This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Some ways of referring to future time Auxiliaries have one important syntactic function: they become the operator when they occur as the first verb of a finite VP. The main verb ‘be’ and ‘have’ are also operators when they are the only verb in the VP. BUT the main verb ‘do’ is not an operator just the ‘dummy (auxiliary) do’. E.g. Do you do a lot of homework? General characteristics: followed by the bare infinite. E.g. You will ask the question. Only finite function e.g. no maying, mayed → fist verb in the VP No –s form e.g. She must write Past forms can refer to present or future actions (often with a tentative meaning) e.g. I think he may/might be outside. a) central modal auxiliaries: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must b) marginal modal auxiliaries: used to, ought to, dare, need
c) modal idioms: auxiliary + infinitive or adverb
to, be to
e.g. had better, would rather, have got
d) semi auxiliaries: have or be + verb idiom e.g. be able to, be about to, be going to, have to Meaning of the modals: 1. Intrinsic modality: permission, obligation, volition1 (involves some intrinsic human control over events.) 2. Extrinsic modality: possibility, necessity, volition (involves human judgement of what is or is not likely to happen. The past form is often merely more tentative or polite.) Can/could: possibility, ability, permission - possibility: Drivers can make mistakes. - ability: Tim can swim well - permission: Can I borrow this pen? May/might: possibility, permission - possibility: You may be right
Volition = akarás, akarat
. . The orchestra is playing a Mozart symphony after this. future result of a present cause eg. . He will be here in half an our.g. . Intention. simple present ( is frequently only in subordinate clauses. Will you need any help? 2.g. sense: That’ll be the postman.g. obligation Will/would: prediction. or by the simple present and progressive forms. When are you going to get married? I’m going to complain if things don’t improve.g What will you say if I marry the boss? 2 3 Tentative = kísérleti Putative = vélelmezett 2 . present progressive (future arising from present arrangement.willingness: Will/would you help me? -insistence Shall: prediction. 2. 3. She insisted that we should stay.if – in subordinate clauses) E.prediction: 1. can’t use in neg. be going to + infinitive 2. will.obligation: You must be back by ten o’clock Need. have (got) to: (logical) necessity. and semi-auxiliaries. (intention or willingness or insistence) . & interrog.2. She’s going to have a baby.volition:1. I’m taking the children to the zoo (next week) 4. future time is expressed by means of modal auxiliaries. obligation/compulsion . modal idioms. future fulfilment of present intention e.I’ll write as soon as I can. obligation/compulsion Ought to/should: tentative2 inference. will/shall + infinitive e. - Some ways of referring to future time Expressing future time: in the absence of an inflectional tense. volition. 1. plan or programme) eg.1. future predictive sense 2. It’s going to rain.Present pr.logical necessity: There must be some mistake clauses.permission: You may borrow my pen Must: (logical) necessity. volition (with 1st person subject: Shall I…) Past tense forms of the modals: hypothetical meaning: could/might (if clauses) tentativeness or politeness: could/might/would mood markers: would and should hypothetical meaning (conditional II) putative3 meaning (mandative subjunctive) e.
All the students work hard and I don’t think any non-assertive will fall. some DETERMINERS. something (I can see someone/somebody climbing that tree. anything either. There is something I want to tell you. Tomorrow is Thursday. somebody. something a (an) some anyone. any Non-assertive-items (partitive indefinites) Number Assertiv e Nonassertiv e Singular Plural Singular Plural Determiner Pronoun & Determiner Pronoun Determiner Pronoun & Determiner Function Pronoun Count someone. PRONOUNS.) determiner either. we have There are many who would disagree. thus beside There are some who would disagree. a/an (there are nuts here. Non-assertive items. extraposition. ADVERBS have specifically assertive or nonassertive use: I saw somebody I saw nobody assertive pronoun negative pronoun I didn’t see anybody non-assertive pronoun partitive5 indefinites pronoun someone.B.25-28) while most words can be used equally in assertive and non-assertive predications. any any Noncount some any The partitives include quantifiers. anybody.-used for statements about the calendar e. inclusive 'or' Non-assertive items (2.immutable4 events: When is high tide? What time does the match begin? .g. somebody. 6. anybody. School finishes on 21st March. All the students speak French and some assertive6 speak English as well) pronouns anyone. .) determiner some. anything (I couldn’t find anything to read. 4 5 Immutable = megváltoztathatatlan. állandó Partitive = részelő eset 6 Assertive = állító 3 . I go/am going on vacation next week.certain dynamic: The plane takes/is taking off at 6o’clock. 3. which may increase or decrease the implications of some.11. please have some.
In meaning: rarely. Concessive = megengedő 4 . Give me some money and (then) I’ll do the shopping. He heard an explosion and he (therefore) Consequence=Result - (similarly) a Addition He has long hair and (also) he often wears jeans. ‘and’ • • Indicates a relation between the contents of the linked elements. seldom.g.There are a few who would disagree. few. It doesn’t matter what you do. The relation can be made explicit by the addition of an adverbial Sequent phoned the police. It is necessary to do the job It is important that you should arrive on time. hardly. There aren’t any who would disagree (= NO one) There aren’t many who would disagree (= a few) The wine was inferior and I didn’t drink any (=None) The wine was inferior and I didn’t drink much (= a little) nonassertive items – not negative in form but neg. The most important type of extraposition: . It is a pleasure to teach her. A trade agreement should be no problem. + postponed subject ( the real subject of the sentence. Inclusive 'or' (13. and the normal subject position is filled by the anticipatory pronoun ‘it’ → The resulting sentence contains two subjects: postponed subject and anticipatory subject (it) e. Extraposition: postponement which involves the replacement of the postponed element by a substitute form. 7 I washed the dishes and (then) I dried them. I could hardly see anything.a subject realized by a finite or non-finite clause . little.the subject is moved to the end of the sentence. and cultural exchange could be easily arranged. It = anticipatory subject . It operates almost exclusively on subordinate nominal clauses. She tried hard and (yet) she failed. Contrast Concessive7 force Condition Similarity Peter is secretive and (in contrast) David is open. –negative polarity items.12) inclusive – a third clause makes the exclusiveness explicit Inclusive ‘or’: The use of coordinators: a.
The second clause expresses positively what the first clause expresses negatively: I’m not objecting to his morals.g. You can boil an egg. c. ‘or’ • Typical exclusive: excludes the possibility that the contents of both clauses are true or to be fulfilled e. They are enjoying themselves or (at least) they appear to be enjoying themselves. • Negative condition: can be paraphrased by a negative conditional clause e. 5 . we’ll miss the news. The content of the second sentence is unexpected: John is poor.g. or you can make some sandwiches. ‘but’ • • • Expresses a contrast. If you don’t switch on the radio. e. but he is happy. or you can do both. • Inclusive: we can add a third clause that makes this inclusive meaning explicitly: e. You can sleep on the couch in the lounge or you can go to a hotel.- Comment on / to apologize Explanation of There’s only one thing to do now — and that’s b. Switch on the radio or we’ll miss the news. • Corrective: the alternative expressed by or can be a restatement or a corrective to what is said in the first conjoin. but (rather) to his manners.g.g.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.