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The definition of Rum as outlined in the Caribbean Community Standard for Rum, (Revised March 2003) is as follows: Rum is a spirit drink –

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obtained exclusively by alcoholic fermentation and distillation of sugar cane molasses, sugar cane syrups, sugar cane juices or cane sugar produced during the processing of sugar cane distilled at an alcohol content of less than 96.0 percent alcohol by volume at 20 degrees Celsius produced in such a way that the product has the organoleptic characteristics derived from the natural volatile elements contained in the above raw materials or formed during the fermentation or distillation process of the named raw materials.

Steps in Rum Making There are four major processes involved in making rum; fermentation, distillation, aging and blending. The basic principles of rum making are quite simple. The raw materials required are; a source of cane sugar, water and yeast. The juice of the mature sugar cane plant or molasses are most commonly used the raw material for the fermentation process. Fermentation produces the alcohol and is a spontaneous reaction between the yeast and sugar .The yeast, is key to the fermentation process as it can influence the ultimate taste and flavour of the rum. Distilling separates the alcohol from the fermented mixture and concentrates it to make the actual rum. Distilling equipment and practice varies from place to place thus producing rums of different characters. This rum is aged in oak barrels and ultimately blended to produce the spirit we know as rum Angostura Limited Angostura Limited has been in the business of rum making through its production company, Trinidad Distillers Limited, since 1947. We ferment, distill, age, blend and bottle alcoholic beverages, mainly rum, in Laventille, Trinidad, West Indies. We started with a French designed still made by Savalle capable of producing 5400 litres of alcohol/day to today’s production capacity of over 65,000 litres of alcohol/day. We have 6 ageing warehouses with a total capacity of 80,000 casks. Our bulk storage facilities feature a Tank Farm on the Distillery compound with a capacity of 5.0 million litres and a dock side facility in Chaguaramas with 3.8million litres of tankage. We bottle over 600, 000 cases of rum/year. Exports are mainly to the US, UK, Europe and the rest of the Caribbean. Molasses Molasses is the most widely used raw material for rum production. Its composition varies and depends on the quality of the cane, composition of soil, climatic conditions, methods of harvesting cane, manufacturing process for sugar and handling and storage of molasses. The composition of molasses is referred to as the “quality of the molasses” and is what contributes to quality and intensity of the rum flavour. (Shete, 2000) Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) used in fermentation: Louis Pasteur in the mid 1800s discovered that there was actually a single cell microscopic organism responsible for the conversion of fermentable barley malt into alcohol, carbon dioxide and flavour compounds. This microorganism was named yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a single cellular fungus). In the biochemistry of fermentation, Gay Lussac suggested the following biochemical pathway: Sugar + Yeast = Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide Saccharomyces yeast normally converts 88-90% of fermentable sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The balance of the sugar is mainly utilized in the fermentation process for cell growth (about 3-5%), glycerol formation (3-5%), and by products that are responsible for flavour and aroma.

Fermentation: Fermentation is a living process. The molasses is diluted with water to reduce the sugar content to approximately 15% and a pure yeast culture is added to the mixture. The yeast cells convert the available sucrose to ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) with the release of heat energy. This mixture is called the “live wash”. Fermentation takes approximately 30 hours to be completed during which time the yeast in the mixture uses up the available sugar in the molasses. The liquid left at the end of the fermentation process which is called “dead wash” is used for distillation. During fermentation, a number of constituents called congeners are also manufactured. These congeners, which are regarded as the rum flavours, are the major constituents of the heavy type rums. They are necessary when blending because they give flavour and character to the rum. Congeners formed during fermentation:

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Aldehydes – by oxidation of alcohol Acids – by oxidation of aldehydes Fusel Oil – by conversion of free amino acids in water to higher alcohols Easters – by esterification of alcohols and acids Volatile sulphur compounds – by combination of sulphate and sulphur with amino acids.

Distillation: After fermentation, the fermented wash is fed to the still. Distillation is the process of boiling the “dead wash” and condensing its vapour to produce the alcohol that is collected. The distillation process is done mainly to separate and concentrate the alcohol component of the liquid mixture. During this process, the undesirable congeners are removed and the desirable ones that add significantly to the taste and aroma of the raw rum are retained in the heavy type rum that is distilled from the first distillation column. The plant uses 5 columns: Hydroselection column Rectifying column; (70 trays) Recovery column (45 trays) Final polishing column. The distilled product of the mash column or “wash stripper” is referred to as “heavy rum”. For production of light and neutral spirits, the remaining columns are used. Ageing: After distillation, the rum is drawn off into large stainless steel vessels for storage before being barrelled off into forty gallon oak barrels and moved to the warehouse for ageing. Although the ageing process is not fully understood, it is considered to be the most significant aspect of the rum manufacturing process because the rum improves with age. Immediately after distillation, the rum, which is a raw clear liquid with a hot harsh taste and an acrid odour still contains small amounts of hydrogen sulphide gas formed during the fermentation process. During ageing many changes occur as a result of the oxidation and selective diffusion though the pores of the oak barrel and the chemical interaction between the congeners. Rum ageing was practiced since the sixteen hundreds when seafarers found that as rum was carried on long journeys in wooden barrels it improved even more and it also became darker in colour. Today all the ageing of rum is done in oak wood barrels that were previously used for the ageing of cognac, wine and predominantly, bourbon. After the barrels are used once for the ageing of other liquours, they are employed in the rum industry as “Once used” barrels. Regulations that require producers of bourbon to use barrels only once assure a steady supply of barrels for the rum industry. Oak wood barrels are used because they do not contribute offensive odours or tastes to the rum during the ageing process . Oak wood is used for storage because it is tight grained wood capable of making leak proof barrels that are ideal for strong liquids. The size of the radial rays of oak wood is what gives the strength to its barrels and also allows it to meet the characteristics required for storage containers such as porosity, strength resilience workability and lightweight. There are three types of reactions occurring simultaneously in the barrel during the ageing process. They are

An extraction of complex wood constituents from the wood by the liquid.

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Oxidation of components originally present in the liquid as well as of the material extracted from the wood.’ Reactions between the various organic substances present in the liquid that lead to the formation of new congeners.

Blending is the secret of fine rum. It allows the master bender to use many different types and styles of rums to create a particular blend or brand. The barrels of rum used for a particular blend are selected with age as the major selection criteria. The skill of blending involves the mixing together of light and heavy type rums of different ages that have been carefully analysed and selected by the blender for the characteristics specified. Through a “marrying process” the different rums are allowed to fuse together to give the blend a smoothing effect. After the rum is blended it is stored in bottling vats and reduced to bottling strength by the addition of deionised water. It is then passed through filters and polishers before being bottled and packaged for sale.

SUMMARY OF RUM MANUFACTURER AT TRINIDAD DISTILLERS LIMITED The distillery is designed to produce 60,000 litres of a 96% w/w alcohol product from the anaerobic fermentation of the sugar in molasses by yeast. The following is a simple process flow diagram that gives an overview of the operations at the distillery.

1. MOLASSES To make rum one has to start with sugar from sugarcane. Molasses is a by-product from the sugarcane industry. It is the slurry that remains after most of the recoverable sugars have been extracted from the crushed cane. Generally, it is composed of 70-80% w/w solids and 2030% w/w water. Of particular interest to the distillery is its fermentable sugar content which typically amounts to 35-55% w/w (sucrose, glucose, fructose); this is what the yeast “feed” on during fermentation.

2. YEAST This is a uni-cellular organism of the Saccharomyces Cerevisae family. Aerobic conditions promote propagation and growth of the yeast, while anaerobic conditions result in alcohol fermentation – the basis of the rum industry. Yeast, being living organisms, requires a controlled environment with the right amounts of vitamins, minerals and nitrogen. All of these are present in sufficient quantities in the molasses, except for the nitrogen, which must be supplied as Ammonium Sulphate (NH4)2SO4. 3. MOLASSES The molasses is dissolved in water in the ratio of approximately 1:3. We add a small amount sulphuric acid to reduce the pH to control bacterial infections. It also has the effect of assisting by reducing the amount of non-sugar dissolved solids that can be harmful to both fermentation and distillation. The resulting mixture called „mash‟, is about 12 – 13% sugar. 4. YEAST GERMINATION, PROPAGATION & GROWTH 4.3 Germination (Growth of new yeast cells): Clarified mash of specific gravity 1.050 – 1.060 is sent to a germinator, along ammonium sulphate. This mixture is sterilised using low-pressure steam before the yeast culture is added. This culture is either obtained as 2-6L lab grown cultures or retained contents of the propagator. Germination proceeds for approximately 12 hours before the contents of the vessel are transferred to the propagator. During this time filtered air is injected into the vessel to maintain circulation and aerated conditions. 4.3 Propagation (Increase in the number of yeast cells): Contents of the germinator are added to the sterilised contents of the propagator (Yeast feed, mash and ammonium sulphate). Propagation continues for 18 hours, before being transferred to the growing tanks. Aerobic conditions are maintained in the vessel by the addition of filtered air to the propagator. This, as well as the water circulation through the external water jacket, maintains the temperature at 30-32ºC. 4.3 Yeast Growth (Increase in the size of the yeast cells): Mash + (NH4)2SO4 + Propagated culture → Growing Tanks The culture is allowed to grow for 24 hours. Injected air and circulation through the wash cooler maintain the growing temperature at 30 + 2°C. Antifoam (food grade) is also added during the growing process, before the contents are transferred to the designated fermenters. 5. YEAST FERMENTATION Propagated Yeast Culture + Mash (s.g. ~1.096) + Nutrients → „Wash‟ (8-10% alcohol) Alcohol is formed according to the following equation: C6H12O6 + Yeast → 2 C2H5OH + Heat 100 lb → 51.11 lb + 48.89 lb + 17,000 BTU Fermentation is completed within 36-48 hours and the temperature is maintained by recirculation through a cooler. A pH of 4.2 - 4.5 and a temperature of 32-35°C are considered to be optimum for alcohol production. The above equation also shows that carbon dioxide is produced. 6. DISTILLATION The purpose of distillation is to obtain the alcohol from the fermented wash (8-10% w/w alcohol composition) and ultimately refine it to produce the spirits that will be used to make the rum. The fermented wash contains not only alcohol but also many by-products that as a group are called congeners. These congeners are vital to the taste and aroma of rum.

The first column is the Wash Stripper or Beer Column; it removes water and residual solids from the „wash‟ stream. The product from this column is heavy rum steam (80-85% ethanol by vol). This is our first product. It contains all the congeners from the fermentation. It is very flavourful and aromatic and it is inevitably aged. To make light, the heavy rum is then sent to the Purifier (Hydroselector) Column. Here the water added changes the vapour/liquid equilibrium so that the light components separate easily from the alcohol. The head goes to the alcohol recovery column, while the bottoms feeds the Rectifier Column; this stream is typically 12% alcohol. The rectifier concentrates the alcohol to be separated; a stream close to the top of the column is sent for final rectification, the bottoms is recycled to the purifier and the other cuts are sent to the Alcohol Recovery Column. This Recovery Column recovers the alcohol from all the by-product streams from the other columns. The Final Column produces a bottoms product of 96.6% alcohol (light rum) that may be used to make rum. The light and heavy rums are aged in oak barrels for periods of not less than two years and up to fifteen for the heavy rums. The spirits are eventually blended and sometimes colouring is added. For white rums, the residual colour from the barrel is actually removed. Whisky The difference between rum and whisky manufacture begins with the starting point. Whisky starts with barley that must be malted before it is converted from a starch to a sugar that can be fermented. After fermentation, it is also distilled usually using a pot still or single column. Cognac The sugar that is fermented to make cognac, come from grapes. As is the French style, only grapes grown in a particular area in France can be used. First the grapes are fermented into wine and this is distilled in special stills to yield cognac. Brandy is made the same way but because the grapes aren‟t grown in the Cognac region, it can not be called cognac. All spirits are aged in a special barrel prior to blending and bottling.

Where Rum Originated
Sugarcane was brought to the Caribbean by Columbus in the late 15th century, and the process of making rum, insofar as most people would recognize it today, probably first occurred on a Caribbean sugar plantation in the 17th century. Many rum historians agree that the first rum was made on the island of Barbados using molasses

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Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. Rum is a unique spirit in that it is produced in very distinct styles that are enjoyed in many different ways, despite still having the same name. Rum can be largely differentiated by the colour description “light” and “dark” Rum is a spirit drink.


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Light or white rums are traditionally produced in southern Caribbean Islands such as Puerto Rico and Trinidad. Dark or golden rums are produced in tropical islands like Jamaica, Haiti and Martinique, and have a more aromatic and richer flavour than light rum. Molasses is the most widely used raw material for rum production. The majority of rum production occurs in and around the Caribbean and along the Demerara River, Guyana in South America. The ratio of rum produced per hundredweight of sugar, the quality, and the proof of the spirit varied greatly from estate to estate, crop to crop, island to island, and century to century.

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Agricultural Rum is a liquor obtained by fermenting and distilling pure sugarcane juice. The distillation is a process aiming at separating the various components of the resulting wine obtained. The process of aging is very complex, involving evaporation of some of the pungent volatile components from rum. There are four major processes involved in rum making, fermentation, distillation ageing and blending.

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Within the rum category, light rum accounted for 83.9% of the total sales followed by dark rum with 16.1% market share. The rum market is dominated by companies like Bacardi Limited and Diageo plc (Capitain Morgan). The gin category will be followed by tequila and mezcal, rum and whisky with annual consumption growth of 2 – 2.5% through 2011. The Rum market is similar to the whisky world in many ways: both are dominated by multinationals, big marketing, and blended spirit destined for mixers & cocktails.

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INFORMATION Cuba has been at the heart of rum making history for centuries,
thanks to a combination of its world-famous sugarcane -first introduced by Christopher Columbus in 1493, its favourableCaribbean climate and fertile soil, and the unique know how of Cuban Maestro Roneros(Master Blenders).By the 1800s, Cuba was known as the world‟s sugar reserve. The early efforts of locals, sailors and swashbucklers at using this exceptional sugarcane to make fermented nectar and „tafia‟-an early type of rum -had been refined with the introduction of copper stills and thefirst concept of ageing. This came from Pedro Diago, known now as the father of Cuban rum. He had the idea of ageing the aguardientes, or eaux-de-vie, in pots buried in the earth.The second half of the 19thCentury saw the production of a lighter and more refined rum, known as “Ron Superior”, which was developed on the instruction of the Spanish Crown which wanted a more delicate rum that could “satisfy the Court and the elite of the Empire”. El Ron Superior is the father of today‟s Cuban rum: light, smooth, delicate, crisp and exceptional straight or in cocktails. Its popularity was such that by 1860, there were more than 1,000 distilleries in Cuba.HAVANA CLUB EMBODIES THE HERITAGE OF THE CUBAN RUM MAKING TRADITION1/

Rum is an alcoholic beverage distilled from sugarcane by-products that are produced in the process of manufacturing sugar. Molasses, the thick syrup remaining after sugarcane juice has been crystallized by boiling, is usually used as the basis for rum, although the juice itself, or other sugarcane residues, is also used. The molasses is allowed to ferment, and the ferment is then distilled to produce a clear liquid that is aged in oaken casks. The golden color of some rums results from the absorption of substances from the oak. The darker, heavier Jamaican rums - made for the most part in Jamaica, Barbados, and Guyana - are produced from a combination of molasses and skimmings from the sugar boiling vats; the darkest, Guyana's Demarara, is produced by very rapid fermentation and is not particularly heavy bodied. The fermentation of other substances in the molasses enhances the liquid's flavor and aroma. "After distilling, the rum is sometimes darkened by the addition of caramel and is aged from 5 to 7 years. Lighter, drier rums from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are more rapidly fermented with cultured yeasts and are aged from 1 to 4 years.




"The rum industry developed in conjunction with the growth of sugar plantations in the West Indies. The English were the first to adopt the drink (its name may be derived from a Devonshire word, Rumbullion, meaning "a great tumult"). Beginning in the 17th century, distilleries operating in New York and New England produced rum from West Indian molasses. Traders used rum profits to buy slaves in Africa; the slaves were sold in the West Indies for cargoes of molasses that became New England rum. The attempt by the British to levy heavy duties on molasses imported from the French and Spanish West Indies was an important factor in pre-Revolutionary colonial unrest in America."

Captain Morgan rum

Rivers Rum on Grenada prides itself on its reputation as the only water-driven distillery in the Caribbean. This distillery follows traditional methods for rum manufacture. Step back in time on this plantation distillery as you watch the water run through the aqueduct to drive the grinding wheel that grinds the sugar cane. Bagasse, the residue from crushed sugar cane, fuels the burner that operates the still. Enjoy this view of 150 years ago, when there was no electricity and manufacture was truly a hand process. Ministry of Rum is an entire site devoted to information about rum. Try white rum, ambered rum, or old rum. Edward Hamilton is the knowledgeable authority on rum, and has authored several books, including The Complete Guide to Rum and Rums of the Eastern Caribbean. He lives on his sailboat and spends his life in the pursuit of rum! There was even a special tour for rum lovers called The Origins of Rum Tour, which sailed in 2001. Many, many more distilleries are located on the Caribbbean islands. Bacardi rum in San Juan, Puerto Rico and their corporate museum and the "Story of Bacardi" and also the gallery of Bacardi advertising

Rum is distilled from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak and other casks. While there are rum producers in places such as Australia, India, Reunion Island, and elsewhere around the world, the majority of rum production occurs in and around the Caribbean and along the Demerara river in South America. Some major rum brands include Bacardi, Bambu Rum, Barbancourt, Brugal, Captain Morgan, Appleton Estate, Havana Club, Stroh, Matusalem, Mount Gay, Bundaberg, Myers, Malibu Rum, Gosling's, Cruzan, Pusser's, Flor de Caña, Don Q, Coruba, and Ron Zacapa Centenario. "Overproof" rums, such as Wray and Nephew, contain a higher alcohol content. Rum is produced in a variety of styles. Light rums are commonly used in mixed drinks, while golden and dark rums are appropriate for use in cooking as well as cocktails. Premium brands of rum are also available that are made to be consumed neat or on the rocks. Rum plays a part in the culture of most islands of the West Indies, and has famous associations with the British Royal Navy and piracy. Rum has also served as a popular medium of exchange that helped to promote slavery along with providing economic instigation for Australia's Rum Rebellion and the American Revolution.

Origins of the name The origin of the word rum is unclear. A common claim is that the name was derived from rumbullion meaning "a great tumult or uproar". Another claim is that the name is from the large drinking glasses used by Dutch seamen known as rummers, from the Dutch word roemer, a drinking glass. Other options include contractions of the words saccharum, Latin for sugar, or arôme, French for aroma. Regardless of the original source, the name had come into common use by May 1657 when the General Court of Massachusetts made illegal the sale of strong liquor "whether known by the name of rumme, strong water, wine, brandy, etc., etc." In current usage, the name used for a rum is often based on the rum's place of origin. For rums from Spanish-speaking locales the word ron is used. A ron añejo indicates a rum that has been significantly aged and is often used for premium products. Rhum is the term used for rums from French-speaking locales, while rhum vieux is an aged French rum that meets several other requirements. Some of the many other names for rum are Nelson's Blood, Kill-Devil, Demon Water, Pirate's Drink, Navy Neaters, and Barbados water. A version of rum from Newfoundland is referred to by the name Screech, while some low-grade West Indies rums are called tafia.

Government House rum

History Origins The precursors to rum date back to antiquity. Development of fermented drinks produced from sugarcane juice is believed to have first occurred either in ancient India or China. and spread from there. An example of such an early drink is brum. Produced by the Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years. Marco Polo also recorded a 14th-century account of a "very good wine of sugar" that was offered to him in what is modern-day Iran. The first distillation of rum took place on the sugarcane plantations of the Caribbean in the 17th century. Plantation slaves first discovered that molasses, a by-product of the sugar refining process, fermented into alcohol. Later, distillation of these alcoholic by-products concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first true rums. Tradition suggests that rum first originated on the island of Barbados. Regardless of its initial source, early Caribbean rums were not known for high quality. A 1651 document from Barbados stated "The chief fuddling they make in the island is Rumbullion, alias KillDivil, and this is made of sugar canes distilled, a hot, hellish, and terrible liquor".

Colonial America After rum's development in the Caribbean, the drink's popularity spread to Colonial America. To support the demand for the drink, the first rum distillery in the colonies was set up in 1664 on current day Staten Island. Boston, Massachusetts had a distillery three years later. The manufacture of rum became early Colonial New England's largest and most prosperous industry. The rum produced there was quite

popular, and was even considered the best in the world during much of the 18th century. Rhode Island rum even joined gold as an accepted currency in Europe for a period of time. Estimates of rum consumption in the American colonies before the American Revolutionary War had every man, woman, or child drinking an average of 3 Imperial gallons (13.5 liters) of rum each year. To support this demand for the molasses to produce rum, along with the increasing demand for sugar in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, a labor source to work the sugar plantations in the Caribbean was needed. A triangular trade was established between Africa, the Caribbean, and the colonies to help support this need. The circular exchange of slaves, molasses, and rum was quite profitable, and the disruption to the trade caused by the Sugar Act in 1764 may have even helped cause the American Revolution. The popularity of rum continued after the American Revolution with George Washington insisting on a barrel of Barbados rum at his 1789 inauguration. Eventually the restrictions on rum from the British islands of the Caribbean combined with the development of American whiskey led to a decline in the drink's popularity.

Naval rum Rum's association with piracy began with English privateers trading on the valuable commodity. As some of the privateers became pirates and buccaneers, their fondness for rum remained, the association between the two only being strengthened by literary works such as Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island.

The association of rum with the British Royal Navy began in 1655 when the British fleet captured the island of Jamaica. With the availability of domestically produced rum, the British changed the daily ration of liquor given to seamen from French brandy to rum. While the ration was originally given neat, or mixed with lemon juice, the practice of watering down the rum began around 1740. To help minimize the effect of the alcohol on his sailors, Admiral Edward Vernon directed that the rum ration be watered down before being issued. In honor of the grogram cloak the Admiral wore in rough weather, the mixture of water and rum became known as grog. The Royal Navy continued to give its sailors a daily rum ration, known as a "tot," until the practice was abolished after July 31, 1970.

A story involving naval rum is that following his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, Horatio Nelson's body was preserved in a cask of rum to allow transport back to England. Upon arrival, however, the cask was opened and found to be empty of rum. The pickled body was removed and, upon inspection, it was discovered that the sailors had drilled a hole in the bottom of the cask and drank all the rum, in the process drinking Nelson's blood. Thus, this tale serves as a basis for the term Nelson's Blood being used to describe rum. The details of the story are disputed, with some historians claiming the term originated instead from a toast to Admiral Nelson.

Colonial Australia Rum became an important trade good in the early period of the colony of New South Wales. The value of rum was based upon the lack of coinage among the population of the colony, and due to the drink's ability to allow its consumer to temporarily forget about the lack of creature comforts available in the new colony. The value of rum was such that convict settlers could be induced to work the lands owned by officers of the New South Wales Corps. Due to rum's popularity among the settlers, the colony gained a reputation for drunkenness even though their alcohol consumption was less than levels commonly consumed in England at the time. When William Bligh became governor of the colony in 1806, he attempted to remedy the perceived problem with drunkenness by outlawing the use of rum as a medium of exchange. In response to this action, and several others, the New South Wales Corps marched, with fixed bayonets, to Government House and placed Bligh under arrest. The mutineers continued to control the colony until the arrival of Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810.

Caribbean light rum Until the second half of the 19th century all rums were heavy or dark rums that were considered appropriate for the working poor, unlike the refined double-distilled spirits of Europe. In order to expand the market for rum, the Spanish Royal Development Board offered a prize to anyone who could improve the rum making process. This resulted in many refinements in the process which greatly improved the quality of rum. One of the most important figures in this development process was Don Facundo Bacardi Masso, who moved from Spain to Santiago de Cuba in 1843. Don Facundo's experiments with distillation techniques, charcoal filtering, cultivating of specialized yeast strains, and aging with American oak casks helped to produce a smoother and mellower drink typical of modern light rums. It was with this new rum that Don Facundo founded Bacardí y Compañía in 1862.

Categorization Dividing rum into meaningful groupings is complicated by the fact that there is no single standard for what constitutes rum. Instead rum is defined by the varying rules and laws of the nations that produce the spirit. The differences in definitions include issues such as spirit proof, minimum aging, and even naming standards. Examples of the differences in proof is Colombia, requiring their rum possess a minimum alcohol content of 50 ABV, while Chile and Venezuela require only a minimum of 40 ABV. Mexico requires rum be aged a minimum of 8 months, the Dominican Republic and Panama requires one year, and Venezuela requires two years. Naming standards also vary, Nicaragua has white - ron blanco, lite, silver - ron

plata, gold and dark - black label, gran reserva and the world famous centenario, with Argentina defining rums as white, gold, light, and extra light. Barbados uses the terms white, overproof, and matured, while the United States defines rum, rum liqueur, and flavored rum. Despite these differences in standards and nomenclature, the following divisions are provided to help show the wide variety of rums that are produced.

Regional Variations Within the Caribbean, each island or production area has a unique style. For the most part, these styles can be grouped by the language that is traditionally spoken. Due to the overwhelming influence of Puerto Rican rum, most rum consumed in the United States is produced in the Spanish-speaking style. Spanish-speaking islands traditionally produce light rums with a fairly clean taste. Rums from Cuba, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic are typical of this style. Also under this category the rum produced in Nicaragua can be included, it is a slow-aging, color intensifying, aromatic and flavorsome rum. Nicaragua in fact, produces some of the best rum in the whole world, . It's world renowned Flor de Caña is gaining wide popularity among consumers in the United States.  English-speaking islands are known for darker rums with a fuller taste that retains a greater amount of the underlying molasses flavor. Rums from Jamaica, Bermuda, and the Demerara region are typical of this style.  French-speaking islands are best known for their agricultural rums (rhum agricole). These rums, being produced exclusively from sugarcane juice, retain a greater amount of the original flavor of the sugarcane. Rums from Guadeloupe, Haïti and Martinique are typical of this style. Cachaça is a spirit similar to rum that is produced in Brazil. The Indonesian spirit Batavia Arrack, or Arrak, is a spirit similar to rum that includes rice in its production. Mexico produces a number of brands of light and dark rum, as well as other less expensive flavored and unflavored sugar cane based liquors, such as aguardiente de caña and charanda. In some cases cane liquor is flavored with mezcal to produce a pseudo-tequila-like drink. A spirit known as Aguardiente, distilled from molasses infused with anise, with additional sugarcane juice added after distillation, is produced in Central America and northern South America. 

Grades The grades and variations used to describe rum depend on the location that a rum was produced. Despite these variations the following terms are frequently used to describe various types of rum:  Light Rums, also referred to as light, silver, and white rums. In general, light rum has very little flavor aside from a general

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sweetness, and serves accordingly as a base for cocktails. Light rums are sometimes filtered after aging to remove any color. Gold Rums, also called amber rums, are medium-bodied rums which are generally aged. The rum can obtain its flavor through addition of spices and caramel/color (a variation often sold as Spiced Rum), but historically gains its darker color from aging in wooden casks (typically oak). Dark Rum, also known as black rum, classes as a grade darker than gold rum. It is generally aged longer, in heavily charred barrels. Dark rum has a much stronger flavor than either light or gold rum, and hints of spices can be detected, along with a strong molasses or caramel overtone. It is used to provide substance in rum drinks, as well as color. In addition to uses in mixed drinks, dark rum is the type of rum most commonly used in cooking. It was this type of rum immortalized in the song 'The Old Black Rum' by the Newfoundland folk group Great Big Sea. Flavored Rum: Some manufacturers have begun to sell rums which they have infused with flavors of fruits such as mango, orange, citrus, coconut, and limke which is a lime rum found in Sweden. These serve to flavor similarly themed tropical drinks which generally comprise less than 40% alcohol. Overproof Rum is rum which is much higher than the standard 40% alcohol. Most of these rums bear greater than 75%, in fact, and preparations of 151 to 160 proof occur commonly. Premium Rum: As with other sipping spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, a market exists for premium and super-premium spirits. These are generally boutique brands which sell very aged and carefully produced rums. They have more character and flavor than their "mixing" counterparts, and are generally consumed without the addition of other ingredients.

Production methodology Unlike some other spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, rum has no defined production methods. Instead, rum production is based on traditional styles that vary between locations and distillers.

Sugarcane is harvested to make sugarcane juice and molasses

Fermentation Most rum produced is made from molasses. Within the Caribbean, much of this molasses is from Brazil. A notable exception is the French-speaking islands where sugarcane juice is the preferred base ingredient Yeast, and sometimes water, are added to the base ingredient to start the fermentation process. While some rum producers allow wild yeast to perform the fermentation, most use specific strains of yeast to help provide a consistent taste and predictable fermentation time. Dunder, the yeast-rich foam from previous fermentations, is the traditional yeast source in Jamaica. "The yeast employed will determine the final taste and aroma profile," says Jamaican master blender Joy Spence. Distillers that make lighter rums, such as Bacardi, prefer to use fasterworking yeasts. Use of slower-working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate during fermentation, allowing for a fuller-tasting rum.

Distillation As with all other aspects of rum production, there is no standard method used for distillation. While some producers work in batches using pot stills, most rum production is done using column still distillation. Pot still output contains more congeners than the output from column stills and thus produces a fuller-tasting rum.

Aging and blending Many countries require that rum be aged for at least one year. This aging is commonly performed in used bourbon casks, but may also be performed in stainless steel tanks or other types of wooden casks. Due to the tropical climate common to most rum-producing areas, rum matures at a much faster rate than is typical for Scotch or Cognac. An indication of this faster rate is the angel's share, or amount of product lost to evaporation. While products aged in France or Scotland see about 2% loss each year, rum producers may see as much as 10%. After aging, rum is normally blended to ensure a consistent flavor. As part of this blending process, light rums may be filtered to remove any color gained during aging. For darker rums, caramel may be added to the rum to adjust the color of the final product.

In cuisine Besides rum punch, cocktails such as the Cuba Libre and Daiquiri have well-known stories of their invention in the Caribbean. Tiki culture in the US helped expand rum's horizons with inventions such as the Mai Tai and Zombie. Other well-known cocktails containing rum include the Piña Colada, a drink made popular by Rupert Holmes' song "Escape (The Piña Colada Song)", and the Mojito. Cold-weather drinks made with rum include the Rum toddy and Hot Buttered Rum. In addition to these well-known cocktails, a number of local specialties utilize rum. Examples of these local drinks include Bermuda's Dark and Stormy (dark rum with ginger beer), and the Painkiller from the British Virgin Islands. Rum may also be used as a base in the manufacture of liqueurs. Spiced Rum is made by infusing rum with a combination of spices. Another combination is jagertee, a mixture of rum and black tea. Rum may also be used in a number of cooked dishes. It may be used as a flavoring agent in items such as rum balls or rum cakes. Rum is commonly used to macerate fruit used in fruitcakes and is also used in marinades for some Caribbean dishes. Rum is also used in the preparation of Bananas Foster and some hard sauces. Ti Punch is short for "petit punch", little punch. This is a very traditional drink in the French-speaking region of the Caribbean.

The Manufacturing Process

Mash preparation

1 The grain or vegetables are loaded into an automatic mash tub. Much like a washing machine, the tub is fitted with agitators that break down the grain as the tub rotates. A ground malt meal is added to promote the conversion of starches to sugar.

Sterilization and inoculation

2 Preventing the growth of bacteria is very important in the manufacture of distilled spirits. First, the mash is sterilized by heating it to the boiling point. Then, it is injected with lactic-acid bacteria to raise the acidity level needed for fermentation. When the desired acidity level is reached, the mash is inoculated once again.


3 The mash is poured into large stainless-steel vats. Yeast is added and the vats are closed. Over the next two to four days, enzymes in the yeast convert the sugars in the mash to ethyl alcohol.

Distillation and rectification

4 The liquid ethyl alcohol is pumped to stills, stainless steel columns made up of vaporization chambers stacked on top of each other. The alcohol is continuously cycled up and down, and heated with steam, until the vapors are released and condensed. This process also removes impurities. The vapors rise into the upper chambers (still heads) where they are concentrated. The extracted materials flow into the lower chambers and are discarded. Some of the grain residue may be sold as livestock feed.

Water added

5 The concentrated vapors, or fine spirits, contain 95-100% alcohol. This translates to 190 proof. In order to make it drinkable, water is added to the spirits to decrease the alcohol percentage to 40, and the proof to 80.


6 Alcoholic beverages are stored in glass bottles because glass is non-reactive. Other receptacles, such as plastic, would cause a chemical change in the beverage. The bottling procedure is highly mechanized as the bottles are cleaned, filled, capped, sealed, labeled, and loaded into cartons. This can be done at rates as high as 400 bottles per minute.

Quality Control
Although tasters draw off quantities of vodka for sampling throughout the distilling process, most of the controls on vodka quality come from local, state, and federal governments. At the federal level, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms issues strict guidelines for production, labeling, importation, advertising, and even plant security. For example, charcoal-filtered vodka imports are not permitted. Flavored vodkas must list the predominant flavor (pepper, lemon, peach, etc.) on the label. The relationships between suppliers and producers are strictly regulated as well.

Read more: How vodka is made - manufacture, making, history, used, procedure, industry, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of vodka, Quality Control

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur was one of the most extraordinary scientists in history, leaving a legacy of scientific contributions which include an understanding of how microorganisms

carry on the biochemical process of fermentation, the establishment of the causal relationship between microorganisms and disease, and the concept of destroying microorganisms to halt the transmission of communicable disease. These achievements led him to be called the founder of microbiology. After his early education Pasteur went to Paris, studied at the Sorbonne, then began teaching chemistry while still a student. After being appointed chemistry professor at a new university in Lille, France, Pasteur began work on yeast cells and showed how they produce alcohol and carbon dioxide from sugar during the process of fermentation. Fermentation is a form of cellular respiration carried on by yeast cells, a way of getting energy for cells when there is no oxygen present. He found that fermentation would take place only when living yeast cells were present. Establishing himself as a serious, hard-working chemist, Pasteur was called upon to tackle some of the problems plaguing the French beverage industry at the time. Of special concern was the spoiling of wine and beer, which caused great economic loss and tarnished France's reputation for fine vintage wines. Vintners wanted to know the cause of I'amer, a condition that was destroying the best burgundies. Pasteur looked at wine under the microscope and noticed that when aged properly the liquid contained little spherical yeast cells. But when the wine turned sour, there was a proliferation of bacterial cells which were producing lactic acid. Pasteur suggested that heating the wine gently at about 120°F would kill the bacteria that produced lactic acid and let the wine age properly. Pasteur's book Etdues sur le Vin, published in 1866 was a testament to two of his great passions—the scientific method and his love of wine. It caused another French Revolution—one in wine-making, as Pasteur suggested that greater cleanliness was need to eliminate bacteria and that this could be done with heat. Some wine-makers were aghast at the thought but doing so solved the industry's problem. The idea of heating to kill microorganisms was applied to other perishable fluids like milk and the idea of pasteurization was born. Several decades later in the United States the pasteurization of milk was championed by American bacteriologist Alice Catherine Evans who linked bacteria in milk with the disease brucellosis, a type of fever found in different variations in many countries.

It was soon discovered that multiple distillations produced a spirit of a higher proof and of greater purity. In 1826, Robert Stein invented the continuous still that allowed for repeated recycling of steam and alcohol until all of the spirit has been extracted. Aeneas Coffey improved Stein's design. Modern

continuous stills usually contain three primary sections: still heads (where the vapors are collected), fractionating columns (where the ethyl alcohol is broken down), and condensers (where the vapors are reconverted to liquid).

Louis Pasteur's development of pasteurization began when a French distiller asked him for advice on fermentation. Pasteur's research led him to the discovery of lactic acid and its role in fermentation. Today, lactic acid is used as an inoculation against bacteria in the production of vodka. At first, charcoal filtration was the universal procedure used to purify the vodka. Then at the beginning of the twentieth century, the process of rectification was developed. In rectification, the spirits are passed through several purifying cylinders designed to eliminate dangerous imperfections such as solvents, fusil oil, and methanol.

Raw Materials

Vegetables or grains
Because it is a neutral spirit, devoid of color and odor, vodka can be distilled from virtually any fermentable ingredients. Originally, it was made from potatoes. Although some eastern European vodkas are still made from potatoes and corn, most of the high quality imports and all vodka made in the United States are distilled from

cereal grains, such as wheat. Distillers either purchase the grain from suppliers, or grow it in company-owned fields.

Water is added at the end of the distillation process to decrease the alcohol content. This is either purchased from outside suppliers or brought in from company-owned wells.

Malt meal
Because vegetables and grains contain starches rather than sugars, an active ingredient must be added to the mash to facilitate the conversion of starch to sugar. These particular converted sugars, maltose, and dextrin respond most effectively to the enzyme diastase that is found in malt. Therefore, malt grains are soaked in water and allowed to germinate. Then, they are coarsely ground into a meal and added during the mash process.

A microscopic single-celled fungus, yeast contains enzymes that allow food cells to extract oxygen from starches or sugars, producing alcohol. In the manufacturing of alcoholic beverages, the yeast species Sacchasomyces cereviseal is used. It is purchased from outside suppliers.

In the latter part of the twentieth century, flavored vodkas became popular. Thus, herbs, grasses, spices, and fruit essences may be added to the vodka after distillation. These are usually purchased from an outside supplier

Sloe gin
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For the album by Joe Bonamassa, see Sloe Gin (album).

Homemade sloe gin in preparation

Sloe berry

Sloe gin is a red liqueur flavoured with sloe (also called blackthorn) berries, which are a small fruited relative of the plum. Sloe gin has an alcohol content between 15 and 30 percent by volume. The traditional way of making sloe gin is to infuse gin with the berries. Sugar is required to ensure that the sloe juices are extracted from the fruit. Almond flavouring may also be added. Many commercial sloe gins today are made by flavouring the less expensive neutral grain spirits and produce a fruit cordial effect although a number of long established reputable manufacturers still use the traditional method.

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1 Manufacture 2 Related liqueurs 3 See also 4 References

[edit] Manufacture
To make sloe gin, the sloe berries must be ripe. In the Northern Hemisphere they were traditionally picked in late October or early November after the first frost of winter. A widenecked jar that can be sealed is needed. Each berry is pricked, and the wide necked jar is filled half way with the pricked berries. Folklore has it that when making sloe gin, one should not prick the berries with a metal fork, unless it is made of silver. The established traditional method is to prick the berries with a thorn taken from the blackthorn bush on which they grow. For each 1 imperial pint (570 ml) of sloes, 4 ounces (110 g) of sugar is used, then the jar is filled with gin, adding a few cloves and a small stick of cinnamon, as well as the almond essence. The jar is sealed and turned several times to mix, then stored in a cool, dark place. It is turned every day for the first two weeks, then each week, until at least three months have passed. The gin will now be a deep ruby red. The liqueur is poured off and the berries and spices discarded. Alternatively, the leftover berries can be infused in cider, made into jam, used as a basis for a chutney, or a filling for liqueur chocolates.[1] The liqueur can be filtered, but it is best decanted back into clean containers and left to stand for another week. Careful decanting can then ensure that almost all sediment is eliminated, leaving a clear liqueur. Made in this way, the alcohol extracts an almond-like essence from the sloes, avoiding the need to add almond essence. Homemade sloe gin is a much more complex and subtle drink than that produced commercially,[citation needed] and recipes will vary depending on the maker's taste. The sweetness can be adjusted to taste at the end, but sufficient sugar is required at the start of the process to ensure full extraction of flavour from the sloes.