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Phonetics: the study of characteristics of speech sounds (physical units) 2. Phonology: the study of the function of the sounds (Parts of the grammar:) 3. Morphology: the study of words and word formation 4. Syntax: deals with the structure of phrases and sentences (have no defined units; deal with meaning:) 5. semantics 6. discourse 7. pragmatics Linguistic competence: what you know Linguistic performance: how you use your knowledge Grammar: prescriptive: how we should speak descriptive: how you actually speak
Language is an instinct: Language has universals and a specific place in the brain: every healthy child is able to acquire the language children reinvent language there are no ‘primitive’ languages languages change through time relationship between sound and meaning is arbitrary grammar contains rules for the formation of words and sentences every language has sounds, words, sentences and semantic universals (male, female, animate, human) Chomsky’s answers to the question of language acquisition: a. Mental grammar: finite set of discrete sounds that form a finite set of words that make up an infinite set of sentences. b. Universal Grammar: children’s brain is ‘wired’ for language → children develop complex grammar quickly and without formal instruction
mother) miming models behaviourism: stimulus-response learning Chomsky’s mental grammar Cognitive accounts of language acquisition Chomsky’s theories 2 . specialised skill develops in the child spontaneously we are not aware of its underlying structure the same in every individual distinct from general abilities The origin(s) of language: we simply don’t know Theories: the divine source the natural sounds source the oral-gesture source Physiological adaptation to language usage/speaking: upright teeth intricate muscles in the tongue small mouth that opens and closes rapidly longer larynx (due to upright posture) and pharynx above the vocal cords lateralised brain Language acquisition: the gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations Language learning: a conscious process of accumulating knowledge Language acquisition theories: learning to speak from models + caretakers speech (e. A common language creates an information-sharing network in the community. Animals communicate but can’t speak. can’t make ABSTRACTIONS.Only human species can speak language. Language appears everywhere in the world of humans. Language is a human instinct : language is not a cultural artefact but it is a distinct piece of the biological makeup of the brain.g. complex.
every sentence is a brand new combination of words. The universality of complex language – Proof: no such things as a primitive language no difference between the linguistic abilities of people from different classes. therefore the brain must have a ‘program’ that can build an infinite set of sentences out of a finite set of words. Language is innate. This wiring is the universal grammar.g. countries or dialects 2. Language is an instinct. knowledge of the sound system knowing the inventory of sounds (phonetics) knowing the sound sequences (phonology) 2. This program is the mental grammar. 2. knowledge of sentences understanding and producing sentences – linguistic creativity distinguishing sentence from non-sentence Competence and performance Linguistic competence: what you know 3 . 1. The children’s brains are ‘wired’ for language.1. knowledge of words knowing what sound sequences signify meaning (semantics) – arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning knowing the rules of word formation (morphology) 3. Language has a specific place in the brain – proof: damage to the brain (e. children develop complex grammars quickly and without formal instruction. Children ‘reinvent’ language – proof: creole languages errors during language acquisition ‘poverty’ of input during language acquisition 3. aphasia) Linguistic knowledge 1.
etc parameters: are variable – word order: SVO or SOV the order of adj&noun can be diff. 4 . sentences that they’ve never heard before.has a class of vowels and a class of consonants . such as ‘male’. etc. A+N.L. morphology – D. Syntax – Prescriptive gr.Linguistic performance: how you use your knowledge Language universals wherever human exist. It contains principles and parameters.acq. H.common core of lang.rules. ‘female’.g. negate. verb.. … Language faculty – ability to learn languages .a baby can master any lang. N+A Descriptive grammar: Find what is common in every language . ‘animate’ or ‘human’ Until Noam Chomsky language acquisition was described as a Stimulus. Add: and.has semantic universals. .use of grammar Language acquisition: children choose the right parameter – parameter setting – lang. etc. ‘goed’.is rule governed – it has 3 stages: 1 st go = went – correct form. 1.can refer to the past. form questions.words in linear order. Principles: are very general.Response process. 2 nd-past tense – ed .. Recursive – contains an infinite numbers of sent. 3rd the irregular forms are selected and used correctly. Contains of 2 parts: 1. question. different purpose: state. language exists every (healthy) child is able to acquire the language it is exposed to there are no ‘primitive’ languages languages change through time the relationship between sound and meaning is arbitrary languages use a finite set of discrete sounds that form a finite set of words that can make up an infinite set of sentences grammars contain rules for the formation of words and sentences every language: . 1. who.) . and 2.has similar grammatical categories (such as noun.. but children produce words.it’s imprinted in our mind before birth – species specific Mental device located in the brain.B. 2. – is an opened system. Universal grammar: rules & notions of nouns and verbs in every language.
g. look as if.) Matrix verbs allow transferred negation: . you would have heard about it Syndetic2 coordination (13. you would have heard about it.opinion: believe.: The Employees demanded that he resign. it is necessary.: We insist. It is used in conditional and concessive clauses and in subordinate clauses after whish and suppose.’ Mandative/mandatory subjunctive (3. recommendation.perception: appear. ‘ It doesn’t look as if it’s going to rain. prefer.1) 1 2 Putative = vélelmezett Syndetic = kötőszóval összekötött 5 . In BrE the alternatives are putative1 should and the indicative e. think ‘ I don’t believe I have met you before. e. It is the transfer of the negative from a subordinate clause (where semantically it belongs) to the matrix clause. it is hypothetical in meaning. seem. sound as if. intention (e.: The employee demanded that he resign (AmE) should resign (BrE Past subjunctive – were subjunctive.: I insist hat he reconsider his decisions. proposal.g. E. request. ‘ . syndetic coordination Transferred negation (14. etc. I don’t think it’s a good idea (= I think it isn’t a good idea.) Mandative subjunctive used in a that-clause after an expression of such notions as demand.) e.Transferred negation.g.g.g.g.24) We distinguish 2 main uses of the present subjunctive: Mandative subjunctive Formulaic (optative) subjunctive (God save the Queen! May the force be with you. If I were shouting. imagine. The president recommended that he take a day off. imperative. I insist that the council’s decision be reconsidered. Present subjunctive is the base form of the verb. mandative subjunctive. e. If she were leaving. desirable.23) Particularly common in informal style. support. expect.
Polysyndetic: the coordinator is repeated between each pair of units. restrictive clause) I don’t know where they are staying He tried hard. but in coordination the units are on the same syntactic level. between syndetic (linked) coordination and asyndetic (unlinked) In syndetic coordination the more usual form. I don’t know them well. the elements are linked with coordinators: and. although he failed. Slowly and stealthily3. When more than 2 units are linked by and or or.g. stealthily. whereas in subordination one of the units is a constituent of a superordinate unit (One of them depends on the other (superordinate). (coordinate) Although he tried hard. he failed (subordinate) → same semantics He tried hard. or. the lightning flashed. Types of linkers: coordinators (central coordinators: and. Coordination and subordination Both coordination and subordination involve the linking of units.g. E. but E. E. but I don’t know them well. and the clouds arced across the sky.g. both units could be independent. Slowly. The wind roared. but he failed. titokban 6 . They are my neighbours. They are my neighbours whom I don’t know well. Asyndetic (unlinked) coordination: coordinators are not present. They are my neighbours. or) subordinators conjuncts 3 Stealthily =lopva. and the lightning flashed. and the clouds raced across the sky. but could be inserted. but. (Relative. it is usual to insert the coordinator only once – between the last 2 units: The wind roared.We distinguish coordination. he crept towards the victim . he crept towards the victim.
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