient.398 2.648 7. Assumptions: 1.25 4.39 0.7 2.91 18.63 0 8.8 0. sec 31.3 2. It is assumed.879 27.04 22. Weight Speed No.65 26.69 15. A MATLAB code was written to plot mass flow rate of exhaust gas vs COP of absorption system and the same has been listed in appendix 1.35 2.44 ma g/s mf g/s Exhaust temp 0C Exhaust loss kJ/hr 1 2 3 4 0 0.3 2.214 8.25 4.7 11575.9 1. The theory and equations behind the model can be described as follows. the following assumptions have been made. sec 19.359 4.1 17.P. . 2.44 19.85 Table 2 Design of Generator: To design the generator and study the dependence of the mass flow rate of exhaust gas with the COP of the absorption machine.1 1552 1520 1506 1500 14.25 5.44 214 252 304 346 9754.65 26.31 20.395 Table 1 ∞ 0.53 16291.26 0.9 1.0 13.69 Time for 1L of cooling water. as can be argued.838 17.462 % BT 1 2 3 4 0 0. The composition of exhaust gas and air is considered to be nearly the same and values of transport properties of dry air at 1atm are used.

Heat transfer coefficient W/m2K Transport properties of LiBr solution : There exist only limited studies on the thermodynamic and transport properties of LiBr solution despite of it being such a popular refrigerant. Thermodynamic properties have already been listed above ( eq ) .s/m2 Thermal conductivity W/m K Prandtl number Reynold’s number Based on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent (i. . Tb = (t1+t2)/2 K Density kg/m3 Specific heat J/kg K Dynamic viscosity N.Re is less than or greater than 2500.e.Transport properties of air [7]: All transport properties are calculated at the bulk temperature which can be roughly stated as the mean of the entry and exit temperature of the exhaust gases. Below is a compilation of such studies that can completely define the state of LiBr solution. at any given temperature and concentration. Nusselt number is found from which the heat transfer coefficient can be found using the following relation. respectively).

the author would also like to point out that this is an a-typical case of boiling as the concentration of solution in vapor phase and liquid phase are different and so are their temperatures.98555 c1 = -0.35014X + 2. it was the author’s opinion that pool boiling equations would be more suitable for such a scenario.703848 . by definition. the boiling superheat of the mixture is ∆TI+∆Ө while that for an ideal fluid with the same physical properties as the mixture is ∆TI.26502516 Density [8] a2 = 11. the ratio αnb/αnb.2. Having said that.5191536e-3 a3 = -1.494122 + 1.467414e-2 b3 = 3. Thus.4807273e-4 c3 = -2. Here we deal not only with heat but mass transfer effects. as the value of ∆Ө increases. The mass transfer effect on bubble growth can be explained in simple terms as follows. may reduce the value of the heat transfer coefficient by up to 90%. As in a generator both sensible and latent heat exchange takes place.34568X + 8. This incremental rise in the local bubble point temperature can be denoted as ∆Ө. the ratio of the mixture boiling heat transfer coefficient αnb to that of the ideal heat transfer coefficient αnb. Detailed reviews of mixture boiling are given by Thome and Shock (1984) and by Collier and Thome (1994). which increases the bubble point temperature at the interface. which represents the increase in the bubble point temperature at the surface due to preferential evaporation of the more volatile component.86064 .52755X2) x 104 A3 = (0. The partial depletion of the more volatile component at the interface increases that of the less volatile component. only to flows where either sensible heating or latent heating is involved.9. Hence. which is determined for instance using the Cooper correlation with the molecular weight and critical pressure of the mixture. in some cases.I at the same heat flux is [9]: The value of ∆TI is the wall superheat that corresponds to αnb.I. in a generator the normal equations that apply to heat exchangers break down as the Reynold’s number and Nusselt number equations are valid. Since the equilibrium composition of the more volatile component is larger in the vapor phase than in the liquid phase.07809X2) x 102 Now. the more volatile component preferentially evaporates at the bubble interface.I decreases.24047484 c2 = -1.051253 b2 = -0.3226242e-6 kg/m3 Dynamic viscosity [8] A1 = (0. At a given heat flux.5255 b1 = 38. to evaporate at the same rate as in a pure fluid. a larger superheat is required for a mixture. which in turn reduces its composition there and induces the formation of a diffusion layer in the liquid surrounding the bubble.63967X .4511X2) x 103 A2 = (2.1. which means that a larger wall superheat is required in a mixture to transfer the same heat .Thermal conductivity [8] W/m K a1 = -1407. Mass transfer tends to reduce nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients and. Hence. The effect of mass transfer on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer can therefore be explained by introducing the parameter ∆Ө.

Starting from a mass transfer balance around an evaporating bubble and simplifying with an approximate slope of the bubble point curve.. and hence the efficiency of the air-conditioning system attached to the vehicle. . This increases the net time of heat exchange and hence increases the COP.flux. stalling.I is determined with one of the pure fluid correlation suggested by Cooper (1984): Overall heat transfer coefficient U can be given by And then the overall heat transferred in the generator is given by where ∆Tlm is the logarithmic mean temperature in 0C and A in the inner surface area of the pipe in m2. Result and conclusion: The following plots were obtained and conclusions drawn. Also. This is owing to the fact that the temperature of exhaust gases increase with the increase in speed. The value of αnb.e. the mass flow rate decreases as the speed increases as can be seen from plot 2.0003 m/s). It is also seen that a well designed heat exchanger can provide enough heat to the LiBr solution to keep the system running even in no load conditions. i. It can be clearly concluded that the COP of the absorption machine. As exploited in an early mixture boiling prediction by Thome (1983). It can be thus concluded that a vapor absorption machine is an exploitable mode of running air conditioning in the vehicle and further work must be undertaken to design and model such a system. greatly improves as the vehicle gains speed. the following expression was obtained to predict heat transfer in the boiling of mixtures where βmL is the mass transfer coefficient in the liquid (set to a fixed value of 0. which is equal to the difference between the dew point and the bubble point temperatures at the composition of the liquid. the maximum value of ∆Ө is the boiling range of the mixture ∆Ө bp. But this relationship is not linear as can be concluded from the graph and verified analytically from the stated equations.

Plot 1 : Variation of COP with Load (kg) Plot 2: Variation of mass flow rate of exhaust gas (kg/s) with load (kg) .

m3 = M(6.i). M = M'.i).i).i). %Exhaust gas entry temperature %Exhaust gas exit temperature %Temperature of LiBr weak solution entering the generator %Temperature of LiBr strong solution exiting the generator %Mass flow rate of exhaust gas %mass flow rate of weak solution into the generator %mass flow rate of Strong solution from the generator %mass flow rate of refrigerant from the generator %inner diameter of pipe %outer diameter of pipe %Length of pipe . t4 = M(4.i).txt').Plot 3: Variation of COP with the mass flow rate of exhaust gas (kg/s) Appendix 1 – MATLAB code used fid=fopen('data. M = fscanf(fid. t2 = M(2.i). L = M(11.i).i).'%g %g %g %g %g %g %g %g %g %g %g'. for k=1:length(M) t1 = M(1.i).inf]). Mex = M(5. [11. Do = M(10. m5 = M(8.i). m4 = M(7. t3 = M(3. Di = M(9.i). fclose(fid).

24047484.25e6)&&(Pr>0. c3 = -2.7)).5191536e-3. . elseif (((L/Di)>2)&&((L/Di)<20)) Nu = Nu (1+((Di/L)^0. %Reynold's number %Finding Nusselt number if (Rex<2300) %Laminar flow if (((L/Di)/(Rex*Pr))<0. c2 = -1. end else %Turbulent flow if((Rex>2500)&&(Rex<1. %Prandtl number Pr = (Cpex*MUex)/Kex. b2 = -0.84/(Tb^2)). T = t4.(0.4).5)) / (109.4807273e-4.98555. %Specific heat Cpex = 1030.9734e-4 * (Tb^2)).1997*Tb) + (3.03).8)*(Pr^0. %Dynamic viscosity MUex = (1.54 + Tb) . %Mass fraction of strong solution of LiBr %Mass fraction of weak solution of LiBr %Properties of LiBr %Thermal conductivity a1 = -1407.66. b1 = 38.%Exhaust gas Heat transfer coefficient Tb = (t1+t2)/2.4592e-6 * (Tb^1.051253. c1 = -0. %Thermal conductivity Kex = (2.023*(Rex^0. else Nu=3.67*(((Rex*Pr)/(L/Di))^0.1 + Tb).5 .3226242e-6.01) Nu = 1. a3 = -1. a2 = 11. X = Xs.99/Tb) + (344.5)) / (164. Rex = (4*Mex) / (pi*Di*MUex). Xw = 55.467414e-2. b3 = 3.334e-3 * (T^1.5255. %Bulk temperature of exhaust gas %Properties of exhaust gas %Density rhoex = (351.26502516. %Exhaust gas side heat transfer coefficient % Lithium Bromide side heat transfer coefficient Xs = 60.6)&&(Pr<100)) Nu = 0. end end Hi = (Nu*Kex)/L.

%Density rho = 1.1691757.2 / (tau^3)) + (104198 / (tau^4)) . for i=1:3 s1 = B(i)*(X^i).. + (pr^3)*((-95607. .913705e-4.9.2829. -4. for i=1:5 h3= h3 + ( F(i)* (Xw^i) + (G(i) * (Xw^i)) * t3 + (H(i) * (Xw^i)) * (t3^2)). -1.95090e-4.284 / (tau^5)) + pr*((-355.49.494122 + 1. E = -104095.3 / (tau^3)). MUlb = exp(A1 + (A2/T) + A3*log(T)).14.-4. + (587261 / (tau^4)) + (167657 / (tau^5))) + (pr^4)*((22542.(777. 0..9116628e-7. pr = P/22.86064 . h5 = (10258. end %Enthalpy of strong solution leaving the generator h4=0.33. + (5579.(84140.5 / tau) + (443740 / (tau^2)) .97668e-5.12318 + 0.(20231. %Pressure C = 7..302948e-2.064. %Enthalpy of weak solution coming into the generator h3=0. s2 = A(i)*(X^i).. 1.31 / (tau^4)) . P = exp( C + (D / (t5+273)) + (E / ((t5+273)^2))).At = a1+(a2*T)+(a3*(T^2)). 3.2..7008214e-2..(845.88161.64232*(X^2) . + (817. -7.152286.713995*X + 2. -4.276/(tau^3)).16976.4511*(X^2))*e3.8 . G = 18.(pr^2)*(160. B = 124. .703848 . Klb = At + Bt*X + Ct*(X^2). A3 = (0. 1.35014*X + 2.8 / (tau^2)). H = -3.8 / (tau^2)) . -7.(16307.34568*X + 8. 163.3/tau) + (24702.05. for i=1:5 h4= h4 + ( F(i)* (Xs^i) + (G(i) * (Xs^i)) * t4 + (H(i) * (Xs^i)) * (t4^2)).8520569e-6.((0.71649. A2 = (2...63967*X .248041e-2.034184e-4.841 / (tau^3))) .8877666e-3. 0. D = -1596. %Refrigerant temperature A = 2.1.946268*X)*T)/1000. %Enthalpy F = -2024.1313015e-5.309.. -8.288 / (tau^2)) .5.00755.40818 .(42886. 6.133362e-3. -2.937.878 / tau). end t5 = (T-s1)/s2.0.07809*(X^2))*e2.4441207e-9. end %Enthalpy of vapour leaving the generator tau = (t5+273)/674.52755*(X^2))*e4.(767668 / (tau^3)).7 / (tau^5)))).. 2. %heat capacity -3. Bt = b1+(b2*T)+(b3*(T^2)). 9. %Dynamic Viscosity A1 = (0. Ct = c1+(c2*T)+(c3*(T^2)).

-6. end plot (Mex.779481e-5.778069e-3.55e-6.3499e-3.201525e-9. %Since COP depends directly on Q if capacity is kept constant Plots: 1. 9. %logarithmic mean temperature difference Q(i) = U*A*Tlm. 2. end end Prlb = (Cp*MUlb)/Klb. for i=1:6 for j=1:3 Tdp = Tdp + (B(i. %accounting for mass transfer due to azeotropic solution beta = 0. 1.667546e-8. 4.12) * ((-0.002427e-6. Input power vs COP 3. %Average heat transfer in a generator A = pi*Di*L.820914e-1.j)*(X^i)*(T^j)). -7. -1.55) * (M^0. 5. Z = Z'. %Inner surface area for heat exchange Tlm = ((t1-t3)-(t2-t4))/log((t1-t3)/(t2-t4)).641716e12].462023. Exhaust gas temperature vs COP .313448e-1.67).(m3*h3).exp ( -q / (rho*h4*beta)))))^-1).788472e-6. 1. d = -6. c = 1. %Dew point temperature Z = [ -1. Tdp=0.913618e-6. 2.380541e-5. -6. %Over-all heat transfer coefficient U = ( Hi^-1 + Rfi + (Di/(2*Ksteel))*log(Do/Di) + (Di/Do)*Rfo + (Di/Do)*(Ho^-1))^-1. -2. %mass transfer coefficient Ho = Ho1 * ((1 + ((ho1 / q) * (Tdp-T) * ( 1 .827426e-3. %Heat absorbed by the solution %heat transfer coefficient for LiBr solution side of the heat exchanger %using pool boiling equations Ho1 = 55 * (Prlb^0. b = 2. 1. -7.679895e-2. %Prandtl number q = (m5*h5) + (m4*h4) .308556e-8. -5.967944e-1. 2. 1.4343 * log(Prlb))^0.215597e-4.0003. Cp = (a + (b*X) + (T*(c + (d*X)))).5) * (q^0. Power input vs Exhaust gas temperature 2.978788e-5.177356e-2.Q).a = 3.340498e-7.

1999 8. A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of LiBr. Heat capacity of the water-lithium bromide system and the water-lithium bromide-zinc bromide-lithium chloride system at high temperatures. Fundamentals. Y. Boulder City (NV): Rocky Research Inc. Kaita. 2008 Paper Number: 2008-21-0047 2. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. properties = P-T-X. ASHRAE. 85 (Part 1):413-34 12. KG . Florides et al. 7. Uemura T. ASHRAE Transactions 1979. Vapor absorption refrigeration in road transport vehicles. Design and construction of LiBr-water absorption machine. ASHRAE Handbook.1.I. International Journal of Refrigeration 1989. Contribution of the Air Conditioning System to Reduced Power Consumption in Cars. Laboratories result: solution = Libr-H2O. Thomas E. Lausanne. 2002 Energy Conversion and Management 44 (2003) 2483–2508. International Journal of Refrigeration 24(2001) 374-390 11. heat capacity.R Thome.Behr GmbH & Co. Expressions for Thermophysical properties of superheated steam. Iyoki S. Automotive Air Conditioning Systems with Absorption Refrigeration . Unpublished data. . J. 2379-88. 10. Rockenfeller U. 1991. J. 13. 9. 1971 Paper Number: 710037 3. 1993 4. Heckenberger et al. Fundamentals of boiling on tubes and tube bundles. 1987. Joseph R Akerman. I Horuz 5. Wang et al 6.References: 1. Lachkov et al. Measurements techniques Vol. V.42 No. Mc Neely LA. Thermophysical property data for Lithium Bromide water solutions at elevated temperatures. Thermodynamic property data for Lithium bromide-water solutions at high temperature.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful