Electrical Power Utilization EE0.37-3.

5-2

Lighting Design for Semiconductor Fabrication Plant
22nd April, 2013

Praneet Choudhury – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE
ASIA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY

Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1 Proposal Requirements and Limitations............................................................................................. 1 Factory Area A – Manufacturing ........................................................................................................ 4 Factory Area B – Inspection ............................................................................................................... 9 Factory Area C – Packaging .............................................................................................................. 13 Canteen ........................................................................................................................................... 16 Corridor........................................................................................................................................... 18 Washroom ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Office .............................................................................................................................................. 20 Conclusion....................................................................................................................................... 21 References ...................................................................................................................................... 22

That being said. the Canteen. It can be realized here that if the Factory Areas are to be 25/7. to design so that the task of the user is not only successfully illuminated. These 3 areas form the backbone of the industry and are required to have 24/7 operation. Fig. 1 : Orginal layout of Factory The designated Factory Areas are. aesthetic appearance. Along with these. into a semiconductor fabrication plant. The fundamental need for illumination is complemented by the aestheticism that is inherently incorporated in it. B – Inspection & C – Packaging. but that the overall productivity is enhanced because of the design. in the case where lighting is done for industrial purposes. IN these days of constant sustainability discussions. more than visual appeal. A – Manufacturing. Washroom and Office have to be duly relit to provide adequate support services. it is important to design with objectivity. keeping in mind energy effectiveness and efficient use of materials. Corridor. responsibility towards the environment and responsiveness to the owner’s installation and maintenance costs is of utmost importance. comfort.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Introduction Lighting is one of the oldest necessities of mankind. Proposal Requirements and Limitations The given scenario requires the redesigning of the lighting system of a used warehouse. Thus any lighting design should appeal to the users in terms of visibility. and psychological response. it seems only prudent to design lighting systems. 1 . Notwithstanding this. The layout of the new renovated warehouse/plant is as shown below. of Electrical Power Utilization pg.

it can be realized that the Corridor faces South. Fig. dimmable light – sensitive fixtures may be used to automatically control the light amount in the area. which means with the appropriate usage of glass panels on the walls and roof. In view of cost savings for both installation and electricity consumption. Meal consumption is maximum during breakfast and lunch. It is to be remembered that these employees in all probability have shift duties due to 24/7 operation and are likely to be in the highly-restricted Manufacturing and Inspection Areas most of their duty periods. The orientation of the building is important. a large amount of sunlight/daylight may be streamed into the area. Washroom and Corridor are to be lit 24/7 as well. 2: Proposed alteration of Factory Layout This is done for specific reasons and has advantages and drawbacks. since semiconductor chip fabrication requires areas of complete isolation from daylight. Now the Canteen has an East facing. since they provide critical services and will face constant human traffic throughout the whole duration of the production process. the canteen is proposed to be relocated to the farther side of the building as shown below. which means a large portion of the light requirements are during the daytime. This also has a pleasing feeling to employees. Electrical Power Utilization pg. By making suitable structural modifications the Canteen can be almost electrical-lights-free during a large part of the day and any other time. the Factory Area C faces East and Washroom and Office faces West. Since the compass pointer is shown. who can consume meals under natural lighting and have a sense of the day passing through the glass paneling.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT course the Canteen. That leaves only the Office that is to be in service from 0900 to 1800 hrs each day for 5 days a week. It is advisable to design the Canteen in the lines of the wall and roof paneling shown below. 2 .

no doubt. namely Manufacturing. the largest Area in the building. With reference to Fig. As a choice of lights and fixture manufacturer. 3 . an obvious problem presents itself. by specified design. The implications of this extra natural light will be discussed later. The Canteen is now located at a substantial distance from the Washroom. Each Area. Again.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Fig. Corridor. Royal Philips Electronics is chosen. Washroom and Office will be dealt with separately in the upcoming chapters. 2. This may be an inconvenience. Electrical Power Utilization pg. due to suitable availability of a wide range of products and ease of acquiring resources like data-sheets. Canteen. 3 : Proposed style of Canteen Roof As can be realized that this will provide the large amount of natural light heretofore described. which means that there will be an increased traffic along the corridor at certain times of the day. for reference purposes. wherever possible. a point to be noted is that the Canteen is. Packaging. but it should be offset by an enormous amount of light savings for the Canteen Area. Inspection. so the savings can matter.

Electrical Power Utilization pg. Out of these the Claria will be considered in great detail due to the presence of Compact Fig. 4 : Philips Cleanroom Range Fluorescent Lights in the luminaires. there may be some energy-saving alternatives to explore. As a cost saving alternative. Cleanroom LED will be analyzed to see if it provides any benefits. Furthermore light sensitive processes such as photolithography are carried out inside these Cleanrooms. themselves manufacturers of semiconductor chips (Rener. 2011). Most of the specifications of a Cleanroom are referenced from here. Finally the author mentions that “Fluorescent lamps are nearly always used in cleanroom environments due to their energy efficiency. rather than cost savings. Thus the designation of the term “Cleanroom” to such areas. Philips has a choice of Cleanroom lighting with different specifications as shown here. further complicating the choice of lighting. Nevertheless. 2011). The advantages of these fixtures are that they provide perfect seal-ability and cleaning options for cleanroom purposes and are specially fitted to provide lighting for the semiconductor industry (Philips. Chip fabrication areas are generally classified by “cleanliness” which translated to the amount of dust particles present per cubic meter of air in the room. The light requirements and characteristics of a Cleanroom has been described most excellently in a web-article published by Brian Rener of Solid State Technologies. Also a Color Temperature of 3500K and a Color Rendering Index of 85 are suitable as these are universally considered neutral and accurate. low maintenance and long life” (Rener. It is understandable that the sensitivity and mission-critical nature of the area suggests more importance to accurate lighting. 2013). 4 .PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Factory Area A – Manufacturing This area is light sensitive and mission critical in nature. The requirements of most Class 5 or Medium Grade Cleanrooms are around a 100 Foot-Candle.

Since the Luminous Efficacy of the first type is high compared to the Lamp Wattage. 3 of each will fit into each CLARIA luminaire. since the luminaires are flush/recessed with the ceiling and machine/table height should be around 1m above the ground. are room width. 6 : Comparison of CFLs for Claria Whichever one is chosen. length and height from working surface respectively. L and H. an analysis is done to find the number of luminaires required with the first type. 5 : Philips Claria Cleanroom Fluorescent The CFLs inside the CLARIA. Electrical Power Utilization pg. These are available in 3 variants as shown below with pertinent ratings and values. Room Index = (W x L)/[H x (W + L)] = 35*40/(9*75)=2.07 2 where W. as documented by Philips should be of type PHILIPS MASTER PL-L 4PIN. 5 .PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Fig. Height from working surface is assumed to be 9m. Fig.

4 Lm/sq. It is advisable to use white PVC paneling on the ceiling and walls to increase their respective reflectance values. Fig. (W)alls=0. 6 .829 1 Foot-Candle = 10.m Electrical Power Utilization pg.2.00 is seen to be 0. which would lead to a slightly better room index.65.m Required 100 Foot-Candle = 1076.94 x 0.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT The utilization factor corresponding to this Room Index can be acquired from the table published by the CIBSE (Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers) which is shown below. UF will be assumed to be 0. (CARLISLE SYNTEC INCORPORATED.87. 2013). For calculation of Maintenance Factor.98 (ERCO.9 x 1 x 0. For the purposes here.764 Lm/sq. Maintenance Factor (MF) = LLMF x LSF x LMF x RSMF = 0.7. LSF or Lamp Survival Factor will be assumed to be 1 if dead lamps are replaced immediately and RSMF (Room Surface Maintenance Factor) for Cleanrooms is around 0.98 = 0.65.5 and (F)loor=0. 7 : CIBSE tables for Utilization Factor based on Room Index Conforming to the highest possible reflectances of the (C)eiling=0. 6. values of LLMF (Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor) and LMF (Luminaire Maintenance Factor) can be obtained from the spec sheet of PLL 4pin in Fig. White PVC has a reflectance value of 0. the corresponding Utilization Factor (UF) for the RI of 2. 2013). Reflectance depends largely on the material used in for the particular surface.

In reality a Cleanroom should have a much lesser ceiling height from working plane. actual number of luminaries required are 417/(MF x UF). m area. Actual Luminaries required = 105/(MF x UF) = 105/(0. It is observable that the spacing between the lights and between the lights and walls are the same all throughout the room.829)=773 luminaires are too many for a 1400 sq. 417/(0.65 x 0. This can be easily achieved by Electrical Power Utilization pg.5m / 9m = 0.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT For a room of dimensions 35m x 40m. This is aesthetically pleasing.3 which is very much within acceptable values. since there are 3 CFLs in each luminaire.4 Lm/sq. Therefore the higher wattage model (55W) should be considered since it gives maximum lumens per luminary as seen from Fig. Again. 1076. The space height ratio (SHR) can also be calculated as Spacing between lamps / Height from working plane = 2. required lumens. of Luminaires = Total Lumens / (3 x Watts x Lumens/Watt) =1506996/(3x18x67) = 417 Again due to MF and UF. will provide uniform distribution of luminance.65*0. and it can be factorized into 195 = 13 x 15 Thus the arrangement in the 35m x 40m room will be as shown on the next page.m x 35m x 40m =1506996 Lm For the 18W PL-L model. Nominal No. 7 . This is a more acceptable number. 6. of Luminaires = Total Lumens / (3 x Watts x Lumens/Watt) =1506996/(3x55x87) = 105 Again. Nominal No. since the effect of MF and UF are to increase the number of required luminaries to compensate for the decrease in lumens due to maintenance and utilization. Actually the space height ratio is very low due to the mounting height which is same as the ceiling height.829) = 195. practically feasible and most importantly.

houses LEDs and shows the characteristics as shown in the table below. and the LED is calculated as 206.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT installing white PVC ceiling at a lower height and increasing the SHR to a more normal value. it can be Electrical Power Utilization pg. 8 . Fig.65x1) = 206. of Luminaires = Total Lumens / (Watts x Lumens/Watt) =1506996/(150*75) = 134 and Actual Luminaries = 134/(0. 9 : Philips Cleanroom LED product specs of Pl-L luminaire was 195. Another type of fixture offered by Philips for the same Cleanroom purposes. Nominal No. due to high MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures). 8. Fig. It can be realized that the previous no. Maintenance Factor is assumed to be 1 often for LED lamps. 8 : Arrangement of 195 luminaires for Factory Area A In this case. if the CLARIA luminaires are replaced with Cleanroom LEDs and certain amount of back-calculation is done. In any case the requirements are suitably met in the given situation already. which is not a great difference. as shown in the graph on the left and also 70% lifetime value of 50000hrs in the specs above. In order to keep the arrangement as shown in Fig.

2010). if easy availability. The latter is used typically for shiny surfaces. Transverse Lighting and Foil Lighting (Bergin. Inspection lighting has some specific requirements as well. If the client feels that cost savings in the context of Lamp Replacement is more attractive than slight unevenness in lighting at a later period. of LED luminaires will reduce the 100FC requirement to 95FC. Even though the color temperature chosen is 3000K (recommended 3500K) and CRI above 80%. Factory Area B – Inspection The second factory area B has inspection as its major function. Main Lighting is simply the lighting from the Electrical Power Utilization pg. this area may be considered the second in importance.25kW. In both cases the arrangement of Fig. which is still acceptable. Cost savings of LED luminaires are major. Also for a 24/7 facility. each at 55W = 55x3=165W. Total savings with LEDs will be (165-150) x 195=2. Since problems in quality or production errors will affect the processes that take place in Manufacturing. Power consumptions are not that different.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT shown that using 195 instead of 206 no. the lifetime is 50000hrs. compared to Area A. variations in these values are not uncommon among the same production batch of individual LEDs. So the LEDs have a lifetime advantage over the PL-L CLARIA luminaires.8 will be maintained with 195 luminaires. then the Cleanroom LEDs should be chosen as the luminaire. 20000hrs service time translates to roughly 2. easy replacement. there are at least 3 kinds of lighting involved. price and constant color-temperature advantages of the PL-Ls are considered more mission critical for cleanroom purposes. when it comes to lighting.3yrs before lamp replacement. the CLARIA should be preferred. Main Lighting. compared to 50000hrs for the LEDs meaning 5. But it should be mentioned to the client that LEDs are notorious for unevenness of color.7yrs replacement periods. While they are expensive to install. Generally. inspection plays a major role in the production process due to the factor it mainly affects – quality control. On the other hand. 9 . since each LED luminaire is 150W compared to the CLARIA with 3 PL-L. compared to the 20000hr average of the PL-L luminaires. and so may be disregarded here. While not missioncritical.

But for simplicity. Thus it is important for the purposes of inspection to install lights on both on the ceiling and Fig.000 lux. Modern inspection equipment. Color temperature nearing daylight of 6700K-8500K is advised as well (Rener. Electrical Power Utilization pg. like high speed cameras. Due to the less stringent nature of activities in the inspection room. Keeping in mind the special requirements mentioned above. LF1F line of luminaires. Australia have come up with a set of products specifically for vision inspection. This is important for inspection purposes. photometers etc. IDEC Corporation. cleanroom type light fixtures are not necessary for the Factory Area B. Transverse Lighting involves projecting the light perpendicular to the surface being examined to offer a view of unevenness and scratches that might throw a shadow. The thin profile and even lighting over the 300mm square area of the luminaire are added advantages (IDEC Corporation. Here Philips loses out due to unsuitability of mounts. since they are specifically meant for wall mounting. are designed for both wall and ceiling mounting. The LF1F series are LED based luminaires with low wattage and active-cooled longlife and no-flicker design. This value seems acceptable as well when compared with the lux value used for production cleanroom. will require specific kinds of spot lighting. 2013) for minute inspection. as shown here (IDEC Corporation . 1000 lux seems to be the general recommendation in most cases (CIBSE. 10 . which is the situation here. Overall values of lux and color temperature for inspection purposes varies over the product being inspected. 2011). 2011). 10: Transverse lighting for surface inspection walls of the room. since even a slight flicker can cause distraction during visual inspection. 2011). human inspection of semiconductor chips is assumed here. Their Lumifa series. Glare has also been taken into account while designing these. sometimes in the range of 400.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT top that illuminates the product’s plan view.

m For a room of dimensions 35m x 40m. Therefore UF = 0. and therefore will be assumed to be 1. since the light elements are highly durable 40. The arrangements are shown on the next page. Therefore actual number of luminaries required = 157/(MF x UF) = 157/(1 x 0.75 x 240 = 180 luminaries have to be ceiling mounted and 60 have to be wall mounted.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Flux required = 1000lm/sq. Ceiling mounted luminaries can be easily factorized into 180 = 12 x 15 and they may be arranged as shown on the next page.m x 35m x 40m = 1400000 Lm Maintenance Factor (MF) is not specified by the manufacturer. 11 .000hrlife LEDs. Therefore 0. Therefore nominal number of luminaries = 1400000/8900 = 157. The wall luminaries may be distributed as 12 luminaries on each of the 35m walls and 18 luminaries each on the 45m walls. Utilization Factor (UF) will be the same as the Factory Area A since the room dimensions (and therefore Room Index) are exactly same. 2010). Electrical Power Utilization pg.65) = 241. 11: Lumifa LF1F LED-based inspection lighting specs Since lights have to be mounted on both the ceiling and walls. required lumens. 75% of the light is generally assumed to be provided perpendicular and 25% lateral to the surface being inspected (Bergin.65. 1000 Lm/sq. Now each luminary provides 8900 lumens.5 240 Fig.

Fig. 13 : Arrangement of 180 luminaires for Factory Area B eye level and projected shadows.25m between the corner luminary and the wall corner. 12 .7 m vertically between lights in the plan view. This is almost square and therefore acceptable. the ceiling should be lowered which will give a better utilization factor as well.5/9 = 0. A height of 2m above the floor is maintained for the wall luminaires to prevent direct glare at Fig.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT As shown here. Electrical Power Utilization pg.5m is maintained horizontally and 2. This is due to the high ceiling of the already existing construction. Again. Space Height Ratio = 2. For a better SHR and Room Index. 2. 12 : Arrangement of 60 luminaires for Factory Area B Wall Mounted Total Wattage for 240 luminaires = 240 x 11 = 2640 Watts. a distance of 2.5m distance is kept between each wall luminary and 1.3. In the figure below. the Space Height Ratio is quite low.

Area C has the same room dimensions as the previous two areas and therefore the Room Index immediately becomes 2. 13 . that they replace them with Philips GentleSpace High-Bay LED solutions which have a much larger lifetime and can contribute to energy savings significantly. 7. Thus the Utilization factor can be measured to be 0. which the factory in question already has in place. upon which it will be suggested.65 from Fig.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Factory Area C – Packaging Packaging area requires various light levels depending on the industry. floor and ceiling reflectance values should be met. Since the given factory layout has no dedicated storage room. Storage and packaging areas are usually lit by high-bay metal-halide fittings. Therefore the high ceiling design of this room may be retained. 14 : Philips GentleSpace High Bay LED solution specs As before. 2012). Specification of the GentleSpace high bay LED series from Philips are shown here. Fig. keeping in mind that the wall. the existing metal halide fittings should be used until they reach end-of-life. Electrical Power Utilization pg. it may be safely assumed that the packaging area will be utilized for storage purposes as well. 2011) and Philips recommend a minimum illumination value of 500 lux at any electronics manufacture/assembly plant (Philips. It can easily vary between 100 lux to 500 lux depending on the minuteness of the packaged items. as calculated before. Depending on the illumination levels required. This will save some initial up-front cost for the client. the nominal number of luminaries may be calculated. Illuminating Engineers Society (IES) recommends 500 lux for packaging/loading areas in general (IES.

65 = 108 This may be factorized as 9 x 12 and the arrangement possible is shown below.m x 35m x 40m = 700000 lm Average luminous efficacy or lm/W of Metal Halides = 90 and since 400W metal halides were installed before.85 = 0.65. if the existing Metal Halide high bays are used till the end of life.m x 35m x 40m)/ 10000lm = 70 It should be noted here that the 10000lm product was chosen from the options in Fig. 10000lm per 108 watts = 92. the actual number of luminaries required = 70/0. 700000/(400W x 90lm/W) = 19 Electrical Power Utilization pg. 2013)). This gives a maximum Space Height Ratio of 4m/9m = 0.81 x 0. Fig.59lm/W Assuming Maintenance Factor of 1 for air-tight sealed LED fittings. 15 : Arrangement of 108 luminaires for Factory Area C The maintenance factor of Metal Halides can be calculated as (values provided by (ERCO. then an arrangement may be made to fit them into this wiring assembly. Required number of lumens = 500 lm/sq. and Utilization Factor of 0.57 The low value of lamp lumen maintenance factor or LLMF is taken assuming almost end of life of Metal halides around 10000 hrs. Nominal number of luminaries required are. 14.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Nominal Luminaries = (500lm/sq. 14 . Therefore a calculation must be done for the metal halides as well. Maintenance Factor (MF) = LLMF x LSF x LMF x RSMF = 0. due to its highest luminous efficacy.83 x 1 x 0. To save cost.45 which is within limits.

15.000 and 75. 15 . such an arrangement of metal-halides using the LED based wiring. Here the green luminaires represent points occupied by the metal halide fittings and the red are vacant points. 400W Metal Halides get replaced by 108 nos. 108W LED solutions. L90 and L70 in Fig. 16 : Alternate arrangement of existing metal-halide fittings for Factory Area C and replaced by the GentleSpace fittings straight away. will prove to be cost effective. if 54 of the existing metal halides are used in the same LED-wiring layout in Fig. they have significantly higher lifetime than the Metal Halides. instead of 51. Also it may be noted that the GentleSpace are available in 2 LED variants. they may be arranged as here. the latter having a maximum lifespan of 15000hrs.000 hrs. which means a replacement period of around 4.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Therefore actual number of luminaries = Nominal Number / (MF x UF) = 19 / (0. that Philips manufactures the GentleSpace series as replacements for Metal Halide High Bays and therefore have similar kind of electrical line fittings (Philips Industrial. 2013). 14. but since packaging is not mission-critical. at 24/7 operation.65x0. they may be taken out Fig. Electrical Power Utilization pg. the total energy savings being. Obviously this will not lead to a very uniform lighting. therefore. 54 x400 – 108 x108 = 9936W 10kW. Whichever one is used. as in Fig. This demonstrates the energy saving nature of LEDs.57)= 51 This almost appears to be half of the number of Led fittings calculated above.5 and 9 yrs respectively. So 54 nos. As soon as the metal-halides reach end of life. It may be important to notice here. 15. The L90 and L70 GentleSpace are rated for 40.

16 .3 in Fig. it seems logical to recommend light fittings with suspended adjustable heights so that the lights can be localized over specific areas with tables or widened over more general parts of the canteen. Color temperature nearing daylight and long lifetime play significant roles as well in this recommendation. the effective height becomes 4m and the RI becomes 35*50/(4*85) = 5.65. This gives a utilization factor of 0. If the lamps are suspended to a distance of 6m from the ceiling so that they are 3m above the Fig. This particular variant has specs as shown below. the Canteen area will be relocated and reconstructed with glass/metal roof and skylights. the nearest value 2 is taken as reference.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Canteen As mentioned in Proposal Requirements and Limitations. ceiling and floor. taking into consideration the highceiling design. This is done with an objective to Electrical Power Utilization pg. Room Canteen = (W x L)/[H x (W + L)] = 35*50/(9*85)=2. the Philips SmartForm LED W22L124 LIN-PC SMT1. a dimmable or auto-dimming lighting system should be installed.28 2. to allow maximum daylight during the majority of the meal-consumption times of the day. There is only one product in the Philips catalog that offers dimmability with suspension type. In any case. sufficient lighting has to be installed since the cafeteria will go through 24 hour operation. keeping in mind the reflectance requirements of the walls. taking advantage of its East facing orientation. Also. Therefore. This allows for major energy savings. which gives a UF of 0. 17 : Philips suspendable SmartForm LED W22L124 specs Index for the canteen tables (1m height).14 5. 7.3 In the absence of CIBSE values for RI of 2.69.

the SHR becomes 3.5/4 = 0.875 which is well within maximum value of 1.m x 35m x50m = 350000lm Nominal luminaires required = 350000/4300 = 81 Actual Luminaires required = 81/ 0. the luminaires should be concentrated in the regions of high eating activities and near the food counters. 17 . total lumens = 200 lm/sq. 18 : Arrangement of 126 luminaires for Canteen further reduced by realizing that not every part of the canteen is occupied by employees. The number of luminaries may be Fig. Instead of symmetrical arrangement.5. In any case. from around 7am till 4pm. Therefore.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT make use of as minimal lighting as possible in the cafeteria. this can be factorized to 9 x 14 and the arrangement can be made as shown below.25kWh Electrical Power Utilization pg. canteens and dining rooms. the roof glass paneling will provide constant light throughout the canteen. With the height of the luminaries 4m above the canteen tables.69 = 125 By assuming 126 luminaires. The maintenance factor of sealed LED fittings is taken as 1. The slightly skewed distances from the wall to the end luminaries leads to the formation of square distances between every other luminary. The automatically dimmable Smartform LED luminaires will do the job for the rest of the day. Power savings = 125 x 58W x 9hr = 65. CIBSE guidelines for indoor lighting state a requirement for 200 lux in cafeterias. so the arrangement can be assumed regular. thru the night till 7am.

2013). even though not explicitly mentioned. therefore the lighting levels may be distributed as below. Fig. Similarly for the left end of the corridor. This 24/7 nature is what leads to the suggestion of long life LED fixtures. CIBSE recommends levels of 100-200lux for corridors. with UF = 0. the corridor also has a 24/7 service and therefore any savings in luminaires will lead to some power and cost savings.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Corridor Here.m x 5m x 50m)/(4300lm x 0. the Room Index may be improved by reducing the mounting height of the lamps. as in the previous section. again. m x 120m x 5m = 120000lm. Here the values have been assumed as in the previous section. Actual number of luminaires = 120000lm / (4300lm x 0. walkways and stairways (Elite Renewables Service Limited. 19 : Proposed illuminance values at two different parts of the Corridor This will lead to an uneven lighting at the end of the corridor. A method of reducing the number of luminaires can be justified as follows. 18 . 20 : Arrangement of 40 and 8 luminaires for two different areas of Corridor Electrical Power Utilization pg.69) = 8 Arrangement for the luminaires is shown here. It can be realized that. The side of the corridor with sensitive activity in the vicinity of the Factory Area A. Fig. but it can be justified by the cost savings. the same suspended Smartform LED luminaires may be used as before.69 x 1) = 40. Since no movement of tall equipment is expected in the corridor. with no great loss in functionality. MF for sealed LED fittings = 1. Actual number of luminaires required = (100lm/sq.69 because the lamps will be hung 5-6m from the ceiling. making the effective mounting height around 4m. B & C can be better lit than the side which adjoins the cafeteria. Total lumens required by the right side = 200lm/sq.

So Utilization factor may be assumed to be 0. In addition the corridor may benefit from installation of glass wall paneling on the South side. 21 : Philips SmartForm LED BCS460 ceiling-mounted Fig. Washroom dimensions = 10m x 30m Height must be lowered. 19 . 2013).53kWh per day. so as to let in maximum daylight throughout the day. Since each luminaire consumes 58W. using specifications from Smartform LED luminaires from Philips. In addition glass paneling may also be provided on the South facing wall of the washroom to provide light additional Fig. total power savings = (57-48) x 58W x 24hr = 12. good color temperature (4000K) and acceptable CRI (>75). with white colored false ceiling for good Room Index as well as aesthetic reasons. This should be implemented to take full advantage of the auto-dimming capabilities of the Smartform LED luminaires. Nominal number of luminaires = (100lx x 10m x 30m)/4300 = 7 Actual number of luminaires = 7/ (0. 22 : Arrangement of 10 luminaires for Washroom Electrical Power Utilization pg. The only difference from the previous cases being that Smartform BCS 460 will be used instead of Smartform BPS 460.69 x1) = 10.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT The savings can be easily calculated if the whole corridor is given 200lux.69 as before. Then Actual number of luminaires = (200lx x 5m x 170m) / (4300lm x 0. long life (50000hr). the number and arrangement of luminaires may be estimated in the usual manner. The reason for extensive use of this luminaire in non-critical areas of a factory is its relative low cost.69 x1) = 57 nos. Washroom Following CIBSE specification of a 100 lux in washrooms (Elite Renewables Service Limited. The former is the ceiling mounted/non-suspended version of the latter. These may be arranged as shown.

Therefore a nice ambience should be created with color temperatures around 3000K which are considered warm white. 23 : Philips LuxSpace specs arranged as 11 x 11. Total office area = 30m x 30m Total lumens = 300lx x 30m x 30m = 270000lm Using total luminous flux value from Fig. then the office space may be organized at ease and not be dependent on lighting schemes. as calculated above. 20 distribution as shown next. They are wall recess mounted and the main reason for recommendation – directional adjustment. The LuxSpace luminaire is shown here. The Room Index has to be improved by reducing mounting height to 4m.28 and the utilization factor will be 0. 23. In view of cost savings.69 Since the facility has no meeting area. in which case. they may be Fig. 2013). if the lights used have directional rotatability.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT Office Around 300 – 500 lux is recommended by CIBSE for Executive Office rooms (Elite Renewables Service Limited. Instead of organizing office space by lighting. it will be expected that the office may be used for small meetings with both clients and employees. office-purpose. giving a perfectly square pg. Electrical Power Utilization . Nominal number of fixtures = 270000/3332=81 Actual number of fixtures = 81/0. but assuming 121 fixtures. An office may have many staff desks at random positions which generally don’t follow the lighting scheme on the ceiling. led-based lighting which meet the requirements. the lower 300 lux value will be chosen. Philips has stylish and energy-saving. the RI will be 2.69=117 This cannot be factorized suitably.

Finally it should be noted that all the products suggested here are from Philips. There are certainly other brands on the market with competitive solutions. makes installation/replacement easy.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT These lights may be focused whichever direction is required to get slightly more light. 21 . 24 : Arrangement of 121 luminaires for Office false-ceiling construction. Electrical Power Utilization pg. as was realized in Canteen area discussion. in the region of a desk for example. as was seen in Factory Area A & B discussions. Conclusion The importance of LEDs in currently prevalent lighting designs cannot be overstressed. This saves cost. for these type of fittings. LEDs also have a very large lifetime and thus it means peace of mind for 6 years or more of continuous 24/7 operation (assuming 50000hr lifetime).65 and the reflectance values of the ceiling should be kept in mind during Fig.Suitable location of factory areas are important. but due to range and availability. Windows will be provided. leading to less number of fittings. since the office is mainly facing west and north. but they cannot be applied as a source of light. to provide good Space Height Ratio of around 0. the ceiling has to be lowered to around 4m or lower. but the total lumens produced by each luminary housing a group of LEDs is much higher than almost all other fixtures. Philips is chosen as the all-in-one brand. Definitely. Luminous Efficacy values may not be very high compared to fluorescent or metal-halide fittings. where it is clear that daylight can be used to our advantage to save electricity using dimmable fixtures.

ERCO Light Scout . K. Philips.com/led-lighting/lux-lighting-values.cibse. 2013.viewthread&item=1|42 [Accessed 6 4 2013]. s.: CARLISLE SYNTEC INCORPORATED. Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.l. 2013..eliterenewables.org/index. CIBSE. Advantages of LED Lighting in Vision Inspection Systems.cfm?go=discuss. Rener. IES. 2011.: Quadtech Inc. [Online] Available at: http://www. Sunnyvale: IDEC Corporation. Philips Industrial.com/articles/cr/print/volume-15/issue5/features/features/understanding-cleanroom-lighting. IDEC Corporation. [Online] Available at: http://www.l.: Illuminating Engineers Society.erco.com/usa [Accessed 27 03 2011]. [Online] Available at: http://www.php [Accessed 5 April 2013]. Lighting Illuminance Guidance | LED Lighting | Elite Renewables. 2013. CARLISLE SYNTEC INCORPORATED.ecat. s. [Online] Available at: http://www. LFIF Datasheet..Maintenance Factor.ElectroIQ. Understanding cleanroom lighting .Guide .php [Accessed 1 04 2013]. 2013.Industrial Lighting Presentation. ERCO. 2011. 2013. s.International Highbay Brochure. Philips .Philips.l.l. Elite Renewables Service Limited. IDEC Corporation . s.PRANEET CHOUDHURY – TP021883|UC3F1208EEE LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION PLANT References Bergin. T.: Royal Philips Electronics. 2011. LF1F_Datasheet. Philips .. IES Footcandle Recommendations. Cleanroom .html [Accessed 5th April 2013].com/l/indoor-luminaires/waterproof-andcleanroom/cleanroom/20883/cat/ [Accessed 1 April 2013].philips. 22 . s. 2012. B. 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.IDEC.electroiq. Philips.lighting. CARLISLE SURE-FLEX™ REINFORCED PVC MEMBRANE.l.. Electrical Power Utilization pg.com/guide/simulation-and-calculation-95/maintenance-factor2713/en/intro-1. 2011. [Online] Available at: http://www. 2010.: Royal Philips Electronics.

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