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Trends in the Volume and Nature of Propulsion Machinery Demand the Low Speed Sector

Contents:

Marine Propulsion in General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Low Speed Engine Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ship Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bulk carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tankers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Container vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Developments in Low Speed Engine Design and Manufacturing . . . . Low Speed Engine Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine Design Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel valve development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer controlled cylinder lubricator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhaust Gas Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Off Spec Fuel / Future Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronics on Bord Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Trends in the Volume and Nature of Propulsion Machinery Demand the Low Speed Sector

This paper opens with a purely nontechnical summary of statistical data and trends compiled by the market survey department of MAN B&W Diesel in Copenhagen in order to illustrate the past and present standing of the twostroke engine in the market, with a view to predicting the potential for this type of prime mover in the future. In spite of sporadic indicators of the opposite, there are no signs of any change in the market regarding the distribution of prime movers in the marine industry. As illustrated in the technical part of this paper, there are no identified challenges, technical, commercial and legislative, to which solutions are not available. The low speed engines are dominant and will remain to be so in the foreseeable future.

Marine Propulsion in General


In discussions about propulsion machinery for merchant vessels, a distinction is normally made between low speed, medium speed and high speed engines, and these three categories are generally considered as being three distinctive products, each serving a separate segment of the market. Often, the following definitions are used for these market segments: Low speed: r/min <300 The two-stroke market Medium speed: r/min = 300-1000 The four-stroke market High speed: r/min >1000 The four-stroke (and turbine) market(s)

Presenting an outline of the distribution, the relationship and the differences between the various types of engines and vessels would be beyond the scope of this paper. Only vessels for which low speed engines are relevant will be dealt with, which means that passenger vessels, fishing vessels, tug boats and most special-purpose vessels are not discussed. During the period of 1974-1998, the number of engines delivered for cargo ships dropped from some 2000 to approx. 1400 engines per year (see Table 1). However, in terms of engine output the drop was not as large as the drop in the number of engines, which means that the average engine output has increased over that period. The greatest fall in the number of engines was in the medium speed sector, which saw a fall of 56%, whereas the number of high speed engines fell by 27%. Low speed engine deliveries fell by just under 5% during the same period. Overall, the market share of low speed engines increased from 41% in 1974 to 57% in 1998.

Number of engines Year Two-stroke No. 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1998 806 648 819 425 510 768 Pct. 41 30 44 31 37 57 Four-stroke No. 984 1315 894 741 601 431 Pct. 50 61 48 54 43 32 Unknown No. 191 189 136 213 280 139 Pct. 10 9 7 15 20 10 No. 1981 2152 1849 1379 1391 1338 All Pct. 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 1: Development in marine propulsion 1974-1998

Million bhp Year Low speed bhp 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1998 9.4 6.6 7.6 4.6 7.1 11.6 Pct. 60 59 77 73 78 80 Medium speed bhp 2.9 3.6 2.0 1.5 1.7 2.2 Pct. 18 32 20 24 18 15 High speed bhp 3.5 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.6 Pct. 22 9 3 3 4 4 bhp 15.8 11.2 9.8 6.3 9.1 14.4 All Pct. 100 100 100 100 100 100

In terms of engine output, the low speed market share increased from 60% in 1974 to 80% of the market today (see Table 2). The low speed engine sector has mainly gained market shares from the high speed sector, which amounted to 22% of the market in 1974, compared with 4% today measured in engine output. Following a period in the 80s where medium speed engines accounted for 20-30%, the market share of these has dropped to the 1974-level of 15-18%. It can thus be ascertained that low speed engines account for a stable, even increasing, share of the propulsion market for merchant vessels. At the beginning of the 70s, the market for the propulsion of power-demanding vessels (VLCCs) was dominated by turbines. However, this market faded out with the oil crisis and, from then on, the demand developed towards more fuelefficient engines. Since the mid-70s, low speed engines have dominated the market for large propulsion engines for the merchant fleet (Table 3). In the following, only low speed engines will be dealt with.

Table 2: Development in marine propulsion 1974-1998

bhp per engine Year Low speed bhp 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1998 11,648 10,168 9,274 10,754 14,013 15,136 Medium speed bhp 2,961 2,719 2,206 2,029 2,772 5,122 High speed bhp 18,223 5,580 1,881 841 1,198 4,409 All bhp 7,965 5,214 5,314 4,537 6,577 10,797

Table 3: Average bhp per engine

The Low Speed Engine Market


In general, when speaking about low speed engines, these are understood to be two-stroke engines. However, there is a certain qualification to this statement, as nearly 10% of all low speed engine units delivered since 1974 are, in fact, four-stroke engines (see Table 4). This means that more than 90% of the low speed engines are of the two-stroke type. Four-stroke low speed engines are mainly smaller engines. This can be seen from the fact that four-stroke engines only account for 2% (see Table 5) of the power delivered by low speed engines since 1974. The demand for ships powered by four-stroke low speed engines remains fairly stable. The market is mainly centred on Japanese owners ordering from Japanese yards. In the following the focus will be on low speed engines of the two-stroke design. Since the beginning of the 90s, the average engine power output has risen from approx. 10,000 bhp per engine to 15,000 bhp per engine in 1998 (see Table 3).
Year Two-stroke No. 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1998 731 587 773 377 466 745 Pct. 91 91 94 89 91 97

Number of engines Four-stroke No. 62 59 46 48 44 22 Pct. 8 9 6 11 9 3 Unknown No. 13 2 0 0 0 1 Pct. 2 0 0 0 0 0 No. 806 648 819 425 510 768 All Pct. 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 4: Development in low-speed marine propulsion 1974-1998

Million bhp Year Two-stroke bhp 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1998 9.2 6.4 7.5 4.4 7.0 11.6 Pct. 98 98 98 97 98 99 Four-stroke bhp 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Pct. 2 2 2 3 2 1 Unknown bhp 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Pct. 1 0 0 0 0 0 bhp 9.4 6.6 7.6 4.6 7.1 11.6 All Pct. 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 5: Development in low-speed marine propulsion 1974-1998

The power requirement at selected dwt intervals for the primary types of vessel has been analysed. The analysis shows that over time no significant change can be demonstrated in the power requirement for most types of vessel except VLCCs. Within several

groups, on the other hand, there is even a slight tendency towards a drop in the average installed propulsion power. Increase in propulsion speed can therefore have been obtained through improved hull and propeller plant designs (see Fig. 1 showing the

distribution of engine sizes on vessel types/sizes 1974-1998). The increase in average engine size is an expression of a changed demand pattern from one vessel type to another and/or a development towards larger vessels.

a) Container vessels 10,000 40,000 dwt


100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

c) Tankers 40,001 60,000 dwt

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

b) Container vessels 40,001 60,000 dwt

d) Tankers 60,001 80,000 dwt


100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

e) Tankers 80,001 250,000 dwt


3,501 6,500 bhp
100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

6,501 - 15,000 bhp 15,001 - 25,001 bhp 25,001 - 40,000 bhp 40,001 - 75,000 bhp

Fig. 1: Distribution of engine sizes on vessel types/sizes 1974-98

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Ship Size
Bulk carriers There is a trend towards an increasing number of bulk carriers in the 40-80,000 dwt range. In 1989, this size range accounted for 54% of the bulk carriers ordered, whereas in 1998, it accounted for 62%. In particular bulk carriers larger than 80,000 dwt have lost market shares (15% in 1974 and 6% in 1998). Thus, the development has been in favour of medium sized vessels. Tankers There is a trend towards an increase in the demand for ships in the 2,000-20,000 dwt range (31% in 1989 and 34% in 1998), whereas ships of more than 200,000 dwt had a lower share of the market in 1998 than in 1989 (although large fluctuations can be seen from year to year). The so-called VLCC boom is still around the corner. General cargo The trend is clearly moving in the direction of larger ships, as the share of ships smaller than 20,000 dwt accounted for 88% of the ships delivered in 1989, against 61% in 1998. In 1989, general cargo ships larger than 40,000 dwt accounted for a mere 1% whereas, in 1998, this market share had risen to 11%. Container vessels For container vessels, ultra-large ships (larger than 80,000 dwt ~ >5000 teu) accounted for 6% of deliveries in 1998. Compared with 1994, this share has been at the expense of ships sized 40-80,000 dwt alone (3-5,000 teu), which is a ship size that is apparently becoming of less significance for the container fleet. Still it seems that each mega-carrier order brings with it up to five feeders of 1,000-3,000 teu each.

Ships 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0

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1982

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2012 2012

Million dwt 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

1976

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Million gt 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1976

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Scrapping

Predictions

Deliveries

Contracting

Fig. 2: Need for replacements (ships larger than 2,000 dwt/gt)

2015

2015

2015

The change in ship size does not in itself explain the substantial increase in the average engine power seen in recent years, hence it can be assumed that the design speed has increased. Increase in the average engine size is an indication of a changed demand pattern towards higher powered ship types. A distinct increase in ship size is only seen in the general cargo sector, whereas in the container ship sector two oppositely directed trends away from ship sizes in the 40-80,000 dwt range are seen. The propulsion power requirement is considerably higher for a container ship sailing with high-value commodities than for bulk carriers and large tankers transporting raw materials, for which the sailing time is of less economical consequence. Hence, the propulsion power requirement for a Post-Panamax container ship is 2-3 times the power requirement for a VLCC. The increasing containerisation and competition in this market, together with demands for the lowest possible freight cost per teu, will imply a continued race for transporting as many teus as possible on the long-haul routes. This means that an increase in the average power requirement for container ships is to be expected. Lifetime analyses of different ship types/sizes show that the need for replacements over the next ten years alone will provide a stable demand for low speed propulsion (Fig. 2). The underlying demand for new ships over the next couple of years will be below the level seen in the past 4-5 years. Having made this statement, it can be ascertained that there is little risk of seeing a shipbuilding activity level as low as experienced in the 1980s.

China CSTC 1980 ! Hudong ! Dalian ! Yichang ! Shanghai Shangchuan Croatia Uljanik Split

Japan Mitsui ! Makita Hitachi Kawasaki

1926 1981 1951 1981

Rumania UCMR

1991

1954 1984

Korea Hyundai Hanjung Ssangyong Samsung Halla Poland Cegielski

1976 1983 1984 1994 1996 1959

Russia Bryansk

1959

Indonesia P.T. Pal 1985

Spain Manises

1941

Fig. 3: Two-stroke engine licensees of MAN B&W Diesel

Developments in Low Speed Engine Design and Manufacturing


Low speed engines were traditionally designed and manufactured in the areas where ships were being built. However, this situation changed from the mid-70s to mid-80s and, in the scenario of today, only two major low speed engine designers, viz. MAN B&W and WNSD, are present in the market, both with their design base in Europe, however, challenged in Japan by Mitsubishi. The major builders of ships predominantly equipped with low speed engines are based in Korea, Japan and China, - with Germany, Poland and Croatia still hanging on. Most other European shipbuilders and thereby engine designers and licensees are gone a long time ago. In the case of MAN B&W Diesel, the situation is now so that ten large licensees are served in Asia, whereas in Europe, six licensees are served (Fig. 3).

The ships which are being ordered and built in a foreseeable future will presumably not change very much and, consequently, the development of engines will also be smooth, without too dramatic changes. The low speed engines on order (about 1.5 times the annual production) is shown on a yearly basis (Fig. 4). The figure also shows the development in geographical distribution as well as MAN B&Ws market share which so far has been and still is comfortable. The engine programme of MAN B&W is being constantly developed to cater for the requirements for power and speed of the ships being built. An ongoing dialogue with shipowners, yards and engine builders sets the scene for new engine types.

Million bhp 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jun-92 Dec-92 Jun-93 Dec-93 Jun-94 Dec-94 Jun-95 Dec-95 Jun-96 Dec-96 Jun-97 Dec-97 Jun-98 Dec-98 Jun-99 South Korea Japan Other East Asia Eastern Europe Western Europe South America Other designs

Fig. 4: Low speed engine order volume per year

The predominant design criteria remain:


Suitability for the relevant propulsion

requirement
Simplicity for easy manufacturing Un-complicated installation proce-

Hence, in spite of technical and commercial challenges, the two-stroke low speed marine diesel engine will remain the dominant prime mover for marine propulsion for many years. The technical challenges and possibilities are discussed in great detail in a paper with that very title The future of the low speed two-stroke engine presented and debated at the Institute of Marine Engineers in London 25/26 Nov. 1999, Ref. [1]. The paper discussing both containership and VLCC propulsion as well as the development and implementation of the first commercially ordered electronically controlled marine diesel engines is summarised in the following.

dures
Reliability in service Low fuel and lube oil consumption Emission compliance, beyond IMO.

These disciplines are all mastered and complied with.

Low Speed Engine Development


As the dominant prime movers in the marine market, low speed engines are also the prime digesters of bottom of the barrel heavy fuel oils. This is manifested while still demonstrating high reliability and high thermal efficiency at all loads, and the challenges for the coming years will be to continue doing so while still complying with ever increasing severeness of environmental legislation. Low speed engine technology will be enhanced under its traditional umbrella of reliability and efficiency so as also to use off-spec fuels beyond typical marine type heavy fuels as well as liquefied and compressed combustible gases like LPG, VOC and LNG.

Electronics will play an increasing role in the technology used for low speed engines in the years to come. The high pressure gas injection version of the low speed engines is now on the market, taking advantage of the latest state-of-the-art electronic controls. Engines with electronic/hydraulic control of exhaust and fuel valve timing are already commercially available, allowing more flexibility under changing operating conditions. Fig. 5 shows the development of engine performance parameters over the last 30 years. Notably specific output has increased while weight has been reduced. Efficiency and reliability have correspondingly increased despite the increased power and load concentration. The speed/power combination

has been refined to suit specific ships needs by applying different and larger stroke-to-bore ratios. Such adaptation will continue, but with more emphasis, being concentrated on complying with general and local emission rules. Containerisation has kept increasing over the years, and 1998 was the year in which the first vessels with a capacity of more than 6000 TEU entered service and even larger vessels are likely to come. In this context, increasing powers are called for, in excess of 90,000 bhp, and the K98MC engine type was developed to provide this. So far, 20 such engines have been ordered, including five 12-cylinder units.

Pmax (bar) 150 100 50 Pscav 3.5 2.5 1.5 mep

Pmax

20.5 mep (bar) 17.5 15.0

Pscav

12.5 10.0

hTC he

Cm (m/s) 9 8 7 6 kW/cyl., kW/m 2,500 1,500 500 Cm

70 h 60 50 40 40 kW/t 35

kW/t

30 25

kW/cyl kW/m

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6L/S60MC

6L60MC

6S60MC-C
1995 2000

6L55GFC 6L55GFCA 6L55GB

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Fig. 5: Development of engine performance parameters over a 30-year period

10

6S60MC

6K62EF

6L55GF

6K62EF

Conventional MC design

New design

Controlled Pressure Relief piston ring Piston Cleaning Ring

Fig. 6: New large bore engine combustion chamber geometry with PC and CPR rings

For the even larger and/or faster container ships, engine power in excess of 100,000 bhp will be needed some 125,000 bhp is often mentioned these days as a likely power demand for 8,000 10,000 TEU vessels. Two engines and propellers may be preferred for wide-body vessels, but it is possible to increase the unit output to, say, 110,000 bhp with a 14K98MC or to even higher outputs using a narrow-V configuration up to 16 or 18 cylinders. A 12KV90MC-C will be nearly seven metres shorter than an in-line 12K90MC-C. Possibly, we will see such engines in the future. For VLCCs, our 7S80MC has been and still is widely used. However, increased speeds have already resulted in several orders for our S90MC-C, and if even larger ships are required, ULCCs may return. Eight or nine-cylinder S90MC-Cs are readily available to propel them. The S80MC-C and S90MC-C reflect a design evolution already successfully implemented on our S46, S50, S60 and S70MC-C, i.e. a higher power concentration in a compact engine designed for low production cost.

Engine Design Features


Protecting and controlling the heat-exposed parts in the combustion chamber have always been design priorities. Particularly on large bore engines, the combustion chamber components are highly thermally loaded. For quite a number of years, the pistons in the large bore short-stroke engines have been provided with a welded-on layer of Inconel to increase the heat resistance. Even so, heat exposure effects have been experienced on the K-MC/MC-C engines in certain cases, indicating that the margins should preferably be higher. Recently, a completely new combustion chamber concept with significantly reduced heat load has been developed based on detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations of a variety of combustion chamber shapes. With the new geometry (Fig. 6), the combustion air mass has been concentrated in the vicinity of the fuel nozzles, which have been moved somewhat closer to the centre of the cylinder. This results in a greater distance from the nozzles to the piston top and, in combination with a new layout of the spray pattern, the heat load on the piston crown has been significantly reduced without in-

creasing the heat load on the cylinder liner, cylinder cover and exhaust valve. A piston with a high topland is used. A temperature reduction in the piston top of some 100 C as well as unchanged temperatures on other combustion chamber components has been confirmed. The new combustion chamber design was used from the outset on the K98MC engine and is standard on new large-bore MC/MC-C engines. The reliability of the combustion chamber components and the cylinder condition depend very much on the performance of the piston ring pack, which, accordingly, is continuously being optimised, now with a special patented CPR (Controlled Pressure Relief) ring as the top piston ring. This ring has a double lap joint, and an optimal pressure drop across the top piston ring is ensured by relief grooves. For ease of running-in, an Al-bronze coating is applied on the rings.

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Computer controlled cylinder lubricator The cylinder lube oil consumption represents a large expenditure for an engine operating with the nominal guiding feed rate and, especially for the large bore engines, even a 0.1 g/bhph reduction in the cylinder oil dosage represents a significant yearly saving for the owner. The cylinder oil must be injected into the cylinder at the exact position and time where the effect is optimal, for which enhanced precision is essential. In our new electronic cylinder lubrication system shown in Fig. 8, the oil fed to the injectors is pressurised by a small multi-piston pump, a hydraulic amplifier, for each cylinder. The system is controlled in such a way that the oil can be introduced to the individual cylinder at any pre-set piston position. advantages are reduced emission of NOx, CO, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons as well as significantly less deposit inside the engine, with a positive effect on cylinder condition in general. By virtue of the very precise injection at a much higher pressure, cylinder oil waste can be avoided.

Conventional fuel valve Sac volume 1690 mm3

Mini-sac valve Sac volume 520 mm3

Slide-type fuel valve Sac volume volume 0 mm3

Fig. 7: Evolution of fuel injection valve design

A third feature introduced is the Piston Cleaning (PC) ring, fitted in the top of the cylinder liner. The purpose of this ring is to control ash and carbon deposits on the piston topland and thus prevent contact between the cylinder liner and these deposits, which would remove some of the cylinder oil from the liner wall. Fuel valve development

Control box

The increased mean effective pressure of modern engines requires increased flow areas throughout the fuel valve which, in turn, leads to increased sac volumes in the fuel nozzle itself. Consequently, more fuel from the sac volume may enter the combustion chamber and contribute to the emission of smoke and unburned hydrocarbons as well as to increased deposits in the combustion chamber itself. To counteract this, a new type of fuel valve essentially without the sac volume problem, the so-called slide type fuel valve (Fig. 7), has been under development for quite some time. This slide valve is now being introduced as standard. Its main

Crankshaft position Engine load Load changes

Tank Cylinder

Pump station Lubricators Pressurised return

Pressure control unit

Fig. 8: Electronic cylinder lubrication system

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Control valve

Pressure switch

Exhaust Gas Emission


It goes without saying that the MC/MC-C engines comply with the IMO speed-dependent NOx emission cap of 17 g/kWh. The engine builder must deliver each engine with a Technical File specifying (with identification details) all engine components influencing the engines emission level. Such components included the entire fuel injection system, the injection and exhaust valve cams and their timing, cylinder cover, piston with piston rod and shims, connecting rod and turbochargers. The Technical File must furthermore have engine adjustment data and tolerances for performance parameters as well as detailed results of the emission measurements carried out at the workshop trials. The Technical File must follow the engine through its entire life and be available for inspection by port authorities at any time. It will also be used by representatives of the flag state authorities in connection with re-certification of the engine, which must take place usually every five years. If components found in the engine are not marked in compliance with the Technical File at an inspection or on re-certification, new emission measurements may have to be carried out to prove compliance with the IMO limits. It is stated by IMO that the Regulation will be updated on a five-year basis. In plain language this means that the maximum allowed sulphur content of marine fuels and the limit values for NOx emissions will most likely be reduced. It is also likely that other exhaust gas emissions will be regulated in the future (as has for a long time been the case for road vehicles), with particle emissions and smoke being likely to have the largest impact on the total marine industry. As regards the future reduction of the NOx emission limits, proven solutions are available. By the use of water emulsified fuel, a 30 50% reduction can

be achieved as has been proved by a number of stationary power plant engines, utilising 30 50% water addition to HFO, with the first plant entering commercial service in 1984. Obviously, the fuel injection system was tailor made for the purpose and has performed impeccably, and the same can be stated for the general engine behaviour. For extremely tight NOx limits, exhaust gas after-treatment by means of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) provides an effective solution. A reduction of 93% has been confirmed on four vessels in marine service (since 1989), and more than 99% (due to strict local demands) on a stationary high-pressure dual-fuel gas engine (since 1994). Thus, solutions are at hand, if needed!

gines rebuilt for VOC operation. The same principle will accept LPG.

Electronics on Board Ships


With the paper entitled The Intelligent Engine, Ref. [2] it is demonstrated that this is no more just around the corner it is here! The engines ordered, 7S60ME-C for Stena Concordias VLCCs at Hyundai, will be on the testbed in the autumn of 2000 and are built without a camshaft and chain drive. Fuel and exhaust valves are hydraulically/electronically controlled, allowing the timing to be changed during service for continuous optimisation. The vessels are described in Ref. [3].

Off-Spec Fuel / Future Fuel


Low speed engines can consume virtually any combustible fuel and, as long as they are permitted to do so by legislation, this is, in fact, what they will do. There seems to be no changes to general marine fuel specs except for a lowered sulphur cap from 5% to 4.5%. Apart from some coastal areas, the marine environment is so far the best outlet for the high-sulphur fuels mostly prohibited on land. Higher viscosity fuels in the form of asphalt-like products and also Orimulsion are digestible by diesel engines. Fuel oil preheating up to 250 C has proved feasible. Gaseous fuels are also applicable, both in the form of LPG and natural gas. High pressure gas injection systems are used, making gas quality and composition irrelevant. Commercial operation on VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) otherwise wasted to the atmosphere in the North Sea, will start in the year 2000 on en-

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Conclusion
MAN B&W Diesel is convinced that the two-stroke marine diesel engine will remain the predominant prime mover for merchant vessels for many years to come. Reliability and environmental friendliness will be the most important research and development goals, and it is the engine suppliers challenge to satisfy these demands at minimum production cost for the engine.

HFO will, most likely, remain the dominant primary energy source for marine engines, though of changing composition due to environmental demands. In certain sectors, other fuels may become of interest for environmental or cost reasons. The introduction of electronics is one way of ensuring increased functionality while reducing mechanical complexity. An increasing need for electronic soft-

ware and hardware to sustain the reliability and environmental friendliness of conventional engine designs is foreseen, leading forward to the commercial introduction of the Intelligent Engine on a larger scale, following the first deliveries of such engines in early 2001.

Fig. 9: The worlds largest-bore two-stroke diesel engine, a 7K98MC, on testbed

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References
[1] Peter Sunn Pedersen: The future of the low-speed two-stroke engine, Institute of Marine Engineers, London, 25-26 Nov., 1999 [2] The Intelligent Engine: Development Status and Prospects, MAN B&W Diesel A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark, Publ. No. P.360-99.09 [3] The Stena V-max. - restricted draft VLCC design, 21st Marine Propulsion Conference, Athens, 23-24 March 1999

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