You are on page 1of 7

EEE 125 LAB 3

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical & Electronic Engineering Department Basic Circuits Laboratory EEE125

Oscilloscope Y-T Mode, Probes and Voltage Measurement


OBJECTIVE To become familiar with using an oscilloscope and voltage measurement. To calculate, obtain, and measure the peak, peak to peak and RMS voltage. To study the effect of input resistance of ammeter and oscilloscope.

INTRODUCTION Oscilloscopes Probe Input Resistance Measuring an electrical signal inevitably affects that signal. This applies to all measurements, including the display of an oscilloscope waveform. Affecting the signal cannot be totally eliminated, but it can be minimized sufficiently that the effect is unimportant. Then the measured result is a sufficiently accurate representation of the real signal. It is therefore critical for the measurement engineer to understand the effect of the instrument on the signal. The better an oscilloscope or voltmeter is, the smaller the current it needs to flow through it of a given voltage i.e. the higher its input resistance. Since it has a very large input resistance, an oscilloscope can only be used to measure voltages and time. Waveform Observation After the initial adjustments are made, the oscilloscope is ready for operation. To observe the waveform of any periodic signal, apply the signal to the vertical input terminals. Use DC coupling if the input is DC or very low in frequency or if you want to capture any DC offset. Now the signal from an oscillator, signal generator, or some component of an electrical circuit may be observed on the screen. The best resolution of the waveform is obtained when the time scale is adjusted so one or two cycles appear on the screen and when the vertical scale is adjusted so the amplitude occupies most of the graticule. If the waveform will not stabilize, adjust the Sync or Trigger just enough to cause the pattern to stop. Otherwise the Run/Stop button would be necessary. Whenever possible, connect the oscilloscope ground to the common ground of the circuit. Exercise great care when making measurements with both terminals above ground potential, as there may be a difference in potential between two instrument cases, causing ground loop currents, faulty readings, and damaged equipment. Voltage Measurement (AC & DC) The oscilloscope has advantages as a voltmeter, a very high input impedance compared to an analog voltmeter, the ability to measure voltages over a very wide frequency range and the ability to indicate magnitude regardless of waveform. Also, scopes measure peak, peak-to-peak values of AC (Alternating Current) voltages, whereas standard AC voltmeters measure RMS (Root Mean Square) values of sine wave voltages. However, the oscilloscope only has an accuracy of 2% to 5%, while the AC voltmeters accuracy will be from 0.25% to 2%.

EEE 125 LAB 3

To use the oscilloscope as an AC voltmeter, apply the signal to the vertical input terminals, and adjust the calibrated vertical sensitivity (or volt/div) so the amplitude is of suitable magnitude on the graticule. The peak-to-peak value is then the distance indicated multiplied by the vertical calibration. For example, assume that a sine wave generator is set to 1000 Hz and adjusted for maximum output voltage. A peak-to-peak value of 60V is observed on the oscilloscope. The output of the generator at 1000 Hz, therefore is approximately 60V peak-to-peak and 21.2 Vrms. Note: Vrms= Vp-p / 22. For other periodic signals, we calculate the RMS value by performing the integration.

Figure 1: Vp, Vp-p and Vrms measurement of AC signal For DC (Direct Current) measurements, apply the voltage to the vertical input terminals, again suitably adjusting the vertical sensitivity. A straight line is produced with the horizontal sweep functioning. With no horizontal voltage applied, a spot will appear on the screen. In measuring DC voltages, it is necessary to remember where the trace was with 0V applied to the vertical input.

Figure 2: Voltage measurement of DC signal

EEE 125 LAB 3

EQUIPMENTS Resistors 100 X 1, 1k X 1, 4.7k X 1, 10k X 1, 100k X 1, 1M X 2 Potentiometer 5k Breadboard Digital multimeter Analog DC Miliammeter GW GPR3030 DC power supply DSO-X 2002A Digital Oscilloscopes Crocodile clips, BNC Connectors, Connection wires (single core)

Experiment: Part I Small AC voltage measurement (Vp, Vp-p and Vrms ) using oscilloscope 1. As we just learned in class, the RMS value of a periodic signal is related to the energy content of the signal. For sinusoidal signals the RMS value is 1/2 of the amplitude Vp. For AC circuit, set channel 1 setting on oscilloscope to AC coupling mode. 2. RMS is a way of expressing an AC voltage or current in terms functionally equivalent to a DC voltage or current. For example, 10 volts AC RMS is the AC voltage that would produce the same amount of heat dissipation in a resistor of given value as would 10 volts DC. The RMS value is also known as the equivalent or DC equivalent value of an AC voltage or current. The labs digital multimeters (DMM) display the true RMS values of measured voltage and current, but to see what the actual voltage signal looks like, we turn to the oscilloscope. 3. Set up the following circuit. Use waveform generator from the oscilloscope as AC source.

Figure 1a: Measuring AC circuit 4. Turn on your oscilloscope and waveform generator. Select sinusoidal waveform. Gradually increase the output amplitude until the oscilloscope indicates the output is 5 Vp-p. Record the exact value of AC digital voltmeter. AC digital voltmeter output = __________ Vrms 5. Observe the waveform on the oscilloscope and compare the digital voltmeter reading with the peak voltage (that is the peak-to-peak voltage) measured with the oscilloscope. For a sine wave, the peak voltage, Vp, as seen on the oscilloscope, should be 2 times the voltmeter reading, Vrms. Vp = 2 Vrms and Vp-p = 22 Vrms 6. On the oscilloscope, set up an automated measurement for the AC RMS - N Cycles. (You have learned this during Lab 2). Compare the values for Vrms reported by the digital voltmeter reading and the oscilloscope. Are they almost the same? Oscilloscope output = __________ Vrms

EEE 125 LAB 3

Experiment: Part II DC voltage measurement using oscilloscope 1. Construct the circuit on a breadboard such as in Figure 2a. A 4.7k resistor is connected in series with a 5k potentiometer (variable resistor) and a DC power supply. For DC circuit, set channel 1 setting on oscilloscope to DC coupling mode. Configure the oscilloscope to display DC RMS FS.

Figure 2a: Measuring DC circuit and potentiometer layout 2. On channel 1, press the Push to Zero button to set the DC level at the center of the screen. This will indicate the zero volt has been achieved on the oscilloscope screen. 3. The output voltage signal across the 5k potentiometer is observed using the oscilloscope. The potentiometer works as a voltage divider circuit. Connect the output to the channel 1 probe of the scope and the ground point is connected to its common wire. 4. Power up the circuit by turning on the DC power supply. Set V dc to 10 V. Vary (turn) the potentiometer and measure the voltage across B and C using digital voltmeter. Record and measure the DC level seen on the oscilloscope for the following multimeter readings as in Table 2a. You need to configure the oscilloscope so that it will display DC RMS FS signal. Table 2a: Multimeter and Oscilloscope readings Digital Multimeter Reading Channel 1 Oscilloscope Output, V VBC, V 1 2 3 4

EEE 125 LAB 3

Experiment: Part III Effect of Input Resistance of the Oscilloscopes Probe 1. Construct the following circuit, using the DC power supply for the power source. Set the DC power supplys output to about 10V. The measurement is attempted with a scope that presents a load of say, RSCOPE to the circuit. Then the 1M internal resistance and the scope resistance RSCOPE form a voltage divider and the oscilloscopes reading will be VR volts.

Figure 3a: Input resistance of oscilloscopes probe 2. Measure VR with the oscilloscope for the following values of RSCOPE : 10k, 100k, and 1M. VR (10k) = __________ V VR (100k) = __________ V VR (1M) = __________ V 3. Expect the value of VR with RSCOPE = infinity (ideal for the scope). VR () = __________ V (expected) 4. Measure the actual result of infinite VR by removing RSCOPE (open RSCOPE). VR () = __________ V (measured) 5. Plot and discuss RSCOPE vs. accuracy of VR measured on the oscilloscope. Calculate the oscilloscopes DC input resistance from the slope of the graph. Oscilloscopes DC input resistance = __________

Figure 3b: RSCOPE vs. VR

EEE 125 LAB 3

Experiment: Part IV Effect of Internal Resistance of the Analogue DC Ammeter 1. Construct the following circuit, using the DC power supply for the power source in series with a 1k resistor, a 100 resistor and an analogue DC ammeter provided inside your workbench (black case) as shown in Figure 4a. 2. Note that the ammeter is properly connected in series between points B and C. Scale the ammeter to 50mA at first. Any group who fails to do this will lead to the damage/broken of the ammeter, causing the group to get 75% marks deduction. This is considered as a highly mandatory mistake. You should be alert with this caution all the time especially when measuring current.

Figure 4a: Input resistance of DC miliammeter 3. Set the DC power supplys output to about 15V. The measurement is attempted with a digital multimeter (DMM) that measures voltage between A, B and C. Measure the voltages VAB and VAC using DMM. Why is there a difference between VAB and VAC? Explain. VAB = __________ V VAC = __________ V 4. The analogue DC ammeter is put in series between point B and C in measuring I. I = __________ mA 5. From the results obtained in step 3 and 4, calculate the internal resistance of DC ammeter. Rammeter = __________

EEE 125 LAB 3

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Compare between RMS, Peak and Peak to Peak voltage. 2. Which instrument is more accurate at 500 Hz and 5000 Hz? Explain the reason. 3. Are digital and analogue Voltmeters used in the experiment True RMS Voltmeter? 4. Why it is important to set a specific coupling mode for DC and AC measurement? 5. Can the normal oscilloscope measure current? Explain. How can we use the normal scope to measure current? 6. Discuss the loading effect of the oscilloscope by referring to results obtained from Part III of the experiment. 7. Discuss the effect of resistance in an ammeter.

TURN IN ONE REPORT PER GROUP AT THE END OF YOUR LAB SESSION. THERE IS NO TAKE HOME REPORT.