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SADRZAJ : Uvod................................................................................................. 2 Protocols..........................................................................................2 Protocols with conection..................................................................6 Protocols without conection.............................................................7 Literature....

In information technology, a protocol (from the Greek protocollon, which was a leaf of paper glued to a manuscript volume, describing its contents) is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection. For example, there are protocols for the data interchange at the hardware device level and protocols for data interchange at the application program level. In the standard model known as Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), there are one or more protocols at each layer in the telecommunication exchange that both ends of the exchange must recognize and observe. Protocols are often described in an industry or international standard. On the Internet, there are the TCP/IP protocols, consisting of:

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which uses a set of rules to exchange messages with other Internet points at the information packet level Internet Protocol (IP), which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the Internet address level Additional protocols that include the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

and File Transfer Protocol (FTP), each with defined sets of rules to use with corresponding programs elsewhere on the Internet There are many other Internet protocols, such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

Protocols
In information technology, a protocol is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. Protocols specify interactions between the communicating entities. Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection. For example, there are protocols for the data interchange at the hardware device level and protocols for data interchange at the application program level. In the standard model known as Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), there are one or more protocols at each layer in the telecommunication exchange that both ends of the exchange must recognize and observe. Protocols are often described in an industry or international standard.

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The TCP/IP Internet protocols, a common example, consist of: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which uses a set of rules to exchange messages with other Internet points at the information packet level Internet Protocol (IP), which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the Internet address level Additional protocols that include the Hypertext In object-oriented programming, a protocol or interface is a common means for unrelated objects to comunicate with each other. These are definitions of methods and values which the objects agree upon in order to cooperate. For example, in Java (where protocols are termed interfaces), the Comparable interface specifies a method compareTo() which implementing classes should implement. This means that a separate sorting method, for example, can sort any object which implements the Comparable interface, without having to know anything about the inner nature of the class (except that two of these objects can be compared by means of compareTo()). The protocol is a description of: 1. The messages that are understood by the object. 2. The arguments that these messages may be supplied with. 3. The types of results that these messages return. 4. The invariants that are preserved despite modifications to the state of an object. 5. The exceptional situations that will be required to be handled by clients to the object. If the objects are fully encapsulated then the protocol will describe the only way in which objects may be accessed by other objects. Some programming languages directly support protocols or interfaces (Ada, C#, D, Delphi, Java, Logtalk, Objective-C, PHP, Dart). Older languages may also have features that can support the interface concept, such as abstract base classes with pure virtual functions in C++, or object-oriented features in Perl. Although the Go programming language is not generally considered an objectoriented language, it does allow methods to be defined on user-defined types. Page 3

Go has "interface" types that are compatible with any type that supports a given set of methods (the type does not need to explicitly implement the interface). The empty interface, interface{}, is compatible with all types. Note that functional programming and distributed programming languages have a concept which is also called a protocol, but whose meaning is subtly different (i.e. a specification of allowed exchanges of messages, emphasis on exchanges, not on messages). This difference is due to somewhat different assumptions of functional programming and object-oriented programming paradigms. In particular, the following are also considered as part of a protocol in these languages: 1. The allowed sequences of messages, 2. Restrictions placed on either participant in the communication, 3. Expected effects that will occur as the message is handled. Data transfer through the network is carried out according to the protocol - set rules which are known to all participants in communication. Protocol is a standard (convention) for the exercise and control connections and data transmission between two endpoints. The communication protocol is a set of standardized rules for data representation, signaling, authentication and error control, necessary for the transmission of information and communication channel. Key elements of the protocol which is agreed to send the readiness, willingness to receive, format data and the like.are: 1. Syntax - Data format and signal levels, 2. semantics - the transfer of control information and control errors, 3. timing - speed transmission. Exchange of data in a network is extremely complex. With the increasing number of networked computers that communicate with the increasing demands for ever more sophisticated services (services) it is necessary and training protocols. Business communication is so complex that it was necessary to develop protocols in several layers. Each layer is designed for a suitable job. In the original network of computer networks was carried out according to the manufacturer's computer equipment. All hardware and software were tied to one manufacturer, so it was very difficult to make changes, improve the network, and everything was very expensive. The introduction of standards for communicating clearly defined by the logical layer, appeared more software equipment manufacturers. The standards also allow combining hardware and software from different manufacturers, which all together led to a decrease in prices of

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equipment and software for networking and to improve the quality of services in networks. One of the most important things about networking is addressing. When referring only two computers, there is no need for addressing, because anything sent from one computer to another is intended. But when the network consists of three computers, there is a need for addressing. Send data from one computer may be designated one of the other two computers. Additional complexity arises when we observe multiple applications on one computer, you can communicate with multiple applications on another computer. It's not enough just to be addressed computer, but the application with which to communicate. Protocol steps have to be implemented in accordance with the order is the same for each computer in the network. In a transmitting computer, these steps are executed from top to bottom. In the receiving computer, these steps must be carried out in reverse order. At the transmitting computer protocol:

divides the data into smaller units, called packets, which can be processed, adds the address information packets to the destination computer on the network can decide whether they belong to him, and prepares data for transmission through the network card and continue through the network cable.

On the receiving computer protocols implement the same set of steps, but in reverse order:

take the data from the cable, through the network card are entered into computer data packets, the data packets are removed all information about the transfer by transmitting said computer, copy the data from the package in the receiving memory (buffer) that is used for re-assembly and re-assembled data is passed to the application form that it can use.

Basic principles in the design of the protocol efficiency, reliability (robustness) and adaptability. It is necessary that both computers, transmitting and receiving, perform each step in the same way to the received data have the same structure as what they had before sending. In the network, several protocols have to work together. Their joint work provides the correct data preparation, transfer to your

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destination, the receipt and execution. The work of multiple protocols must be adjusted to avoid conflicts occurred or incomplete operation or incomplete transmission of information. The result of this adjustment is called stratification (layering).

Making a connection, data transfer and disconnecting a set of protocols are each responsible for one of the following tasks:

Handshaking - the connection; Negotiation of various connection characteristics; Defining the beginning and end of message; Define the message format. Defining rules for the treatment of damaged or improperly formatted messages (error correction); Establishing an unexpected disconnection, and defining further steps in this case; Disconnect.

Protocols with making conection When using the protocol to establish a relationship of two parties must establish a connection between himself as a prerequisite for data exchange. The process of establishing a connection can be compared to dial phone numbers: 1. The party that initiates the call line (lifting the handset) and enter the destination number. 2. After calling the number that establishes the connection is still not adequate for data transfer and waiting for the recipient to lift the handset. 3. After picking up the phone the caller informs the recipient that he is ready to transmit data signal "hello". Page 6

4. After receiving the signal "halo" adequate connections for data exchange is established and may commence. It is clear that the procedure needed to make a connection takes some time and commitment from both sides. However, it provides a reliable (but not completely definitively) data transfer and reduces the possibility of error. A connection is practiced with protocols that are intended to ensure reliable data transmission. Example protocols for establishing connections with the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). Protocols in which service performance is more important than the most reliable data do not include a connection.

Protocols without making conection When using the protocol Connectionless initial step in the transfer of data is only sending data. This step is not preceded by a procedure related to a connection as is the case for the protocol to establish connections. Although the most common characteristics of a connection with the reliable transfer protocol, there are protocols that enable the reliable transmission of Connectionless protocols and do not guarantee safe transportation if they use the connection.

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Literatura :
www.wikipedia.com www.racunarskemreze.net www.google.com

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