CHAPTER 4 NOTES

Nervous tissue: Internal communication • Brain • Spinal cord • Nerves Muscle tissue: Contracts to cause movement • Muscles attached to bones (skeletal) • Muscles of heart (cardiac) • Muscles of walls of hollow organs (smooth) stomach Epithelial tissue: Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters • Lining of digestive tract organs and other hollow organs • Skin surface (epidermis) Connective tissue: Supports, protects, binds other tissues together • Bones • Tendons • Fat and other soft padding tissue.

Epithelial tissue is the covering, lining, and glandular tissue of the body. Its functions include protection, absorption, excretion, filtration, secretion, and sensory reception. Epithelial tissues exhibit specialized contacts, polarity, avascularity ( , high regeneration rate support from connective tissue, and high regenerative capacity. Classification of Epithelia (pp. 119–124) In its role as an interface tissue, epithelium accomplishes. Although epithelium is avascular (contains no blood vessels), it is innervated (supplied by nerve fibers). Epithelial cells are nourished by substances diffusing from blood vessels in the underlying connective tissue. Except for glandular epithelia (discussed on pp. 124–125), epithelial cells fit closely together to form continuous sheets. Lateral contacts, including tight junctions and desmosomes, bind adjacent cells together at many points (these junctions are described in Chapter 3). The tight junctions help keep proteins in the apical region of the plasma membrane from diffusing into the basal region, and thus help to maintain epithelial polarity. All epithelial sheets rest upon and are supported by connective tissue. Just deep to the basal lamina is the reticular lamina, a layer of extracellular material containing a fine network of collagen protein fibers that “belongs to” the underlying connective tissue. The two laminae form the basement membrane, which reinforces the epithelial sheet, helps it resist stretching and tearing, and defines the epithelial boundary. Epithelium has a high regenerative capacity. Some epithelia are exposed to friction and their surface cells rub off. Others are damaged by hostile substances in the external environment (bacteria, acids, smoke). If and when their apical-basal polarity and lateral contacts are destroyed, epithelial cells begin to reproduce themselves rapidly. As long as epithelial cells receive adequate nutrition, they can replace lost cells by cell division. Each epithelium has two names. The first name indicates the number of cell layers present, and the second describes the shape of its cells. Based on the number of cell layers, there are simple and stratified epithelia

Two simple squamous epithelia in the body have special names that reflect their location. Simple columnar epithelium. Capillaries consist exclusively of endothelium. In the lungs. it forms the walls of the air sacs across which gas exchange occurs. It lines most of the digestive tract. it forms walls of air sacs of the lungs and lines blood vessels. friction-reducing lining in lymphatic vessels and in all hollow organs of the cardiovascular system—blood vessels and the heart. This epithelium forms the walls of the smallest ducts of glands and of many kidney tubules.CHAPTER 4 NOTES 3. or columnar. that of a cuboidal cell is spherical. the shape of the nucleus conforms to that of the cell. and a columnar cell nucleus is elongated from top to bottom and usually located closer to the cell base. Simple squamous epithelium is a single layer of squamous cells. ■ Mesothelium ( “middle covering”) is the epithelium found in serous membranes. In the kidneys. Simple columnar epithelium . Highly adapted for filtration and exchange of substances. causing the cell layer to look like a string of beads when viewed microscopically. it forms part of the filtration membrane. Epithelium is classified by arrangement as simple (one layer) or( absorption secretion filtration) stratified (more than one layer) and by cell shape as squamous. is found in glands and in kidney tubules. the membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs. stratified epithelia are named according to the shape of the cells in the apical layer. It contributes to serosae as mesothelium and lines all hollow circulatory system organs as endothelium. The spherical nuclei stain darkly. commonly active in secretion and absorption. Thin and often permeable. simple squamous epithelium is found where filtration or the exchange of substances by rapid diffusion is a priority. ■ Endothelium ( “inner covering”) provides a slick. To avoid ambiguity. The nucleus of a squamous cell is a flattened disc. specialized for secretion and absorption. consists of a single layer of tall columnar cells that exhibit microvilli and often mucus-producing cells. and its exceptional thinness encourages the efficient exchange of nutrients and wastes between the bloodstream and surrounding tissue cells. (protection) cuboidal. Keep nuclear shape in mind when you attempt to identify epithelial types. In each case. The terms denoting cell shape and arrangement are combined to describe the epithelium fully. Simple cuboidal epithelium. Important functions of simple cuboidal epithelium are secretion and absorption.

of the skin is keratinized (ker9ah-tin0īzd). its keratinized variety forms the skin epidermis. Stratified columnar epithelium also has a limited distribution in the body. Its ciliated variety. Columnar cells are mostly associated with absorption and secretion. Capillaries consist exclusively of endothelium. rich in mucus secreting cells. or epidermis. It lines the digestive tract from the stomach through the rectum. It lines the esophagus and vagina. It lines hollow urinary system organs.3c). Stratified Cuboidal and Columnar Epithelia Stratified cuboidal epithelium is quite rare in the body. friction-reducing lining in lymphatic vessels and in all hollow organs of the cardiovascular system—blood vessels and the heart. and its exceptional thinness encourages the efficient exchange of nutrients and wastes between the bloodstream and surrounding tissue cells. Small amounts are found in the pharynx. a tough protective protein. some simple columnar epithelia display cilia on their free surfaces. simply remember that this epithelium forms the external part of the skin and extends a short distance into every body opening that is directly continuous with the skin. and lining some glandular ducts. The outer layer.CHAPTER 4 NOTES is a single layer of tall. closely packed cells. the male urethra. Stratified cuboidal epithelia are rare in the body. mammary glands). mostly found in the ducts of some of the larger glands (sweat glands. (We discuss the epidermis in Chapter 5. It is adapted to resist abrasion.) The other stratified squamous epithelia of the body are nonkeratinized. which help move substances or cells through an internal passageway. lines most of the upper respiratory passages. adapted for responding to stretch. cells at the free surface are squamous. meaning its surface cells contain keratin. aligned like soldiers in a row (Figure 4. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium ( uneven columns) is a simple columnar epithelium that appears stratified. . Two simple squamous epithelia in the body have special names that reflect their location. Because of their relative scarcity in the body. Transitional epithelium is a modified stratified squamous epithelium. Only its apical layer of cells is columnar.( bladder) To avoid memorizing all its locations. found mainly in the male urethra and at transition areas between other epithelia types. Endothelium (“inner covering”) provides a slick. and are found chiefly in ducts of large glands. Stratified columnar epithelium has a very limited distribution. protection Stratified squamous epithelium is multilayered. This epithelium also occurs at transition areas or junctions between two other types of epithelia. It typically has two layers of cuboidal cells. and the digestive tract lining has two distinct modifications that make it ideal for that dual function: ■ Dense microvilli on the apical surface of absorptive cells ■ Tubular glands made primarily of cells that secrete mucus containing intestinal juice Additionally.

the membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs. Process of making and releasing that product. hormones produced by certain intestinal cells cause the pancreas to release enzymes that help digest food in the digestive tract. Endocrine glands are structurally diverse. Secretion is an active process. Endocrine Glands Because endocrine glands eventually lose their ducts. Since not all endocrine glands are epithelial derivatives. Exocrine glands are a diverse lot and many of their products are familiar. the pancreas (which synthesizes digestive enzymes). oil. For example. and steroids. is an aqueous (water-based) fluid that usually contains proteins. Glands are classified according to two sets of traits: ■ Where they release their product—glands may be endocrine (“internally secreting”) or exocrine (“externally secreting”) ■ Relative cell number—glands may be unicellular (“one celled”) or multicellular (“many-celled”) Unicellular glands are scattered within epithelial sheets. Glandular cells obtain needed substances from the blood and transform them chemically into a product that is then discharged from the cell. some glands release a lipid.CHAPTER 4 NOTES Mesothelium (“middle covering”) is the epithelium found in serous membranes. giving rise to their collective description as the diffuse endocrine system. most multicellular epithelial glands form by invagination (inward growth) of an epithelial sheet into the underlying connective tissue. but some individual hormone-producing cells are scattered in the digestive tract lining (mucosa) and in the brain. sweat. most have ducts. Each hormone prompts its target organ(s) to respond in some characteristic way. but there is variation. By contrast. They produce hormones. Glandular EpitheliaA gland consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product. messenger chemicals that they secrete by exocytosis directly into the extracellular space. This product. glycoproteins. called a secretion. Unicellular Exocrine Glands The only important examples of . Notice that the term secretion can refer to both the gland’s product and the process of making and releasing that product. so one description does not fit all. From there the hormones enter the blood or lymphatic fluid and travel to specific target organs. they are often called ductless glands. and salivary glands. whereas the multicellular glands do so via an epithelium-walled duct that transports the secretion to the epithelial surface. the liver (which secretes bile). For example. Endocrine secretions are also varied. tube like connections to the epithelial sheets. At least initially. we defer consideration of their structure and function to Exocrine Glands All exocrine glands secrete their products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities. and many others. The unicellular glands do so directly (by exocytosis). They include mucous. Most are compact multicellular organs. ranging from modified amino acids to peptides.or steroid rich secretion.

releasing the secretory granules and a small amount of cytoplasm. apocrine glands accumulate their products.CHAPTER 4 NOTES unicellular (or one-celled) glands are mucous cells and goblet cells. or (3) tubuloalveolar if they have both types of secretory units. “berrylike”) is used interchangeably with alveolar. Once dissolved. The pancreas. supportive connective tissue surrounds the secretory unit and supplies it with blood vessels and nerve fibers.3c). whereas compound glands have a branched duct.6a). so they can also be described functionally as merocrine. all). Unicellular glands are sprinkled in the epithelial linings of the intestinal and respiratory tracts amid columnar cells with other functions (see Figure 4. (They are replaced by the division of underlying cells. Although apocrine glands (ap9o-krin) are present in other animals. a complex glycoprotein that dissolves in water when secreted. (2) alveolar (alve9o. or apocrine glands. flasklike sacs (alveolus 5 “small hollow cavity”).4). making the cells look like a glass with a stem (thus “goblet” cell. Structural classification. there is some controversy over whether humans have this third gland type. but most histologists classify mammary glands as merocrine glands because this is the means by which milk proteins are secreted . The best possibility in humans is the release of lipid droplets by lactating mammary glands. Multicellular exocrine glands secrete their products in different ways. Figure 4. all such glands produce mucin (mu9sin). Note that the term acinar (as9ĭ-nar. and salivary glands belong to this class (Figure 4. the apex of the cell pinches off (apo 5 from. Simple glands have an unbranched duct. off).6b). In all but the simplest glands. multicellular exocrine glands are structurally more complex.” Sebaceous (oil) glands of the skin are the only true example of holocrine glands (Figure 4. ■ Modes of secretion. Secretory cells of holocrine glands (hol9o-krin) accumulate their products within them until they rupture. you could say that their cells “die for their cause. holocrine. The cell repairs its damage and the process repeats again and again.) Because holocrine gland secretions include the synthesized product plus dead cell fragments (holo 5 whole. Multicellular exocrine glands can be classified by structure and by type of secretion. which secrete their products by exocytosis as they are produced.5). The secretory cells are not altered in any way (so think “merely secrete” to remember their mode of secretion). They have two basic parts: an epithelium-derived duct and a secretory unit (acinus) consisting of secretory cells.lar) if the secretory cells form small. multicellular exocrine glands are either simple or compound (Figure 4. Like holocrine glands. but in this case only just beneath the free surface. Most are merocrine glands (mer9o-krin). a slimy coating that protects and lubricates surfaces. This distortion does not occur in mucous cells. mucin forms mucus. On the basis of their duct structures. Eventually. most sweat glands. The glands are further categorized by their secretory units as (1) tubular if the secretory cells form tubes. In goblet cells the cuplike accumulation of mucin distends the top of the cell. In humans. Multicellular Exocrine Glands Compared to the unicellular glands. and forms a fibrous capsule that extends into the gland and divides it into lobes.

129–136) Embryonic connective tissue is called mesenchyme. (3) bone. ligaments.The main classes are (1) connective tissue proper (which includes fat and the fibrous tissue of ligaments). propels substances through the organs. Fat insulates and protects body organs and provides a fuel reserve. Neurons are branching cells that receive and transmit electrical impulses. Brown fat is more important for generating body heat. (2) protecting. Connective tissue proper consists of loose and dense varieties. They are involved in body regulation. few cells. (2) cartilage. Based on structure and function. Supporting cells support and protect neurons Connective Tissue. bone and cartilage support and protect body organs by providing the hard Under pinnings of the skeleton. the muscle tissues are Skeletal muscle: attached to and moves the bony skeleton. high tensile strength. Reticular: finely woven reticular fibers in soft ground substance. It iscomposed of neurons and supporting cells. all three fiber types loosely interwoven. Smooth muscle: in the walls of hollow organs. (3) insulating. forms the lamina propria and soft packing around body organs. little ground substance. cells are branched and striated. and (4) blood Connective tissue does much more than just connect body parts. cells are cylindrical and striated. pumps blood. Blood transports substances inside the body Types of Connective Tissue (pp. (4) storing reserve fuel. Nervous Tissue (p. Cardiac muscle: forms the walls of the heart. forms tendons. insulates and protects body organs. the prototype. and (5) transporting substances within the body. For example. . Dense connective tissue proper includes Dense regular: dense parallel bundles of collagen fibers. in cases where this tissue also contains numerous elastic fibers it is called elastic connective tissue. aponeuroses. Adipose: consists largely of adipocytes. the stroma of lymphoid organs and bone marrow.CHAPTER 4 NOTES Muscle Tissue (pp. The loose connective tissues are Areolar: gel-like ground substance. 140) Nervous tissue forms organs of the nervous system. a variety of cells. cells are spindle shaped and lack striations. provides reserve energy fuel. scant matrix. Its major functions include (1) binding and supporting. 136–139) Muscle tissue consists of elongated cells specialized to contract and cause movement.

____ (1) Lines most of the digestive tract ____ (2) Lines the esophagus ____ (3) Lines much of the respiratory tract ____ (4) Forms the walls of the air sacs of the lungs ____ (5) Found in urinary tract organs ____ (6) Endothelium and mesothelium Column B (a) pseudostratified ciliated columnar (b) simple columnar (c) simple cuboidal (d) simple squamous (e) stratified columnar (f) stratified squamous (g) transitional Key: (a) connective tissue (c) muscle (b) epithelium (d) nervous tissue ___a _ (1) Tissue type composed largely of nonliving extracellular matrix. . (d) serous membrane. (c) stratified. (b) cutaneous membrane. (b) columnar. (c) mucous membrane. with an apical layer of flattened cells. The decrease in mass and viability seen in most tissues during old age often reflects circulatory deficits or poor nutrition. muscle and connective tissue from mesoderm. saliva. (d) simple. important in protection and Support. ___c _ (2) The tissue immediately responsible for body movement ___d _ (3) The tissue that enables us to be aware of the external environment and to react to it ____b (4) The tissue that lines body cavities and covers surfaces An epithelium that has several layers. bile. 144–146) Epithelium arises from all three primary germ layers (ectoderm. (b) an exocrine gland.CHAPTER 4 NOTES Dense irregular: like regular variety. is called (choose all that apply): (a) ciliated. (e) squamous The gland type that secretes products such as milk. resists tension exerted from many Developmental Aspects of Tissues (pp. but fibers are arranged in different planes. The membrane which lines body cavities that open to the exterior is a(n) (a) endothelium. nervous tissue from ectoderm. or sweat through a duct is (a) an endocrine gland. mesoderm. endoderm).

Epithelial tissue lines body cavities and covers the body’s external surface. Simple epithelia are “built” to provide for efficient absorption and filtration across their thin epithelial barriers. Reticular. 6. . However. In addition. 9. Holocrine glands have the highest rate of cell division. 2.CHAPTER 4 NOTES Scar tissue is a variety of (a) epithelium. collagen. (3)d. c. 5. (d) nervous tissue. 4. b. 4. Review Questions 1. e. (4)d. These exocrine glands are classified by duct structure and secretory mode. 2. 11. All unicellular exocrine glands secrete the protein mucin (which becomes mucus on mixing with water). (1)a. is capable of serving as a fluid reservoir. all cells rest on the basement membrane. (5)g. 6. The ability of this epithelium to thin allows the urinary organs to handle (store or transport) a larger urine volume when necessary. Pseudostratified epithelia appear to be stratified because their cells’ nuclei lie at different distances from the basement membrane. 3. protect. (c) muscle tissue. 12. 3. 10. Transitional epithelium is found in the urinary bladder and other hollow urinary organs. b Check Your Understanding 1. c. and insulate body organs. blood acts to transport substances throughout the body. thus polarity with one free (apical) surfaceis a requirement. (2)c. (b) connective tissue. Areolar connective tissue. (1)b. Heavy metal salts are used to stain tissues viewed by electron microscopes. (2)f. 13. The secretory cells fragment and are lost in the secretion. support. and elastic fibers are found in the various connective tissues. 7. Fixing tissue preserves it and prevents it from deteriorating. 5. (6)d. because of its loose web like nature. thus the secretory cells must be continuously replaced. 8. Dense regular connective tissue is damaged when you lacerate a tendon. Epithelial tissue can regenerate and its cells are joined by lateral contacts. (e) all of these. Connective tissue functions to bind. (3)a. (4)b. 14.

the papillary and reticular. 18. 2. and lymphatic vessels. B Chapter 5 Dermis The dermis has a rich supply of nerve fibers. requiring greater replacement with scar tissue. as well as oil and sweat glands. 23. 21. More severe injuries damage and destroy more tissue. Review Questions 1. 3. Hyaline cartilage forms the growth plates. (6)d. b. 22. (3)d. blood vessels. 16. The dermis has two layers. Epithelium and blood-forming tissue remain highly mitotic all through life. and endoderm. derive from epidermal tissue but reside in the dermis. 25. c. The serous membranes called pleurae line the thorax walls and cover the lungs. Ectoderm gives rise to the nervous system. e. The major portions of hair follicles. 6. With extended processes. A mucous membrane consists of both connective tissue and epithelium. organization. (1)a. The three main steps of tissue repair are inflammation. (3)a. mesoderm. 19. 4. (2)f. 17. and regeneration and fibrosis (which is a permanent repair). 24. 20. (1)b. It lines body cavities open to the exterior. Cardiac muscle cells have striations and are branching cells. (4)d. which abut one another along an indistinct boundary Reticular 80% dense fibrous connective tissue bundles of collagen Cleavage tension lines Neck/trunk circular Head and limbs –longitundal Skin color Melatonin –produced by cells called melanocytes yellow.to dark brown darker =more melanin produced Carotene. Skeletal muscle tissue is voluntary and is the muscle tissue injured when you “pull a muscle” while exercising. 5. a neuron can conduct electrical signals a great distance within the body. (4)b. c. The three embryonic germ layers are the ectoderm. (2)c.yellow to orange color Hemoglobin- .CHAPTER 4 NOTES 15. (5)g.

The looseness of this connective tissue allows phagocytes and other defensive cells to wander freely as they patrol the area for bacteria that have breached the skin .only found in axillary region and genital region.strand of hair is dead keratinized cells Hair root bulb Arrectorpilli –tighten up and give you goose bumps Alopecia –baldness Alopecia areata.water salt dermacidin vitamin c urea uric acid ammonia Apocrine.e) is areolar connective tissue in which fine interlacing collagen and elastic fibers form a loosely woven mat that is heavily invested with small blood vessels.clubbed nails pulmonary problems COPD.hair fall off in clumps Nail.pulmonary fibrouis White horizontal line -malnutrition Papillary ridged friction ridges The thin superficial papillary layer (pap9iler.basic components apocrine is odorless the bacteria on body produces the odor regulated by temperature Modified sweat gland Ceruminous gland produced cerumen (ear wax) function traps dirt .Is also a insect repellant Mammary glands.sebaceous glands sebum (mixture of oil and broken cells) most are associated with hair follicles helps prevent water loss and acts a a bactericidal When sebaceous gland is blocked it produces a white head when it is blocked it is black head HolocrineHair( pili).CHAPTER 4 NOTES Skin appendages eccrine/merocrine( body temp control).karotene help pick things up reinforces and protects Nail matrix nail grows from nail matrix Nail folds Free edge Hyponychium –opposite end of nail Yellow nails thyrhoid problem concave iron diffeciencey .

Rules of nines.CHAPTER 4 NOTES Overall functions of integumentary protection acid mantle.5 l a day (sweat) insensible perspiration Cutaneous sensation –nerve endings pick up stimuli Metabolic functions-skin and sunlight vitamin D Skin cancerous Sunlight damages cells of DNA 3 types skin cancers Basal cell –carcinoma stratum basal least dangerous least malignant Squamous cell Melanoma.epidermis and upper dermis redness swelling pain blisters 1-4 weeks healing (1 2 are considered partial thickness burns) nd st nd st .speeds rapidly resistant to chemotherapy ABCDE FOR RECOGNIZEING MELANOMA ASSYMETRY BORDER IRREGULAR COLOR CHANGES DIAMETER ELEVATION BURNS.epidermis tends to be slightly acidic Physical barrier Vitamin ADEK. steroids testorone estrogen Oleoresins-poison ivy Acetone.11 areas each 9% of body surface 1% genitals 1 degree.HEAT CHEMICAL ELECTRICITY RADIATION First priority with severe burns is to deal with water loss.only epidermis redness swelling pain heals 2-3 days no scaring 2 degree. pain thinner absorb through skin Body temperature regulation-cold constrict decrease blood flow into dermis warm dilate increase blood flow in to dermis At rest you loose .

1 6.skin graphs treatment Eschar –is removed debridement Autograft –same pt skin Critical care rd Chapter 6 table 6.CHAPTER 4 NOTES 3 degree burn – full thickness burns gray white cherry red black no swelling no pain nerve endings are gone .2 .

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