A Complex sentences: adverbial clauses

adverbial clauses (may function mainly as adjuncts and disjuncts.) 1.) Clauses of time: introduced by subordinators: after, as, once, since, until, when, while. Wait [until you are called]. Finite: Buy your ticket as soon as your reach the station. Non-F:- ing-cl: Once having made a promise you should keep it. -ed and -verbless cl. The dog stayed at the entrance until told to come in. 2.) Clauses of place: Introduced by: where (specific), wherever (non-specific). May indicate position or direction. Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but blackened ruins. (position) They went wherever they could find work. (direction) 3.) Clauses of condition, concession & contrast: overlapping use of subordinators. if introduces all 3 types of clauses, Whereas both concessive and contrast clauses. Even if expresses both the contingent dependence of one situation upon another and the unexpected nature of this dependence. Even if they offered to pay, I wouldn’t accept any money from them. All 3 types of clauses tend to assume initial position in the subordinate clause. a) Conditional clauses: In general direct condition between the clauses If you go by taxi, you’ll catch the train. –Subordinators: unless, provided (that), supposing (that), in case. Can be finite, non-finite & verbless. - Open conditional: future & present, neutral: they leave unresolved the question of the fulfilment or nonfulfilment of the condition. If John is in London, he will visit Mary. - Hypothetical conditional: past & 2nd + 3rd conditional. Conveys the speaker’s belief that the condition will not be fulfilled (for future conditions), is not fulfilled (for present condition), or was not fulfilled (for past conditions). 2nd {If John lost his job}, he wouldn’t be sad.- main cl isn’t true. 3rd {If you had known Jim}, you would have liked him can have non-assertive items: If you have any questions.. inversion: Had you known Jim ..


because.circumstance & consequence. while Mr Corby teaches chemistry. but that. John is moving to a new flat [whether he finds a job or not]. rarely by: while. [Whatever you do. the matrix is true.] don’t talk to him. 5. whereas my husband is always worried about what they think of us.cause & effect. [only my mother told me not to]. b. save (formal) I wanted to phone you. 3. so. 4 Relationships: 1.motivation & result.) Purpose clauses: usually infinitival. even if. –obviously false. for. I’m the Pope . so as. while. seeing (that). c.Indirect condition: If you remember. – no direct dependency. the matrix is true.) Clauses of Exception: Introduced by except (that). we could walk 6. It is contrary to what we expected. because he has been working. Mr Larson teaches physics. F:{Although he was at the meeting}he didn’t say a word. since you are my friend. if she is a day. -ed and verbless clauses. 4. we discussed it 2 weeks ago . introduced by: whereas. You will help me.. 2. save that.reason & consequence. only (informal). I came here { in order to talk to you} Students should take notes so as to make revision easier. introduced by: in order to.) Concessive clauses: introd by: though.) Reason clauses: Subordinators: since. although.Rethorical conditional clauses: Conditional in form. – if the conditional is true.) Contrast clauses: describe situations which are in contrast. She watered the flowers because they were dry. so that. Since the weather was nice. 2. Except for whereas they can introduce –ing. 2 types: If she is 18. . 2 types: 1. NF:{Though trying everything}we couldn’t solve the problem.Alternative 4. whereas. conditional concessive: introduced by whether … or. to. but actually they are strong assertions. 2 . as.Universal conditional concessive: free choice of conditions. finite: in order that. She is 40. ( they are doing not the same) I ignore them. Introd by wh-words +ever. He is tired. whilst.

to be frank. this year will be successful . so (that) he flew into a rage. or medially. To+infinitive clauses: 12. we stopped. as though. {Rather than travel by car}.) Clauses of preference: generally non-finite clauses. so she was angry. finally. 3 . 8) Clauses of Similarity & Comparison: Clauses of similarity are introduced by as.) Comment clauses: are parenthetical disjuncts. March. the less I like it. They may occur initially. 9. as you know. they were arguing all the time. a degree between 2 situations. so (that) he left contented.} It was just {like expected. Introduced by: as…so.) Supplementive to be honest….} Hypothetical comparison: He looks as if he were tired. 7. Types: Matrix of a main clause: I believe. we decided to go by bus. –subjunctive or hypothetical past can be used.} Clauses of comparison are introduced by as if. These subordinators are commonly premodified by just and exactly. 11. I forgot about her birthday. I took no notice of him. Do {as you are instructed. like: He looks{as if he is angry. 10. so..They left the door open in order for me to hear the baby. -It’s a fact We paid him immediately. Adverbial participle & verbless clauses without clauses: subordinator: Reaching the river. and thus generally have a separate tone unit. sooner than. is the 1st month of the year. like.Finite adverbial clause: …… as you know. Nominal relative clause:What is annoying.) Clauses of proportion: a kind of comparison. the…the: The more I think about it.) Result clauses: introduced by subordinators: so that. Subordinators: rather than.

Primary verb BE. neg. voice for passive. subject complement COMPLEMENT (C) typically a noun phrase (NP) or an adjective phrase (AdjP) does not have a corresponding passive subject Subject complement (Cs) – characterises the subject and appears in SVC clause patterns: Robert (S) is becoming quite mature.the operator is in front of the subject 3. Cs adjective phrase = 4 . Exclamatory question. Be – it has 2 aux.:.can be operators: we can make negative & interrogative sentences with them.19. In negative sentences operator stands before ‘not’ In interrog. and negative forms.. It has only present and past forms: Do. but exclamation at the same time. did. Function: 1.DO support: Does she have tea with her breakfast? Do – as an aux. DO closed class of verbs have. Exclamatory question Interrogative in structure. subject complement 1. B. 1. does. but has the force of an exclamatory assertion. positive yes/no question Is it beautiful? . ( it has 8 morphological forms) Have – main verb: He has a sister Perfect aspect: I haven’t finished my work In stative senses ‘have’ is used as an operator In dynamic sense. do they can be main verbs and as auxiliaries as well They can be the main verb and modal aux. primary verb. HAVE.stressed 2. yes/ no question – with final falling intonation Isn’t it beautiful? (!) Wasn’t he brave? (!) 2. be.aspect for progressive 2.

noun phrase Cs = 5 .Benjamin (S) is becoming a conscientious student.