10. A. Adverbs: characteristics, syntactic functions. Comparison of adjectives and adverbs When? Where? How?

Characteristics: there are 2 types of syntactic functions that characterizes the traditional adverbs, but an adverb need have only one of these: clause element adverbial: He quite forgot about it. Premodifier of adjectives and adverbs: They are quite happy/happily married.

Types of Adverbs (morphologically): 1. Simple: just, only, well. Many simple adverbs denote position and direction: back, down, near, out, under 2. Compound: somehow, somewhere, therefore 3. Derivational: have the suffix –ly, means of which new adverbs are created from adjectives (including participal adjectives) e.g. odd – oddly, interesting – interestingly, other less common derivational suffixes are: -wise: -ward(s) -fashion: Syntactic function Adverbial: Slowly they walked back home. Modifier: really beautiful, extremely dangerous, so clearly; He is such a fool; It was rather a mess Complement of preposition: over there, from abroad clockwise northward(s) schoolboy-fashion -ways: -style: sideways cowboy-style

Semantic roles: a) Space: position: on the grass direction: down the hill goal: to the station distance: very much further position: in 1980 duration of forward span: until Monday frequency: very seldom relationship between one time and another: still

b) Time:

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focusing: restrictive: merely.emphasizer: just. only . only. predication: obligatory or optional sentence b) subjunct: integrated within the structure of the clause We haven’t yet finished.intensifier: fully. even 2 .c) Process manner: very clearly means: by her insight instrument: with chopsticks agency: by Sir Alexander Fleming d) Respect: legally (respect to law) e) Contingency: cause: of cancer reason: through an interest of Physics result: so he acquired condition: if he reads the book carefully concession: though he read the book carefully emphasis: certainly approximation: probably restriction: only amplification: badly diminution: a little f) Modality: g) Degree: h) Formal realization: with wide rage of linguistic structures i) Position: the A-element can be placed with relative freedom: Initial. rather. additive: also. completely.viewpoint: politically . yet . End Grammatical function / Syntactic functions of adverbs Adverb as adverbial: a) adjunct: integrated within the structure of the clause slowly they walked back home. really.item (subject or predication): already. kindly narrow orientation . Medial. Would you like kindly wait for me. wide orientation .courtesy: please. practically. still. He spoke to me about it briefly. simply .

no one complained. 10. She has bought a big house. I’m tired. eventually. in addition summative: all in all. better. meanwhile Comparison of adjectives and adverbs: 3 types of comparison 1. Frankly.. of course inferential: in other words. otherwise. B. to sum up appositive: for example. personally . then. by contrast.g. . therefore. They are probably at home. altogether.style: modality and manner: honestly Respect: generally. correctly. so..g. now.e. so she must have a lot of money. undoubtedly Relating to evaluation: naturally. to a lower degree: expressed by less and least. 3. If they open all the windows. Express the speaker’s assessment of the relation between two linguistic units. i. SUPERLATIVE highest soonest Most complex Most comfortably Inflection periphrasis 3 . literally. to a higher degree Adjective Adverb Adjective Adverb ABSOLUTE High Soon Complex Comfortably COMPARATIVE Higher Sooner More complex More comfortably monosyllabic: formed by inflection disyllabic: formed by inflections. Anne is not as / so tall as John. else contrastive: rather.c) disjunct: express an evaluation of what is being said either with respect to the form of the communication or to its meaning. We have complained several times about the noise. instead. in other words resultive: so. on the other hand transitional: by the way. to the same degree: as (so)… as e. and yet he does nothing about it. Fortunately. listing: next. e. furthermore.content: relating to certainty: perhaps. She wisely didn’t attempt to apologize. then I’m leaving. stupidly d) conjunct: conjoins two utterances and express the relationship between them. though they have the alternative of the periphrastic forms trisyllabic or longer adjectives: can only take periphrastic forms (except with unprefix: unhappier) There are irregulars!!! 2.

Complex transitive: SVOC (find). c. copular verbs: be. become. get (A). go (A).Copular verbs. taste (A) become. CURRENT: RESULTING: Current copulas: Resulting copulas: The girl seemed very restless. the most common of which is the copula be.resulting state: BECOME. seem A verb has COPULAR complementation when it is followed by a subject complement or a predication adjunct and when this element cannot be dropped without changing the meaning of the verb. the girl became very restless. look)link the subject & the subject complement : SVCs or link the subject & the adverbial: SVA copular verbs have 2 classes: 1. Such verbs are COPULAR (or linking) verbs. segregatory coordination. look. Copular: followed by a subject complement or an adverbial. ( become. remain. sound. SVOA (put). rhetorical questions Copular verbs (16. according to whether the subject complement has the role of current attribute or resulting attribute. smell (A). prove. Copular verbs fall into 2 main classes. LOOK 2. a syntactic link between the subject and the verb that carries the tense usually requires a complement such as a subject complement PCs Kim became a teacher / ill (NP / AdjP) PCs. get. • • • Mono-transitive: occur in types SVO (bore). b. Intransitive: followed by no obligatory element. grow (A). Transitive: followed by an object. turn Verb classes: a. GO – express the result of the activity 4 .12) COPULATIVE CONSTRUCTION gets the name from COPULA COPULA = LINK. appear. appear. and occur in type SV (shine). feel. Di-transitive: SVOiOd (send). seem. and occur in SVC (seem) or SVA (be) clauses. be. most common the copula BE. current state : BE.

the rhetorical questions have the normal rising intonation of a yes-no question. respective While John and Mary have won a prize is ambiguous. 2. When the coordination is segregatory.13 in form. John and Mary have both won a prize. each. Similarly. John and Mary know the answer. Both John and Mary have won a prize. but has the force of a strong assertion. There are also rhetorical wh-questions. Isn’t the answer obvious? (+) assertion: The answer is obvious The rhetorical question is interrogative in structure. Neither John nor Mary won a prize is unambiguously segregatory.22-25) between constituents – can be paraphrased by clause coordination Phrases linked by and may express COMBINATORY or SEGREGATORY meaning.Segregatory coordination (13. John and Mary have won a prize each. (formal) neither …. while a negative question is like a strong positive one. we can paraphrase it by clause coordination. A positive rhetorical yes-no question is like a strong negative assertion. Is that a solution for your problem? (-) assertion:: It is not a solution. the answer obvious? Unlike exclamatory questions. in structure it is a question. we are left in no doubt that two prizes were won in: John and Mary have each won a prize. respectively (formal). The distinction is clearest with noun phrases.interrogative. nor. = John lives and Mary lives in London. it can be paraphrase by clause coordination John and Mary live in London. whereas John and Mary didn’t win a prize is ambiguous. John knows the answer and Mary knows the answer. and are distinguished chiefly by the range of pitch movement. Rhetorical questions 11. Is that a reason for despair? Isn’t 5 . BUT: it is declarative. The speaker does not expect an answer. The positive question is equivalent to a statement in which the wh-element is replaced by a negative element. the speaker does not except an answer. Indicators of segregatory meaning: Certain markers explicitly indicate that the coordination is segregatory: Both (… and). 1.

Who knows? Who cares? How should I know? What difference does it make? 6 .

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