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# Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering

and Special Projects Section

CHAPTER 4. ESTIMATING WALL FIRE FLAME HEIGHT
Version 1805.0
The following calculations estimate the wall fire flame height. Parameters in YELLOW CELLS are Entered by the User. Parameters in GREEN CELLS are Automatically Selected from the DROP DOWN MENU for the Fuel Selected. All subsequent output values are calculated by the spreadsheet and based on values specified in the input parameters. This spreadsheet is protected and secure to avoid errors due to a wrong entry in a cell(s). The chapter in the NUREG should be read before an analysis is made.

INPUT PARAMETERS
Fuel Spill Volume (V) Fuel Spill Area or Dike Area (Adike) Mass Burning Rate of Fuel (m") Effective Heat of Combustion of Fuel (DHc,eff) Empirical Constant (kb) 2.00 9.00 0.039 46000 0.7
gallons ft2 kg/m2-sec kJ/kg m-1

Calculate
THERMAL PROPERTIES FOR
BURNING RATE DATA FOR LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS Fuel Methanol Ethanol Butane Benzene Hexane Heptane Xylene Acetone Dioxane Diethy Ether Benzene Gasoline Kerosene Diesel JP-4 JP-5 Transformer Oil, Hydrocarbon 561 Silicon Transformer Fluid Fuel Oil, Heavy Crude Oil Lube Oil User Specified Value Heat Release Rate Calculation
Reference: SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 3 rd Edition, 2002, Page 3-25.

Mass Burning Rate m" (kg/m2-sec) 0.017 0.015 0.078 0.085 0.074 0.101 0.09 0.041 0.018 0.085 0.048 0.055 0.039 0.045 0.051 0.054 0.039 0.005 0.035 0.034 0.039 Enter Value

Heat of Combustion DHc,eff (kJ/kg) 20,000 26,800 45,700 40,100 44,700 44,600 40,800 25,800 26,200 34,200 44,700 43,700 43,200 44,400 43,500 43,000 46,000 28,100 39,700 42,600 46,000 Enter Value

Reference: SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 3 rd Edition, Page 3-26.

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Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section

Q = m"DHc,eff (1 - e-kb D) Adike Where Q = pool fire heat release rate (kW) m" = mass burning rate of fuel per unit surface area (kg/m 2-sec) DHc,eff = effective heat of combustion of fuel (kJ/kg) Af = Adike = surface area of pool fire (area involved in vaporization) (m 2) kb = empirical constant (m -1) D = diameter of pool fire (diameter involved in vaporization, circular pool is assumed) (m) (Liquids with relatively high flash point, like transformer oil require localized heating to achieve ignition) Pool Fire Diameter Calculation Adike = pD2/4 D = √(4Adike/p) Where D= Adike = surface area of pool fire (m 2) D = pool fire diamter (m) 1.032 m

Heat Release Rate Calculation Q = m"DHc,eff (1-e-kb D) Adike Q= 771.52 kW 731.26 Btu/sec Heat Release Rate Per Unit Length of Fire Calculation Q' = Q/L Where Q' = heat release rate per unit length (kW/m) Q = fire heat release rate of the fire (kW) L = length of the fire source (m) Fire Source Length Calculation L x W = Adike 2 Lx W = 0.836 m L= Q' = Q/L Q' = 0.914 m

843.75 kW/m

ESTIMATING WALL FIRE FLAME HEIGHT
Reference: NFPA Fire Protection Handbook, 19 th Edition, 2003, Page 3-134.

Hf(wall) = 0.034 Q'2/3 Hf(wall) = wall fire flame height (m) Q' = rate of heat release per unit length of the fire (kW/m) Hf(wall) = 0.034 Q'2/3 Where Hf(wall) = 3.04 m 9.96 ft

Answer

NOTE
The above calculations are based on principles developed in the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 3rd Edition, 2002, and NFPA Fire Protection Handbook, 19th Edition, 2003. Calculations are based on certain assumptions and have inherent limitations. The results of such calculations may or may not have reasonable predictive capabilities for a given situation, and

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or to report an error(s) in the spreadsheet. concerns. Although each calculation in the spreadsheet has been verified with the results of hand calculation.gov. 3 .0 Original issue with final text.gov or mxs3@nrc. Any questions.Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section should only be interpreted by an informed user. and suggestions. Prepared by: Checked by: Additional Information Date Date Organization Organization Revision Log Description of Revision 1805. there is no absolute guarantee of the accuracy of these calculations. comments. please send an email to nxi@nrc.

Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section 4 .

ecified in the input ntry in a cell(s).7 3.6 1.7 100 1.836 m Empirical Constant kb (m-1) 100 100 2.9 5.7 1.1 1.6 0.0076 m 2 0.7 Enter Value Select Fuel Type Transformer Oil.1 3.Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section ENU for the Fuel Selected.7 2.8 0.4 1.1 3.7 2. Hydrocarbon Scroll to desired fuel type then Click on selection 5 . 3 0.5 2.6 2.9 1.4 0.

Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section ircular pool is assumed) (m) lash point. The results of s for a given situation. 19th Edition. 2003. like transformer to achieve ignition) Answer Handbook of Fire dbook. and 6 . ons.

Date January 2004 7 .Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section esults of hand calculation. ror(s) in the spreadsheet.

Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section 8 .

005 0.041 0.000 Enter Value Reference: SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. This spreadsheet is protected and secure to avoid errors due to a wrong entry in a cell(s). Hydrocarbon 561 Silicon Transformer Fluid Fuel Oil. ESTIMATING CORNER FIRE FLAME HEIGHT Version 1805.035 0. 9 .048 0.000 26.800 25.078 0.600 40.054 0.101 0.00 0.085 0.600 46. Parameters in YELLOW CELLS are Entered by the User.400 43.eff) Empirical Constant (kb) 1.700 43. m" (kg/m2-sec) 0. Heavy Crude Oil Lube Oil User Specified Value Heat Release Rate Calculation Reference: SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering.085 0. 2002.055 0.700 43.0 The following calculations estimate the corner fire flame height.1 gallons ft2 kg/m2-sec kJ/kg m-1 Calculate THERMAL PROPERTIES FOR BURNING RATE DATA FOR LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS Mass Burning Rate Heat of Combustion Fuel Methanol Ethanol Butane Benzene Hexane Heptane Xylene Acetone Dioxane Diethy Ether Benzene Gasoline Kerosene Diesel JP-4 JP-5 Transformer Oil.50 10.100 44.200 34.018 0.800 45.074 0.017 0.Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section CHAPTER 4. Parameters in GREEN CELLS are Automatically Selected from the DROP DOWN MENU for the Fuel Selected.100 39.051 0.015 0. 3 rd Edition. Page 3-26.200 44.000 28. 3 rd Edition. Page 3-25. The chapter in the NUREG should be read before an analysis is made.eff (kJ/kg) 20. All subsequent output values are calculated by the spreadsheet and based on values specified in the input parameters.200 44.039 0.034 0.800 26.700 44.09 0.700 40.045 0. INPUT PARAMETERS Fuel Spill Volume (V) Fuel Spill Area or Dike Area (Adike) Mass Burning Rate of Fuel (m") Effective Heat of Combustion of Fuel (DHc.045 44400 2.000 46.039 0.039 Enter Value DHc.500 43.700 42.

gov. The results of such calculations may or may not have reasonable predictive capabilities for a given situation.43 m 21. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)." Proceeding of the 21 th National Heat Transfer Conference.075 Q3/5 Hf(corner) = 6. please send an email to nxi@nrc. 10 . "Modeling of Turbulent Diffusion Flames and Fire Plumes for the Analysis of Fire Growth." Growth.e-kb D) Af Where Q = pool fire heat release rate (kW) m" = mass burning rate of fuel per unit surface area (kg/m 2-sec) DHc.10 ft Answer NOTE The above calculations are based on principles developed in the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. 3rd Edition. and should only be interpreted by an informed user. Hf(corner) = 0.088 m Heat Release Rate Calculation Q = m"DHc. circular pool is assumed) (m) (Liquids with relatively high flash point. 2002 and Hesemi and Tokunage. there is no absolute guarantee of the accuracy of these calculations.Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section Q = m"DHc.gov or mxs3@nrc. like transformer oil require localized heating to achieve ignition) Pool Fire Diameter Calculation Adike = pD2/4 D = √(4Adike/p) Adike = surface area of pool fire (m 2) D = pool fire diamter (m) D= 1. 1983. comments.eff (1 . Calculations are based on certain assumptions and have inherent limitations. Any questions. and suggestions.eff = effective heat of combustion of fuel (kJ/kg) Af = Adike = surface area of pool fire (area involved in vaporization) (m 2) kb = empirical constant (m -1) D = diameter of pool fire (diameter involved in vaporization. concerns.eff (1-e-kb D) Adike Q= 1667.10 Btu/sec Where ESTIMATING CORNER FIRE FLAME HEIGHT Reference: Hesemi and Tokunaga. 1983.075 Q3/5 Where Q = heat release rate of the fire (kW) Hf(corner) = 0. or to report an error(s) in the spreadsheet. Although each calculation in the spreadsheet has been verified with the results of hand calculation.09 kW 1580.

Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section Prepared by: Checked by: Additional Information Date Date Organization Organization Revision Log Description of Revision 1805. 11 .0 Original issue with final text.

7 100 1.4 0. 3 0. specified in the input entry in a cell(s).9 1.6 0.4 1.5 2.7 Enter Value Select Fuel Type Diesel Scroll to desired fuel type then Click on selection 12 .0057 m 2 0.6 2.7 2.7 2.1 1.1 3.6 1.9 5.1 3.929 m Empirical Constant kb (m-1) 100 100 2.7 1.7 3.Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section MENU for the Fuel Selected.8 0.

" of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section circular pool is assumed) (m) lash point. like transformer to achieve ignition) lumes for the Analysis of Fire Growth. 1983. error(s) in the spreadsheet. 13 . Answer Handbook of Fire ations. e results of hand calculation. The results of es for a given situation.

Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section Date January 2005 14 .

039 Enter Value Heat of Combustion DHc. Heavy Crude Oil Lube Oil User Specified Value Heat Release Rate Calculation Mass Burning Rate m" (kg/m2-sec) 0. Parameters in YELLOW CELLS are Entered by the User.eff) Empirical Constant (kb) 15.000 26.055 0.039 0.6 2. This spreadsheet is protected and secure to avoid errors due to a wrong entry in a cell(s).035 0.4 1.00 30.787 Calculate THERMAL PROPERTIES FOR BURNING RATE DATA FOR LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS Fuel Methanol Ethanol Butane Benzene Hexane Heptane Xylene Acetone Dioxane Diethy Ether Benzene Gasoline Kerosene Diesel JP-4 JP-5 Transformer Oil.700 42.005 0. The chapter in the NUREG should be read before an analysis is made.7 3.7 2.800 25.085 0.200 44.078 0.4 0.5 2. Hydrocarbon 561 Silicon Transformer Fluid Fuel Oil.000 Enter Value Empirical Constant kb (m-1) 100 100 2. 15 .074 0.100 39.800 26.700 43.8 0.1 3.045 44400 2.015 0.00 0.400 43.100 44.7 Enter Value Reference: SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. Page 3-26.048 0.700 40.200 44.085 0.600 46.9 1.700 44. 3 rd Edition.039 0.1 1.7 100 1.800 45. INPUT PARAMETERS Fuel Spill Volume (V) Fuel Spill Area or Dike Area (Adike) Mass Burning Rate of Fuel (m") Effective Heat of Combustion of Fuel (DHc.6 1.9 5.Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section CHAPTER 4.600 40.017 0.034 0. All subsequent output values are calculated by the spreadsheet and based on values specified in the input parameters.500 43.000 46.7 1.6 0. ESTIMATING LINE FIRE FLAME HEIGHT AGAINST THE WALL Version 1805.101 0.0 The following calculations estimate the line fire flame height against the wall.1 3.eff (kJ/kg) 20.09 0.0568 2.700 43.200 34.018 0.000 28. Parameters in GREEN CELLS are Automatically Selected from the DROP DOWN MENU for the Fuel Selected.041 0.045 0.051 0.1 gallons ft2 kg/m -sec kJ/kg m-1 2 0.054 0.7 2.

787 m L= Q' = Q/L Q' = 1. and NFPA Fire Protection Handbook.017 Q' 2/3 Where Hf(wall line) = wall fire flame height (m) Q' = rate of heat release per unit length of the fire (kW/m) Hf(wall line) = 0.Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section Reference: SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. 3 rd Edition.75 m 12.e-kb D) Af Where Q = pool fire heat release rate (kW) m" = mass burning rate of fuel per unit surface area (kg/m 2-sec) DHc. Q = m"DHc. like transformer oil require localized heating to achieve ignition) Pool Fire Diameter Calculation Adike = pD2/4 D = √(4Adike/p) Where D= Adike = surface area of pool fire (m 2) D = pool fire diamter (m) 1.01 Btu/sec Heat Release Rate Per Unit Length of Fire Calculation Q' = Q/L Where Q' = heat release rate per unit length (kW/m) Q = fire heat release rate of the fire (kW) L = length of the fire source (m) Fire Source Length Calculation L x W = Adike 2 Lx W = 2.eff (1 . 2003.669 m 3271.73 kW/m ESTIMATING LINE WALL FIRE FLAME HEIGHT Reference: NFPA Fire Protection Handbook. 16 . 2002. circular pool is assumed) (m) (Liquids with relatively high flash point.884 m Heat Release Rate Calculation Q = m"DHc. 2003. Hf(wall line) = 0. 19 th Edition.29 ft Answer NOTE The above calculations are based on principles developed in the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering.02 kW 5177. Page 3-134.017 Q' 2/3 Hf(wall line) = 3. 2002.eff = effective heat of combustion of fuel (kJ/kg) Af = Adike = surface area of pool fire (area involved in vaporization) (m 2) kb = empirical constant (m -1) D = diameter of pool fire (diameter involved in vaporization. Page 3-25. 3rd Edition.eff (1-e-kb D) Adike Q= 5462. 19th Edition.

please send an email to nxi@nrc. Any questions.gov.Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section Calculations are based on certain assumptions and have inherent limitations. Although each calculation in the spreadsheet has been verified with the results of hand calculation. Prepared by: Checked by: Additional Information Date Date Organization Organization Revision Log Description of Revision 1805.0 Original issue with final text. and should only be interpreted by an informed user.gov or mxs3@nrc. concerns. comments. and suggestions. there is no absolute guarantee of the accuracy of these calculations. or to report an error(s) in the spreadsheets. 17 . The results of such calculations may or may not have reasonable predictive capabilities for a given situation.

Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section 18 .

m3 m2 Select Fuel Type Diesel Scroll to desired fuel type then Click on selection 19 .Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section HE WALL Fuel Selected.

Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section is assumed) (m) 20 .

Date January 2005 21 .Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section situation. preadsheets. and d calculation.

Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Division of Systems Safety and Analysis Plant Systems Branch Fire Protection Engineering and Special Projects Section 22 .