1890 V.2 C.I MUSI


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179 23 24 M B-major B-minor 192 204 .minor) E.. 4 5 .. 85 94 103 113 12 13 . Fc-minor G-major G-minor ... D-major D-minor E!?-major 40 46 53 . C Cti-major -minor 17 24 33 6 7 .. 8 9 10 II . 127 6 ... (SECOND PART.. .CONTENTS. Analysis of all the Preludes and Fugues of the Well-tempered Clavier in the chromatic succession of keys: No.. .major E-minor F-major F-minor 64 76 .. E^-minor (Djt.. FJj-major 14 15 1 . .. 2 C-major C-minor I 8 3 ..) Pag.. I in . 134 143 17 A^-major G|t-minor 18 19 20 21 A-major A-minor B^-major B|7 -minor 150 160 167 173 22 ..


Analysis of Bach's "Wohltemper'rtes Clavier". anyhow the earlier sketch.n.MAJOR. Riemann. The prelude in C. i. poco maestoso e sempre espressivo.major which opens the present book is far nobler and more stately than the one in the same key of the first book. It may be that it is only an old piece revised and extended (Spitta II. 11 I . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C. in developed form. 663). The chief motive powerfully wends its way over the doubled pedal note (Cc]\ Moderate. appeared to Bach worthy of being placed at the head of the counterpart of the great work of his youth.

is entirely evolved from the motive of this introductory half-period in which all the four voices take part. and peiiod. tc the dominant and parallel. has such a decided tendency towards the under-dominant that the transposition leads to quite striking. and no longer the young man of 1722 storming up to. g' C" 1 f 6 g 7 < ist period: in ihf principal key. . underdominant effects. and occupied with the origin and end of humanity (the two chords of the Neapolitan 6 th [*/ 2> and Q g 2 *] forming the knotty be specially points in the first and second parts should is it is reached and maintained. is not one which necessarily leads to the principal key. with some few intercalations and close-confirmations. after the manner of sonata-form.but one pensive. after all. I cannot help thinking that "old" Bach here speaking to us. The modulation is naturally so planned towards the end. The whole piece. The correspondence of the first and the second half of the piece. noticed) : (4) (6) (6a) f* (8) " C+ * f( 6 ) g7 C+ . that the principal key. and at the same time offer contrast to all the preludes of the first book. they This is all the more remarkable. and even over the dominant. deep-seated. consisting of eight periods. The first part. are worthy of note. indeed. and the almost faithful repetition of the principal matter with changed key. . inwardly musing.2 SECOND FART. with the transposition in the fourth (under-dominant) selected by Bach for the outset of the repetition. inasmuch as the course taken by the modulation.

PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C-MAJOR. " EJ:H (6) (8) e b aVU f a' under-dominant (D-minor.I.) f6 g 7 c+ C 6 d7 g 6 6th period: from the under-dominant to its parallel. to the parallel of the (2) (4) (6) (8) a dvn a VII o e tt a vii 4th period: to the under-dominant (F-major).) 3rd period. '-p^.\ " \ H1-) -t- T1 (8 2) (4) c-r (6) 7-* (. N8. . ==1=1=1 (6) (8) a (g nl< ) dVUfei d (4) (5) 7 . . d VII g 2> I d7 d d7 to the parallel of the second under-dominant (G-minor). second under-dominant (fib -major) the (NB nd to repetition of the 2 4 th period. tfifi r_ 1 ft 6 & g 7 TsmL-g=t. = a? 7th period: iiz | | . ^ a 5th (2) din* a 7 a 2> the (4) ffi) (1 (8-1) e 7 7 e f'bT+M*" f 1>7^ d'^ a 7 d 7 7 g to c 7 | period: through under-dominant (F-major).

m g' CH g 7 ' (8) c- 1 f- bt? 6 c 7 " f 1 g 7 c+ Certainly a very marvellous piece! By the side of this prelude the fugue a 3 which. e. and harmony i. first with an attempt to soar aloft. I u). of the dominant modulation of the Comes) does not really leave the principal key. for it opens with the of the tonic (with ornamented c instead of d. and revolves round the third. g c task of modulating to the fulfils its the usual manner. free leading hack d gVil (2) d 11 Y. but afterwards dropping into musical commonplace: Con mo to. of course. and then passes to strict in . poco f (4) The Comes dominant. appears like a harmless toy: it really consists of two developments. a 7 a C VII g? c+ d 7 g 7 (4a)c + J. dim. and (with exception. inasmuch as it keeps within triad limits (cf. The theme belongs to those of quiet character. f+ 8th period: through the under-dominant back to the principal key. though not short. is nevertheless only a very small one.SECOND PART. answered by c g).

PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN fifth. for on the concluding note (eighth measure changing its meaning to that of first). t answer in the natural The manner from the countersubject is evolved in a flowing second half of the theme: ^ 5 -kfc. the real result of this manner of modulation is only a holding fast to. fill up exactly a period of but as the third (lowest) voice joins on immediately. however. from this episode of eight measures (extended. we have a period of three members (aftersection repeated) which forms at the same time the first section of the fugue. eight measures. by repetition of the sixth measure) grows a second development. and emphatic accentuation of under- D D dominant harmony. with its modern harmonic training. a vision of the once so highly important first ecclesiastical mode (Dux) and its plagal (Comes)-. The very short middle (modulating^) section first toys with the opening motive of the theme in the two upper voices. a uuli frrtrrrrr *7 dim. however. C- MAJOR. for our (and also for Bach's) ear. I quote the passage: . the The first two theme-entries alto enters with the theme (Dux) in (Doric}. while the countersubject pursues its course in the lowest voice.I. and is followed by the soprano with the Comes likewise in Without doubt there floated before Bach's mind (Doric).

In place of a third entry of the theme. this episode closes in the key of the under- . # ^==r=j=r=r Dnx Comes N-r* : r tf M r-r j j- the The two Dux as a opening flat real at * 's D. there follows. may reason. this second development is incomplete. however one evidently in pure A-minor (a}. Now. indeed. For the rest. it cannot be denied that the modulation section introduces the theme in the parallel of the underdominant. another episode of eight measures in which only the upper voices are concerned with the principal motive.minor is certainly (the - stamp the key of Doric motive d1 harmony of the pure and the Comes is """).SECOND PART.

and one of two measures. for which ample compensation is afforded by the other voices. on close examination. t9f ~~ . the Comes in the soprano. The third development which now follows again in the principal key. is speciThis third development has the Comes in ally spun out. e. /6 (under-dominant). /. one of one measure.major). to which joins on immediately. e. but by a prepared deceptive cadence (e 1 Q e) once again There follow. i. The coda at once inclines towards the principal key. the three of four measures. and by a deceptive cadence f*~ becomes a. the bass. first of all deferring the end. and consists of an 8-measure period after the manner of the first episode. this gives rise to an appendage of two measures which closes in the principal key is (7 a 8 a). touching lightly the key of the under-dominant towards the close (c 1). which. turn out to be another development of the theme (Dux) through all the voices. owing to an unusually long coda. but in simplified form. opens the concluding section. repeating the after-section. and ending on the third in the bass with an improved close of one measure. the Dux in the alto. still three close-confirmations of four measures (the third over an organ -point c). thus at the end of the third development the key of the dominant is again reached. completing a second period of eight measures. without the semiquaver movement of the second half. and after four bars episode which close the period.MAJOR 7 dominant (F. therefore.i. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C.

yet in its smallest particle motive of upward tendency): Allegro non tanto. but that of the second book is of a milder character. first book appeared to us vibrating with passion. recalls dance music) on the one hand.minor prelude of the IN C-MINOR. full of restrained power. 2. appears altogether a The opening motive peculiar mixture of various moods. and is more antagonistic (the wavy figure. dance-like motives (even the sharp articulation by means of a repeat in the middle and of a number of marked close-formulas. as there. PRELUDE AND FUGUE The C. is its cending one. but it is not so well rounded off (masculine endings). which with its almost joyful. a veil of quiet melancholy is spread over the whole piece. writhing.SECOND PART. strongly recalls that of the F^-minor prelude of the first book. a dessubdivision . and two harsh. II. chromatic bass progressions on the other hand.

also the chromatics of the lower voice. at the close of the first section. occurs twice. This first and principal thought returns in the parallel key (E\>. here (MB. which first of all is confirmed by the above thought (the second half of which is formed.major). and further by four measures firmly knit together in unity. really marks an eighth measure. express deep-seated grief: pf f > gJJUgg^jUaU -g?" - f ? f F- -t ^^1=?=^ Eg=a= ^r NB. by which it is anticipated (/cs). with the outspoken character of close-confirmation.and it must be understood in the same sense at the commencement.MINOR. (8=1) is The Doric a. by exchange of voices.) of . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C. recalling the F. from the first half).minor prelude of the first book. and the conduct of the upper voices. which quite peculiar effect.g. in which the upward striving nature of the smallest motive makes itself powerfully felt (progression of fourths in the bass). There the c in the under voice. NB.

a\? ) (^ 7 vn) c 1 <0 until that of 7 V. in which the bass works its way chromatically downwards (evidently as counterpart to the (=/ . With eighth measure first follows the real principal theme of the piece and it may be recognized as such. and a highly expressive close formula: The second but is section is arranged in similar manner. The first section concludes with the already mentioned repetition of the introductory measures as close-confirmation. with half-close on the dominant (^t? ). in that the second section also adheres to it - = a complete period of eight measures modulating to the 7 key of the parallel. It begins also with close-confirmations as ground work.10 SECOND PART. somewhat more extended. yet in conformity with the character of a development continues to displace the + + vn effect of close from key to key (eb+ b*V* e\> . Here a halfclose is effected by means of three appended measures of passionate character. (= eb ) a (?: d\T the under-dominant (F-minor) is reached. a into full-close means of two changed by appended measures.

II chromatic passage of the first section). but it is interrupted by playful episodical motives. which remind one of the Pralltriller of the second half of the principal theme =(8c) ^ P - ==L r==SC(8d) The introductory motive is employed in the uppervoice of the appended triplet of measures . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C-MINOR.2. In this middle part the melodic element is stronger.

The fugue (a 4 in the last two periods.12 SECOND PART.minor in followed by a second one as coda (still adhering clearly to the principal motive) with two extensions 4 a turning towards the principal key. Now the principal theme appears slightly modified. inasmuch as the theme is confined to the fifth-compass of the tonic triad. but prepared by the feminine ending of the same again a complete period of eight measures. without change of meaning of the closing measure. it might be taken for an organ piece. with a pedal part introduced at the close) is one of the quiet. . but without further appendage. and proceeds in quavers of moderate movement: F . with full close . up to there only a 3. and concluding with imitation of the cadence of the first section. 5 a 6 a once (3 a again introducing a chromatic progression in the bass). Moderate. simple ones.

. it consists of two developments in the principal key. . 3 As the theme does not modulate. soprano (Comes). As the under-dominant occurs at the 8 th measure. the repeated 6 whole-close into a half-close.major The after -section now begins with the and to F. and tenor (Dux) in a period of eight measures. is G dotted: fourth R J] of the Jj. as the theme constructed with a view to strettos and combinations with itself in augmentation and in inversion. after an episode of four measures begins a second period. display in a most striking manner the Neapolitan sixth (minor [Phrygian] second of the minor scale): G -minor . The first section runs its course in simple fashion. Comes in the alto (yet avoiding the modulation to the minor upper -dominant. whereupon two repetitions with gradual sinking of all the three voices. the answer has to complete the modulation to the dominant starting from the harmony of the tonic (c instead of d at the commencement) The fugue has no real countersubject. and indeed.*. the latter assumes the meaning of 6 th i. e. it consists first of all of two theme entries: Comes in the bass (ending with -major instead of Gin the and Dux soprano (the first two motives minor). closing in the under-dominant. transplant the close from C-minor to Aty. the first of which gives the three voice entries. closing in the parallel key. Bach adds a confirmation of one measure with a cadence in G-minor. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C-MINOR. become necessary. but without the theme) transplant the close to (minor upper-dominant). alto (Dux). and concluding in the principal th measure changes once more the key). two further measures measure. from the harmony of the tonic. so that the bass is again able to take the theme (Comes). but as a formation by sequence can never form a satisfactory close. followed by an episode of two measures returning to the principal key. which by sequential formation (one degree higher. The last bass entry. as well as the sequential formation.minor.

the progression a difficult matter. at the same time. The close in G-minor is followed directly by the second section. in the period immediately following. (^J? 6 which would make the understanding of (</t> !>*). but here it must be noticed that for this loss we are compensated not only by V IV contrapuntal combinations. of which the already mentioned comThis second binations form the characteristic feature. and there is danger of mistaking the first for an E\? -minor chord vu and the second for a ) rapid transition to A^ -major. section is also in C-minor and the fugue has therefore no real modulating section. but also by rapid transitions striking harmonic effects such as those already indicated. and C-minor F-minor F-minor G-minor In both cases we have a suspension over the chord of the Neapolitan sixth (IV likewise V).'4 SECOND PART. of a wonderful chain of strettos (the free voices are omitted): and Dux nJ^ K n^ (2) fc TT Dux in ^r augmentation +- f |^" "f" W~z: ^ i Lj (4) Comes inverted (* free note) . Some are to be found. which consists.

43 u h -^^ N - I^V^ K Dux augmented This period also contains several striking notes (the Doric sixth a in 6 a. also the d in 6). and in the bass the theme appears in triple form. The remainder must probably be looked upon as coda. and are always employed in a less striking manner. while the other voices (from this point to the end number). (<>*) ^*w l^^^ (parallel) (Cc) ^r P UX . and 6b. It should be carefully noticed that in the first book of the Welltempered Clavier such notes are extremely rare. 15 (G) Dux (under-dominant) Comes (parallel of the dominant) U rr JtS b . the new period entering at the close (8=1) adheres firmly in organ-point fashion to the fundamental note. have no theme entries: they are four in .PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C-MINOR.^_ L .

Dux augmented (2) (4) -Jwg^ (G) 1 theme (but phrased differently. 6 .) Some 3 th 4.z6 SECOND PART. strettos 7 in 3-measure rhythm in the form 2 nd. h J I h h ^ ~~ " ' . 8 bring the piece to a conclusion: (4) tenor: c a{? b{? c f c bj?al?g d[? bass: c .

and. T Riemann. according to Spitta (Bach II p. viz: Sostenuto. Ill p. ed.MAJOR. Engl. 664.j. In mood and structure this prelude resembles the C-major prelude of the first book. only the leading voice can preserve the sense of the theme. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C# -MAJOR. II. 184) was also originally written in the key of C-major. with different phrasing. (8) are already familiar with the fact that in such an exceedingly short interval. become counterpoint. 3. 2 . strettos at We II. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C\. Analysis of Bach'i "Wohltcmperirtts Clavier". An unchanged form of chord movement prevails throughout the greater part of the piece. the others.

The harmonic follows : contents of the first section are as " (6) =1: (dominant) (parallel) b (U.-D. (4) . .i8 SECOND PART. I "ZZf ^ .flsgEEj! ^ ^= ( 3a ) .) (2) cj- fjft gtt' aft' (4) f-^| lj=rt=^ dET^ : xr. --..

MAJOR. it entry (soprano : Dux in stretto with the Comes in the alto) It appears in the bass in abbreviated form with bass cadential progression: The whole fugato includes two developments in three periods of eight measures with a few extensions.e after-section has the theme in is an episode. after which the prelude concludes with a short fugato. it appears in its most complete /.. VII{( od jf . firmly in the key of the dominant. keeps within the keys nearest related to the tonic and finally settles (dominant. and at the close of the second period (which in the fore -section and in th. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN Cf. parallel. f. The theme of this fugato (a 3) has no firmly defined form in the first shape*.j. under. this dwelling on the dominant must be looked upon as a half-close.dominant). .

sempre espressivo. the bass) makes a modulation to the dominant. The idea of combining two such heterogeneous elements in a prelude is a remarkable one: it can. Comes Dux countersubject /'. and the inversion of the first thememember (4 notes) in the bass. the fugato could have been further developed but for the great fugue which was to follow. e. yet not so short as Debrois van Bruyck imagines. be explained by the fact that the piece was originally conceived as an independent one.fO SECOND PART. in mistaken fashion he only reckons up to the entry of the second voice. however. The fugue (a 3) has a short theme. The second period. which inversion). it starts with an ingenious stretto (alto = Dux in of the first period consists of an episode containing the inversion of the countersubject in the alto. It runs thus: Allegretto. The remainder .

and immediately afterwards. the Comes should modulate to the dominant).MAJOR. leads back to the principal key. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C|. the second modulates to the dominant. with free ending. however. Dux Comes (2) Comes in diminution _1_1^J___!_ / Comes 7 J7 ^jj=gEj%EfeEE^E= in diminution ' 3 Dux F (6) Dux in diminution and inverted concluding freely in the key of the dominant. begins with another ingenious stretto of the theme (without inversion). when the Dux remains in the principal key. in which the Comes occurs in threefold stretto. a second one with use of diminution. which elsewhere (with long themes) is assigned to the separate theme entries. The first development remains entirely in the principal key (according to school rule. In both periods the elision of the unaccented opening measure of each half-section (i. A third period. .j. 5) is strictly carried out. here falls to whole developments. 2 1 joins on. while the third. It should be noted how the task.

but it concludes. without however acknowledging that the theme only consists of the four notes which it shows up to the end./$ ) regains The exposition only comes to a close the principal key.22 SECOND PART. D-minor t G-major t [inverted]): i*A=*&&4& \==3 ? (8) P The second part of the middle section consists of an episode in which the countersubject is principally worked. or that I prefer the theme suffers a loss of a few end notes. <?$"*). and ending with a half-close in the parallel [3 a key (A. with a stretto of the theme in diminution (not however carried out to the end): One might be in doubt as to whether such formations ought to be regarded as real developments.minor. 6 passing through the under-dominant (#ff . but as in the second half of the fugue. with this third development. the theme never appears in complete form. the latter supposition. filling up the fore -section (with = repeated second measure [2 a] and repeated second group 4 a]).minor. this is followed by another clever stretto (Comes in AT^. one has only the choice between the supposition that from the close of the modulation section onwards there is no further theme entry. returning to the principal key. The second (modulating) section of the fugue opens with a free merry-making between the first motive of the theme and its inversion. .

at the eighth measure. (6 changing the half.into a full -close). and introduces as a fresh surwith organ-point on "$). PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C -MAJOR. and finally over a It consists of th I st and stationary bass f . calming down again measures into even semiquaver movement . prise the augmentation of the theme in combination with its original form in direct and in contrary motion: it two periods.minor. 5 and then a close . and. but by a plentiful introduction of demi semiquaver figuration it lively towards the end. makes a half-close with a in the bass: fairly intact theme entry (8) The concluding section is a long drawn-out coda: remains firmly in the principal key. while the last is complete. which by colour shading is changed now and then to minor (C.correction of three measures 8. ' The third period of the middle section confirms the principal key by touching on that of the under-dominant. of which the first has the measures elided.jt ) still a confirmation of four measures becomes more in the last The piece is of quiet character (the theme lies within the fifth compass of the triad position).j.

Alto.minor prelude of the first book. full of religious ardour. but between all three voices.SECOND PART. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN Cf-MINOR. Bass. the four measures as they occur successively in soprano (1) bass and alto. the contrapuntal writing is strictly in three voices with imitations. are here placed directly one under the other. :vii dj (6) . Bruyck has shown the thematic structure in a clever. it has. the second of which is a free reproduction of the first*. II. no reprise but advances without ceasing. . Soprano. 4 . The prelude is a deeply earnest piece. Already in the first period imitation takes place. but not exhaustive manner. yet of quite different. so that they may be easily compared Andante con moto ma molto cspressivo. and nearly all the period endings (5 out of 8) can easily be recognized by the rising arpeggio with which the piece opens (preliminary point of stress of highest order. and more complicated structure. . . however. in mood most akin to the B?. 8 th measure): rit. not only between two. The piece can fairly well be divided into two halves.

For the rest. and the harmony of the theme is much changed (and so indeed is it also At in the enunciation of the theme by the alto voice). * W g^ njfcttiilSE (4a) VII (6)cjt gft . which closes on the dominant. gives once again. starting from c J. and there follows a new. the half -close of the alto on d%* (8=4) there is. its first notes fell a prey to the bass progression of the half-close. -to be more precise. here the lead passes from one voice to another. it is considerably ornamented. and then a completely new after-section. the last measure of the theme). first. whereas in the first theme-section the upper voice throughout took the lead (hence the free imitation in the bass which is scarcely recognizable).Y n (8) d|' Evidently bass also the soprano). or. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN C\. and the imitation therefore determines the rhythmical structure: . perhaps only beginning with it after the fourth measure. in which the three voices imitate one another at a short distance when the movement was first sketched the had the exact theme (two octaves lower than (each time after 2 measures).MINOR. Herewith ends the principal theme section. whereas now it follows one measure earlier (at a distance of only three measures). a confirmation of two measures (when the soprano.4. fL r-frrf p-rt i h~~E"^rrpTF ^ b F-f- iF. independent theme-group.

(alto.) t (2) (4) (bass. indeed.) * *(=) (soprano.26 SECOND PART.) (6) b+ The first motive of this intermediate theme springs from the continuation of the soprano during the enunciation of the theme by the bass: the and. from the counterpoint of bass and alto to first enunciation of the theme by the soprano: .

MINOR.4 PRELUDE . But also during the close of the period and its confirmation. the rising arpeggio makes a prominent appearance. so here when soprano. which again is imitated by the other voices. though not quite strict. further. (8) b' soprano. and thus forms a concluding third member of the first section: As when the dominant first division. use is made of the same motive: alto. but in the latter case it directly introduces a new thought in the soprano. (8 a) is reached at the end of the the parallel key is reached at the end of the second. AND FUGUE IN C\. I ^ H=|^J= vn .

and it is quite a wonderful Perpetuum mobile. at best. and the second. and. as it moves form around the toni<~. as Spitta rightly remarks. also the bass gives it out again. does it sink . It would lead us too far as at first. suits it owing to the sharp con- The fugue It has. as already mentioned. and the inversion of the voices clearly reveals the derivation of the motive from the second themegroup. but of one thing we must make special mention. by different grouping of the separate voices of the first section. the character of trast.SECOND PART. away. were we to attempt to show how Bach. TEfTT r r V~ (U-D) With this the first section of the piece is at an end. and that the displacement enunciation of parts is brought about by the preliminary the theme by the alto. viz. no spiritual relationship with (a 3) has the prelude. but returning in plagal it limit above does not actually press forwards. only with a richer bass). consists of a free repetition (and in part transposition) of the first It begins in the key of the under-dominant in which the alto gives out the first theme. but freely diverges. by inversion of voices. having as and below the fifth of the key. that the close of the prelude is a transposition of the after-section of the second of the period in the lower fifth. lends a fresh charm to the recapitulation of what has already been set forth. When a return is made to the principal key the soprano again takes up the theme (as at the commencement. The theme runs along in unbroken semiquavers. neither to the tonic. a Gigue.

its actual form is really not the one which it has as first countersubject to the Comes (where . likewise. The answer the dominant. as the form: (6) (8) would have been (without the sharps indicated above) correct and intelligible (or.4. with the hurried nature of the whole piece to fall headlong into the dominant. rich use is made of it in inversion and in that it also resembles Bach's Gigues: = Of the counterpoints the most important is the one proceeding by dotted quavers and with a syncopation at the commencement. and. within a C\~ MINOR. hither and thither. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN busily. is quite in keeping with the character of the theme. Again that Bach does not let the bass first come to an end. at any rate. before the end of the close . Besides the theme in its original form. but runs narrow circle. but brings in the Comes in the soprano two measures before its time. 2Q downwards. is which a faithful transposition into the key of is by no means intelligible. and with that of the whole piece. Con moto. the first /x need But it corresponds thoroughly not have been written).confirmation (8 a i) the Dux in the alto.

SECOND PART. as counterbeginning a quite at the end point to the Comes (but with dominant form [Mixolydian]) . Bach could not well have gone to the /x below. ^ the last development but one). because. lower e. in so doing. a fourth inverted in double counterpoint in the 12 th ). but it occurs once too late. as counterpoint to the Dux: (in and once (/. he would have altered the melodic outline): ( Lj V step in Sometimes the tie: he has a chromatic place of in this form it is counterpoint to the Dux. . the leap to the leading-note is only made on account of the writing a 2 .

A fresh. pulsating counterpoint to the latter introduces new life: it first appears at the end of the first episode: . which occurs frequently. more or less chromatic. appears counterpoint to the inversion of the theme: A etc.4. of workings of the same motives (especially of the second half of the theme. but it must probably be looked upon as inwardly related to the following more sedate one. also of the passage rising by four degrees: g\ a$ b c in quaver notes). and is also often to be met with in the episodes: (second half) descending passage. A second and important counterpoint Dux) is the following: In this elaborate form it occurs indeed only once (at the beginning of the second development). and the fourth-fifth progression of the countersubject. (to the 3. The episodes consist. for the most part. PREL UDE AND FUG UE IN C $ MINOR.

however. the en 1 of the modulating section. but only the middle of the same. foundation -laying section in the principal key probably includes only the first development and the extended episode which follows it (after-section of the second period with confirmation of two measures. and a closeconfirmation leading to the theme in the parallel key \E-major\ in the bass). unless one prefers (and probably more correctly). completing the second period. The fugue has no less than five complete developments. half-section). another complete period.minor. and concludes at the . th measure to that of I st soon turns meaning of the 4 towards the under -dominant side.into a half -close Qrft 7). B-major. however. Comes in alto. F^. alto: theme in F^. The modulating section introduces first of all a second development (Dux in soprano. a specially long episode commences. elopment. quickly re-establishing the An episode. C^-minor.minor [under-dominant]. bass: theme in the principal key whereupon follows immediately a delivery of the Dux intact in the principal key in the alto. opening with the change of principal key. and at the end of the second period extended by repetition of measures 3 4. is not reached. . in which key a long halt is made). and A-major. one of which. Here a return is made to the principal key. and afterwards forms the chief material of several episodes. which in three periods with several extensions. The first. and marking out a fourth development. is redundant. E-major minor in which key the fifth devfinally leading to F- . G$-minor (minor through the keys of F- upper-dominant. a complete development of the inverted theme soprano: theme in B-major (dominant of the parallel key). forming the opening of the concluding section.33 SECOND PART. to consider that there is a incomplete one. passes minor. changing a whole. B-major. enters with the Dux (soprano). and a transitional sixth. For after an appendage in cadential form of three measures.

and in two sections with repeats powerful foundation-laying period. This prelude is not of fugal character. (4) *-r Riemann. which appears at the beginning of the second section in inversion. still after two triplets of measures rising from the (tenor). with regular groups of periods. s- PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN D-MAJOR. the Comes in the bass in > two measures. which the alto introduces the inverted theme starting from c$\ the bass joins on with the Dux in direct form. under-dominant the Dux in the alto. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN D.MAJOR. real gigue. n. in which are introduced. the principal key.major (parallel of the under-dominant). once two confirmations of more.e. but in fact a splendid. it is a correct dance movement. 33 8 th measure in A. 3 . in a specially well-sounding middle three theme entries: Comes in the alto position. A Allegro risoluto (4 I). * r (4) II. Two triplets of measures definitely restoring th of bold formation lead on even to a 6 development. and finally. Analysis of Bach's "Wohltemperirtes Clavier".

is followed by a sportive toying with the opening crisp arpeggio motive commencing with a slide ("Schleifer") etc. after a further complete period. e.34 SECOND PART. so that it forms an excellent counterweight One might almost say that to the onset of the prelude. The fugue a 4 is likewise pithy. but avoids and the principal key and is in A-major and JB-minor. the fifth with a powerful extension). and after the inversion of the introductory period it is worked in a manner similar to that of the first section. but which is never felt as a fetter. never making a display of learning or of artifices. however. avoiding the modulation to the dominant. follows the confirmation. which as after-section only receives a triplet of measures (to be played with breadth). and full of quiet determination. this lasts through two periods which modulate to the dominant. strict writing in three voices which is carried nearly through the whole of the piece. whereupon. no new motives are introduced. and which close with a formal cadence. The section. The second section is worked out with the same material. the fresh dance-like character. But it opens with a somewhat lengthy development (five periods. dominant (it The rest is a return of the first parallel keys). deserves notice. which preserves. The theme opens with the motive of the C-minor Symphony (but broadened outl) and sinks downward from the octave to the third: . were it not that the prelude renders such smoothness desirable. i. the movement of the fugue is altogether too uniform (only quavers).

then after two leading -back measures. Of the three sections of the fugue the first (exposition in the principal key) is the shortest. this it obtains in a new after-section (without elision. it must be acknowledged. The four voices follow one another in the order: tenor (Dux).j. the soprano follows with the Dux. and. con forza (4 J ). and before it ends (4=6). the close is unsatisfactory. but also in its whole character and suitability for forming counterpoint to itself (strettos). which introduce the concluding motive of the theme in its Not only for the first time in its rdle of principal material foi episodes. As the theme ends on the third degree.u -). Only here the graceful element of the semiquaver runs is wanting. that the two fugues stand altogether in close relationship to each other. and it will be wise to look upon their absence as part of the composer's intention. and with a triplet measure in place of 6 The countersubject if it 8). this theme resembles that of the G-minor fugue of the first book. a faithful transposition of the Dux ia the fifth). and with passing over of the fifth measure) alto (Comes. for it embraces only the first development with a short appendage confirming the close in the dominant. immediately (without change of meaning. (4) rhythmical nature (. after which. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN D-MAJOR *e Sostenuto. may be so termed 3* .the bass with the Comes. and to interpret the fugue with considerable weight and emphasis. despite all difference of keys. and the needs confirmation .

The shortened like of the exposition. The modulating middle periods with some extensions.minor (likewise Dux in B. by way of correction. in which case enchanting. a powerful close of 2 measures. that the premature (soprano modulation was made with the same voices) in stretto. (alto. in that it has no moment rest. turns the tonality back to A-major (dominant). with its accented rest. certainly made of it). yet no safe use can be section comprehends three first. of eight measures (with a triplet for 2 would be wanting) which follows i the four voices enter one after the other 14. tenor. but plays also a chief role in the divertissements-^ it never however comes forward in a marked manner. re-establishing the principal key: Comes in E. . bass) with the concluding motive of the soprano indeed four the theme. soprano. but each twice and hanging on the times. before its time. the first of rhythmical importance (the above mentioned is of such a kind. but pushed on in the measure one to the other.36 (this also SECOND PART. at once begins the modulation by presenting the Dux in E. recalls the G-minor fugue) does not only everywhere accompany the theme.minor) And as though this modulation had The episode or 2 is 4. and a new after-section introduces Comes (alto) and Dux it should be noticed. by elision of the i st and 5 th measures.minor (a z> ^ vn) and concludes with the = in the entered soprano.

while the bass.MAJOR -- ? +. leads again to the dominant.. repetition of the after -section: follows alone with a i (8-4) . for the purpose The close is therefore at once of starting modulation. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN D. bridged over by the alto which continues its course: (2) and a complete development follows on with tenor (see NB. but only at the close of the period.). ^ so that a prolonged upsoaring together with slow downward sinking. soprano. and alto in stretto.

and even the first four notes in the alto: starts at d& . which after the close in F\-minor once in D-major and. and close With this the modulation section comes to an end.minor). Thus B-minor bass: in tenor: (Dux in Dux in B-minor. (but with decided entry Comes in B-minor F\.jg SECOND PART. and there follows the concluding section establishing once again the principal key. indeed. with a stretto at very short interval (two quavers!) between bass and soprano. alto: Dux in B-minor.minor). soprano: Comes in F^.

section (triplet measure for 5 a broad manner in the key of D-major. at the end of the period (8=2) a presentation by the bass of the Comes distorted by two chromatic notes bringing everything into third parallels the chief voice question: a VII e ' (4) a I Then all four (1) voices enter still once again for a stretto at the smallest possible interval: and now for 5 of all by means of a fine triplet extension they sink down with one accord. then strengthened by the bass with thirds. and finally. A kind of coda brings next. a highly effective presentation of the Dux by the tenor (the voice with which the fugue commenced and which must be looked upon as "tenor-fugue").. the soprano ending on once-accented dt the bass on great D. 39 an settling in 6 a) extended after.j. the aftersection is repeated. first accompanied in by soprano and alto. (first 6) . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN D-MAJOR.

(4) . first book. in the other in quavers: developed.SECOND PART. to The dim. which perhaps may be explained by Bach's later absorption in the old church modes. a quiet chord figure in one voice in semiquavers. preponderance of reflexion. The prelude under notice is throughout a 2.MINOR. though somewhat more those in F-major and G-major of the thematic material may be reduced to three elements. 6. the same bewitching delight which we have noted in many a number of the In this second book we repeatedly find a first book. fresh imagination. and arranged on similar lines. II. for they have same youthful. and more intense harmonic ventures. well These two pieces would be equally placed in book of the Well-tempered Clavier. work more finely thought out. namely. first of all. PRELUDE AND FUGUE the the first IN D.

major]. likewise more wavy. more pointed. a scale motive carried out contrary motion: by both voices in etc. without any serious departure from the principal key (only one C. secondly. and thirdly. one. B^. sequence touches lightly on the keys of F-major. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN D. A third period brings a) as it were to a stand-still.MINOR. in both voices: c) m These appear successively in the first two periods.6. to a slow oscillation at the passage: .major.

complete. but is rendered interesting by the chromatics of the second half of the theme. and the introduction of the first) theme is is in inversion. and sinks. from the octave down to the fundamental note. which recalls the fugue (a 2) in V E-minor of the first book. quite formed or rather changed almost beyond recognition by inter-workings with (a). starts The number of real theme and only one development (the in The theme upward semiquaver triplets from the fundamental note to the fifth. entries only seven. . is dashed off in a terse. in keys of G-minor (e order definitely to settle in D-minor\ and this is rendered l t = = more spicy by a two-fold introduction of the Neapolitan 2> sixth (e^ = ). d) W and first it turns to the is minor upper-dominant. The modulation only touches lightly the gvu ) and F-major (d^ 0'^). in the second half. are developed in the second half of the piece. The fugue (a 3). simple manner.SECOND PART. repeated. while $) and in which the trans- period (a) c). with quaver movement.

which changes in meaning to that of under-dominant. dim. in which the inversion of the opening theme-motive = . and ending with 4=1. The answer is a strict transposition in the fifth. for introduces new movement (smooth semiquavers in opposition to the triplets and quavers of the theme). PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN D.MINOR.6. poco f g=jfe^SM=ijS= The countersubject here shows special character. as in the C\-minor fugue. Before it the entry of the third voice a return modulation of 4 measures is inserted. commencing with 8 1. the rule is so far followed in that the Comes enters with the harmony of the tonic. but here. 43 Non Allegro.

and grumbling. as if in The whole passage is scorn. worked first The motive is the development of the second episode which follows taken from the countersubject: and this may be easily overlooked seeing that it is not articulated as in the countersubject (see above). the chromatic progression. And now the soprano does not carry the theme to an end. alto continue in rivalry moment in which the characteristic and clever: (2=1) dim. repeating once more. while bass and with each other. the soprano makes an attempt to take the lead with the inversion of the same. (2b) . but leaps to the real Dux. but insolently springs up to the octave of the fifth.44 is SECOND PART. out. and from the soprano takes possession of the octave. after two quavers. At the close of the period the bass first enters with the beginning of the Dux. into the depths. bass and alto (tenor?) retire ill-humored.

But at the close (4 5) the Alto enters with the Dux. even the new stretto of the inversion of the theme which follows (8 1) begins in D. and quite unusually extended period of the whole piece The extension is effected by means of a tossing to and fro of the theme appendage. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN D. so that the effect of a close is always postponed (4 a. owing to the entry of the theme in the bass.6. in point of fact. The eighth measure is then.I S-- ~~ After this threefold 2. we find ourselves already in the last. 40. peace can only be gradually First of all a triplet of crotchets leads to the restored. the soprano follows with the Comes in a successful stretto. and after an interval of a crotchet. thereby. after this rivalry. bringing about the end.minor (alto: beginning with a] but. fourth measure. 4C [== 5]. likewise of its inversion among all three voices. an extension of the after-section becomes necessary (5 a 6 a).MINOR. 6 a. turns to the under-dominant a modulation which however announces that the G-minor) Sat end is approaching and. 8b) and the fugue finally comes to a close with another after-section in which the already described rivalry of the first stretto is once again repeated somewhat faithfully (runs in the alto and bass [inversion]. 6.complete Dux with prolonged close in the soprano. ^ + piu /" etc. first of all. are still in the principal key. twice confirmed (8 a. also. then this is repeated with voices reversed. = We = I . and countersubject in the bass). v f pZ *. starting from </ the interval of two quavers). and finally the bass joins in with the countersubject. a plain 4 is naturally not possible. 6b) until finally all three voices descend in common.

ivas . in the dominant (Bb -major}\ in a second.major. writing.4Q SECOND PART. so that the section thus variegated in the matter of tonality (D-minor. but a Gigue in sprightly 9 / 8 time. 4 measures of powerful restraint. section must be regarded as extending to the close of the second period (before the first rivalry). B^. the middle section then. inversion of the After a preliminary short period of principal motive. touched (g = b (/ = is / 7 A also A'? -major d^* made in i st of the and a half-close afr) and F-minor.minor. and without concluding. G-minor. after a period of 8 measures.major. C. all intermediate keys only indeed lightly touched upon) is the closing one. there is a half-close in C-minor (parallel). division is by no means clear.major.major. to the end of the inversion (only one period).MAJOR. an unpleasant sound: badly phrased. the real structure begins with lines of considerable extent. the seventhif eb 1 progression of which in the bass. Here the threefold first probably the II. a period with elision and 5 th measures follows on. the principal key (^b 7). JB^. G-minor. F. D. which the repeated after-section changes into a In a third period the key of Bb -minor is full-close. Otherwise there remains as closing section only a Coda which has no independent existence. 7- PRELUDE AND FUGUE The prelude without fugal is IN Eb.

47 l^-r^f^'^^r^ _l I L. 9 (2) 3EEE b[?' ^ b[? 7 1 eb H ' ab f - (4) el?- The cludes in after-section.. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN Et. con- 8 l? Measures 3 7 4 also close in C-minor (# an d tne after-section makes a half-close ^ [ ] ^)> G-minor (parallel of the dominant)/ = in< 7 in vii od . into leaps of a ninth: manner..MAJOR. in that it changes the becomes period leaps of a seventh. formed 1 in a similar 1 Ab-major (e\? a^ dfo* eV ab*\ and a new still more intense. by inversion.

"spreads an odour of double counterpoint" ("den Geruch des doppelten Kontrapunktes verbreitet").SECOND PART. It is given out with full power by the bass: Allegro deciso.T 1 d7 turns d The repeated G-minor imitation C 9* after-section the half. who hath delivered us from death" (Lob. |-_ 0J76J fyl _ e\?+Y the after -section is shortened: ' 5^1 \ J^~ bb f The half -close has a double confirmation of two measures.close in into a whole one. Now follows the return. already in the theme. and has a "scholastic flavour" ("nach der Schule schmeckt"). The fugue (a 4). and. der uns erlost von dem Tod). fad^M^ VII g . some song of thanksgiving and praise. but of three measures th close[triplet for 5 passing to the 6 6]). which according to Bruyck's judgment is a "pattern fugue" ("Musterfuge"). with of the fore -section of the 3 rd period (d 0^. sounds exactly as if it had originally been a vocal fugue. The theme seems to suggest such words as: "Songs. and then the opening period is repeated with a coda (a repeated after-section. praise and thanks be to the Lord. and with confirmation of two measures (7 a 8 a). ( I J (4) (6) (8) . Preis und Dank sei dem Herrn.

that the Comes must modulate from the harmony of the tonic (!) to the key of the dominant.MAJOR... which often recurs. The countersubject. likewise with 8 2) other with ever-increasing might. prime but i s answered by fifth again prime (b\? <?>). when the Dux begins with the prime and remains in the = (after an episode of tower one above the principal key. for. There are two changes of interval at the beginning fifth of the answer. and soprano 2 measures. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN EV. in customary manner. (^ __[>) here. with 8 = alto 2) (with a leading-back of measures. the rule applies. only shows from its second special character (a legato slow turn) half: Comes countersubject (2) : n i i J-ifiiiii ii . ^ 2 while but tenor.

inasmuch as each pair of first. The second development.{O of SECOND PART. with dominant harmony). in comparison with the is more concentrated. first tenor and bass. the dominant so countersubject). it remains in the key of the that the second development can commence with the Comes (and. voices is in stretto. r (2) (4) (G) \l I 1 (8) then (following on immediately with elision of the measure) alto and soprano: first ~~* '^ (8) . indeed.

major (under -dominant). 5. section includes 15 measures. on the other hand. the others. which is opposed to the syncopation motive of the theme: entries in other keys (which. development also belongs to the first section A real middle section with theme is is altogether lacking to this fugue not a pattern school-fugue). its place is taken by a long drawn-out episode ending with a theme entry (Dux. of which only the first two make use of the opening motive of the countersubject. but beginning with the Comes step of a fourth) in the key of Ay. whereupon This middle follows immediately the closing section. PRELUDE AND FUGUE hV E^-MAJOR. This (in the principal key). owing to a quaver figure (connected neither with the theme nor with the countersubject). have a marked feature of their own. especially from the 4 th measure... therefore. (4 a) .

SECOND PART.majort ety but now. a stretto between soprano and bass (Comes Dux) at the same interval as in the second development.) (NB. J The sequence: cvu g ' g (4) g a>( N B. a show piece of double counterpoint. .. in which the tenor enters On (see above) with the theme and makes a full close. it contains no complications.) (NB. hence its re-entry with the correct Comes (similar to the preceding delivery of the theme in A\?. with exception of certain forms of stretto..major.) ej? leads to the key of Afy. harmonised in the beginning with bfy principal key) is specially marked. . and an appendage of 5 measures (repeated after -section with extension of the 7 th measure) in which the soprano sinks l 2 This fugue certainly is not by degrees from <?t? to eV t . reaching an a\? in the middle of this theme entry (a prepared deceptive cadence CQ " c in place of 7 <?l? afr) the soprano is silent. already.)=bb e (4 a) ' (NB. since. and clearly calls attention Here we have only to the opening of the final section.

PRELUDE AND FUGUE (Djf. The prelude is a finely developed. +* II. the C^-major number of the first book).MINOR). and continually exchange motives. 8.. for the most part. IN Eb-MINOR The pedagogic aim of the Well-tempered Clavier is a sufficient reason why Bach should have written these two pieces in D^. The principal ployed. forming counterpoint to itself (canonic .. partly in after.minor. thought (measures i 4): (2) (4) is faithfully carried out. in the (with the bewitching little appended motive).section which follows shortened form. because they are really much easier to read in that key. In my edition of the work I have transposed them into E^ . and do not appear to contain any special characteristic of keys with sharps (cf. specially rich. and.minor instead of Ep. twoBoth hands are throughout equally empart Invention.MINOR (Z>|. on the other hand.minor.MINOR). PRELUDE FUGUE IN Eb.

which Bruyck calls. an arpeggio motive of somewhat hasty movement. as in the second section. though scarcely with justice.54 SECOND PART. treatment). a "curled. it is my opinion that the descending arpeggio forms quite a natural set-off to the close of the first part: The interesting breaking-off of the voice in the quiet intermediate passage (second period). stiff arabesque figure". . which plays an important r61e in the first. yet the second section adds to it a new counterpoint.



(t> g





which the passing notes

b and

g b marked

* attract

notice (but


in the imitations of the

same which

from sequence), deserves special notice.

first of all (already at the first part modulates, close of the first period), to the parallel (Gb -major), in which key the second period remains; but then, to the under-dominant B^ -minor, in which, with repeated close-





The second







to passing through A^-minor (under- dominant), and in it the voice -breaking above mentioned occasions a fresh complication:




Db- major and G? -major,




closer examination, only the major 7 th (bV) appears The rest of the piece keeps firmly to the principal key which has been easily won back from that of the under-dominant (*b </b 7 cty* 0b 7 ^b; + b [=*bni] b 7 ^b) and certainly with </b; .. g'P~


the freest use of chromatic harmonies (*b 7

[^ V* =]


The fugue (a 4) is one of the most interesting and most pensive of the whole work. The theme has the concise compass from the sub-semitone to the fifth of the
key, belongs therefore to those of quiet character, neither rising, nor sinking; and yet what deep, intense expression is to be found in this melody-movement. Not only does the alto voice begin the piece, but during its further progress appears twice with ruling power (delivery of the theme, the soprano being silent):

Sosteuuto con


is giving out the Comes (which is a transposition of the Dux in the fifth), the alto, like a swan, glides quietly upwards to the dominant.

While the tenor






be characterized as

sharply differentiated from the theme, leads its own life, and is nevertheless thoroughly homogeneous in mood with the theme. Among one of the

one of perfect




made by Bruyck and which



lack of thorough knowledge of rhythmic formation, is the derivation of the motive of the countersubject, from the "second member" of the theme, by diminution. Quite e\? do not apart from the fact that in the theme, d belong to one motive, only formations "by diminution" such as the following, could, at best, be derived from the same:



the other hand, no

one could





countersubject were motive of the theme,



inversion :

in diminution:








likeness, but unlikeness, in the countersubject.


served any good purpose. Not the best thing to be recognized

A second countersubject, retained throughout the whole fugue, is mentioned by Bruyck, but I cannot discover it much rather may we say that Bach develops third and fourth counterpoints to the theme and countersubject, which here and there show signs of similarity to one another in that they progress principally in semiquavers, I here give only those which or principally in quavers.


appear as
subject, pany the

filling -up voices to the theme and counterand therefore pass by those which only accomtheme when the countersubject is absent:

Development, bass entry (Bruyck's "second countersubject").



I st

Development, soprano



2nd Development, bass entry




2 nd Development, tenor entry.


2 nd Development:

soprano entry (Dux):


NB. Teuor and bass

introduce the countersubject ia strettol

are filling -up voices in Only crotchets (but the 07/0-strettos. that all the three episodes of the fugue (it has no more) are evolved from the same motives. from such as are derived neither from the theme nor from the countersubject-. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN c E^.S. indeed. where the countersubject is absent). which. alto (Dux). this some indeed apart from these. yet none occurs a second time. development. and appear to form a kind of intermediate theme. they thus stand out prominently as independent. and It is worthy of note reestablishing the principal key. 59 agrees with a for the space of three In addition to this is otherwise articulated). between the I st and the 2 nd section. and. The I. b. Compare for instance: within the I st a. ending with a half -close (b ). and still a free (5 a 7 episode of 8 measures. tenor (Comes). and in a fugue so rich in entries means much. soprano (Comes). for the most part. in the sections of the fugue are: principal key: the four voice entries. . counterpoint there is a whole series of other counterrd development (also indeed at the points from the 3 alto entry of the second.MINOR (D\-MINOR). and after 4 leading back measures 8 a) bass (Dux).

The middle cond and middle fourth third developments. in that case then. of the fourth (unless into two (modulating) section includes the seand extends even to the one prefer to divide the incomplete ones*.6o SECOND PART. between the 2 nd and the 3 rd section : etc. **^ i h J -V -^ II. . -& r [Tf r ~T ^ STf c.

8. with the episode. and in fifth-. ( )l extending to the fourth. and. while the second preserves its meaning as third of the upper-dominant.minor. tenor. however.major [parallel]). gives instead of the chord of v -minor. and opens with a quasi-stretto between alto. so that the principal key is restored in the middle of the modulating section (a close-confirmation of two measures. tenor).dominant]) (to Gfy. The third development commences with i. that of v -major. first alto. tenor: (to A\? -minor [under-dominant]) But the tenor entry. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN E$ -MINOR (D'^-MINOR). stretching The second development over to the last section). namely the trans- of the minor second into a minor third. 8a= . has a marked change of the theme in the first three theme entries (bass. and indeed this transformation takes place in the bass and alto entries at the cost of the meaning of the threefold repeated opening note. the second note (*) becomes the theme indeed appears as if it were a displacement of the bass entry a minor third higher (in the same key of'Ab -minor). The soprano introduces again the Dux in Ev. naturally with upper-dominant meaning). formation of the step bass : b?VH (to Of A^ -minor alto: [under.

upper-dominant of Av.minor. the 1 bass giving the Dux in full. d^ n (prepared by -|? vir) instead of the chord of D^V -minor. but with dty instead of ^/). terminates with the theme in D\>. but also brings.62 SECOND PART. at the end.dominant]).minor bass (the alto having the complete theme in A*? -minor the tenor imitating [from />] only for six quavers. actually becomes seventh: 0W make it somewhat Neapolitan sixth bV? [2* into difficult to grasp the meaning). the soprano. starting from cfy (really Dux in the principal key. after a close confirmation of one measure (8=4 a). ] at the moment of the tV*e and. adheres. likewise further on. but with major close [eV as (so that the changing note transformation of eV 1 into ^i? vn /b 2> [ . the first note of the theme. [under. At this point (8a i) the alto opens the fourth development with the theme in CV~major\ but as it enters on the dominant of Gb. the close to Gv -major.minor (<rt> ) which key the tenor entry of the theme. so that a new close appendage of two measures alters = (2) c\>+ The close proceeds per inganno to A^. but exchanges it at the end for the printo 8 cipal key: efr . which is really a fundamental note.major.

increases the number of voices to 5.MINOR (D\ -MINOR). The same appears first of all (as Dux in the bass) accompanied in homophonic fashion with chords given out by the three upper voices' f eb etc. 63 With III. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN this EV.8. and by long sustained dominant harmony (/ ) prepares a real last entry of the theme. final The section in the above mentioned episode springs once more to the key of the7 dominant. measure once again with display of contrapuntal means in the soprano (Dux) and tenor (in contrary motion from ^b). formed by the addition of a filling up voice. concludes the second section. . while alto and bass have free counterpoint: and after a 2 -measure confirmation of the fourth still The close-confirmation of two measures.

64 SECOND PART. its principal thought. II. succeeds an after->gction_jn the only a transposition of the fore-section by inversion of the two upper. sectional closes a 4 i a 3. and it must not in any way be confounded with a modulation to the key of the dominant. which . Here we have an instance of that direct seizing hold of the dominant key so common at the period when the fugue-style nourished.voices. this indeed is only effected this To fore-section is dominant. is IN E-MAJOR. v. evidently related lp~the theme of the fugue (q. PRELUDE AND FUGUE This prelude j strictly 6. with exception of the two a wonderful piece of the most jjowing polyphony. 9.) stands thus: Allegro non tanto.

Analysis of Bach's "Wohltcmperirtes Clavier". _ _ - g^ . which. This must be looked upon as a transformation of the second period of the first section. ^ (6a) taken up afterwards by the soprano. ( (= . no strict adherence to the Riemann. 7 _8/. and brings the Cjf. with semiquaver. however. first with an organ-point bass.minor (parallel). holding fast to the key of the (6 th as dominant. /# measure).6) (= . the pensive character of which is determined by the waving quaver motive in the tenor: etc. rL^ and in the second section this also plays an important ^/.there is.V# .$T) + . at the fourth measure it makes a half-close in C. 8<r). LI. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN E-MAJOR.9. - . J+ and works^ on after the manner of the opening measure. an emphatic and detailed manner in the following " + period. Already at the beginning of the following period the principal key is re-established. but with freer tone formation. movement divided between the voices The close of the first section forms a kind of coda (6^Z~80. b (4 in y-Jj? (= .minor period to a close with an after-section. down floating a new feature introduces an^jip^and quaver motive.. 1 th __ fr+ e \ measure). which again starts from the principal key: e+ 11 nd 2 o. 7 *6 *+. X a)-.J9) _/fl7 . however._~~This second section commences with the opening 'Sought in B-major (but without inversion of the voices). (2 measure).

but naturally in "e principal key. they are clearly recognizable^ motives. stately gait. a contrasting motive exciting one's desire for further development). but now let the theme be compared with that of the Cjf. itself. I cannot understand why Bruyck feels compelled to deny that the theme is earnest and expressive. both with like notation: cresc. (diatonic Igure comes first semiquaver movement. and considerably extended. the stationary bass first close of three a genuine accession. is again the cause Bach 2 himself wrote this fugue in /j measure. in contradistinction to decidedly turned away from the world Beethovenish). still the relationship between .minor fugue. and then the more absorbed in falling. the former. more con- vincing (notice the simpler lines. like the C\. the rising. brooding the two is evident. as a whole. (4) The theme of much gentler.). in measures over the The fugue (a 4). as in the section and then only final is organ-point the bass). alternate quaver movement etc. appears. and moving round the at the E. The coda likewise returns.66 SECOND PART. but. as there. whereas the C\-minor theme. with the rincipal thoughts in reversed order (the waving quaver first in the soprano in and free. but it and has also more unity of mood (for is much shorter. (4) and: (2) cresc. here we have not. itself.minor fugue of the book advances with measured. fashion.major fugue certainly appears same time clearer. very possibly a mistaken reading of the diminution of interest.

certainly. could be read as a simple 3-measure group. would of itself forbid that other interpretation: the choice between the two meanings is not a very difficult one: b'] (4) .minor fugue the annexed fifth measure (J*) would have to change its meaning to that of sixth. (. however. Besides. this. as shown by the counterpoint. 4. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN E-MAJOR.. in both cases. and in the E-major fugue the same explanation could be given. according to the scheme 2.minor fugue would have a decidedly home-baked flavour: (4) (6) (4) (v 5=6) and: (4) (J>=6) In the C\. would cause a detailed complication in comparison with which the change of meaning of measure 4 to that of 5 th appears simple and easy. the harmonic meaning of the theme. 3. 67 Both. but also the Cjf.._ ^ _). in which case the voices following one another would e'ach time quietly wait until the theme had come to a termination but then not only the E-major.

46"]). gives a faithful transposition in the fifth. in the case of a master like Bach. and the second turns back and closes in the tonic. the first motive moves towards a dominant. and f.the same would appear at the fourth measure as suspensions. and at <r. be the At stationary % most correct one I The answer of the theme.68 $CONt> PART. musty of course. to modulate from the harmony of the tonic to the key of the dominant. my catechism "Kompositionslehre. p. The are last changed two notes of the countersubject. as accented changes of harmony on the tonic. is fully achieved. for by an answer in the fifth the task of the Comes. e. which does not modulate. viz. I. at b and d on the other hand. both motives of the theme would remain on the tonic (at a all the dominant chords would fall on -unaccented beats. But away with proof: the meaning which best displays the contents of a theme. at their first appearance (so that the Dux . for the rest. there was no reason for any deviation. /. and therefore appear only to be passing ones [cf.

fln again be able to enter on the concluding note). for the leading note of the key of the dominant is lowered (Mixolydian) th to that of dominant 7 (0J) instead of a%): may The natural . the tenor once more to lays it hold of countersubject. substituted a\ for #$ in the countersubject (alto). third voice entry. and opportunity given for a close-appendage. by that means the close effect is turned aside. alto) gives the countersubject in on the other hand (Dux in the tenor with its own and expected close (the Mixolydian change would have turned it towards the key of the under-dominant).MAJOR. on b the (i | J I . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN E. in the giving out of the Comes by the soprano. which transforms the full close on b* into a half-close on b 1 At the moment in which the bass arrives .y. ending: and again gives its natural . and indeed in a manner characteristic of Bach. had not Bach once again. The second period would have ended peacefully in the key of the dominant.

sl- r T NB. we have in it. still really belongs to the first section of the fugue. which in the repeated aftersection closes in the parallel key (C$-mmor). first of all a stretto of the theme by all the voices: r d: M (4=5) 3 m (8=4) .SECOND PART. I ill The annexed period.

7 j It should be noticed here how the concluding motive of the countersubject (the syncopation) itself appears in The close-effect of the 8 th connection with the theme.p. the after-section. PRELUDE AMU FUGUE IN E-MAjOR. takes up tjie_c^imjrsubjejct_giyen out by the tenor .in the ~^> 8 th measure and. measure is broken off by the <?jf and the c$ (c^ 1 instead of e + )'. with augmentation of the value of the syncopation motive carries it througli all the voices (two c triplets of measures): I " f I ' I rr (8) half-close An appendage 1 on of one measure (8'a) changes this moment into a whole close on gfy ^|. bass though not so development in which ^ach pair r tenor) appears pressed closely as in the firsr belongs to the modulation . this soprano. at which the alto starts with the Dux in the principal key^] (third) beginning a new of voices (alto closer rtrettoj development together. which thereby becomes necessary.

c%\" *#). section. as it leads from the principal key to the parallel of the under-dominant (F% minor) : Soprano: Comes Alto .72 SECOND PART. besides. Dux 1?^. in Tenor: theme in The tenor entry of the theme introduces the same somewhat prolonged form (one measure of 8 / lf relatively a triplet): 3 which (with fresh freedom) is employed in the next following theme entries: Soprano : 3 (from Bass: jFJ} minor to Cj. Hence one might be tempted to count these three voice entries as a development. but for the fact that the tenor entry is connected in too direct a manner with the preceding bass entry.minor).minor]: (in C^. the close of a period and is formally separated from what follows by a + It will close -appendage (cadence /# vn . . Bass: theme (Comes) in B-major. therefore be more correct to look upon this soprano and . it forms. .minor.

PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN E-MAJOR. and the latter in inversion (free): (*) . forming an 73 bass entry as incomplete fifth development. cTTminution.g. at least the prinon the close in C^-minor. cipal key now reappears (already disturbing the same) in and indeed directly withjhe_theme^\ ' diminution. for (not confining itself the moment the time measure will be better indicated by 2 instead of 4 / 2 /a : is brought to an end by a close-cadence but on the last note (by means of a deceptive progression of the bass: b <r$) a new (seventh) development sets in. a stretto of the original Dux with the theme in 7 <? The period H ~). The middle section is here at an end. which now runs through all four voices to fixed degrees of the scale).

32. i i f +- . likewise three-fold ingenious stretto of thejComes. dim.^ rf-v. -psf. 4Mfjnf J i . consists of a working of the theme in inversion and in diminution: Also the rest of this period. which closes in G-minor (parallel of the dominant) and has an appendage (cadence) of two measures. an 8 th development. a two-fold.74 SECOND PART. inv. Cp. . But the coda forms the principal display. inverted diminished theme and counter-subject in the principal key: T. Dux.

The the bass final is delivery of the theme (with appendage) in of imposing effect: What strength and fulness of expression. dim.MAJOR.9 . and yet what restraint throughout the niece i . inv. 75 T. what unity and consistency. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN E. etc.

II. when opposed to the shakes in the first and second now in free contrapuntal style. now in characteristic feminine ending of the first motive appears in lengthened form.SECOND PART. and likewise very long fugue. flowing.MINOR. is spun out in an ingenious fashion. special interest is the following modulating imwhich appears transposed in the second part: (under voice 8va bassa. (4) This imitation. long drawn-out prelude a 2 (with two repeats) and an equally flowing. The parts : tr Of itation. PRELUDE AND FUGUE A IN E. The principal thought of the prelude is: Poco vivace e leggiermente. 10.) . both certainly conceived the one for the other.

duces the complete inversion with feminine ending: intro- ? and the same (first is ntftf fi- worked in a new and interesting manner groups of 3 measures / 2. however. the second .to. in etc. The first period G-major in dominant) (parallel). PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN E-M1NOR. evolved from the principal motive. j 4 (=5) Also the following formations are naturally 6\ 6 a. 77 In the coda of the first is principal motive (inverted) part (after the shake) the already worked in imitation: __ The beginning of the second part. The turns to order of modulation is simple. 2 a. 7 8). and to B-minor (minor upperwhich it makes a half-close.

further the shake-coda (on b and e\ \c |fl and firmly establishes the principal key by transposition first -minor (= ) remains firmly in A-minor (cadence). . Period 5 repeats ). cresc. in the later or less extent are inserted. (b -/if G. F$. (a 3) is one of the most simple. period returns by the same road to E-minor. /JlX _ ^ _ fi _ " /fe.major. each one of which forms the chief substance of one of the three self -intelligible sections of the fugue: exposition. f6 period passes through E-minor. with a further close-con- firmation (8 a 5 5a 6a. from the B-minor. (modulating) The fugue as it middle section. * in B-minor. A.minor (in which the c'$ should be noticed) E-majort 7 G^-minor (</!)) /# first holds fast to the half-close in B-minor (shake on /#). while the third of the first part in the 6. in the second. sures.major. vn o/S. through to C.minor. The first three entries Comes Dux in immediate succession (without give Dux episodes) so that the theme is unmistakable limits. of the D E. then changes to E-minor (shake on fr). and. begins with a fore-section of only whereas the after-section is complete: Giojoso vivace. in so far only shows three developments. and in the A -minor to _ /jjo> _ oy.78 SECOND PART. indeed. but in the coda makes an elaborate cadence in . 7 <?). concluding section.major. 2 it The kept within clear and ones episodes of greatei theme consists of 6 mea- measures (3 4). The third pushes on in sequential form through E-minor D-major. and is in G -major V1I = // 7 E-minor and again G-major. 4 th . (^ the "pushing on" of the first part (D-major minor j^jjevl1 E-minor}. The second part begins c 7 first The fourth is formed second part.

the change to the to the Comes. yet the effect as if it faithfully accompanied For Bach divides it in an infinite variety of ways between two voices. Its presents original features is: which are specially in- structive. PR ELUDE AND FUGUE IN E-MINOL 79 ? (8) theme does not modulate.10. as can be seen by theme to the end. and this is accomplished vn already in the first three notes (b c% d /| V$)i the whole Comes is therefore again a transposition in the fifth of the Dux. form (8) same form the Although the same only returns once in exactly the rd devel(alto entry of the theme in the 3 is opment). The mode in which the countersubject is employed the As dominant falls = in this fugue. the following synopsis: .

--- _^'--- ^ (6) I I" J J = (8) . soprano entry. (4) (6) I p (8) 2nd development.g SECOND PART. It development. bass entry.

Rieinann.MINOR. bass entry.to PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN alto entry: E. Analysis of Bach's "Wohltemperittes . (4) if (6) IF (8) err Clavier". (soprano) (bass) (*) (soprano) (8) The same. The same. II.

bass entry. soprano entry. 3gi=2: (8) 3 Development.SECOND PART. 3 Development. (4) (6) . V (4) ESEfcztzE .

or other canonic devices. the bass with the If. this theme entry were to be reckoned as belonging (as Comes) to the concluding section. bass = = g+). There are no strettos. i. redundant. then the secuiiu development would be incomplete. * * (</ = *) . and the order of keys is the simplest possible.to. alto (Comes in B2). and in its opens with 8 passing VII through 1 E -minor 7 ). and the third.vii [= .6] __</?_ g+\ and firmly establishes the minor). We is concerned with see that almost the whole contrapuntal apparatus the countersubject. The now lishes that = key 3).minor). following 8 only (after-section =Episode 5) returns in the simplest fashion to the principal 7 of four measures with key (*vn--*vn|| (Doric sixth) <>). estab- (with 8 similar to theme in B-minor on account of the long episode the first. yet especially rich and variegated. (Dux in E-minor}\ episode (with 8 modulates in the fore-section to the parallel G-major (. alto (Comes in Dafter a somewhat lengthy episode which major\ and fore-section modulates. The structure of the fugue needs no further explanation. c^d 1 At the eighth measure with 8 3 begins the Soprano (Dux in E. I st development: same in the after-section (c^d^g^. rR ELUDE AND FUGUE IN E-MINOR. likewise with its various sections. 6* . 2 nd development: Soprano (Dux in G-major). to B -minor (b v< cfy /ft and in its after-section.

and a new cadence of three measures leads to the end of the piece.minor). for run: all successively attempt the diatonic bass After the delivery of the Dux in the bass (. d^\ 1 1 d^ e with the theme c+\ g+\ g ) soprano in -winor (under-dominant 1). likewise falls to d l $ (with appoggiatura and pause). with one another as to which shall re-introduce A <? . there follows 8 a. and then an an unfinished cadence (7 a organ-point of three measures over B. vn with pause on the dominant (/$ 7 b1 9> 7 The voices 'now as it bf vie. /# were. forced upwards during the organ-point. with c?=<5). An extended closeappendage of five measures (episode) returns to E-minor (e vu b1 and makes a half -close ). j re* development'. This fugue may be recommended as a model for study and for imitation. and a coda of free rhythmical disposition.84 SECOND PART. from which the bass plunges downward to JD$\ the soprano. the theme. ). . Alto (Dux in E-tninor)\ and after an episode of four measures in sequential form (e 1 a1 <?.

by way of contrast. The principal motive of the prelude is a rolling quaver movement. after the manner of a turn. a 5. a masterstately. It is scarcely necessary to say that it is written in organ style: Allegro. . this figure brings about continued quaver movement. and. and a flowing style of melody in the piece. piece of legato style (for the most part in strict writing. which runs through the voices from the beginning to the end. an excellent practising-piece) . is conceived in a thoroughly harmonic spirit. con forza. a fugue. with a tinge of humour finely pointed. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F-MAjOR. yet without any parade of learning. PRELUDE AND FUGUE A IN F-MAJOR. II. vigorous. and hence. which. fully developed prelude.il. for the rest. II.

back to the principal key. a thing rarely to be found in Bach. however. and without any disturbance of the symmetry (elisions. even without any close-confirmation. After the third presentation of the theme (in the parallel key). yes. naturally. not in the principal key. except in his dance pieces. almost note for note. but. through the parallel. leading from the parallel of the dominant. is combined with the rolling quaver motive): i r m (2) Further details are shown by the harmonic analysis: ist 2 nd period: principal key dominant. . but in the dominant and parallel keys. and it is distinguished from the other eight periods by the introduction of a new motive in crotchets (which. repeated four remarkable: times. the second and third time. a complete 8 -measure period is inserted. changes of meaning). The especially regular structure of this prelude is 2 periods of eight measures. (2) bt? c' (4) ce d(=bt?) c7 * (8) f 7 .86 SECOND PART.

iBl I I I?S^5 >a(=f) tt g' (8) c+ I. f g 7 c* f yd 4th period: dominant parallel.. (4) Cf f* (half-close) (8) a .MAJOR. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F. tr ft- 8 g 7 c -f 7 f-J- 7 b^ ?.11. bt> f (4) g' c- .

6* period: parallel parallel of the dominant.() bt? (4) c -) aVIl (= f) V i \~ .. (2) 35! G dVH(=bt?) (2) a7 a dVII a7 (8) a a [2>] c' f* .88 5 th SECOND PART.

11. runs on to the octave. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F-MAJOR. and then sinks gracefully back to the fundamental note: first The theme to the fifth Allegretto grazioso. (4) ^p -<s> :i=js=q (8) c 7 f 1 - bi? e c' f-i- e b> c 7 (8) f* of the fugue (k 3) shoots up from the tonic. gg period: principal key (touching the under-dominant). f+ (2) (4)f+ . and sixth.

the answer must modulate. may be scarcely noticeable. on the one hand. and. so to speak. namely. it must not be ignored that the counterpoints to the various theme entries The characteristic feature of the are. in rhythmical inversion (the high note unaccented. this peculiarity will be found more or less in the other It steps counterpoints. . and. accounted for by the fact that the theme itself is so delicately developed. accented). it wholly undisturbed. akin.9o SECOND PART. the rest is then free transposition in the fifth: c 7 f* c' ff (=f e )g 7 C+ f g 7 c+ The theme of this fugue has no real countersubject yet the absence of such is (principal counterpoint). hence the well-known transformation of the opening step of the fifth (/f) into one of a fourth (cf). As it does not modulate. counterpoint to the Comes is. that it can scarcely endure by its side a second important figure-. indeed. on the other hand. so sharply articulated. an almost coquettish left must be in homophonic resistance (and also steps of the first two yielding 1) to the upward-stretching theme members: (6) (8) should be noticed that in this countersubject the of a fifth and a fourth (apart from the closing motive) are opposed to those of the theme. for example. rule fashion. in a measure. from the tonic. the low. This.

first of all. episodes will in final all ends and closes. and corners. the Dux in . e. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F-MAJOR. it must. that there is no real middle development with the theme entries in the dominant or parallel.11. belong already to the closing section. tenor entry: (8) And now. namely. to first that of the Comes)! to the structure of the fugue in its With regard chief outlines. At times there certainly is little art in adhering to a counterpoint capable of inversion (/. even further reminiscent in the sounds be heard. bass entry: lt Development. a specially long one: the first of these (tenor) is. (6) (8) Redundant Bass entry: (2) 2 nd Development. be noticed. and that the two theme entries which we really have pointed out as belonging to the second development.

cipal . but harmonised. + which turns quickly to the under. likewise the four free measures closing the period. bass [Dux]). i. and. G-minor D-minor. D-minor (parallel) A-minor D-minor. the end of the fugue is announced. after an episode of six measures 4.dominant (bk f\ J. and which is based principally on the second half of the theme. key. The middle (modulating) section consists rather of a specially long spun out episode which runs through the keys of C-major (dominant). C-minor G-minor. The first section includes then not only all the three voices (soprano [Dux]. and establishing in a detailed manner. whereby. it seems as if the theme were being worked in stretto. F-major (principal key). on /. [organ-point in which. F-major. original form. D-minor. e. tenor [Comes]. C-major. after [i 4a] with 4a three measures of episode (6 a 8d] t the second bass presentation of the theme (Comes). 3a 5. at times.92 its SECOND PART. but also. there is a struggle around the prinThen follows a somewhat lengthy episode. in an extremely clever in D-minor\ but the second (bass) stands in the key of the under-dominant. the key of the dominant. The concluding section begins then with the tenor entry of the Dux: t t t = m likewise. and enters after an organ -point manner. bass the further on entry of /]). which gives to the fugue the appearance of being a 4.

that it is at last able to introduce the second not in its primitive simplicity. and it enters indeed with the Dux (beginning with F) t but. IT-* .(from the 7 th to 8 9> 8 the At the repetition of 7 lower the to octave). PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F-MAJOR. but with d\> in the D i) soprano (8 second motive. (6) (6a) (8) -T-. with light touching on the key of F-minor. th the bass descends through 8 measures . causing thereby a special effect. but exof the theme tended by means of repetitions. This is a specially genial idea of the master's. after which. With this the development is rendered complete. and thoroughly in keeping with the instead of the fifth first attacks climbs up by degrees with the humoristic nature of this fugue.It. but even here the bass is determined to have the last word. so half far. a turn towards the organ-point on c. and now fourth -progression. 93 the Dux in B^ -major. [g ] introduces the Dux. = the fourth.

12. from beginning to end. . and. and. a marked cesura is felt (only once do two measures stand alone. introduces an insertion of contrasting character (3a 4a. The piece. however. strettos. immediately after the first half-section. thus far. molto espressivo. would be only half understood. but entirely complicated polyphonic formations (imitations. hence they are specially suitable as an introduction to the work. is the metrical structure. sb Allegretto. inversions. it should be noticed as forming a period. - that Bach. it is decidedly The prelude. even to those still entirely unacquainted with Bach. etc. exchange of voices. by which. These are. also. however. pauses. and two of these half sections Before all. throughout. the order ^ of the group of two measures.94 SECOND PART.). is not disturbed). Of special regularity. by the form of structure. is strictly a 3. two of the pieces of the Welltempered Clavier most easy to understand. and. perhaps. and certainly by the degree of tone (p). all refrains from homophonic. most directly attractive. and after each set of four measures. inasmuch as the strictest symmetry of the group of two measures is preserved. naturally. if each pair of groups of two measures were looked upon as forming a half -section. II. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F-MINOR. leaves to the upper voice the conduct of the melody.

an intensified repetition of the after. however. appears necessary. even there. as he did with the one on c* in the fourth measure.section. almost sequential in form (cf. 95 ^ NB. changing the whole close in the parallel key into a half-close (on eP~).12. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F-MINOR. on this Bach dwells. yc 8c\ Before the close of the first part there the motives is still a complete phrase of eight measures. by means of an insertion of four measures imitated from the first one (fb 8b. only appear in the upper voice \ and.major). but with syncopation instead of note repetition: instead of: . and as the two groups of two measures (5 6. and it ends. indeed. 7 8) resemble each other strongly. in fact. the bass). are only new in the fore-section: * " (\ + after the ^* manner of the The lower voices here move opening measures. l^ * The after -section to the first four measures commences when the opening motive is taken up really again. in the parallel key (Ab. of which. are. But as the melody advances to the third (c).

The of the period are evolved from the thought. which changes the meaning of B^9 -minor to d^ Q .minor (40).major and of sufficiently The key $V -minor close D^. Bach does not. the motives of this after-section will clearly be recognized as figuration of the principal motive: does not. and concludes. the one in the first period.major to Bb-minor (4 a) and E\?. passing through A\>.major (<?(?! = to Ev. The second part of the piece (both are repeated) begins with the principal thought in Av~maj0r. stand in to relationship to the principal key permit of a dwelling in it. follows brings back the prin- and in clearer form. in the lower voices. . while the after section presents itself clearly in B^. with E^ -minor as under-dominant (t? VI1 ). but with the figuration motive in the lower voice and with legato conduct of the uppervoices. at the fourth measure.major).00 SECOND PART.major (db** = b 7) and F.dominant). and.minor (key of the under. makes a half-close in the principal key. displaces the cadence from JEb. however. but presented in richer melodic form: motives principal The period which now cipal motive. therefore. similar to (Efy. The the first after-section is developed from the motives of 40). but a new period. as in the first section further inserintroduce here tions. with the dominant of the parallel key insertion (ja An insertion of four measures.minor *').

ends with a deceptive cadence (c first of all by two a 8 measures of the intercalated a) (7 motive (the only group of two measures standing alone section. taking in the piece). Analysis of Bach's "Wohltemperirtes Clavier".for chord -figuration). 7 . corrected form.tl. and leads at the fourth 7 measure to the half-close on which. fefcfc but spreads out in sequential form. / . II. this Whether or not the motives of the upper voice of period spring from the principal motive Riemann. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F MINOR. 'ftf is Hff (f=/ yu turned back to the principal key The after)' the motive in its original up again principal 1 ^ 2> ). but with substitution of scale. by means of two insertions each of two measures (as in the first period. instead of: whereupon the transposition of the concluding period of the first part rounds off the piece in the principal key.

son of theoretical work: "The Septonate" (Rohlfing & Milwaukee). The fugue (a 3) is of bewitching grace and heartwinning loveliness.minor fugue of the first book): Andantino grazioso. as in Draseke's the Heptachord. % . and natura) not extending. p. in which he presents.etc. a scale of seven notes as melodic basis (hence O. The motives which are annexed to the theme give to it a contemplative character of quite a peculiar kind (cf. the G^. has just forwarded a *) Julius Klauser. not the octave scale. but. terribly dictul] derives 11 which Klauser [horribile barbarous word "Septonate from septem. The fact should not be overlooked that the compass of the melody keeps to the triad position with upper and under second. consistency and proportion evidently rule the piece throughout.* (Part I. 72). con amabilita. Karl Klauser. In any case. tonus. may remain undecided.

c /. neither above nor below is there contact pass of a seventh with a semitone (Draseke's Heptachord ends above on the sixth. taken as a basis for melody. But one error of Klauser's I cannot leave unnoticed: both tetrachords (c d e f and g a b c) of the C. or Indeed.19. and I acknowledge. 7* . for example. to answer c\ for the rest the Comes / with / is a transposition of the Dux in the fifth. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F-MINOR.major scale appear to him equal in formation as a and in value. and the neighbouring degrees . perhaps. f. f With him the third. Klauser. e plays. ^ As the Dux does not modulate. old Greeks (/. e. when he rises to /. just as Draseke's Heptachord is available for those lying within authentic limits. from the sub-semitone to the upper sixth. however. because the fourth (f) leads to the The three triad positions can each be In other words: third). fundamental position. feels that terminus. although he himself quite overvalues its importance. It can serve as a scheme for all melodies lying within plagal limits (cf. is possible in a plagal position. one grouped around the fifth. viz. e. still a third melodic sinking downwards. the theme of the 5-major fugue of the first book). but from the under -fourth to the upper -fourth. and therefore mistakes the importance of the under-dominant. some use may be made of Klauser's ideas towards the recognition of the I do not hesitate to acknowledge essence of melodic formation. i. only tenable for melodies within authentic limits. as a rule. without the impression of soaring upwards. Klauser's Heptachord ends below with the fifth (g). . be rectified. indeed. the Comes has to modulate from the harmony of the tonic to the dominant. but which need not necessarily keep within the limits of the comas . that my declaration "that passing beyond the sixth of the key means a transition to another octave position" is. that a plain melodic formation working round the tonic. a quite subordinate role in comparison based on the stand-point of the If this view with the fourth. there is. g. without conception of the third). because the seventh leads to the octave. so that the tonic appears as centre (hence the sub-title "System of centralisation"): Klauser's idea deserves attention.

cf. The natural quavermoving countersubject to the first half of the theme consists of the spinning out of the semiquaver movement of the first half of the theme . the themes of the fugues I. II.10O SSCOKD PARK With regard to the countersubject this fugue is again highly instructive. and when the latter passes to semiquaver movement. the countersubject adopts quavers: in each direction be admitted. although the general character is preserved. with prime as centre. in so far as a counterpoint keeping faithfully to the same notes cannot be shown. 13. 1 (Klauser) (Draeseke) fifth 3 with as centre. 21 (first 13. 2. with manifold modifications and subdivision among the voices. 3 half). in so far as the same are not notes leading I away from the position: 2 with third as centre. . (Riemann) For No.

It opens with a delivery of the Dux (in F-minor} by the bass voice. an appendage 4 a) removes first of all the close from F-minor (3 a to B\? -minor. which is as long as the 3 other two together. inI cluding the three voice entries. for all the episodes are developed from the same If we also the motives. Now .major latter key. does not appear monotonous. and there now of 8 measures a new episode follows modulating vll ab Q) and to through C. whereupon the 2 nd (modulation) section presents itself with a second development in the key of A}? -major-.M. after an episode of four measures with (4=5). and. Whether the episode of 8 measures entering with 8a=i is to be counted as belonging to the first or second section is a matter of indifference.major to EV -major)-. it modulates to the parallel key (Av -major) making in a half-close. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F. alto (Comes). j OI at once add that the semiquaver movement and one in quavers (compare theme and counterpoint) pass from scale to chord form without the motives becoming indistinct (as their character rests far more on the long feminine endings.and preserve. 6 (a*P = = cvli ). likewise appended motives). It is astonishing that the fugue. as the theme only appears in the soprano (Dux in A? -major) and in the immediately following alto (Comes from Afr. rather.minor to E\? -major (c it C. since it appears as a real interst mediate member between two developments. the feminine endings and appended motives. the close of the Comes is frustrated h 1 by g being substituted for <?t^" . but the same is incomplete.MINOR. almost without exception. does it pursue its smooth course undisturbed. and closing formally in the Therewith the modulating section comes to an end. The construction is simple: section (exposition in the principal key). soprano (Dux). and we approach the rd concluding section. further a close-confirmation of two measures (7 a 8 a). nevertheless. on that very account. we have then shown the whole of the motive material of the fugue. whereupon the rest of the period (the after-section) is filled out with an episode which the theme is likemakes a half-close on c + . bass (Dux).

again with triplet for 6 8. wise taken tip by the alto (tenor). After the sixth measure we have the second under -dominant vn and an extension of the closing group to (^K ). also. as under-dominant can create no real feeling of close. The aftersection which follows is most remarkable. with a deceptive cadence at the fourth measure.102 SECOND PART.^ __-- *X^ ^"^^r ^-^ "^. three measures (triplet of measures 6 8). A return is therefore at once made / . as it were.^ (6) (8) . closes in F-minor. extending into the + fifth ( 5). to the upper-dominr. passing through however.nt (8=3). On both occasions at the triplet of measures the bass makes. d\> changing its meaning to /.* which. fruitless endeavours to lay hold of the theme: (6) T : s. whereupon a new aftersection. 7 a close in B9 -minor.

23. first of all. somewhat pathetic little second book. PRELUDE AND FUGUE The prelude by chords. The opening is formed. 20 etc.MAJOR. A quietly progressing dotted rhythm runs through the piece like a chain.point on C imitated from the first episode. in the alto. sempre marcato J \ . IO * There is still the addition of a coda. all immediately afterwards. in the alternate play of two thematic for- period. by a pithy. in place of the usual foundation of smooth crotchets or quavers (cf.). to the minor C- vigour. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN P^. with 4=5. 2. the bass moves to J\ still ii. and finally (with 8=1). only at the 8 th measure. especially charming. u. but brighter. for instance I. another postlude of 8 measures over an organ. 13. mations. the same. from which. which first of calms down the mood by means of an episode of 8 measures (with half close on f+ at the end} then comes Dux in J3ty -minor in the soprano and. mood and prelude of this strictly IN FJ-MAJOR.ij. 6. perhaps. II. (apart from the last measures strengthened a 2) is a richly developed piece. I a) Non Allegro. in structure most akin. 15. 13. of greater and. 21.

First of all the under voice takes the lead. Notice should be taken an ornamental accessary part. drawing attention to itself by the "slide" (Schleifer) of the first theme-member. fourth measure. is followed immediately by a contrasting aftersection of evidently tenderer meaning: a gentle creeper. and to the principal key. which thereby acquires new meaning. of the dotted rhythm of the under voice. again settling finally rfl 7 1 but then G% . in that the intermittent pressing forward gives place to a delicate up and down swinging but the movement: ^ '-^ at once follows (with 8 th re-entry of the forte] introduces a clever working of the material already mentioned. changing its meaning to that of fifth.104 SECOND PART. minor and through /JJ ". in the dominant -<4$ minor. and spreads out into a cadence (proceeding from the dominant back The second period which measure = i.

MAJOR. The renewed pushing upwards of the bass. and leads in the bass to the third: . but opens up into an after-section with 4a=5. which in both voices develops the principal motive (slide and which. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F\. dotted rhythm. and long notes). 105 while the upper voice spins out its opposing figuration. must be given with dynamic contrast (p instead of /): mp ml? (6) The first close is feminine (with annexed motive). be properly understood.1 3.displacement (ja 40). after the manner of a sequence. gives the impression of a close . to [Schleifer].

. in fact. in place of lation) section. second key. by means of a transformation of the second period of the first part (c). because both voices make exchange of their themes (principal thought in the The fore-section turns to the principal upper voice). A third period (which enters without change of meaning) leads. the dotted rhythm.io6 SECOND PART. and how. by wrapping the one in the drapery of the other. to the parallel key D-minor. first section. On the concluding value (8 a). but requires no dynamic contrast. the after-section to the under-dominant. as one would expect.the after-section enters with 4=5. introducing the second (moduFor this the upper voice. therefore receives a close-confirmation of two measures. the principal thought reappears in the key of the dominant (with 8a i). takes the arabesque motive of the second theme-member. and. B-major closing at the 4 the after-section exchanges the voice roles (the upper voice with little shakes by way of ornament) and closes in the dominant key. astonishing. period next reproduces the second theme-member (i>] in th measure in the principal key. indeed. he procures new situations: it Therewith ends the A 3Z7T=^Ejf?^3 **"*I- t instead of: r etc. how faithfully Bach adheres to It is. his themes.

the conclusion in the principal key. (a 3) The fugue does not stand. which. though extended to a complete period. The motive material in these periods. in imme- diate relationship to the prelude. in the manner of a sequence.note.dominant. also in cadence. those which follow. is altogether the same as that which has been shown up to now. but finally opening out into a formal The reached at parallel key the fourth (half close measure. and closes.major <**). The period directly joining on modulates through the parallel of the under -dominant the dominant (Q a ( % minor) back to CJf. therefore. imitates this cadence twice. ma r It is second under. and its various parts are closely knit together. Bach. then. over the therefore specially rich in modulation. but naturally avoids the modulation to the upper-dominant. is The harmonic as standard) Sosteuuto on the third of the tonic sense (the subsequent treatment being taken as follows: risoluto. perhaps. The theme opens energetically with a shake on the leading. again (8=4) making th first two 8 measures. in fairly faithful manner reproduces the first two periods of the piece. and descends to the first.PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F^-MAJOtC. rises again to the . Thus the whole G 4' - - -ff - - is rounded off in pleasant fashion. after a digression. passes over the aftersection of the first period (b\ which he reserves as coda. theregft efr orffo gtf 7 upon follows a Mixolydian episode (<r$ ) of 4 measures and. Io y on a+) is already and the twice repeated after-section (entering without change of meaning) adheres half-closes on the firmly to the same. finally. but agrees well with it.

for instance.io8 principal key. yes. that the Comes ought to modulate from the (tonic of the) principal key to the dominant. the requirement which we recognise as binding. one must get a clear idea of the original form. viz. leads to insurmountable hindrances. In order thoroughly to grasp the correctness of Bach's mode of reply. The Comes is the faithful transposition in Any attempt to shape the Comes other- wise. the upper-fifth. If. could only be done at the cost of the second motive: or: b) The arrangement at b would omit the harmonic progression from the first to the second motive. i i . inasmuch as its first note effects this modulation Qf$ 7 turns f\ into under-dominant). SECOND PART. the ornamental transformation of which serves as theme: \\ t n The sequential formation cannot be ignored. and yet not effect the modulation from the harmony of the tonic to the dominant. according to real or imaginary laws. and will allow of no disturbance. one can go so far as to assert that the shake may be first of and then become an ornament all an ornament of . the c$ of /$ the second (?) measure be answered by c\ that /jj. is fulfilled in an ideal manner. For the rest.

has a striking likeness to the theme of the F. both of which are framed in the homophonic style of the F-minor prelude. and out of which grow nearly all the episodes.. the formation of the Comes. and at the end of the modulation section. The counter subject which is retained throughout the fugue. we again emphasize is 109 But. the fact. and not dissimilarity.minor prelude of the second book: Comes countersubject (8) The similarity becomes specially noticeable in the two great episodes at the commencement. the greatest the theme. above all. and like it alternate between parallel 3 rds and parallel 6 ths (undervoice with counterpoint in quavers): J * . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F\-MAJOR. that in similarity to the chief point to be observed.

section first brings the The second (modulating) episode of 8 measures. which recalls. . likewise by repetition of the after. which follow one another directly (without insertions or without change of meaning).HO SECOND PART. which now follows in the soprano. especially as it. and it concludes. probably. the thiid (<:) from the principal motive of the countersubject. The opening section of the fugue (in the principal key) embraces. or this fugue first. or from the commencement of the theme which has a similar sound. 2 S ^ b)U. Of course this similarity cannot detract from the value of the piece. it brings the second to a period. soprano (Comes). \ 4 ( i) a) . close. cannot be determined whether Bach wrote that prelude. the first section. does not introduce a new (second) development. an episode of 8 measures. t?| J a) h?. as already mentioned. bass (Dux).. as was the case with the bass entry in the first at the period of the first development. the entries of the three voices in the order alto (Dux). which consists of the following 2 -measure group repeated four times with transposition and exchange of voices: (a) is evidently derived from the of the theme. first of all. the second (/') from the close of the countei subject. and further.section.o c) J 2 S b) J o 6 The presentation of the Dux. and together form a three- member period (after-section repeated). same time. but represents tins alone. They appear in the following positions: first The voice concluding member 2: b) c a) \ 3'- c) .

marked only by one voice entry (theme in B-major [upper-dominant] in the alto) as close of a period of three members. passing through G^. NB.minor. middle section contains. likewise from the close of the countersubject. exhausted! . and which. but its chief contents: concluding member from the middle voice (ft) of the first episode. a second (the fourth) one. all three following one another directly. besides a complete development.minor [parallel]).I3 . alto (theme in Ffy-major. new transpositions of voices. viz. a touching again on the principal key within the modulating section). There follows immediately a complete third development with the following order of voices: bass (theme in C^-major). closes in D$ -minor. Ill the F~ minor. PRELUDE AAV FUGUE IN F\-MAJOR. soprano (theme in D^. as a matter of fact. The running counterpoint of this period: ' I (2) E-sE!E derives its figuration form from the of the theme. the first eight measures of which are a reproduction of the first episode. but with three i: V) b) . (G^ -major) E$ -minor. c) a)J 5 b) J 2 Herewith the six possible combinations of the three voices are. and Also the again forming a period of three members. A $ -minor.prelude.

minor prelude. since the last delivery of the theme in the bass. but only after an insertion of two measures (ja ^a). . as also the one in F-minor. A- t After the alto delivery of the theme there follow still four free measures. which with their quaver figuration freshen up the remembrance of the F. The concluding section (in the principal key) springs directly from the parallel back to the principal key. by compression appear as two (beginning with 8 1). as it begins a fifth lower. with Dux in the bass. has been silent.the alto follows first with the Comes. and ending with 8 into one of three members. is easily It was perhaps for this very reason that intelligible. The great (second) episode which now returns shows an exchange between the two upper voices (commencing with 6 ths instead of 3 rds ). whereupon the fugue concludes with The entire absence of four free measures (after-section). however. Debrois van Bruyck looked upon this fugue as the normal type of the species.112 SECOND PART. = = thus any disturbance of the symmetry deserves notice. and this fugue.minor (C$-major\ minor and D\-minor. gives out the Dux in a high position. which. C. 5.minor. which. passes through the keys of G^. and. likewise this turning period Finally the soprano.

earnest purpose. The second period. than any in the first part of the work. but not in a single bar does it dispute the rank of the latter as leader. and of the parallel key). with exception of a few passages. the onward pressing triplets of the up-beat. The second voice frequently imitates the upper one. more. and also the bewitching syncopation-effects from the third. and master deep feeling. to the fourth in first 1 already the in the unfolding both of measure.14. for Riemann. the lower voice is a real bass. together with its longing. Adagio molto amabile. j j3 II 14. 8 . which. overflowing with love. constitutes a middle section (in which extensive use is made both of the dominant. Analysis of Bach's " Wohltemperirtes Clavier". The motive material throughout is confined to that given above. an outpouring prelude a 3 of wondrous beauty inmost soul. yet in its whole disposition surely betraying the old ushers in a fugue of high.MINOR. What freedom melody and rhythm half-period which forms Notice well the insinuating the basis of the whole piece fourth of the opening motive. PREL UDE AND FUG UE IN F$. annexed motive. II. perhaps. together with the third. fresh with youth. alone introduces something fresh.MINOR. PRELUDE AND FUGUE A of the IN F#. the smooth semiquavers of the turn-like feminine ending of the second motive. upward -soaring.

(with 8a=i). Quite enchanting is the gentle hint motive in the middle voice 1 at the syncopation The construction of the piece is easily shown. it avoids the syncopations from the 3 rd to the 4 th measure reserved to intensify the second period of the middle section substituting the following: dim.SECOND PART. transposed into the key of the dominant (C$-minor). to the key of the under-dominant B -minor ( ^ )t ^^J the dominant (C. first.minor). > = 1 then (3 a 4 a) to that of the parallel (A -major. with . while commencing with the opening. a second after-section) which modulates to The first The second period joins on and modulates. at the fourth measure. but it has an appendage (j a 8 a. period remains entirely in the principal key (whole close at the 4 th and 8 th measures).

MINOR. is principally occupied with the syncopation motive) goes once again to B-minor 7 7 11 vn + /S) and to ?.fl out. . allusion to its dominant (^? the middle of and period following immediately cond. (3 a) r piu cresc. into a half -close g^ " and opens key (with susVI the J principal ^ff^ L ($ J J $> ^JlJ*.. in a passionate vn pension {r^ b niyj o^jj and manner. organ -point) in ni-< o^ft). it remains. of the synmaterially intensified by a double displacement of the chord under-dominant motive (tonic copation Neapolitan sixth): cresc.t4- PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F\. however. as already mentioned. the bass (solo) triplets to the repe- tition of the first period: theme: The repetition of the commencement is. section (which. with an The se^ 7 ).?). j j 5 the change of meaning *f$ d*)> in which key.* == L & ~ ft ft gfyi leads back by means of three placid After the organ-point." [= <? /^ X /ft ] (a = = C^minor (/flvn _o. ir (3b) (4) .

the Comes is never and is. The theme out by the tenor in a sonorous middle is first given . The after-section is followed by the coda. I certainly cannot find this prelude "harsh" ("herbe"). in fact. position: Sostenuto con molt' espressione. itself a second. still less can I discover in it and here again. little more and extremely simple rhythmical completion. (4) demand that the dominant key should be led up to from the harmony of the tonic. to the opening c$ it opposes an /#. The fugue (a 3) is likewise a very remarkable piece. /. e. The counterpoint accompanying afterwards literally reproduced. indeed. six real measures and. but do not leave the key any more. /jj HI < =Jf 7 [second upper-dominant]).n6 SECOND PART. both make rich use of chromatic harmonies (^jj ni< =/jJ 7 [dominant of the underVII dominant]. this number is brought about by a repetition of the first group. dim. and complete after-section. first. dry formality ("trockenes Formelwesen") must dispute the verdict of Debrois van Bruyck. and thus the opening satisfies The answer the step of the theme is rd changed from a 3 into a 2 nd . and harmonic unfolding of the theme: than a . The theme comprehends three measures in slow 4-crotchet time.

in repeat itself continually. and in dislocated position (also in inversion).- PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F\. the counterpoint to the first bass entry Bach evidmeant that the first motive of the theme.MINOR. -i_ . in connection with the G -minor fugue of the first part of the work the compelling power of the harmonic and rhythmical relationships really produces formations of an entirely new character. -J-^ On the other hand. which afterwards frequently recurs (also as counterpoint): * f By ently ' r r r r (4=5) a similar manner. should as we have remarked. introduce a characteristic formation (fourth-fifth sequence). but "sT ^= j^^*i --~. in ordinary. the four inserted free measures before the third entry of the theme in the bass.

. 7J1. The same toying with the opening motive of the theme now goes on through a period in which there is elision of the i st and of the 5 th measure. and modulation to the key of the dominant. but only presented once again). the close (with syncopation) is the old-world cadence which already appeared in ornamented form in the first counterpoint. and in altogether unconcealed fashion in the second. The bass moving throughout in quavers answers a purpose: it continues to . Also here the counterpoint is occupied with the material of the theme. also through a second (complete) after -section leading back to the principal key. The conduct follows : of the bass during these ten measures is as =-(2) I i "_(4JN ^(6) (8) and even this is evidently evolved from the theme.n8 SECOND PART. The first section (in the principal key) here comes to a close with the delivery of the Dux by the soprano presents according to customary mode of speech (which a second incomplete development naturally a contradictio in adjecto\ the theme is not even once again developed.

The kind of imitation here is not one of strict fugal kind (/. and.but it cannot be denied that here it is a question of a real development of a new thought. in place of the expected $ under the final note of the theme (/ft). to different phrasing: (2) The middle voice is occupied with the second motive of the theme (displaced by one crotchet). in the parallel key. The latter enters with 4=5. .>4.section. which claims rank next after the theme. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F I. e. it does not take place in the fifth and octave). announce in succession. but here the opening motive in direct and in contrary also. and this is carried on in the after . of necessity. the harmonic relationships lead. in a clear manner. with development of a new motive which the voices. indeed. resolving with feminine Q this ending in B-minor\ and. /jf 7 appears. is combined after this The second broad close. (2 a) (8) (modulating) section of the fugue enters. later on. (A -major)'. by change of meaning to d leads at the 8 th measure to a close in the parallel key <r .MINOR. gathering together once more. jjg nold fast to motion. and. because.

SECOND PART. where all three voices introduce it as a prolonged stretto. the measure: in a striking manner. M U . on the quaver of II. means of a third principal thought. a The pure form of the second subject is: gives it just before the close of the whole Here. by triple fugue). m / ii. it passes through the Mixolydian transas piece. further Thus the fugue becomes a double fugue (and.I2O with it. on. the bass formation of the leading note now so familiar to us last and indeed.

but leaps from the concluding note to the delivery of the first theme. it is also taken up by the bass. this fragment also contains some incomplete offshoots. but breaks off in favour of the fourth. and passes the syncopated turn-figure of the I st theme. the last group (7 th to 8 th measure) the tenor once again introduces the II theme in JB-minor.t. and in the same key. on to 8va bassa. PREL UDE AND FUG UE IN F g MINOR.(fifth-) counterpoint. . and the bass takes it up (likewise from d\ but at the end suffers the Mixolydian transformation. (8-1) Already this voice entry combines the first with the second theme. II. first of all the soprano begins the latter from d. here marked as II. - 1 2 \ of the second Besides the complete deliveries theme. In in the after -section.(fifth-) counterpoint presents itself once again. ? I *T I ^^~ etc. and. towards the end the dotted fourth.

in a repeated after-section. and. however. for we are now entering still upon a third division of the fugue (which. 9> c) instead of: nd at c from the real form of the 2 attention intentional an intensification. complete delivery likewise In the after-section of this period there is also an inof the I st theme (in very free form) by the tenor: (6) (8-5) It enters on abandons the repetition of the first $ vu modulates to the group (50 6a). The deviation is . while the two upper voices are occupied with the second theme. . calling theme to a new.122 SECOND PART. . in which the bass. with <rjf =c key of the dominant. and important moment. now gives the complete theme.

123 the close of the second belongs to the middle section). bass beginning with /"$. . the syncopation turn -motive of the theme.dominant B-minor in which it makes a half-close. instead of the shake on d.minor) by way of E-major (/# ^7 <? [= g Q here sets aside the cadential quavers of the favour of a continued smooth rolling of the semiquaver figure. and in various with c and ending in positions: soprano beginning B.MINOR.minor. and. a second. with 8 section of only 2 measures] carries the first half of the new theme through the voices. (G%. and modulates through Evl minor \ a fourth major (g$ e^ and A-major back to follows. up to this point. makes the third theme is given a cadence with d\ out by the middle voice. A third period the first. likewise from /$. developing the 3 rd theme. During all this. is not answered in fifth and but at once appears in stretto. in the middle voice. finally. and the bass rolls on with the semiquaver figuration (freely inverted) of the third theme. and the modulation reaches the second dominant octave. likewise. the long close in The theme = = F- syncopation of the first development J J). then tenor. only six [afteroccupies ten measures. period going towards the under. 1. with the dotted fourth-fifth-counterpoint. all at the distance of two But now the waves rise measures (of one 4 / 4 measure). the first theme appears again. while the quavers appear in other voices.PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F$. 7 while the upper voice assists after the half close (Jj J | in/Jj . At theme (while the bass. higher. %%)* This theme. and also the fourth -fifth -counterpoint appear as counter subjects.

otherwise carried strictly through) combines all three themes (the third in its complete. the first motive slightly veiled by semiquaver movement.124 SECOND PART. smooth.minor in the soprano. (2 a) (4) But already the immediately following presentation of the theme (Dux in F\. onward rolling shape) with one another: .

with close. 34. a a b. in the w ith the third theme in the soprano. so that in place of the motive chain. a a b. in quiet quaver movement. brings the whole to a conback to t Dux in clusion with a new transposition of the three themes: . 7 .confirmation of two measures. fugue. during which the bass continues to run on. first we in find ourselves in the concluding portion of the which occurs: 8). an episode of 6 measures (2. 8=5). PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN F}. peculiar transformation of the last mentioned episode (calculated to convert an unbelieving Thomas to our theory of phrasing: three -measure rhythm in the order w is transformed into four-measure rhythm of strictly symmetrical character. if 125 With this. not already in the preceding theme entry. while the upper voices indicate.1 4 . and the second middle voice.MINOR. the simple a b a b is selected) leads A F-minor in which still a presentation of the F\-minor (repeated after-section). motives from the i st and 2 nd themes further a presentation of the Comes in the bass (repeated after-section with 6.

(6) *d^ (6a) (8J J 1 ! (8a) .126 SECOND PART.

In the first there are 16 measures. in no wise form two regular periods. more detailed. The scheme of the opening measures Allegretto espressivo.and aftersection are compressed (4=5). The prelude consists of two parts. fore.major prelude and the G. the second even begins with 8=2.confirmation (cadence) of one measure. But here. more emphatic. broader. of which. but. the deceptive progression of the bass (a b) renders two more measures (8a=6) necessary. We certainly do not intend to become reminiscence hunters. on the contrary.MAJOR.. each of which is repeated. each of 8 measures. at the end of the first. already in the first period. however. however. II. which at once recalls the C^. ? _ r& . indeed. The three measures which thus stand over. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G-MAJOR. everything is more sedate.major prelude and fugue of the first book. which. yet cannot possibly get rid of the impression that here souvenirs of his young days came back to "old" Bach. at any rate in the prelude. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G. and. consist first of a close.

Even where. the quaver movement is only slightly disguised. two voices move in semiquavers. as in the second period. Only in the closes of both sections and in the middle of the a kind of working-out second section does the semiquaver movement become a real one. after the manner of the G-majo* fugue of the first book. but within the simplest forms: it moves The harmonic structure deserves close consideration (4-5) (8-2) .128 SECOND PAliT.

. (S) d7 g -^) 4 c a (half-close) (free repetition II. g^ 7. (4) b' b (=evi) m J. 9 . Riemann. .MAJOR. . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G. (4) c+ 6 (parallel) (leading back) d' g+ c 6 d' 4- g .. (4 a) b a' d+ 7. a' (8) d a 7 . 129 l J d+ ga'(-l) d+ g c a7 g .. Analysis of Bach's "Wohltemperirtes Clavier". (8 0) d (8) d+ (dominant) c+ b .

modulation. and the The theme. of which the second comprehends both the modulating.) a brilliant piece The fugue (a 3) is constructed in a wonderfully concise manner. stands above special laws or "conventions of fugue". only in the alto. formation A B A. establishment of a principal key. that the second (modulating) section introduces it only in the bass and soprano. e. for it is too long: Vivace brillaute. indeed. i. not suitable for frequent repetition. it were better to say that the first section of the fugue carries the theme regularly through the three voices.1 3o SECOND PART. certainly. indeed. unless. d^ b' (2 a) b (^g+) c d7 (4a) g+ (6) c< of the 1st section. dim . and return of the principal key. and Now as the chief law of all the concluding section. for it has only six theme entries. in the case of strettos. is third. and it actually contains only two developments.

and it must be looked upon as an ingenious combination of the two countersubjects which are employed throughout the whole fugue: l) alto entry. The first countersubject does not return in The Comes shows of the fifth alteration strict form. only perfectly suitable to the period at which the fugue style held sway viz. already been completed by the countersubject in the rare manner. but for this no reason can here be assigned. indeed. for we do not pass from the harmony of the tonic to the key of the dominant. as that modulation has and. commencing with the fourth measure. and really nothing new is introduced in the & d 1 g^. It springs suddenly into view. (2) (Comes) at the opening the well known of the key being answered by the fundamental note. by a leap from dominant harmony (d 7) to the key of the dominant (d as tonic). . so that three measures are not skipped over. but the tonic is twice confirmed by c It is interesting to observe how Bach prepares the entries of the remaining two voices by an upward rolling semiquaver figure (which must be reckoned as part of the countersubject). but only one (after 8 follows at once 2): cresc. after-section.- PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G-MAJOR.

seems likely. a group of two measures. rolls onward. still. which carry on the sequence of the two upper voices. however. the alto rolled onwards. it turns round at the right moment. and then. but as there is not another entry. the bass. the soprano. glance at the lower voice explains the possibility of this appendage. which. tending towards the key of the dominant by means of a stately cadence. so now also. satisfying the requirements of symmetry. and make a formal full -close in the dominant (D-major}. be careful not to look upon their first measure as accented. and before the entry of the bass. with regard to the theme. first The A introducing. first an accented measure (2). The modulating section plays first with phrases of two measures borrowed from the theme (one must. and the following three appended measures (6 a 8 a).13* SECOND PART. (8) section includes the three voice entries. For as before the entry of the alto. d+ . on the point of stress of which the new entry followed.

and quite expected = = (in B of the lates first development. By the transformation of g into # th measure Cance of the major close.*S- PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G-MAJOR. the 4 2 nd . 7 j-^ VI1 and the avoid. then appears a delivery of the Comes after the manner -minor} by the soprano. and continued through all the voices: end of the organ-point . so that the upper voice alone has to The organ-point ends with spin out the thematic motive. the attitude: This sets up a standard for the now following third period. The next period already modu- back to the principal key. with 9 entry of 4. indeed. continued acquires the meaning of * VII _tp turns same after the fashion. is 3 with the fully prepared by the filling out of measures i well known from the earlier theme entries rolling figure intensified into demisemiquaver movement. the theme follows.minor. again with working of the same phrase of two measures as the one upper voices assume a close in the first episode. a half-close on the 8 th measure. which. but with the thirds and the shakes transferred to the lower voices. however. by means of * bass a new E. and only then comes a final delivery of the Dux by the alto. which at the second measure becomes an organpoint on D. in which key. and the period. and. towards the close of this period.

which Bach himself marked Largo. a 4. who compares the prelude to a woodcock hopping lightly and merrily. are added by way of appendage. rolls downward from a 2 to small b. this picture may possibly be reflected in the prelude. tempo (something like J = 8o.MINOR. the some- J = 40).SECOND PART. not to lose the outline. in spite of the very broad must be taken as beats. II. none the less (although the allabreve-stroke be missing) conceived in allabreve measure. If we transform the duck into a swan gliding over a smooth lake. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G. The continued figuration in dotted semiquavers and in demisemiquavers may seem at the present day somewhat roccoco\ but the rich harmonic contents of the piece. the woodcock with its rapid zig-zag flight will serve admirably as a simile for the fugue. The prelude. as the harmonic In order.. is. finds in the fugue a "deliberate movement which may almost be compared to the waddling step of a duck" (. Only two measures of close-confirmation. again in demisemiquavers. therefore . in which the soprano. the minims. details. however. enable one quickly to forget. fast dem wackelnden Entenschritt vergleichbare Beweglichkeit"). strictly carried out. 1 6.bedachtige. for the most part. Bruyck. while attending to minute analysis easily shows.

The figuration of the first this be regarded as principal. indeed. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G -MINOR. unless.i is maintained throughout. -- ^ * *. measures: Largo. without follows: it the piece would appear somewhat as m (2) i (4) T \ i (half-close in the dominant key) . 135 what formal shape ot the accessory work.16.

136 SECOND PART. feg-J^pEfcJjj-gE^^Ig w tr.s=^te^_.*_*fe5_ilc=j_g ^ff*^ 9fSE f^F i I r^ -^ rt ^= ^ I -(4) ^^~x- (80) (under-dominant) p >- i (Sb) (8 a) .

and forms a fitting sequel to the 1 mail-clad prelude. It appears equipped with the whole apparatus of double counterpoint. with its tense. with the prelude. and. bass: Comes). such a combination a 4 occurs in the third development: . is well in keeping. (Tenor) )id2 (4) The Comes answers d with g in order to effect the modulation to the dominant from the harmony of the tonic. PREL UDE AND Fi'GUE IN G MINOR. and indeed somewhat stubborn nature (see the obstinate note-repetition of the last member of the theme). without intermediate episode (tenor: Dux. while the second. and it is so disposed as to be able to be doubled in thirds. by introducing very few changes of meaning in the measures of periods. the rest is a faithful transposition in the fifth. the first of which makes 7a halfclose in the key of the dominant (D-minor) on .minor). soprano: Dux. turning. The theme occupies an authentic position.16. fulness of expression within these narrow limits The fugue (a 4). further. around the third of the key: Allegro poco maestoso. alto: Comes. and combined with the theme doubled in the same manner. The theme with its four measures is favourable to simple structure. and of this possibility Bach makes abundant use. regains the principal key. - j on Only two periods. passing through the key of the under-dominant and yet what (C. The first countersubject is strictly mantained throughout the whole fugue. within a narrow circle. first of all. by allowing the entries in the various voices to follow one another regularly.

133 SECOND PART. of stress of the measures ( a also 2. . . but also of those in the io th and 12 th In the first development Bach only introduces the two-voice form which results in a 3 rd likewise 6 th between theme and counterpoint on the points . all A counterpoint of this character not only allows of kinds of inversions in the 8 ve . a) .

16. introduces the countersubject in form 2 (in the bass). [I] in D-minort fifth or rather in F-major) transposes the countersubject a higher. with voices reversed: instead of: bass entry of the second development (Comes in "T~= V . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G-MINOR. it is moved up only a third immediately (in (combination a or a) \ double counterpoint in the io lh ): instead of: The d) f-major) displays the same combination. but already the alto entry in the same development (Dux produce etc. which follows on V -major). so as to the combination ^ (double th counterpoint in the 12 ). d) instead of: ==j=^^ while in the soprano entry of the theme. b) 139 Also the first enunciation of the theme in the second development (Dux again in the tenor 1).

doubled The displacements of key which result from the trans positions in double counterpoint of the io th and 12 th (see my in thirds retains its (tenor and alto). and.minor and F.major. for better or worse. back to however. here i a. 137. The third development brings about new combinations a 3. "Lehrbuch des Kontrapunkts". the more or less mechanical result of employing double counterpoints other than the one in the octave. pages 79. first of all.) should be noticed. this form must be traced an accompaniment of both voices with under-.140 SECOND PART. indeed. the theme is. G -minor and Eh -majort C-minor and E^.thirds: or: d) d (cf. a certain wavering between the parallel keys (D. b\ 2 c I. likewise c The next delivery of the a/ theme: . 129. like- wise upper.major] is. etc. while the counterpoint (bass) original position: a) c) \" 2 m Strictly speaking.

a transfer in the octave of the first four. so that the appearance of a stretto is brought about. PRELUDE AND FUGUE Iff G-S11NOR. forming the principal thirds). but assumes a homophonic. Anyhow. however. /. there results the four. e.voice scheme. for soprano and bass set in with Dux and countersubject (in the original form) compelling them to proceed in sequential form. feature of the concluding section. but introduces the counter subject transposed a third b\ d \ \ a ) likewise 2 c of the second higher. Now follows as a special display the fourvoice form given above (theme and counterpoint with The third development. with regard to the soprano enunciation of the theme. chord-like character. appears regularly end. gradually renounces double counterpoint. leading to a formal . 141 not a simple transposition and octave displacement of above.Id.or under-voice of the interval of 3 rd is four.voice form: I. does not come to an end.voice b\ to be accepted as theme) the form a I of our first four- c/ voice scheme. the form I is 1 1 ) scheme. while the countersubject transposed in the 12 in the but neither comes to an alto. this. e. or (if the question be waived as to whether the upper. for the tenor gives out the theme th (Dux).

which. like the one last mentioned. in the bass is The concluding delivery of the Dux prepared with great ingenuity. but was satisfied with hinting at them. in the middle. in any case belongs to the I. does the Dux enter in the bass. and passes through F6 ). G-minor delivery of the . which may be looked upon as a second countersubject. major (<:3' theme in the alto is meant for D-minor. for the most part. besides. long to the second section since it is in the principal key. resigned to their fate. use of the various combinations. The episodes of the fugue make use. and only. Modulation Section. when.142 SECOND PART. it is separated from the following alto delivery of the theme by an episode of four measures. of the beginning of the countersubject. just as they offered themselves. apparently. together with a counterpoint in dotted quavers. and the second enunciation of The latter does not bethe theme in the tenor. but for a moment. they return to the cadence. cadence in G-minor.major = (V=^ to D-minor (d). the first episode of four measures which leads back to the principal key. Vii) (f The Q g*). waiting. rf^sff etc. then tenor and alto commence the countersubject in thirds. in that all four voices repeatedly start off with the countersubject. but which has no fixed form. in vain for the theme. The three sections of the fugue are as follows: Exposition (in the principal key): the four voice entries immediately following one another. II. changes into F-major\ the C. but have a We see how Bach made no extravagant free ending.

a freely formed after-section brings the period to an end. appears somewhat uncertain owing to the upper. The to EV-major (c major enunciation of the theme. + ^ which quickly springs to C-minor (/ ') and when the half-close on fourth the measure. II. Concluding Section which has already been explained. j^p in the soprano is adjoining delivery of the theme and the immediately following entirely in B9 -major. wonderful prelude. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G-MINOR. repeats 1 g is changed into a whole. It opens on an accented measure with which the following unaccented one is immediately connected. long draughts: it forms the introduction to a fugue of specially fine texture. efy upper 3 e? Q but soon changes to F-major (Gg y?_^7-t + 6 An episode of two measures (ja c1 J7 ).close. and hence has its close confirmed (ja)'. bass entry. and . with which this section closes. harmonious sounds of which one takes in in full. the pleasing. Before the third development there again appears an episode of four measures. soon becomes clear by the E^ The introduction of the #i? in the countersubject. and the contents of which are similar: .. close of the period consists of the return modulation vn d 1 }.16. [=^ ] (el?* III. middle inclines slightly towards Ev -major. = m = f this time there really follows a delivery of the theme * I in which only in the C-minor (beginning with I. PRELUDE AND FUGUE A IN Ab-MAJOR. in F-major. 8 a) restores the key of C-minor (/s '=*r v11). however. The third development begins apparently in C-minor (because the rd stands above the fifth of the tonic). 17. and modulates = ab* b\??).third being placed over bb the fifth of the key: it. whereupon follows the .

motive: mf *y- f r*^ against which the beginning of the second period stands in soft contrast: . mp p cresc. now gently rising. ^ The EEJ=EEg (4) after-section introduces another. now falling. SECOND PART.144 Larghetto.

the answer modulates from the fundamental note. in 2). however. As divisible into two members. Analysis of Bach's 'Wohltemperirtes Clavier". by insertions and a repeated after-section. thus first. IO . and carries on the expected. strictest manner. the ninth period. Riemann. clearly fugal episodes. in the parallel key of F-minor the sixth (also extended). and. and thus contracts the first step of a third to one of a second: allegretto. With less = = = return in the principal key is the eighth period. after the of the first three sections. PREL UDE AND FUG UE IN A S> - MAJOR. in the key of the dominant -b (with 8 the fourth (greatly extended). and highly symmetrical. manner of the second period piece to the end. well understands how to revive the interest of the listener. after measures. c (0) II. Poco mp Dux alto XI (2) (4) I st countersubject. and richly equipped it has no fewer than carries out a countersubject in the a second one (free) . j ^ this modest material Bach works through no than 76 slow bars. The re-entry of the principal thought (the opening one) marks the arrival at the chief points of the modulatory the second period of eight development-.I7. Bach. by cleverly grouping them. is extended to 14 measures. after 2). it begins with the fifth and does not modulate. suppresses it.major (likewise with 8 2). and after (again with 8 After the underdominant D^. and also provides : The theme is extremely graceful. its when The fugue a 4 15 is theme entries.

against the theme. it is associated with the Dux. without transposition of the appeared in the under-fifth). retained (with the Dux naturally transposed but already at the beginning of the second development (which is still in the principal key). latter. ^ V (8) This as it first countersubject at first is. it therefore satisfies the requirements of double counterth Also at the beginning of the concludpoint in the 12 ing section. but with ornamen. for the most part. of the countersubject displaced by a crotchet (as in the third development): . it appears in this form.146 SECOND PART. tation: But much more extraordinary is an appearance.

1. It returns almost exactly in the same form at following bass entry. besides.. work an independent theme of three measures (!): the the one out 10* . and may be traced. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN A ^-MAJOR. is the one with the smoothly running semiquavers (at the tenor entry of the first development): to. within the third development. This episode. though never strictly adhered but appearing. and the imitated from it. '47 8va bassa In the last development there is something inter- mediate between the two: 8va bassa A second countersubject. in more or less free form. in bass during the first episode. throughout the whole fugue.

again two periods. alto: Comes the accompanied in = measures).counterpoint in this slender semiquavers which only occurs this once period kindles interest anew. in all. bass: Comes st and periods) the first episode. by elision of the i th of a six forms measures measures.minor The the first . with which. with one measure of close-confirmation. in which fresh counterpoint is opposed to the second countersubject: = . but with an insertion of two measures. after the cadence in Aty. not divided from the first by an episode.major. The second (modulating) section.148 SECOND t'AKT. also tenor: Dux. The after . e. and after two measures of close-confirmation. by change of meaning. likewise leading back 8 a]. in which the alto starts off with the commence[7 a two complete ment of the theme. and an elision of one measure. likewise a leading-back (8 a). 21 [parallel].section (with 4 5) forms an episode. tenor: Dux. the theme (Dux) enters immediately in the alto in F. and intensified aftersection. which turn towards F. exceptionally. soprano: Comes. is now. beginning with 4 enters with the Dux in a second. but. in addition to the second countersubject. period 5 (keys: E?. only bass by a scale . the soprano freely formed after-section. again in the principal key. is associated a smart motive recalling the first member of the theme: first section in the principal key comprehends development (alto: Dux.major). Aty. which. and after a 5. DV. and the second development (bass: Dux. and after two measures of close-confirmation [3^ 40]. i.major.minor \ it is well in performance to lay a slight emphasis on the close of the section. in which all the voices take part. an appendage of four measures.major.

and voices. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN A^-MAJOR. struggles upwards through Ab. in the remote regions of the parallel of the second underdominant (tenor: Dux EV-minor)\ of the parallel of the underdominant (after two free measures. turning. measure). at the end towards Dfy. again with elision of the i in C-minor. with exchange of st and 5 th measures. followed = enters definitely with by the Comes in the bass. (4=5) and which closes (8) repeated after -section passing from C-minor to F-minor. the closing beat (bass [8 J] = | meaning to that of upbeat of the fifth Dux measure] in Dty. indeed. but ends with a deceptive cadence in F-minor (city\ in the repeated . The close is once more confirmed by three measures (triplet). and. again to the upper-dominant (organ-point on eb 1 6 th . soprano : Dux in Ify-minor with a triplet last group). now B^ a^ chord *t? VI1 (a\?+ This deceptive cadence changes the meaning of the 8 th measure to the 4 th and a new impulsive triplet of measures advances from the broadly disposed chord of the Neapolitan sixth. Further follows the extended.major. but 32 measures 1 the with slight compression (4 of the modulation to the indeed. thus runs its course lopment. in place of which. and of the under. The master now collects his whole strength.Ij.minor. which make a half Bv -minor measure for the changing with its close in BV-mtnor. in a repeated after-section. The remainder of the third deveand of the second section. a triplet of measures presses quickly (O of the Neapolitan sixth) towards -major The third Dux in the (closing) section tenor. finally. in the tonic. but it avoids the repetition dominant. transposed reproduction of the first episode. an impressive triplet of beats occurs over the premaThe second section turely reached E9 of the bass).minor} whereby the obscuration has reached its highest point). 5).dominant itself opening [/. and concludes. and E^ . comprehends therefore only three periods.minor and fib -minor to a half close on eb 1 (whereby. e. briefly.

brings about an imposing close. after-section (to be interpreted with breadth) of which the theme (Dux).SECOND PART. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G# -MINOR. buds are bursting forth from every nook and comer: Vivace quasi Andantino. In the prelude there is the breath of fresh spring (and with this the nearly related key of E-major may have something to do). (Commencement) mf (yd period) ^ loco The happy man. Once again. 1 8. rance : enjoys the balmy frag- . II. two pieces of quite special interest. among the four real voices conducted regularly to the end. bewitched. as fifth voice.

. djj . 2nd period (skipping over the first measure): dtt =b 6 . (4) VH e |( 7 + ajf (half-close in the key of the dominant). (8) . 7 ist 7 I period: I djf dj}.MINOR. cj 7 (4) a j|. | cjf .jjj}> 9> f I 3gj}+. o dft ^ o dff d f . (8) 3 period: > . I give only the scheme of the harmonic A development: I st section (with repeat).. and new deeds germinate and his heart opens.18. I djj d 7 . Bach himself has prescribed the dynamic contrast of the former (piano). [==s djjvil] (8 4* period: 7 g# . (= od ^ ^o> dj} ^ 1^ 9> (4) ^ft rt 7 H^ I (2) ^c-g^ b+. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G $. fj} a |7 (2) ajj. . and of the latter (forte) passage. d# dj} (4) djj. detailed analysis of the piece may be left to those whose interest is excited.

I a+ e7 . g {f [g jjvn] d }j7 o | d JJ. [= fjj] g |' I cj}+.. e (4) 7 (skipping over the (2) 5th measure) . K|.j} (8a) 2 nd section (with repeat): ill'* ti*T yth period: dj(' . (S) .jr 2 SECOND PART. .. .. 7 Close-appendage (cf. 7 I A Li gfi i .. o a ^ [== a jjvilj (4) T 7 7 aft- dft j gft-. b7 . ... aH ' [= eft VI] c ft 7 (4) (8=2) o 9* period: oc ft. 7. .> | . c|' ff+ (*) >. gx C LL*TAli {J LL*T 7 cjj eft (2) (2a) (4=6) 7 fS [=grn]| (6) 'h d 7 S 1 d (Ga) ' g# 7 (8=1) ... fjj 7 . cj? | fft-. period: 7 cjj . i*t 7 period): aft laft aft aft I 7 aft aft (8a) 5th period (skipping over the first (8b) measure): aft VII* [deceptive0> ] cadence harmony with change of meaning to b 4"] fft j^ [= dft (8=8) 6* iod: period ajf.






loth period:











ft* df








jff f




Iith period

















d j{

g j(7


g j|


g fl7


g jf


Triplet of measures




(deceptive cadence)










The modulation is freer than usual: one especially misses the parallel key among the chief points of rest (but in its place the key of the dominant of the parallel is to be found among them); the key of the under-dominant, also, scarcely makes itself felt, but, in its place, that of the second under-dominant {F$-minor\ and that of its parallel are prominent. The fugue a 3 glides along in quaver triplets (6/ 8)

The theme, with its inserted, nd measure (2 a), disturbing the tonality, has repeated 2 a peculiar play of colour; it turns about the third of the
with lizard-like lightness.

key (soprano):

'54 Con






The Comes

(alto) enters at the close

the 4 th measure




of 5 th





not modulate, the Comes does not modulate back, and therefore an episode becomes necessary before the entry of the rd Bach voice, in order to restore the principal key. 3 fashions this so that it shall, at the same time, complete the symmetry, /. ^.-form the fore-section to the 3 rd voice Dux in the bass enters with fourth entry (this again measure changed in meaning to that of fifth). The counterpoint of the soprano to the first appearance of




Dux does

the Comes and the first episode, prefigure, as it were, the contents of a second theme of the fugue, which is a real, In other words: from the complete, double fugue.

countersubject and of the first episode, (in the middle of the fugue which contains 143 bars), a real second subject which is developed independently, and then combined with the principal theme. For the I st countersubject appears thus:

motives of the


crystallized, later













a species of f. it repeats twice a syncopated motive, cadence which, however, powerfully deflects the harmony of the theme the first time:






episode runs thus:






The second theme first detaches from the latter the chromatic passage, while the syncopated motive of the first countersubject appears as appendage (see measures 66 70):







This second theme


perfectly symmetrical in


struction, so that when combined with the first theme, there arises a slight conflict', it enters at the second measure-



motive of the

meaning of



and gives to the second measure the that, by its resisting harmonic and

rhythmic nature, subject does") the

destroys (as indeed the first countercadential power actually inherent, and in the second measure of the theme:

I repeat, that this second theme is evolved, as it were by good chance, from elements previously employed. Besides,

already before the appearance of the second theme, the motive of the first countersubject is frequently opposed to that theme, and it is also employed in the episodes. The other contrapuntal material of the piece grows also out of the theme, countersubject, and first episode; in the last named, the motive of the upper voice

exceedingly fertile. It appears, first of all, in every episode of the section before the entry of the second theme, as chief element; and, immediately on the second is opposed delivery of the second theme (by the alto), to its appendage, as if the source of the second theme were to be pointed out in unmistakable fashion:

Comes in alto (with Then follows immediately a close-confir4 5). and the theme more than twice completely developed. the inversion of the chromatic chief motive of the second theme. It Development of the first theme alone. 8. thematic material.tS. and a redundant delivery of the theme by the alto voice. - '57 Towards the end of the second section of the iugue (development of the second theme without the first). is extraordinary that Bach has remained in the principal key during the whole of the first section. I. Combination of both themes. by the extent of the episode which follows (8^. from the subsequent theme entries. attains to special importance: _x^ *y =3bHi ^T As this already remarked. mation of one measure twice repeated (&a. = . 8<). as: II. I st Development: Dux in soprano. to be reckoned amongst them. and by a complete new period with triplet of measures for 5 6). the three principal sections of double fugue must be distinguished. This latter is detached in too marked a manner. III. PRELUDE AND FUGUE AV G " MINOR. with the assistance of the above-mentioned countermotive. according to the I. Development of the second theme alone. although it is very long.

minor towards 1%-minor this (d$-gfr. concludes this development. while the above mentioned inversion of the opening motive of the second theme descends through (^m^aftT). Development (for clearness' sake. 2 beginning in the bass with c\ whereupon a free after-section leads back to the principal nd theme is given out by key. the 2 the soprano. displacement of close to C$-minor\ 46. aj}'-jf. C\-major (g^) G\-major (&* 5 ). in a detailed and formal manner so that the Comes may commence a fresh development with intensified effect.major]. but in a higher position.. but then soars th to measure) C$. after a leading-back measure (40).major. in the after-section. and by means of an appendage of two measures to be taken in broad. to B. in order (at the 6 again upward .jj-8 SECOND PART. $b 4^ to B. once again. = B 5? * allargando rd . after one measure of close-displacement (8a nd theme to Cfymitior). the second theme beginning in the alto with p-jf. *jj'-*|}). Dux in the bass (with 8 forming another after -section which 5). returns to the Comes in the soprano. and next. full time makes a half close on the dominant..major (parallel). which first of all and twice displaces the close (30 40 to C^. thus (70 8 a) intentionally marking the entry of the second theme: to The episode modulates the dominant.minor (jm> ""*} D\-minor = <$<). displacement ot close to B-major\ and after-section with return to the principal key). in which. F^jL- A. commencing 3 with only two voices. t 7 major (cfy ). soprano and bass): the second theme (beginning with //$) in the soprano. Then after key of the dominant an episode of six measures (411.( ^. From high point of departure an extended period (with 30 40) leads back to the principal key. starting from gfa in this last presentation of the theme (50 So) the harmony turns towards the end from G^. and.minor. 2 nd Development (with 8=1): Comes in the bass. also.. II. after an episode of eight measures.

2 st theme (Dux) in modulating to the under -dominant: I nd E-major (parallel to the under-dominant) in the alto. effects a cadence = . closing the second section . A free episode leads back. with wide stretches. . with a close -confirmation of two mea- and leading III. st Development (with 8= i): I theme (Dux) in the bass.dominant. the two upper voices then return to the tonic with repeated aftersections in form of cadence. all the voices: j. back to the principal key. while the alto takes up the second. and then modulates through F. (gjj on d\ n Over the long sustained d\ of the bass. 2 nd theme in the alto.minor (afr). to the third.MINOR. '59 to change this to the meaning of the chord of the Doric in< so that the 8 th measure makes a half-close sixth ).minor (eft 7). after two measures leading st theme (Comes) in the to the dominant (30 40): I nd theme in the alto. first of all. 4 th = > sures. gathering together strength for the Development. G$-major 7 (</{J ). PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN G^. A\-major (g^e^) D^.8. 2 theme (beginning with e) in the soprano. with threefold change of meaning of the 4 th measure back to that of 3 rd by repetition of the close of the first theme through th 5 the alto. to the key of the under. and the bass. then after a free fore-section soprano. (4=3) (4c-6) At the close of the period (8 i) the soprano then enters with the first theme. This first introduces the Dux in and the second theme in the bass.

ment is as yet only pure figuration ( originally |S | | IN A -MAJOR. with the The freely formed after. the triplet-move/'. I as counts. f i t (2) first and the inversion of the motive. as that e. so also are the opening imitations of the fugue kind. has the character of the Gigue.section ends motive of the theme in the soprano: closmg II. IQ. PRELUDE AND FUGUE The prelude form had developed in Bach's time. entering already close in the dominant key: after the .i Co SECOND PART. Poco vivace ma grazioso. whereas it was the rhythm on which was originally based).

with still another half-section (5 8). it of all. for example (commencement): (4) or. it regains the full-close in the principal key. do not by any means share equally in the development of the motive. however. back to the dominant: R5 em an n. II. after the. returns to the half-close (8b).manner of a sequence. with 8 = 1 (7) the second period begins to parallel make use in which i< it of inversion. but by means of a one-measure appendage. the three voices.. however. Analysis of Bach's "Wohltemperirtes Clavier". = first \ b 1 { <?+). e+ a* first The changes. but in an appendage of two measures makes a quick modulation to the dominant (a 6 b 1. and a specially concise period not imitating the principal motive. but only making use of it in light fashion in the under-voice leads. modulates to the makes a half -close (e* b 1) e* \ 7 key a+ \ (2) (= /J7) I yfl (= </) e i a i- (= . for the under-voice repeatedly has long stretches. Now. II . (end of the first period): (Sa) (8b) period keeps firmly to the principal key. the half-close of the eighth measure (8 6) into a full-close. 161 The piece is strictly written a 3. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN A-MAJ'OR.#vi) I Ai (4) (8) strengthened /# vn I 7 ^tt )* 8 a: cfy 1 by two measures (7 a c% an d winds up with a new after-section (with 6) in the parallel key (F\.minor): after positive modulation (dominant and (8a) triplet of measures for 5 Thus both aims parallel) are accomplished.

obstinately gaining. [of one measure] restored). and closes in the under-dominant (D-major). but in the second. now retains until the end.ART. The fugue (a 3) belongs to the smaller. with stationary bass on A. degree after degree. which only appears ten times altogether. and then sinks down again to the third (under-voice): Allegretto. . fc mp '&) . rises from the fundamental note to the fifth. as if by force. preserves the compass of the triad position (sixth included). more delicate. which the extended (5 a 6 a) after-period.SECOND P. in which stands the next following period imitated from the first (half-close at the eighth measure. in the first appendage [of 2 measures] it is changed into a full-close. Ji f -^i * f (4) P I- ^ * ~ * . The last period regains the + 7 1 [= vn] principal key (a /# /# [= <t] e At the = \ ^ \ I | a+ (4) t (G) d6 e** a+ d Q e1 a*}. ^- close (with 8 i) now recommences the deveof the inverted motive. the period elides the 5 th lopment measure. The theme. more simply planned ones.

the second bass entry of the first. or chromatically. at least none returns. real countersubject which faithfully cannot be shown. For the most part. the concluding motive of the theme is imitated. (a). still.PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN A-MAJOR. but the master acts with sovereign freedom.-^ -- It cannot therefore be denied that unity reigns among the counterpoints to the theme. Where. section). or replace the note repetition by octave steps c. Finally. and the alto entry of the modulating. poco f The Comes is a faithful A transposition in the fifth. in the episodes. emphasis must be laid on the fact that the pointed rhythm jj plays an impor- tant role in all the contrapuntal writing. as well as in all the episodes. the counter-voices ad- vance by degrees with note repetition (b). the dotted rhythm is wanting. and by no means keeps strictly to this ascending direction (cf. the first countersubject (counterpoint to the Comes on its first appearance) seems to be the one least related: it* . d)\ a) C) J9 ' .

b. not. not for the purpose of returning to the principal key. This close. in which the wonderful d setting aside the tritone g d should be noticed). the Comes in the alto. however. the Mixolydian bending of the leading note (d\ in place of rf/jj). Thus the principal section only ends with the close of the second period. and. but to change the meaning of g$. after two measures.l6 4 SECOND PART (8) its motives. . then. and therefore eliding the 5 th measure. as repeated afterafter the section. only appears in two episodes) never return. with exception of the first (which. after all. towards the end. d of ^ 7 into fjj vn and. joining immediately on. as if the first voice (which it really is. followed repetition of the fourth measure (from A-major to E-major with inversion of the concluding motive of the theme) by still another bass delivery of the theme (Comes). does not follow smoothly on the dominant (<?+). The construction of the whole is of the utmost (in the principal key): Dux in the bass. so far as mere position is concerned) had been tenor. but as a new fore-section. bringing about the appearance of 4 -voice writing. Dux in the soprano. however. with only two additional measures (70 So). simplicity: Ist section with return to the principal key (7 a 8a. to obtain a half-close in the parallel . but rather does Bach introduce.

of which is jge a passage.. turns first to B. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN A-MAJOR.minor (parallel of the under(30 . \ VTT dominant: g% [= IU <] t> 7 /jf /$)> and in the repetitioa of the second group. in as in the place of the expected theme entry in B-minor there follows another appendage (triplet of measures for 7^ 8) in which the bass inverts the concluding motive of the theme. as there. into one on 1 cfy a gf\ in the sense of first f [= b\ /% 7 ). An episode of five measures (2 4. And then.minor in the soprano. and there follows directly 7 (with elision of the first measure) the theme in J ^. But now. 30 40). but voices at the end of the first section the Mixolydian bending of the leading-note (here g$ in place of g$) and two additional measures (7 a 8 a). likewise forces its way upward. the harmonic essence but: not dQ e* r in which the Phrygian This leads to the II nd /$<?</ c should be noticed.tp. back to the principal key (yjf [== 1 a*\ whereupon (with elision of the fifth measure) d\ e the bass (an octave lower than in the exposition) gives out the Dux in as in the accompanying -major'. a^ b 1 etc. and leads to a half-close . transform this Phrygian A bend (b into a half-close ony$ 7 . .minor (parallel to the dominant) minor in the alto. after two measures of modulation a* 6 b 1 e + for 40: E-major being exchanged ) the theme in CjfC^. the bass spins out the concluding motive of the theme in form of sequence. further. (modulating) section. section.

i66 SECOND PART. and 7 | its harmonic contents are d* i. the close Catechism "Harmonielehre" p. *'. and could therefore as indeed also the preceding delivery of the Dux be reckoned as belonging to the closing section. in the key of the underdominant. in). announces the approaching end. has such a variegated appearance. but dominant meaning e. (cf. and which leads back to the dominant. 6 . (8b) The delivery of the theme by the soprano. entirely evolved from the concluding motive of the theme. as This after-section is still belonging to the middle section. . That is also the inner reason why the delivery of the Comes by the alto which now follows. but this acceptation would not allow of an equivalent. be much more reasonable to look upon the after-section which follows.e. as regards It would probably feeling. for the intense restlessness. which immediately follows. (=d) . e' c+ the concluding e + which appears in place of (8) (which expectation is strengthened by the eft of the figuration) has therefore not tonic. becomes a half -close.

minor. and . bringing the whole to a conclusion (there only follows a close-confirmation of one measure). first of all. evolved with allegro. PRELUDE AND FUGUE The Nou prelude is IN A -MINOR. for. twice repeated (the concluding motive + (40). but assumes an independent form: This thought is first = reversed. soprano enters triumphantly (with 4^=6) with the Dux. forming a cadence. The motive of these appendages is developed from the principal theme. PKELUDE AND FUGUE IN A-MJNOR. piece. 8).ao. an extremely wonderful chromatic unexampled art from a short theme: voices of all repeated (with 4 6) with followed by two confirmations of one measure (80. the second group of the theme is is to prevail. 20. I6 7 (e'l) The key of the dominant ought not again The suspense now becomes more intense. first in D-minort and then in E. II. employed with cadences to a which moment e* at the on half-close and d* (4^) (4^).

in J) -minor.major. and immediately afterwards (4=6).minor [/"$).major. G-major. with free transformation of the same. there is a half-close on e"1 : E3=S ff At principal thought the opening of the second part. the independent character of these intermediate thoughts deserves note). The following period now takes up the motive of the intermediate thought. in 5 3 second motive passing to the keys of G-major und A-minor\ -minor. and. with original position). Here. and then. with voices reversed. the first section really ends. but. the inversion of the . in A A as a return has been made to the principal key. The first period is repeated in E-minor (beginning with voices reversed. in which the second motive is introduced four times (in A-minort D-minor [/"{(]. is presented. and closing in C. then the principal thought in C.major). G-major.minor [yjj]. C. in measures i passing to the keys of G-major and D. a kind of coda is appended. JD. with symmetrical struc2 the second motive is introduced. followed by four cadence displacements similar to the ones mentioned above (to -minor. later on. in G-major. in order to make the repeat effective. ture. and in 7 8 the principal thought. in 6 the 4 the principal thought.X 68 SECOND PART.

= of special weight and power: it is D-major fugue of the first book.minor and A. but in the counterpoint). = = inverted principal thought (in A-minor} brings the period to a close. not in the theme. and the after-section (4=6). It begins with the fifth of the tonic. periods. G-major. and not inverted. it = D in A-minor and G-major\ a new period (4 2) introduces the principal thought. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN A. which. with which it has the sharply marked demisemiquaver run in common (here. four times. inverted in E. also to the G-minor fugue of the second a 3 is The fugue similar in character to the bo ok. The theme advances.20. demands for the first note the answer in the 4 th : . in A-minor (starting with 4 2) making a half -close. as it does not modulate. on the principal thought \ I (8) (free) in A-minor. with powerful step (Andante maestoso). the inversion (free) of the second thought. whereupon (with 4 6) the C-major t cadences). The rest is coda. during its first half. in duces. the second period (with 8 2) contains the principal thought inverted on the harmonies a 1 a. C-major (in last three. halfa period. it is worked out without any special display of contrapuntal devices.MINOR. with voices -minor. though superior to the latter in piercing sharpness. and. is repeated in the after -section (4 6). in diminution). with the principal thought in its original form (not inverted). For the rest. and its second half follows in a similar strain (it should be noticed that the second half is almost an exact reproduction of the first. on the harmonies e 1 Q e.minor \ then follows an intermediate half -period with the keys of = D-minor. An intermediate half-period introreversed. during two compound 4. holds fast to the key of A-minor measures i the intermediate thought based on the harmonies e a vl1 b 1 <? 7 . The appendage of one measure at the close of the first section of the piece reappears here as a whole-close confirmation.

170 SECOND PART. for example (i st episode): (4a) (4b) or else. which faithaccompanies the theme. Countersubject Besides the countersubject here noted. and in the episodes. the demisemiquaver runs appear sometimes broken off more sharply even than in fully the countersubject. in unbroken runs (last entry of the theme): . the concluding motive of the theme is specially employed in the counterpoints to the theme. inverted.

Comes in the alto. each of one measure (D -minor C. II nd (modulating) Section. and. which follows. leads already to the . therefore Comes 1) in A-minor. The theme.major. including only the development: Dux in the bass. but this time with the concluding member of the countersubject C. the close (measure 4). The episode (2 confirmations of one measure. JF-majort closing in C-major). or concluding motive of the couniersubject. r^- p^ i i -^^^n ^^fcL No really new material is is further employed. so that we again approach near to the principal key. D-major A-minor and E-minor. in the key of E-minor. All these close-displacemnts are formed quite in a similar manner. appear again as episodes. A-minor . as counterpoint. to G-major. At the fourth confirmation (with 4a= 5) the t Comes enters in the soprano. holding fast to the principal key. and the semiquaver run. as in the first and second episodes (only four times).with the concluding member of the theme as chief material. at modulation through the Keys G-major. is imitated with e (therefore f Comes) is. The I st first structure as follows: Section (in the principal key). and a modulating one of two measures. viz. Dux in the soprano. after two modulating confirmations.major). as Intermezzo. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN A. then again. three close - displacements of one measure to D -minor. and. with introduced in the key of C-major (parallel). Also here. (half-close) III.MI NOR. beginning first. The concluding section first introduces the theme (beginning with d c. there follows one of two measures. the close-displacements of one measure.2n.

The piece ends with a single close-confirmation of two measures. frustrated The last by the deceptive progression of the bass (a the soprano gives out bV} t while (with the theme (Dux). is followed by a new after-section (close-formations of two measures similar to the former ones of one measure. which key a freely formed cadence is still appended 8 a).SECOND PART. We again see from this fugue that the transformations of the theme brought about by position and mode of answering. not harmonically satisfying. but in I) -minor (under-dominant). G-major (40). as principal material. to emphasize more sharply the beginning of the tonic chord. while the third at the commencement only occurs occasionally. but beginning with d c) is given out again in the bass. the . while the concluding theme appears with figuration: member of the The keys passed through close is are: D-minor (4 a). at the conclusion of which (with 8a=5). C-major (4c). Here the form of the Comes appears to be the real theme (it is employed in 5 out of the 8 theme entries). do not affect its real essence. F-major (4d) and D-minor (46). but by the form of cadence at once recognized as related to each other) passing through C-major 7 <? c+: back to A-minor (a jef) [=/]_ ^ | / [=a] I *A (6) (8) in (7 a theme once (in A-minor. the close in the key of the under-dominant. as at the opening.

at. and of extended development (87 bars of the original notation. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B^) -MAJOR. and ting the repeats of both sections). PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B^-MAJOR. and is polyphonic character (with imitations in the two undervoices): . '73 fl. 21. set out in principal thought is written strictly a 3. sonata -like in form. not counThe opening. A prelude.

the second modulation. quite the effect of under-dominant of F-major> so that a further period has to be added. the modulation to the dominant key. in J& -major. which balances first of all on the chord of six-four (c\\ passes on towards B^. this key of B^. There follows a contrasting thought (a 2). which joins on.major (/J). The latter is then maintained until the close of the section which. which makes.174 SECOND PART. and makes an unsatisfactory close in that key (third in the bass). The subordinate with stretto the underthought (in voice) is as follows: with reversed voices). indeed. however. really introduces a kind of second theme: (after-section likewise.major produces. anew. makes a wide digression (up to the chord " of the Neapolitan sixth o/2 [gb+]). The period completing .

like which. and modulates with it through B\? -major to C-mitwr. The second part takes up. and it is noteworthy. (8) f - The remainder of the first section.minor \ thus the key of the under-dominant is reached. cf. (after f . strictly a 3. which closes this time in C. in that the second (development) section with an imitation of the same: opens 4 a follows the complete after-section without elision of the fifth measure). The fugue (a 3) is flowing and simple.. mostly a 2. But the master cannot satisfy himself. then introduces the second theme. and forms a genuine cadential period. the repeated cadences in this key). again resembles the first theme in structure. especially after the repeated confirmation of this close in the dominant key. and so after reproducing the whole of the thematic material of the first part. sinks down to the octave: its theme. first of all the concluding thought. forms a brilliant conclusion. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B^ -MAJOR.. turning the same towards G-minor (parallel. . Then the first theme is repeated (but not quite faithfully).. without ado. It contains an extraordinary annexed motive to the fourth measure. and also the intermediate thought. and made the most of. this breaks off with a half-close on 1 while a coda. he follows on with a long development based on the first theme and concluding period.

however. both the quiet crotchet movement belonging to the above. and in a striking manner.ornament efy g). and especially the syncopation of the closing member are repeatedly employed. the same figure. in the alto entry of the second development: pE The counterpoint to the soprano and entry. in descending form.both in the second in the third development. subject. SECOND PART. m=i^^ The turn-ornament (c bb a b) on the opening tonic according to rule. Many of the counterpoints. answered by the turn .j6 Allegro moderate. and only then modulates (the rest is therefore (g This fugue has no real countertransposition in the fifth).and sixth-doubling of the . gtete^^Sj=3Lj=^p| ^ e/ ~~ m/" ~~> (2) ^=* is. but the counterpoint to the Comes: f forms the starting-point and basis of all the other counterpoints. the latter for the first time. consist of plain third. appears in the episode following the latter. appears formed in a similar manner.

alto entry. apparently a 4 entry) brings a new period to a close (Dux [1] in F-major). By a confirmation Riemann. so that a redundant bass th voice entry (lower than the first. and hence. last soprano entry. episode of four measures. a new after. with two with 80=2. this arrives on the second upper- as follows: in the alto. at the 8 th measure. Analysis of Bach's "Wohltcmperirtes Clavier".section becomes necessary. 177 theme. Comes in the soprano. also deserve attention: st (l bass entry of the I st development). 2 nd development. The construction I. Dux in the bass. two more measures are required. Section: after an dominant (. the fine. and two more free measures which proceed to the dominant. 3 rd development. soprano entry. as counterpoints to the theme. but is Dux = . alto entry. 13. 3 rd development. soprano entry. (2" d bass entry of the same) (Mixolydian bending) 2 nd development. contrasting holding notes.7 b?J. But as the soprano makes the Mixolydian bend (el?). measures of improved close (70 So). for a proper close.at. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN Bh -MAJOR.

. the close in the dominant key is marked as a final. and there begins.close a\> 6 on / 6 7 (l>\> + 7 eV^ [=g iu< eV* \ ] ^ F | 4 eb+ b 7 I <?K 1 | / b^ . that close The period and in B^. Section: Dux in F-major in the alto. of one measure. and a free after-section modulating back to the principal key. Dux in G-minor in the bass. free after-section (with C-minor (parallel of the underdominant). concludes smoothly on the tonic. II. With that. The latter opens with an im(30 40. formed from the descending syncopation motive of the countersubject. keyl) in the soprano. so that a new after -section firms the b+ same by a two-measure c1 becomes necessary. Section: pleasing sequence. free after-section modulating to the parallel (Gminor). by means of a free period of eight measures (but with elision of the fifth measure). (2) / 7 ). 7 3 SECOND PART. still part of the second section. Dux in C-minor in the soprano. 4= 5) modulating to measure to force.minor. breaking provement of the second group 7 off allargando with sf on / ). The after-section closes still again per inganno (prepared deceptive cadence d 1 V) in G. the theme has been carried through all three voices. but which 6 already conveys the impression of C-minor as ^b which then. of sixth.. after a confirmation of two measures. further. further. There still follows only a cadence of one measure.major. but withdraws it from the key of the dominant by means of a convenient av. a third development: after -section (with Dux in Eh -major in the alto. (1) actually comes into section finally end with a III. taking the second upper -dominant (0 9> ) at the sixth measure. to A VII the half. and con- (4) (6) (8) (/' close in -major I/" "). Dux in lib -major (principal and 4=5) modulating to the underdominant (E& -major). with change of meaning of the fourth . Now the soprano enters with the Comes (which had almost fallen into oblivion). leads. and then. and free then. sectional one.

and the step of a second which is th approached by interval of a 4 ). but a whole period: 12' . f I. do. is not that scanty fragment. etc. is constantly appearing measures. in the opening Allegro risoluto. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN lh. as the piece stands. At every nook and corner the prelude betrays the possibilities of contrapuntal formation. of the most powerful numbers of the second work lie before us: both particularly rich in contrapuntal art and yet without any trace of exaggeration. All these allusions. but from these Bach turned aside. PRELUDE AND FUGUE Two part of the IN Bb-MINOR. \ Inversion. we have merely to consider what Bach selected from this fulness of possibilities for the fugal treatment of the theme. 22. 170 II.tJ. only see how the opening motive (the turn.MINOR. do not concern us. For instance. however. The theme.

83 bars in length. counterpoint which at the same time attention.i8o SECOND PART. and it has an improved close of two measures: (8) (8 a) In the appended minims one easily recognizes the principal counterpoint to the first half of the theme. characteristic feature: etc. whole of this prelude. as transition from the first to the second theme entry: The quaver attracts . of which the graceful upward and downward floating crotchets form a. in precise shape. first of all (in the alto). -* ' T -0-mf^^ ^^ rules the This period. and it a appears. with slight changes towards the close. Quite in fugue style follows then an episode (without elision) of 8 measures. after the manner of a fugue. T . with elision of the first measure). in the dominant (joining on immediately. must be looked upon as the principal counterpoint to the second half of the theme. It is first repeated.

the soprano (8 2) introduces theme in D^. which. while the soprano. whereupon the bass enters with the theme (Comes) in F-minor (with 8 2). already to the first half of the theme (displaced by 2 / 4). and this is still confirmed by two measures. 181 Now. with the second half of the theme. the \ = appearance of the quaver motive.MINOR. deserves special attention. as it is imitated more than th th once. forms a counterpoint to the first. so that the 8 measure turns back and becomes 5 At 8 a the key of A^V -major is again reached. accompanied = . in the fifth measure.major).. The close is again somewhat changed. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B } . should be noticed. the conclusion of the theme. suffers the loss of its leading note (as it has to modulate to JDb.major (parallel) in the counterpoint. it inversion in the transition passage: is combined with its Then bass takes the lead (Dux). assumes the following appearance : (8) the At the eighth measure. and modulates to Atymajor ^** NB. (8) The quaver motive now appears by this itself as theme. and . after the first episode.

At the close. by the quaver movement. and. and here its presentation agrees exactly. and more but only to break off impetuous rush. elementary power it presses forward from the fundamental note to the fourth.182 SECOND PART. on the seventh measure of which the bass again arrives on /. with the opening one. The fugue a 4 Allegro maestoso. the first still over the organpoint /). but yields it up to the soprano voice. and carries it on to the end. but then rises. to the sixth suddenly on the fifth. It is relieved again (with elision of the first measure) by the alto. \ y = to the end. and thus the whole piece comes to a broad down / and effective conclusion. the alto begins with the theme in this key. by means of an appenof two is changed into a full-close.minor to GV. With is of a strong. lowered by one degree (ev eb f f \f e) and modulates through Eb. and then the same voice (with 8 2) continues with the theme in Eft -minor (under-dominant). there follows. and they lead to a 7 half-close on .minor. majestic character. But this time the second half of the theme appears. not in the bass. however. It is measures. eb d instead of indeed. in direct and contrary motion. which. ever more intrusive. Efrvv~ . but in the alto. by which it is correctly carried on to the end (with twofold acceptation of the quaver motive at the close). therefore. whereby the cadential effect of the 8 th measure is frustrated (chord of 6 4). dage followed by a new after-section. which introduces the theme in BV. still a three membered period (three triplets of measures.major. but the last notes are free. with renewed.

22. whereas the latter bursts out into fierce anger. which immediaalready belongs to the counter subject. is turning towards to the third. which altogether of a softer character: The mild -f=5 m - T r (4) As yet it only accompanies the theme with dark mutterings. during the episode. before the third voice entry: dim. the Yoice shows traces of a second countersubject: first . ? +--= + (8) During this third enunciation of the theme. 83 tely follows. as if in resignation. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN Bl -MINOR. sinks down by degrees. the concluding motive of this principal countersubject.

I Comes in soprano. five sub- manner Development of the plain theme in the usual as Dux and Comes. in bass after-section (with 4b follows on an episode = 3b s). we again meet with the syncopation of the second and third crotchets and the quaver spring which follows. indeed. accompanied by the st period: Dux in alto. and in There leading of eight measures. back to the principal key. afterwards. only suddenly in short. Comes in tenor. in many passages of the fugue. The fugue naturally divides itself into sections which may be easily recognized: I. = 1): Dux 4b). with three appended measures (4 a. still. an appendage of 8 a) leading back to the printhree measures (6 a 2 nd period: (with 8 cipal key.. were gathering its strength once more. first between tenor and alto (bass is silent) at the distance of a minim. and at the interval of the upper seventh: f . Although this second countersubject never reappears in complete form. Stretto of the plain II. counterpoints already shown. theme (without counter- subject) and. violent sounds. and also It is as if it to break off with the sobbing crochets. and. similar to sobs.i8 4 SECOND PART.

. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B -MINOR. into a full-close [8 a]. forced out notes. again. but with voices reversed: etc. the relationship of which to the countersubject is unmistakable. way to the third sub- section: in a descending chromatic motive of one measure is developed. between soprano and bass in D^major at the same distance and the same interval. 8 = . the detached. and the anapests ( J"^J J ). IS 5 after a triplet of p measures (i measure of which removes the close to D^.22. respecof the other voices are familiar to us: | tively.major (4b) with 40 5. (8va bassa) likewise with one appended measure (transformation of the half-. then /i). An intermediate half period now cleverly prepares the it.




continued through 4 measures (Gty -major, C\t- major, Ab- major, DV- major}] on the cadential fifth (changed in meaning to that of first) measure begins the third subsection:




countersubject, inversione delta

Development of the inversion of the theme, and secondary counterpoints a real

fugal Bach

selected that particular

form of inversion, which preserves the tonic triad, in that fundamental note and fifth exchange places,







"Kontrapunkt p. 168), the dominants in that case seventh exchange roles, but the chord of diminished " or ty? ix< ) of double meaning (a c eV g\?=t v The Dux therefore proceeds also in remains. the inversion, through the tonic triad; the Comes, on the other hand, not through the upper-, but We only notice the through the under-dominant. inversion of theme and countersubject, but once
again call attention to the fact that the rest of the contrapuntal material, in the main, is inverted; The section this, indeed, is fairly self evident. commences in full with the 4 voices, and this


well, since the

former episode had already

prepared the inversion.
inversion of the





in the tenor,

inversion of the

countersubject in the alto, and, after one measure of close-confirmation (with 4a=5), inversion of the Comes in the alto, inversion of the countersubject in the tenor (soprano is silent), and three closeconfirmations of one measure (likewise close dis?? -minor, D^V- major}. placements in E^- minor, 2 nd period (with 8c=i): inversion of the theme in the soprano, inversion of the countersubject in the





I8 7


starting with dty*,

theme commencing on dfo (Dux in G?- major'] but and first changing color to V -minor

(principal key); the after-section is free, with elision of the 5 th measure, and modulation to the second under-

dominant (Av -minor): g^' d? 1


gb** [= eb



inversion of the theme 1), period (with 8 (Dux) in the bass, inversion of the countersubject in the tenor, but springing in the second measure to the soprano, the whole standing in the key of ^9 -minor \ this key is confirmed by the first close repetition (4 a), while the second (/j.b) moves to


D^- major




=0t? 7 ); the freely formed afterth way homeward to B^ -minor (8

th measure) through E^ -minor (6 measure), with the 9 dV* harmonic progression > vn }.* *]




The inversion of f. as follows:


theme and countersubject


The character of hot impulse certainly disappears, but the wrath becomes deeper. IV. Stretto of the inverted theme. It is planned like that of the plain theme, /. e. at a distance of a minim and in the interval of the under-seventh


upper 9







wanting here, but, as if by way of compensation, it appears in the shortened after-section, and, indeed,



st original (upward) direction. i period: inversion Dux in tenor, inversion of the theme in the

of the

upper 9


beginning with


in the soprano;

_JjL,_J l-*-*^*




after- section, with elision of 5 th measure, free; from the 7 th to 8 th measure the chromatic countersubject. 2 nd period (with 8 1): inversion of the Dux in F-minor (beginning with c] in the alto, inversion of the theme (beginning with db) in the bass. Appendage: confirmation of one measure of the close in Fminor, and then a new, free, and shortened after-section th (with elision of the 5 measure) which modulates to A? -major, parallel of the under- dominant (f



(0) (





*t> ).


This half-close leads


us to the

the the




the plain

theme with
(with 8


The first period introduces inverted Dux in Av -major (but





eb 1 on

opening note *b), and the original theme beginning with g, as indeed would be suitable for the Reminiscences of the original Dux in A^ -major. countersubject occur in measures 3 and 4 (in the former, detached crotchets in the latter, the chromatic The combination is as principal countersubject).


r 'f





The close in A'^- major is confirmed by one measure, but frustrated by means of the Mixolydian bend in the bass (^); the after-section is a free episode making three leaps to the sixth measure, and, indeed, by means of a motive differing in measure (three 4 / 2 measures);

bb 7

0> 9>

(6 a)


and then there


2 nd


a regular return to the principal i) introduces the (with 8 original form in the bass, and, in the



alto, the inversion

from gv


would be suitable


the inversion from /):

* d


igo SECOND PART. This latter introduces (with 8 5) the last combination. but both with the other voices doubling in The after-section fast to the principal = thirds. and holds key. likewise sixths: . a stretto of the Dux (soprano) with the inversion of the theme (tenor). * * -. finally. but. the bass makes a deceptive progression (gb instead of bb\ so that a new after-section becomes necessary. (4) is free and complete.

22. on which these combinations. for even the last combination. are based. other combinations: many 1== i=J_J e I_s* But with these Bach would not have obtained more than with the simple third doubling. is quite free. resulting directly from the character of the theme. j gl this fugue that anything the counterpoint. for example: E nn * te . From the preceding combinations one might strictly conclude that Bach would have used the stretto of the theme and the stretto of the inversion No is one can properly say of sacrificed to in it at the same time. but indeed. in the main.MINOR. and not only these. He might also have tried threefold strettos. PR EL UDE AND FUG UE IN B V.

192 SECOND PART.-. and only took what suited him for the structure of the work.. (4) . and one which has. above all. a) tr cresc. ^^^^^rjb^pg^fcczg-. 23- PRELUDE AND FUGUE A ful firel IN B -MAJOR. The prelude opens with a bold run: Giojoso con anima. a soft elegiacal character showing itself more and more in the second half. E& 3=fy&=i=i=^-i Trr&-t==== : I r SP etc. ft ft* ==' *f:** That Bach renounced all these combinations which. etc. prelude of quite special warmth. lay near at hand. and giving to it the appearance of an epilogue (somewhat after the manner of Schumann's "The poet speaks").. again shows the wise self-restraint of the master 1 ii. so that one almost regrets that it is not the very last number of the second book. under the given conditions. and full of youthand a double fugue which forms one of the noblest numbers of the whole work.

for the most part. .MAJOR. as This period contains. remains quiet. the if 1Q5 2 nd and then. and chord figures (and with the under voice proceeding. in motive note to its 3 rd likewise 5 th ). but with freer combination of scale akin to the first. increasing in intensity (with close moved up from the key second period. like F^-major prelude rapt in thought: of this book. modulates to the dominant (F$-major)\ athird (with elision of the first group) transfers the semiquaver movement to the lower voice. and adds a third voice keeping company with the upper one: . in quiet quaver movement. besides.93. Analysis of Bach's "Wohltempeiii tes Clavier".. two repeated after-sections. and in chord form). PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B. II. A (4) (N) Riemann.

(3a 4a) leads to a half-close in D-minor (&+ I bQ 7 J} . but of latter is changed to that of 4th and the n . 6 th . yet of quite independent formation (the lower voice has chord figuration in semiquaver* the upper ones have it in quavers. The key is confirmed by a new after-section */$ * | f* (again with only two voices). with exception of the bass quavers on the group points of stress (2 nd . with appoggiatura ornamentation). after C^-minor has been approach| ed through F\-major (rjf 7 $ ["ffm*] m 7 Vj). consists entirely of one voice: it The next of E-major is reached at the 8 th measure. The key . concludes in B-major. and . viz. related to the first one a 3 (c). Then comes a period.. strengthened (2 to 3 voices). 8 th measure).-w the meaning somewhat after-section. 4 th . the one to the parallel key} only appears. as * given up a better one had been thought but of. racter: following period assumes a different chaturns towards the principal key. the second group is repeated. vn (4) ni (6) (4) . the modulatiou to the dominant is (/tf [=^ui<] this g$ | ^ft [=<] f^ J*). throughout in three voices.1 94 In it SECOND PAPT. and.

with exception of a slight allusion to the underdominant (E-major). of iron fate: transposition in the fifth. and. but the character of the opening run. both. a new period. To succeeds immediately a reproduction (</). [ of the one -voice period with return modulation to B-major(a\^ 7 . is a double fugue. there is no further modulation. its task of modulating from the harmony of the tonic to the key of the dominant. based on the motives (8) of the after -section of the B-minor. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B-MAJOR.. as well as Comes (4a=5) count ersubject_ .23. indeed. have given a particularly scanty and superficial analysis of it. nothing new is introduced. as such. | Mf =<r #in<l 7 Sff I ^tt [=' 6 ] (4) /jt I ^)i an d furtn er. as it were. making and only then does the opening theme (a) appear again In what follows 2 periods of eight (in the bass). which goes to therein a feminine half -close (/$$" 3)1 measures with a confirmation of four measures. is possible. likewise of the second period evolved from it. accomplishes. . The fugue (a 4). The countersubject suggests a passionate wringing of hands: is The Comes a faithful but. to which fact neither Bruyck nor Jadassohn has called attention. The principal theme advances with powerful step the step. first period (). \ . is maintained. as already mentioned. this ^g .



In the first development (also in the redundant second entry of the bass) this counter subject is strictly adhered to, and gives to it that feeling of painful, intense passion, such as one is only accustomed to find in Bach's fugues second countersubject (the continin the minor key. uation of the first voice during the third entry of the




once again

strictly carried



out in the theme entry immeand then disappears entirely; whereas




of the




commanding feature in the episodes of the first section, makes its appearance in many other places of the fugue. The first section includes the four voice entries: bass i), (Dux), tenor (Comes), after two free measures (with 8a


alto (Dux),

and soprano (Comes); and,


two measures


theme by the soprano, was silent). To this is annexed a free after-section (with a measure of triplets for 6 8) completing the period, and effecting a modulation to the dominant. It should be carefully noticed that real fourvoice writing only begins at the second bass entry, and On the that the same is maintained in the after-section. starts with 1), the tenor closing note, however (with 8 the theme (Comes), while all the other voices break off. It would be scarcely possible to indicate the entry of the At once, on its first second subject in a clearer manner.

forming an episode (with 8a=i), still another entry of Dux in the bass (which during the delivery of the






associated with the principal theme, for





which reason Bruyck and others have only looked upon it as a fresh countersubject (Jadassohn, indeed, expressly states that "anyhow it does not recur often"; but, as a matter of fact, it remains a feature of the scheme until
the very close):




The second subject is now developed in quite The bass follows one measure later with the

regular answer,

and the soprano joins on immediately (7 a 8 a), likewise with the Comes of the second theme; the alto now (at 8a enters with the first theme (Dux, but so hari) monized as to modulate to G~minor), whereupon the tenor begins with the answer of the second theme, but abandons it in favour of the bass, which gives it out in the key of minor:














movement in the epiappears repeatedly in crotchet sodes of the first section, but towards the close of the same it is clearly extended to its later form:




but with the 3 rd g. by digression. after two closes in the after- = one (4 a) in Ffy-major. and turns at once to the parallel key of G\. The harmonisation. tends back again to the key of E-major (under-dominant). and one which leads. is it . and a marked standing-still at the 6 th measure [6 a. the other (4-b) in E-major. The after-section consists of a free episode with the i) quaver motive of four notes. and opens up (with 8 into a delivery of the first theme by the bass in the key of G$~minor. for . a turning point in the fugue is reached. with a fore -section free in form. beginning two crotchets a 3 rd : earlier. and. and then the soprano introduces the second theme with quite a = new combination. with the second theme in the soprano (the original combination: the latter beginning with the same note [g\ as the first). In order to understand its meaning. The delivery of the first theme by the tenor (with 4 5) therefore begins in E-major. the long drawn-out melody line of the soprano should be carefully studied. and With this. corresponding to the first with transposed theme. at the interval of viz. with the th in the alto: second. an episode on an extended scale follows (a period with repetition of the second group [3 a 4 a]. modulates from E-major to C$-minor. definitely to the principal key. inverted in the 12 section.200 SECOND PART. The following period. 6b].minor-. followed by the first theme in the tenor.

Over the now following closing section of the fugue is cast a holy peace: the principal theme appears first in the bass. and to the anxious. out the 2O1 which. after the manner of the second theme. in contradistinction to the merciless principal theme. while the alto offers support to the soprano with its new. b\ has just passed downwards from the high (4) (4a) (with elision of ist measure) con fuoco (6b) dim. (8=1) If. and wonderful melody: . the second theme seems to bring heavenly consolation. by means of which it passed over from the episode.23. this long episode appears as if it were a coming at length to rest with one last mighty sigh the triplet of (cf. while the tenor keeps company with it in quiet quavers and consonant (I) syncopations. beseeching. PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B-MAJOR. giving second theme. first countersubject. measures with its strongly dotted rhythm).

but as a spreading out triplet quasi calando]. continues in the same style 6 a. but only to render possible the entry of the Comes in the tenor (with 8 What 1). /. not to be taken as hurrying on. This after -section closes in D^. in the same way. permeated thus. e. = = a dignified effect is obtained here alto): by the crossing of both themes (tenor and _feq^3: | lz?2 theme has quite lost its stiffness. consolation and peace obtain the mastery in the free after-section which follows: The first . triplet for 6 a as this fore-section (8 8 a.minor (parallel of the dominant). together with its additional three measures.2O2 dolce e tranquillo SECOND PART (4) (2) The freely formed after -section. it is now And with the consoling power of the second.

23 PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B-MAJOR. calmly and quietly spreading a bow of peace over the other. nd (2 theme in tenor): mf J - r . no longer contending. voices The a new after -section. 203 sequential form of this after-section necessitates which brings the Dux for the last time in the soprano.

PRELUDE AND FUGUE Our admiration of as their designation IN B. and do not in any way show that the author felt that he was bringing a work of the first rank to a close. and epilogue of the whole. the key is not in fault.204 SECOND PAR7. must in no way be regarded as depreciatory of the two actually But these are of much lighter standing at the end. only meant moderate movement (but Allabreve) develops a pensive thought of two measures. the two preceding pieces. . For this. and a gentle allusion to the syncopated formations of the first measures (4 a. however. with a free transcription of the second theme. since the first book ends with a gigantic fugue. and. 24. The prelude over which Bach has himself written which. In truth this fugue tempered Clavier 1 is the real epilogue of the Well- II.MINOR. A one of close -confirmation of three five measures (6 8) and constitute the coda: the first with different pairs of voices moving in thirds. at the 8 th measure. a Mixolydian turning from a\ to a\\ and the second of wider extent (second upper -dominant 9> 0$ ). NB. of most serious contents. according to the custom of his Allegro age. in B-minor. contents. 58) countersubject.

but only the fore-section. the after . measures: in place of the 6 th to 8 th measure. and introduces. both in major and. without real modulation (only with a* 1 [ ^n*r] b as transition [general up-beat] between the to a half-close in the = D- eighth. two triplet . PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN B-MINOR. and makes them the chief motive of the cresc. *=?= j-* /vv the after-section turns back the syncopation to the mencement of the measure. with exchange of voices. the two voices exchanging roles\ the second period makes which clever use of the transition notes (general up-beat) in the first period join together the first and second. NI>. (2) NB.minor (under -dominant). 205 which the opening period.24. and first measure) in E. repeats four times.) in that it extends (syncopation). following fifth period reproduces likewise. the second. and the third and fourth deliveries of this thought (see above a t NB. which leads to G-major.section presses on more hotly. first of all. further development. after the manner of the first. following periods both introduce. the principal thought four times. com- and leads The two parallel key (D-major). heaps up the syncopations (without semi- The quavers).

a (with triplet of measures in place of new after -section confirms this in more emphatic manner. indeed. whereupon two additional measures change the half-. by appears. At this moment (with 8 x) the means of a but with avoidance. in that the theme entries always elide measures i and 2. so that. the after -section boldly intensifies the harmony of the third group. and breaks off with suspension and organ-point. and leads on to an imitation of the second period the Then repeated) with half -close in the principal key.minor (minor upper-domiafter-section nant). and brings the piece to a conclusion without 68) = appendage: . the meaning rd of the 8 th measure is repeatedly changed to that of 3 . entering pertinaciously with the second group. and shows humour. . principal key deceptive cadence. r (6) (8=5) development of the principal thought (twice which may best be regarded as a repeated closes in F^. almost caprice.arOO SECOND PART. i /it (4) The fugue (a 3) is of joyous Allegretto character. into a full-close. of the half-close at the fourth measure.

compass of the Draeseke it 12. within the 20' The theme keeps Heptachord (II. as if were of contrapuntal complication (with exception of the answering of the opening fifth of the key with the octave. though twice skips down to the lower octave: Allegretto piacevole it _ _ (J^ | J ) ^7 "t3 (4) * *** v The first countersubject looks. PKELUDZ AND FUGUE IN B-M1NOR. 98). p. it the Comes is a simple transposition in the fifth): * (8a=4) countersubject .84. in a measure.

a true Deutscher (Schnellwalzcr}\ the Passepieds in the Katechismus der Kompo(cf. panies only the after -section of the theme. but then disappears entirely. Of other counterpoints. also sitionslehre II.208 SECOND PART. expressive syncopations afterwards playing an important Bewitching is the formality with which the first countersubject withdraws to make room for the second: . or Landler motive first makes itself prominent. in favour of another one. 63). and has also its caprices (the feminine endings): aEEfcttz IS) The perfect grace and "liveliness" (Feschheif) of this true Waltz. which completely removes from the piece the contrapuntal fetters. only the one in the soprano accompanying the bass deserves mention: delivery of the theme its role. But it is short-lived. it is faithfully retained during the third entry (Dux in the bass). in the and this occurs three times when it appears upper-voice. and is found in the preceding episode of two measures and the following one of four measures. and turns it into what (through the theme) it really is. The new countersubject accomp.

III in the principal key). II. and assign to the episodes their need only call attention to finely delicate places. PRELUDE AXD FUGUE IN B-MINOR 209 (8c=3) NB? (4) Shall structure? we We enter into further detail with regard to the I has grown trow not Everyone. the most charming cscamotage of the theme (Dux) in the principal key again reached by the artful springing up of the bass with the theme in the underdominant at the beginning of the concluding section: Riemann.measure rhythm. Analysis of Bach's "Wohltemperirtes Clavier". We points such as the first episode of the second development with its three . finally.S4. who from our account fond of the piece. will easily recognize the three sections (I in the principal key. j^ . in spite of its similarity to the theme: f (6a) ^^ * also the connecting feminine endings of the long episode between the second and third sections: (8=2) and. II in foreign keys.

also the last measures in which the theme gradually glides away). I hope. These are genuine flashes of genius (cf.210 SECOND FART. dim. . in which I propose to analyse the "Art of Fugue" ("Kunst der Fuge").minor fugue. in a third volume. Thus I close the "treasury of polyphony" ("Schatzkastlein der Polyphonic") without any other epilogue than the one given in the B. to make some general remarks on fugue composition.

The Successful Music Teacher. Words of Advice. His Sayers. H. Smither 15 - CROKER. Conducting School Orchestras F. Fifth Impression. O. .. Opera E. 9205 3 3 - 9206 - 9210 BEETHOVEN PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 1 6 6 - 1 1 Analysis of J. Carse's book does is to state in admirably direct language the nature of the conductors art and the problems that face him and to define the procedure of conducting. by W. The Technique of Conducting." Poetical Introduction . Book I Paper Book II Paper Orchestral Conducting. The Successful Candidate. With an J. d. Third Impression How to Pass Music Examinations. The Instruments of the Orchestra. C. iv + 5 - COCKING. Third Impression. J. . 24 . H. M. ADAM. C. I. Paper The Amateur Singer. revised Musician. The Composer's Vade Mecum.. to a Lady. Them. Second Impress. . Berwick Appendix of Compositions compiled by Second Edition. . Bound Wagner and the Reform ot the Bound with Portrait DAUGHTRY. Seventh 3 6 2 DANNREUTHER. Woids of Advice. translated by E. A textbook for Students and Amateurs. 24 Preludes Fugues. Jackson. 1 9 (English-Italian) - COLERIDGE-TAYLOR. S. A Short History of Conducting Vocabulary of Orchestral terms Bibliography.. Bach's "48 Preludes and Fugues" (Wohltemperites Clavier). Figured basses. 9215 9199 10097 Life and Letters. Reinecke. S. Impression Handbook for Singers. Ear-Tests and Sixth Impression How to prepare for - . III. Trevenen Dawson Elements of Music. Bound What Mr. 9 6 6 6 1 2 2 6 6 On 100 pages.. By Dr. SAMUEL. melodies and unngured basses for harmonization. BACH. Bound Part II. II. Summary of the with Exercises & Instructions on " How to Write Music" to the above Key Practical Hints on Orchestration Harmony Exercises.J.T/l/1932 MUSICAL TEXT BOOKS IN AUGENER'S EDITION ENGLISH PRINTING & PAPER Net s. Bound Fifth Impression. NORRIS. 9171 ALEXANDER.3 Musical Instruction 10123 10124 10125 ANTCLIFFE. CARSE. Letters 3 1 1 10091 10092 10093 10085 10086 by Dr. and Part I. H. to " Con Amore. Riemann.

Fifth Impression. d.M. A Method ot Teaching Harmony based upon Ear-Training SCHUMANN. A ConversaBound Bound Third Impression C. Bound Bound 3 - 9213 9194 Matthews. 300 Questions on the Grammar of Music. Notices. : 10150 10151 I. SHEDLOCK. Davenport's Elements of Music Eighth Impression A..M Key to the above 400 Questions on the Rudiments of Music. Second Impression. J. Fifth Impression. Fourth Impression Catechism of Violoncello Playing.C.. Elementary Ear-Training. The Voice and its Control SIMPSON. Young WHITEMORE. Commonsense in STEILER. and R.. J. GREAT MARLBOROUGH ST. tion.C. C. 200 Questions and Exercises on " AUGENER 18 Ltd.M. ~ graphical Notices. Music and its Masters. MARYLEBONE. WHITTINGHAM. Fifth Impression. Based on the Syllabus of the Associated Board of the R. H. Third Impression.. II. Harmonic and Contrapuntal. Melodic. Dr. 1. Beethoven Pianoforte Sonatas.) Seventh Impres- 10146 10148 10149 Advice to Young Musicians S. 24 Preludes and Fugues. S. ST. Hints to WEST. . & 57 HIGH LONDON W. and the R. Handbook sion Handbook ot Violin & Viola Playing. with Biographical Third Impression Bound Net s Part II. I. Third Impression . II. 9203 9204 Dr.(Contd. Illustrated. and in the Diploma Examinations of Third Impression the R. Bound of the Harmonium Catechism WARREN. Bound RUBINSTEIN. Bound 9206 9193 9212 9211 Part II. with >] Pianoforte Playing. G. SCHROEDER. Bound Catechism of Musical ^Esthetics. J. F.A.) History of Musical Form. Biosome account of their Works. CUTHBERT. 10152 10153 10121 10131 10132 10133 10134 10135 Second Impression Memory and its Cultivation Examination Aural Tests and how to study them in preparation for the tests given -in the Examination of the Associated Board. A. F. 9207 9209 9208 Catechism of Pianoforte Playing.. J. Thirteenth Imp. Teachers of the Pianoforte G. Key to the above A concise text book on the Rudiments of Music Musical 9196 10109 The Great German Composers.A.. Fourth Impression . SIBLEY. " F. Harmony Chromatic Harmony and Exceptional Diatonic Progression. The Origin and Respective Values of Various Readings SHINN. Bach's Fugues.M.RIEMANN. Catechism of Orchestration Introduction to playing from Score Bound Bound Bound 3 - 3 3 - 9205 " 48 Preludes and Analysis of J. of Conducting (J. 24 Preludes and Fugues." Part I.


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