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The applications section Number:2
Word processing software: Word processing software is used to produce documents that require moderate to extensive typing with simple diagrams or graphics. The examples for such documents are: covering letters, reports, resumes,...etc. The examples for such packages are: Word Perfect, Microsoft Works or Word. Most of the available packages (for the PC) are Windows based. Certain packages have the capabilities so that they can reach the level of Desk Top publishing functionality. Answer to question 8 gives more details regarding Desk Top publishing software. Certain packages have the ability to merge with bases to produce letters and envelopes from mailing lists. Details about Base programs are given in the answer to question 7. The main elements that may constitute the main menu of a typical word processing software (each of these headings will have subheadings and may be sub-subheadings) are: FILE,EDIT,VIEW,INSERT,FORMAT,TOOLS,OPTION, SELECT. In this and the next 2 levels, the basic functions of each of these menu elements will be covered. The file item will have the following options underneath it: NEW (which gives a blank sheet, for the user to start entering/typing the required document/characters), OPEN (which opens an existing file i.e. a file that had been previously created with the New subheading and saved to the mass storage device - hard disk), SaveAs (after finishing typing, drawing or entering the for the first time into the new blank sheet on the screen, you use this option to save the file under the name you choose), SAVE (to save what you have on the screen under the existing name). The commonly available menus of word processing software packages may have (continuing from level I): under menu element FILE, the user will have Page Setup which sets the margins of the page (top, bottom, right & left), paper (8.5 by 11 or A4 size,...etc.), PaperSource (in tray,..), Layout (portrait or landscape), Print Preview (shows on the screen how the printer will print the document), Print (gives the user the options to set the name of the printer, paper range & properties of the printed material). Under the EDIT menu there are the following submenu elements: Undo to cnacel the previous action before undoing what is done (eg. delete a picture, a typed line,..etc.), Cut removing what is highlighted from the document the user is working on and putting it in the clipboard, which is a portion of the memory of the computer) Copy (copying the marked or highlighted portion of the document into the clipboard), Paste (pasting i.e. putting what is stored in the clipboard into the document infornt of the user at the cursor position), note that each time you use Cut or Copy you erase the content that has been previously stored, Paste Special (gives the user the option to paste what is stored in the clipboard as formatted, unformatted characters, picture or as an object), Clear (deletes letters or digits to the right of thecursor postion or the highlighted parts in the document),Select All (selects everything in the document by highlighting all the lines), Goto (shows on the screen and put the cursor in the selected page or section or line or graph or object), Find or Replace (allows the user to find the first occurence of a word or sentence he enters into the dialog box, it also gives him the option to find and replace what is found). Under the VIEW menu element, the following may be found: Tool bars (gives the user the choice of displaying certain tool bors on the screen), Ruler (shows the ruler on the screen), Headers & Footers (opens the header or
footer box where the user can enter the information to be shown in the header or footer of each page, incuding date, page number,..etc. as well as allowing the user to format the information entered), Footnotes (to allow the user to enter a footnote into a document), Zoom (enlarge the document displayed on the screen or showing the document as full screen without any menus or tool bars). Under the INSERT menu item the user may find any of the following: Break (a page or section or column break), Page # (a page number with the following options: position, alignment & format), Date/ Time (gives the user the options of formatting, using which language and the calendar), Autotext (automating certain elements in a document - letter- attention line, closing, reference line, salutation, Picture (from a file or or any other suitable location on the hard drive like autoshapes,..etc.), Text Box (inserts it at the cursor location where the user can enter text and adjust the size of the box), Object (from other application -DDE- where modifying such portion of the document will invoke the original application). Level III will cover FORMAT, TOOLS, SELECT & OPTIONS. The FORMAT menu element may have the following submenu items: Font which allows the user to choose the font name (for latin or any other available language), style (bold or italics,..etc.), size (in points), colour of text, underline options (single, dashed..etc.), effects options (strikethrough, superscript, ³ subscript, emboss, engraved,..etc.), character spacing (scale in percent, spacing by points & position from horizontal imaginary line in point) and animation; Paragraph allows the user to set the direction of the line typed (if more than one language can be entered by the program), alignment, indentation, apacing, line & page breaks and tabs; Bullets & numbering allows the user to select the bullet look and the line number format; Borders & shading allows the user to select the setting, style, application of borders, page border & shading (fill, pattern style & colour); Columns allows the user to preset or set the number of columns / page to 1 or 2 or 3, left or right, width & spacing of columns and application to (paragraphs, pages,..etc.); Autoformat allows the program to format the user document using a list of actions to be done on the document, to improve the overall look of the document, Style gallery gives the template name & the option of reviewing the document or an example with each style type. The TOOLS menu may have the following submenu items: Spelling & Grammar checks the spelling and grammar in the document & gives suggestions to change or other options like ignore or add; Page count gives the number of pages, word number, characters (with or without spaces) number, paragraphs & number of lines; Autosummarize gives the following options to the user: the type of summary, the summary to be highlighted on the document itself or create a new document & put the summary in, insert an executive summary to the top of the document, the length of the required summary as a % of original; Merge document allows the merge of 2 word processing documents; Mail merge allows the insertion of certain fields in the main document (from a base file) like the name/the/address/the company name; Envelopes & labels allows the printing of the envelopes and labels using the user input or an electronic address book; Macros & programming allows the automation of certain processes (like key strokes, appearance of the screen,.etc.) and storing such automated activities in the document file. The SELECT menu item may have the following subitems: Text allows the user to select (highlight) the certain lines as a first step in performing some action on the highlighted characters or lines like copying or cutting; All highlights all the document (is shown on the screen through the reverse video technique); Goto/Find/Replace function the same way as previously mentioned. The
OPTIONS menu item may have the following subitems: Settings allows the user to change the screen appearance according to his preferences including the status bar, tool bars, ruler, guidelines,..etc, decide on the units of length measurement used (on the screen i.e. inch, cm, pixel..etc.). Spread sheet software: Spread sheet software packages are used mainly by engineers, economists, or accountants, where manipulations of numbers, calculations and the production tables are the primary purposes of using this package type. With this software the user can perform the different What-if senarios by changing certain number in the spread sheet and observe, instantly, its effect on other related numbers in the work sheet. House wives can use this package to run the budget of their households. The examples for such packages will include: Lotus 123, Quatro Pro and Excel. For a typical software package operating under Windows platform on a PC, the following main items may be seen on the main menu of the program: FILE, EDIT, BLOCK, , TOOLS, GRAPH, PROPERTY, VIEW, INSERT and FORMAT. The file entry may have underneath it the following options: NEW (which will give the user a blank i.e. new work sheet), OPEN (which enables the user to open an existing file - worksheet - to add to or modify), CLOSE which will close the file without saving the changes made from the last SAVE command), SAVE (which will save the document i.e. worksheet including all the changes or additions made up till this point), SAVEAS (save the worksheet on the screen under the name the user will enter at the prompt i.e. in the dialog box), PRINT PREVIEW (will show the user what he will get on the printer, if he gives the command PRINT to the machine), PRINT (will print the range to the printer i.e. producing a hard copy of what indicated on the screen), PAGE SETUP (enables the user to enter the page setup eg. margins, size,...). The last important item that may be found under FILE is Printer Setup (which gives the options to the user to select the printer, the port to which the printer is connected or to redirect to file - rather than to the printer port) Under the EDIT menu, there may be the following sub-menu items: Undo (revert to the condition before the last chong/modification/typing,..etc.), Cut (remove the highligted portion from the working document and put it in another location in the RAM, whrere it can be put - pasted- into another portion of the current document or a new one), Copy (copies the highlighted portion in the current document into the RAM where it can be used later), Paste (taking what has been copied into the clipboard -RAM- to the current document at the position indicated by the cursor), Clear (delete all highlighted ), Paste Special (gives the user the options of choosing to paste formula or value only avoid pasting blanks,..etc.), Paste Format (the pasted information will iclude formatted ), Goto (page, cell, column, row), Search & Replace (searches the first occurence or all occurences of the inputted by the user and replace it or them with the specified by the user), Define Style (for the different styles eg. normal, currency, heading 1, heading 2,..etc. indicate the properties eg. alignment, format, protection, shading, text colour,..etc.). For the BLOCK menu item, the following can be found underneath it: Move (the user indicated from which cell range -block- to which block of cells), Copy from which block to which one), Insert (allows the user to enter rows, columns, files & pages), Delete (allows the user to remove full rows, columns or pages), Fill (allows the user to automatically fill blocks, rows or columns with numbers depending on the series selected by the user), Names (allows the user to create names to certain areas - ranges or blocks- of the worksheet to facilitate the manipulation of ; it also allows the user to delete unwanted names or all names), Transpose (exchange
columns by rows and vice versa, the user enter the range -from to), Move Pages (allows the user to move a page from to another page before the specified by the user). Under the menu element, the following subitems: Sort (allows the user to enter the block to be sorted, the sort keys - primary & secondary, column ascending or descending and i.e. labels -text & values), Form (lets the user creates a form for entering & finding records), Query (allows the user to set the base block, criteria table & output blocks), Parse (breaks down long labels into individual cells used for example when word processing files are imported int worksheets of spread sheets programs), What-if (allows the user to modify one or two variables in the worksheet and observe the changes in other dependent variables in the worksheet, this feature is very important as an analysis tool to see lets say the profit due to the increase or decrease in volume of sales, or due to change in the number of the workforce or in the unit price of the different available products). In the next level, the following will be covered:TOOLS, GRAPH, PROPERTIES, VIEW, INSERT & FORMAT. Under the TOOLS main menu item, the following subitems may be found: Macro which provides the user with the necessary commands to create, run & debug macros; Spell check checks the spelling of the words in the notebook & graphics, Consolidator merges blocks (of cells) thus altering the with the functions as selected by the user; Define group defines page groups for simultaneous operations on several pages; Combine merges 2 notebook files into one; Extract copies a part of a notebook to a separate file; Update links opens, updates, changes or deletes a notebook links; Analysis tools displays a list of advanced statistical, financial & engineering analysis tools; Speedbar designer allows the user to create his custom speedbar; Advanced math allows the user to access matrix & mathe tools. Under the GRAPH menu the followingg may be found: Type which changes the graph type (line, pie, ribbon, 3-D..etc.); Series defines or redefines the spread sheet (which cells) to be plotted in the graph; Titles allows the user to add a title, subtitle & axis titles to the graph; New creates a new graph from the selected (cells); Edit brings a graph into a graph window ready for editing; Insert places an existing graph as a floating graph on a spread sheet page; Delete erases a graph from an active notebook; Copy copies a graph or selected attributes of a graph to a new or existing graph within the same notebook, what can be copied are graph style (all graph properties), graph , annotation objects or a combination thereof; View displays a full screen view of the graph. Under the PROPERTIES, the following may be found: Current object displays a dialog box for the current object which may be any of a check box, bitmap button, combo box, colour control; Application allows the user to change any of the following application properties display, currency, date/time formats, startup directory, currency/punctuation/date & time format; Active notebook allows the user to determine calculation mode, zoom factor, display of notebook macro library; Active page allows the user to enter page name, line colour, label alignment, display of zeros, default width, borders & gridlines. Under the VIEW menu item the user may find Normal which allows the user to view the³ spread sheet as is; Page break preview shows the user where the page ends & allows him to adjust it; Toolbars allows the user to choose the toolbars he wants displayed on the screen like standard toolbar, formatting, chart, control tool box, drawings, forms, picture, VisualBasic,..etc.; Formula bar or Status bar allows the user to show or not show the formula or status bar; Full screen shows the notebook as full screen without any menus, control, tool or status bars; Zoom allows the user to set the magnification percentage of the displayed notebook on the screen (for example from 200% to custom magnification).
Under te INSERT menu item the user may find Cells insert which allows the user to shift cells to the right, shift them to the left, insert an entire row or an entire column; Insert rows inserts a row at the cursor (highlighter); Insert columns inserts a column at the cursor; Worksheet inserts a worksheet and shows as the top sheet on the screen; Chart it gives the user the sequence of dialog boxes that would allow him to insert a chart including chart type (column, bar, line, pie, XY scatter, area, doughnut, surface, cylinder, cone, pyramid,..etc.), range, series, titles (chart, X-axis & Y-axis), axis, guidelines, legend, labels & table; Page break inserts a page break; Function gives the user the choice from function category or function name; Name allows the user to define, paste, create, apply or label a name to a range, Picture inserts a picture from a gallery or insets a picture file; Object allows the user to insert an object in the worksheet infront oh him as create new (becomes part of the current file) or create from file i.e. to later modify, the original application program is opened and the changes are made under the original application program control (DDE). Under the FORMAT, there are: Cells allows the user to format he highlighted cells; Rows allows the user to set the height, hide/ unhide & auto fit; Columns allows the user to set the width, auto fit, hide/ unhide & standard width; Sheet allows the user to rename it, hide/unhide, background; Style which can be modified by the user based on predefined characteristics (parameters in the style name) number appearance, alignment, font, borders, pattern & protection and Autoformat which allows the user to choose a pre formated style with specific text font types, size, cell background colour, borders,...etc. (the dialog box shows a sample). Database software: A Base is a collection of information related to a specific subject like customer order tracking, equipment routine maintenance or failures ,..etc. A base software is for the above and other similar applications. These programs facilitate such tasks and give the user of the system a lot of options to use from. To store the for future use, a table can be created for each type of information to be tracked. When a query is created, the user will be able to retrieve the that meets the particular conditions that he had specified (even from more than one table). For viewing, entering or changing the in a table, a form can be created to achieve such a task. There are a few commercial base packages on the market, they are: FoxPro & Access of Microsoft and Paradox. The main elements of any base prgram main menu are: FILE, EDIT, VIEW, BASE, SELECT, INSERT, RECORD, PROGRAM, RUN, FORMAT, TOOLS, OPTIONS. The FILE menu provides access to system hardware like disks and printers. The EDIT provides text editing functions, for example moving a text cursor, manipulate or modify text but may also provide access to OLE (object linking and embedding) functions. The VIEW menu element gives accessibility to the table, screen, query, report, label and program tabs of the file. The menu enables the user to use files from other applications and save files in formats recognized by other applications. The TOOLS element simplifies common operations on high lighted fields. In database programs, under the FILE menu the following sub-menus may be found New database - catalog (creates a new database set of files), Open (allows the user to open an existing base - catalog - set of files), Close (allows the user to close various file types eg. database, indice, all,..), Save (allows user to copy the active file from memory to disk, for permanent storage), Save as (displays the dialog box that allows the user to copy the active file the disk under a name of his choice), Revert (allows the user to abandon all modifications made to the open file since the last time the file was saved to the disk),
Print (displays the print dialog box so that the file can be printed on the printer), File description (allows the user to enter or change the file description), Add file (allows the user to select a file type from a popup list so that the file can be added to the base), Remove file (deletes the specified file from the active base or catalog), Show path (shows full i.e full location of a file starting with the deive name), Exit (closes base program). Under the EDIT menu item, the user may find: Undo (removes what has been previously done by the user), Redo (redo what has been undone), Cut/ Copy/ Paste/ Find/ Replace performs the same functions as in the word processing and spread sheet programs (questions 5 & 6), Insert object (allows the user to create an object, a file or a picture,. in another application and insert it in a field in the base application program). The VIEW menu will allow the user to view the different componentsin the base file cardscree11h: (catalog manager): Table (is used to define or modify the structure of the table), Query (provides views of the user , add new or existing queries, create a new one, modify the query criteria, make the selected query active, view the results of a query), Screen (add new or existing screen, run an existing one or generate a new one), Report (add a new or existing report, create or modify a report, print or generate the active one), Label (allows printing labels using existing labels file), Program (it allows the user to add a program to the base project file). Under the menu element, the user may find: Add/modify index (allows the user to add an index to a table or modify an existing), Order table (allows the user to order a table in the active table query), Import (allows the user to access files from other applications), Export (allows the user to save files in other formats than the used application program). Under the TOOLS menu item, the user can find: Autoscreen (it allows the user to create & run a new screen that displays fields & records from the selected table, the screens created can be modified using screen design tools), Autoreport (creates a new report using fields & records from the selected table, it can be modified using the report writer tools ), Mail merge (allows the creation of text files that contain from opened files of the project-base), Settings (allows the change of the settings of the application software), Macros (allows the user to define & name a macro). Next level:base,Program,Run,Select,Format,Options. Under the DATABASE menu item, there may be the following: Setup which allows the user to modify or maintain the active table; Browse which allows the user to examine the table and to make changes to it; Append which allows the user to move data from another table or another file to the active table; Copy to allow the user to move the data from the active table to another table or another file; Sort allows the user to create a new table of rearranged data from the active table; Total allows the user to sum the values in specified fields in the active table; Average allows the user to calculate the average of a specified expression; Count displays the number of records that meet a specified criteria; Calculate allows the user to calculate financial or statistical value based on a specific expression; Report allows the user to produce a report from the active table; Label allows the user to produce a set of labels from the active table; Pack removes records marked for deletion from active table; Reindex rebuilds any open index files associated with the active table. Under PROGRAM, there may be the following: Do allows the user to run a program; Cancel ends the program execution and returns control to the application program; Resume continues operation of a suspended program; Debug allows the user to display the selected variables in a running program; Trace allows the user to trace the program line by line through its code; Compile allows the user to convert source code into object code; Generate allows the user the conversion of the information in the application
program into source code; Macros allows the user to define a macro in order to associate it with a specific keystroke; Beautify allows the user to make cosmetic changes to program file. Under the RUN menu item, there may be the following: New query allows the user to create a query; Query allows the user to run an existing query by choosing it from the list or creating a new query & run it; Screen allows the user to run an existing screen program or create a new screen using the screen design dialog box; Report runs an existing report by selecting the report name from the list or create a new report to run using the report layout dialog box; Label runs an existing label file or creates a new label to run; Application runs an existing application or creates a new application using the application generator. Under the SELECT there maybe: Entries that selects the field (cell) where the cursor is on; Record selects the record i.e. the row (if the view is on list); Field selects highlights) all the entries under & including the field or fields with the cursor on (or under & over the highlighted fields -cells- if the cursor is located anywhere on the column or columns); All selects (highlights using reverse video technique) the whole document; Hide record allows the user to hide the record where the cursor is located; Show all records shows all the records in the base; Sort records allows the user to enter the keys (fields) to be sorted in ascending or descending sequence (order). Under FORMAT menu item, the user may find the following subitems: A list of options that controls the appearance of the characters on the screen for the user to choose from (the choices may be general, fixed, currency, comma, percen, exponential & leading zeros); Font allows the user to choose the font type & size; Style allows the user to choose he alignment (center, left, right,.etc.) style of characters (bold, italics..etc.). Under the OPTIONS menu item, there may be: Program settings which allows the user the choice of the units used (inches, cm, points), the modem connection port, dial type (tone or pulse); Toolbars allows the user to switch on (appear) or off (disappear) the screen the status bar, toolbar, guidelines and any other available tools to assist the user in what he is doing with the application program; Protect data allows the user to protect his i.e. not to be modified unintentionally, for the user to be able to change the protected data, he has to unprotect them first.
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