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Correspondence programme Syntax lecture Fridays 16.25-17.

55 Fischer Mnika Assistant lecturer

Chapter 10 1. The simple sentence = single independent clause


SUBJECT (S) typically a noun phrase (NP) VERB (V) always a verb phrase (VP) OBJECT (O) typically a noun phrase (NP) may become the subject of the corresponding passive sentence Indirect (Od) comes before the direct in the sentence but in other respects more peripheral than the direct more likely to be optional: Justin poured David some whiskey. sometimes can be paraphrased by a prepositional phrase functioning as an adverbial: Justin poured some whiskey for David. Direct (Od) Justin poured David some whiskey. COMPLEMENT (C) typically a noun phrase (NP) or an adjective phrase (AdjP) does not have a corresponding passive subject Subject complement (Cs) characterises the subject and appears in SVC clause patterns: Robert (S) is becoming quite mature. adjective phrase Benjamin (S) is becoming a conscientious student. noun phrase

Cs = Cs =

Object complement (Co) characterises the object and appears in SVOC clause pattern: Doris considers Robert (O) quite mature. Co = adjective phrase His parents consider Benjamin (O) a conscientious student. Co = noun phrase

Correspondence programme Syntax lecture Fridays 16.25-17.55 Fischer Mnika Assistant lecturer

ADVERBIAL (A) normally an adverb phrase (AdvP), a prepositional phrase (PP), a clause; but can also be a noun phrase (NP) mobile in the sentence but its mobility depends on the type and form of adverbial optional obligatory in SVA and SVOA clause types obligatory adverbials typically refer to SPACE (position and direction) parallel between obligatory adverbials and complements: Daniel stayed very quiet. adverbial phrase Daniel stayed in bed. Linda kept Daniel (O) very quiet. adverbial phrase Linda kept Daniel (O) in bed. Cs = As = PP Co = Ao =PP

10.1 CLAUSE TYPES seven types of simple sentences: 1. SV 2. SVO 3. SVC 4. SVA 5. SVOiOd 6. SVOC 7. SVOA obligatory elements: O, C, A because they are required for the complementation of the verb verbs can have multiple class memberships therefore an obligatory element in one sentences is optional in another: Theyre eating. Theyre eating dinner. Weve elected her. Weve elected her our candidate. 10.3

by an object (O), occur in SVO type clauses by no obligatory element, occur in SV type clauses by a subject complement (C) or an adverbial (C), therefore occur in SVC or SVA clauses

10.19 SUBJECT-VERB CONCORD singular subject singular verb My daughter watcheS TV after supper.

Correspondence programme Syntax lecture Fridays 16.25-17.55 Fischer Mnika Assistant lecturer

plural subject plural verb My daughterS watch TV after supper. noun phrase (NP) as a subject its number depends on the head The change in male attitudes IS most obvious in dating. The changeS in male attitudes ARE most obvious in dating. clause, PP or adverb as a subject singular verb Smoking cigarettes (clause) IS dangerous to your health. In the evenings (PP) IS the best for me. Slowly (adverb) IS it! singular collective noun as a subject plural verb The audience WERE enjoying every minute of the show. indefinite expressions as subjects: some singular verb no singular verb either, neither singular verb none plural verb indefinites (each, every, everybody, anybody, nobody) proximity plays a role

singular BUT