2. A. Verbs: verb classes, morphology of full verbs, finite and nonfinite verb forms.

Multi-word verbs Verb is both member of a word class (morphology) and a sentence element (syntax). The verb is one of the elements in clause structure, like the subject and the object. A verb is a member of a word class, like a noun and an adjective. A Verb Phrase (VP) consists of one or more verbs. The last one in the word phrase is the main verb.

As a word class, verbs can be divided into 3 major categories, according to their function within the verb phrase: 1. the open class of full verbs (lexical verbs) (believe, follow, like, see…) 2. the very small closed class of primary verbs (be, have, do) 3. the closed class of modal auxiliary verbs (could, might, should, would…) Verb classes: A) Full verbs: can act as main verbs. 4 morphological forms: • base form: general presents except 3SG, imperative, present subjunctive • -s form: 3SG present simple • -ing form: present participle • –ed form: past simple, past participle, passive Irregular forms: All three forms alike V-ed1= V-ed2 V= V-ed1 V-ed1= V-ed2 come All three forms different: spoken Base (V) cut meet beat come speak V-ed1 cut met beat came spoke V-ed2 cut met beaten

Finite VPs: tensed forms; can occur in independent clausesNon-finite VPs: non-tensed forms; can occur in non-independent clauses. FINITE NON-FINITE 1. Base form 1. Infinitive I call every He may call • Present • Bare infinitive day. tonight. tense We want to call • Imperativ Call me today! • To-infinitive her. e They • Present subjunctiv demanded that she call e them. 2. –s form He calls every 2.-ing form day.

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g. dispose of. four inflections 1. i. shall. put up with VERB AS A WORD CLASS  full / lexical verbs open class – always new members can act only as main verbs (never auxiliary verbs)  primary closed class – can be listed in full: be. B) The Primary Verbs: be. an adverb followed by a preposition e. Full Verbs: can act as main verbs. might. He has called twice today. must. have.e. –ed form • Perfect aspect • • Passive voice Past clauses • He is calling her now. Called early. I found her at home. find out • Prepositional verbs: the particle is a preposition e. full verbs have four morphological forms.g. part. base form general present (all besides 3SG) imperative subjunctive 3SG simple present tense 2. could. –ed form • Past simple Someone called yesterday Progressive aspect • Present participle clauses 3. -s form 2 . will. Her brother is called John. he ate a quick breakfast. do (closed class of words) • Can act either as main or as auxiliary verbs C) Multi-word verbs: a lexical verb + a particle • Phrasal verbs: the particle is an adverb e. cope with • Phrasal-prepositional verbs: verbs with two particles. drink up.3.g. would. do can act either as main or as auxiliary verbs  modal auxiliary closed class – can be listed in full: can. have. Calling early. should can act only as auxiliary verbs Verb classes: A. may.

3.3 the verb forms have different functions1 in FINITE and NONFINITE VERB PHRASES The –s form and the past form are always finite. can occur as verb phrases of independent clauses 2. -ed form (past participle) present participle past simple past participle passive V –ed1 cut met beat came spoke V –ed2 cut met beaten come spoken Irregular forms All 3 forms alike V –ed1 = V –ed2 V = V –ed1 V –ed1 = V –ed2 All 3 forms different Base (V) cut meet beat come speak regularity means we can predict their form by adding the appropriate ending irregularity in the past tense form and past participle form of verbs Finite VPs: tensed forms. -ing form 4. and sometimes non-finite. have tense contrast 3. verb phrase has a function in clause. whereas the –ing participle and the –ed participle are always non-finite.2-3. have mood  mood indicates the factual. 3 . FINITE VERB PHRASE finite verb phrase = verb phrase in which the first or only word is a finite verb (the rest can be / are nonfinite verbs) finite verb phrases have the following characteristics: 1. person and number concord between the subject and the finite verb phrase    this concord is overt only in 3SG this concord completely non-overt in modal auxiliaries especially visible in present tense of ‘to be’ 4.20 non-finite verb forms: 1 Verb has a function in a verb phrase. The base form (which has no inflection) is sometimes finite. nonfactual and counterfactual status of the predication  we distinguish indicative (unmarked). can occur in non-independent clauses Verb forms and their functions (p26) 3. can occur in independent clauses Non-finite VPs: non-tensed forms. imperative (marked) and subjunctive (marked) NONFINITE VERB PHRASE 3. etc.

. objects. DO main: pro-predicate pro-predication general-purpose transitive verb She didn’t earn as much as she might. Multi-word verbs: a lexical verb + a particle Phrasal verbs: the particle in an adverb. aux: Anne is learning Spanish. Anne was awarded a prize.infinitive -ed participle -ing participle non-finite verb phrase = verb phrase in which the first or only verb is a nonfinite verb do not normally occur as the verb phrases of independent clauses BUT appear as subjects. put up with 4 . drink up. find out Prepositional verbs: the particle is a preposition. an adverb followed by a preposition. dispose of.g.g.g. E. aux (no nonfinite forms. E. complements simple verb phrase – consists of one word complex verb phrase – consists of more than one word B. E. PRIMARY VERBS: be. only present and past): Do you eat meat? C. do Can act either as main or as auxiliary verbs BE unique – has a full set of both finite and non-finite forms in auxiliary function unique – has as many as eight forms main: Anna is a happy girl. have. aux: I have finished. cope with Phrasal-prepositional verbs: verbs with two particles. HAVE main (normally takes an object): I have no money. adjuncts. Let’s do the dishes I had my hair done.

Sentential relative clause. One in ten take drugs. Proximity (közelség) in agreement: Subject-verb concord (agreement) 1. The government have broken all their promises. proximity in agreement. collective nouns such as government are often treated as plural.2. Its antecedent is not an NP (unlike adnominal relative clauses) but a whole clause or sentence. which he doesn’t. The principle of proximity denotes agreement of the verb with a noun or pronoun that close precedes it in preference to agreement with the head of the noun phrase. They say he plays truant. E. These sentences are separated by punctuation from their antecedent. anaphoric reference Sentential relative clause (15.20) according principle of proximity in concord there is preference to concord verb and noun / pronoun closely preceding it rather than head of NP Two factors sometimes conflict with grammatical concord. No one except his own supporters agree with him. which surprises me.e. A plural subject requires a plural verb: My daughters watch TV after supper 5 . for example. In BrE. does not refer to an NP) but predicate (predication) or whole sentence Sentential relative clause: one type of non-restrictive relative clauses. Proximity in agreement (10.33) does not have an NP as an antecedent (i. Notional concord is agreement according to the idea of number rather than the presence of the grammatical marker for that idea. Thus the sentential relative clause refers back to the predicate (or predication) of a clause or to the whole clause or a series of sentence.g. A singular subject requires a singular verb: My daughter watches TV after supper 2. Things then improved.B.

4. Slowly (adverb) does it! 5. Clause.3. The number of a NP depends on the number of its head: The change in male attitudes is most obvious in dating. Collective nouns: • of it. can stay indoors. Cataphoric: the ellipsis depends on what comes after: Those who prefer (to stay indoors).18) In textual ellipsis. 6. Notionally plural if the group is considered as a collection of individuals (in BrE): The audience were enjoying every minute 6 . One in ten takes drugs. We distinguish 2 kinds of ellipsis according to the relative position of the ellipsis and its antecedent: Anaphoric: the interpretation depends on what comes before: I’m happy if you are (happy). The principle of proximity denotes agreement of the verb with a noun (or pronoun) that closely precedes it in preference to agreement with the head of the NP: No one except his own supporters agree with him. • A singular verb has to be used if the group is considered as a single undivided body: The audience was enormous. In the evenings (PP) is the best for me. Anaphoric reference (12. PP or adverb as a subject count as singular for number concord: Smoking cigarettes (clause) is dangerous to your health. the interpretation depends on what is said or written in the linguistic context. The changes in male attitudes are most obvious in dating.

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