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The teleost urophysis secretes Vasotocin The urophysis is located in Chondrostei pituitary If you ate salty popcorn, which of the following hormones would you expect to increase first? If osmoreceptors in the brain trigger vasopressin from the supraoptic nucleus then Vasopressin stiulates Atrial naturietic peptide acts to The majority of vasopressin release from the supraopitc nucleus is released from Which of the following hormones is released by the juxtaglomerular cells Why is ti possible to predict the structure of GnRH in dinosaurs Two genes are said to be paralogous when they Angiotensinogen is found in Urotensin-II may An example of C21 steroid might be Secretion of a signalling molecule fom the dorsal cell layer of Trichoplax into the mesenchyme layer is an example of What mechanism do the angthan fishes utilize to allow communication between the hypothalamus and the pars distalis Examples of prebiotic nitrogenous compounds are A distinguishing feature of the Dinoi pituitary glad, relative to the Brachiopterigian The hypothalamo-pitutiary portal system Steroid hormones If N-methyl transferase is not produce in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, the we might predict that the following hormones would be present Evidence suggest at about 2 billion years passed from the time of the first true cells to the first heterotrphic metazoans. What are the plausible theories for this long lag phase? If the purpose of the blood brain barrier is to restrict the large molecules of the vascular system into the brain, how do the small hormones like calcitonin enter the brain? Prohormone convertases Thyroxine stimulation hormone is Pars intermedia secretes Serotonin in the brain Inhibitory chloride channels use ligand G protein coupled receptors Draw serotonin Draw triiodothyronine Labsel 1-5 of mammalian hypothalmo pituitary One of the characteristics of living organisms is a reversal of entropy. This may be thought as: Which hormones have been found in the dorsal strand of adult ascidians? The primary mode of intercellular signalling thought to be utilized by the species of the Ediancaran assemblage was? Stereoids formed early during the prebiotic evolution of organic molecules because The numer of potential responses to a cellular stimulus can vary beteween tissues due to
45. CSF is found 52. Protocells may have developed in the prebiotic Earth. If NAT is not produced because of the gene mutation. Dopamine in the brain 58. Ventral nerve chords are present in: 57. fatty acid 46. How many idferent sequences could be formed in a peptide 4 amino acid long. a second before the cartilaginous fish and a third in the ray-finned fishes. The four principles layers of a blood-brain barrier include: 72. frogs and sutregeons and has the amino acid arginine in the 8th position. Inhibitory chloride channels use ligand 59. 47. Which hormone is responsible for directly increase plasma sodium concentrations? 68. urea. 50. The majority of oxytocin is released from: 54. Volvox developed capability of which signaling: 55. Dehydration induces: 69. GnRH is a peptide with 10 aa. Energy mediated transport of the molecule across the cell membrane is can example of what kind of transport – LA 42. Draw structure of serotonin: 64. If the protochordates had a single gene encoding beta-endorphin and the genomic duplications occurred once before the agnathans. Calcitonin is released by the thyroid gland and: 53. Gln-GnRH is found in birds and alligators. Draw a genearlized structure of the following molecules: steroid. didpeptide.39. Examples of amiphiphilic molecules might be: 40. Phospholipase C: 62. cAMP activation of PKA can be inhibited by: 60. by: 66. Gases thought to be present in prebiotic Earth include: 70. Draw structure of generalized steroid 65. Why did the development of autocatalytic reactions endow some protocells with a selective advantage over the other protocols? 43. Intracrine signaling refers to the communication of a signaling molecule 74. A distinguishing eature of the eleost pituitary gland. relavtive to the terapods is: 71. List six types of molecules that may have been used as signalling molecules by protocells. The hypothalamus is a part of: 51. Which hormones are released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland? 73. Seer8-GnRH is found in the teleost. Arg8-GNRH is found in humans. then we might predict that the following hormones would not be present: 61. His4Trp7Tyr8-GNRH is found in rats snakes goldfish and salmon. Urotensin-I is zebrafish and urocortin in rats are: 48. Calcitonin is secreted in response to: 63. List four types of signalling mechanisms that may have occurred in protocells. 44. in part. how many beta-endorphin-like genes should be present in lungfish? 49. Physiological requirements for the evolution of multicellularity include ** kinda similar
. Nervous system is absent in: 56. The formation of ion gradients between inner and outer environments of the protocells had a significant effect on the evolution of the protocells – LA 41. Requirements for the evolution of multicellular metazoans require: 67.
What is the predominant cation in blood plama htat is required for ECF balance? Na+ 95. Heterodimerization and homodimerization among G protein receptors : 82.75. 88. The most primitive type of nevous system includes: 80. The formation of the first simple lipid based membrane was important to life because 101. One difference between kaintae receptors and NMDA receptors I that? 90. In the earliest cells it is thought that the following ions could passively cross the cell membrane without the help of prtein channels or active transport 104. estrogen receptors are located 96.
Receptor notch and its ligand delta is an example of The release of vasopressin from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is an example of An SHC-SOS-Ras signal pathway is characteristic of what receptor system? The enzyme responsible for the conversion of glutamic acid to gamma amino butyric acid GABA is: 79. Most of the signaling system present in extant vertebrates can be traced to an origin 100. 76. Which classes of ligands bind to nuclear receptors 81. Glutamate binds to 83. What kind of receptors does glutamate signal through? 89. The route of passage of molecules through the protocell membrane might have include which mechanisms? 97. 102. Examples of GPCRs include 87. Consider a peptide 5 aa long. How many possible comibinations using only the amino acids that can be encoded by the nucleatur genetic code of vertebrates. which includes jellyfish and hydra 93. 77. A signal peptide is a characteristic of a 84. Vasodilation and intestinal peristalsis are regulated by: 108. 78. The proliferation of membranes in a simple cell was an important step of paracrine and endocrine signaling because 105. in comparison to mammalian pituitary glands have: 107. Antiotensin-II _________ in the plasma as a result of____ plasmia sodium. In the Radiata. Two genes are said to be orthologous when 99. Serotonin is:
. The majority of vasopressin release from the supraoptic nucleus *similar to top 94. Autocrine refers to 103. What is plausible evolutionary order of the following characteristics? 98. Reptile pituitary glands. incretins. What is th distinctive feature of the hagfish pituitary gland? 91. The signal transduction response resulting from a ligand binding to its receptor can be modified by 86. Insulinotropic peptides. are: 109. Excorine secreted chemicals include 85. In the absence of estrogen. If we cloned corticotropin-releasing cfactor CRF from a dinosaur it oculd be classified as: 106. The area postrema is located in the 92.