Accident Classification Spills 52% X 11% 30% 56% 3% 100% 37% 53% 10% 100% 5.72% 15.60% 29.12% 1.56% 52.00% Equipment failures Piping failures (especially lined pipe and gaskets) Operational errors, non-compliance with procedures, non-existent procedures Other unspecified


30% X

11.10% Piping failure (Lined pipe the largest contributor 15.90% Operational and procedural issues 3.00% Other unspecified 30.00%


18% X 100%

50% 25% 25% 100%

9.00% During Construction 4.50% Pump Seal Failures 4.50% Engineering and Operations Oversights 18.00% 49.52%



Page 1

Hazards From Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures Accident Sequence Events Process Hazards CCPS / AIChE Table 1.3 Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedure by AIChE / CCPS. p-18 Significant Inventories of Flammable materials Combustible materials Unstable materials Corrosive materials Asphyxiants Shock sensitive materials Highly reactive materials Toxic materials Inert gases Combustible dusts Pyrophoric material Extreme physical conditions High temperatures Cryogenic temperatures High pressures Vacuum Pressure cycling Temperature cycling Vibration / liquid hammering Ionizing radiation High voltage / current Corrosion Erosion Page 2 .

Hazards Page 3 .

Initiating Accident Sequence Events Initiating Events Process Upsets Table 1. ventilation Management systems failure Inadequate staffing Insufficient training Lack of administrative controls Lack of or poor audits Human errors Design Construction Operations Maintenance Testing Inspection External events Extreme weather conditions Earthquakes Nearby accident impacts Vandalism Sabotage Page 4 . gaskets Equipment failures Pumps. seals. water refrigeration. steam. vessels. interlock failures Loss of Utilities Electricity. transfer fluids. p-18 Process Deviations Pressure Temperature Flowrate Concentration Phase / state change Impurities Reaction rate / heat of reaction Spontaneous Reaction Polymerization Runaway reaction Internal explosion Decomposition Contaiment Failures Pipes.3 Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedure by AIChE / CCPS. air. heat. instruments sensors. valves. nitrogen.

emergency procedures. incinerators Vehicles. commission Faulty diagnosis. lightning Management systems failure Human errors Omission. Personnel safety equipment Sheltering. manual / automatic ESD Fire / gas detection system Safety system responses Relief valves. isolation systems High reliability trips. specially designed structures Training Other management systems Equipment failures Safety system failure Ignition sources Furnaces. hot surfaces Cigarets. escape and evacuation External events Early detection. visibility Page 5 . Decision making Domino effects Other containment failures Other material releases External conditions Meteorology. flares. depressurization systems. back-up systems Mitigation system responses Dikes.3 Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedure by AIChE / CCPS. p-18 Risk reduction factors Control / operator responses Alarms. control system responses. early warning. Toxic gas absorption Emergency plan responses Sirens / warnings.Intermed Events Accident Sequence Events Intermediate Events Propagating factors Table 1. flares. fire protection systems Explosion vents. electric switches Static electricity. and drainage.

3 Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedure by AIChE / CCPS.Outcomes Accident Sequence Events Incident Outcomes Table 1. p-18 Phenomena Discharge Flash and evaporation Dispersion Neutral or buoyant gas Dense gas Fires Pool fire Jet fire Flash fire Explosions BLEVEs Fireballs Confined explosions Unconfined vapor cloud explosions Physical explosions Dust explosions Detonations Condensed phase explosions Missles Consequences Effect analysis Toxic effects Thermal effects Overpressure effects Damage assessment Community Workforce Environment Company assests Production Page 6 .

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