# I.

Squares and square roots: From 12 to 302.

Squares: 1 - 50 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 102 112 122 132 142 152 162 172 182 192 202 212 222 232 242 252 II. 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 484 529 576 625 Cubes and cubic roots: From 13 to 123. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 262 272 282 292 302 312 322 332 342 352 362 372 382 392 402 412 422 432 442 452 462 472 482 492 502 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 676 729 784 841 900 961 1024 1089 1156 1225 1296 1369 1444 1521 1600 1681 1764 1849 1936 2025 2116 2209 2304 2401 2500

Cubes: 1 -15 13 23 33 43 53 III.

1

= = = = =

1 8 27 64 125

63 73 83 93 103

= = = = =

216 343 512 729 1000 31 32 33 34 35 36 = = = = = =

113 123 133 143 153

= = = = = 3 9 27 81 243 729

1331 1728 2197 2744 3375

Powers of 2: From 21 to 212. 2 = 2 22 = 4 23 = 8 4 2 = 16 25 = 32 6 2 = 64

the answer is 32. but why 51. which is also divisible by 11. 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 67 71 73 79 83 89 Dividing by 11 Let's look at 352. like 113. another way to say this is that 35 -2 is 33. 91. It's important to know not just the primes. Now look at 3531. 87. . 3+2 is 5. and others are not primes (especially 1) .27 28 29 210 211 212 IV.
= 128 37 = 2187 = 256 38 = 6561 = 512 39 = 19683 = 1024 310 = 59049 = 2048 311 = 177147 = 4096 312 = 531441 Prime numbers from 2 to 127: It also helps to know the primes in the 100's. 127. which is divisible by 11.. 131.. Dividing by 7 97 101 103 107 109 113 127 131 137 139 149 151 157 163 167 173 179 181 191 193 197 199 211 223 227 229 233 239 241 251 257 263 269 271 277 281 283 293 307 311 313 317 331 337 347 349 353 359 367 373 379 383 389 397 401 409 419 421 431 433 439 443 449 457 461 463 467 479 487 491 499
. It is not a coincidence that 353-1 is 352 and 11 × 321 is 3531.

so we'll be deleting the last number and subtracting it fivefold.
2.To find out if a number is divisible by seven.
Find m. the integer closest to 91/10 = 9.5*3 = 142800 14280 . and subtract it from the rest of the number. Use this process until it's obvious. which is a multiple of 17.
For any prime p (except 2 and 5). 3. and for 3. Dividing by 13 Here's a straightforward method supplied by Scott Fellows: Delete the last digit from the given number. If you don't know the new number's divisibility.5*0 = 1428 142 . then so is the original number.5*2 = 0. double it. m = 51 (which is 17*3).5*0 = 14280 1428 . If you get an answer divisible by 7 (including zero). you can apply the rule again.5*1 = 1428153 142815 . Dividing by 12 Check for divisibility by 3 and 4. take the last digit. For example.1 is 9. if m = 91. then the original number is divisible by seven. so 14281581 is multiple of 17. it's 4. 1428158 . and subtract that from 20 to get 14.
or 9. Verify if the result is a multiple of p.5*8 = 102 10 . Example: If you had 203.
. If what is left is divisible by 13. you would double the last digit to get six. such that m is the (preferably) smallest multiple of p that ends in either 1 Delete the last digit and subtract (if multiple ends in 9) or add (if it ends in 1) the deleted digit times the integer nearest to m/10.9. a rule of divisibility could be "created" using this method:
1. Then subtract nine times the deleted digit from the remaining number.
Example 1: Let's see if 14281581 is a multiple of 17. In this case.

Finding the sum of the above sequence: 17 (4 + 100) / 2 = l7 * 104 / 2 = 884 Why is n equal to 17? Figure it out.. + 100 is an arithmetic series.. so 7183186 is not divisible by 46.1) = 16. For example. it's obviously divisible by 2. n = 17 *If you reconize this formula. n is the number of terms. and z is the highest term. x(n . or adding m*(last digit) and then dividing by 10. So. The minus 1 is to account for the first term. a is the lowest term. a is the lowest term.. Note that you could've stopped calculating whenever you find the result to be obvious (i.
Sum of the numbers in an arithmetic series: In an arithmetic series the difference between terms is a constant. and its factorization is 2*23.1) + 4 = 100. you don't need to continue (likewise. The story behind it is accually very interesting. you don't need to do it until the end).e. Example: 4 + 10 + 16 + 22 + . 718318 + 7*6 = 718360 71836 + 7*0 = 71836 7183 + 7*6 = 7225 722 + 7*5 = 757 75 + 7*7 = 124 12 + 7*4 = 40 4 + 7*0 = 4 (not divisible by 23). 7183186 needs to be divisible by both 2 and 23. and z is the highest term. Since it's an even number. First. so 6(n . which means we'll be adding the deleted digit sevenfold. while Gauss was in school (it was a one room
. in example 1 if you recognize 102 as divisible by 7. divide both sides by 6.Example 2: Let's see if 7183186 is a multiple of 46. The idea behind this method it that you're either subtracting m*(last digit) and then dividing by 10.1) + a = z where x is the amount being added to each number.
V. The formula for the sum is n (a + z) / 2* where n is the number of terms in the sequence. if you recognized 40 as not divisible by 23). it is also know as Gauss' formula. note that 46 is not a prime number. So let's verify that it is a multiple of 23: m = 3*23 = 69. so (n . Using the sequence above this would look like this: 6(n . add 1 to both sides so.1) = 96. subtract 4 from both sides.

25 16 . 28.5 (the most common) 5 .84 . then the hypotenuse is s * sqrt(2) (s times the square root of 2).113 7 .61 20 ..144 . Since you are multiplying the average by the number of numbers.145 9 .13 15 .. 10. (This is based on V.4 .. and divide by 2. 21. it took Gauss only a few seconds because he found the pattern that forms when you add the first and last. Example: find 1+2+3+4+5+. 6. 36. Example: A square has a perimeter of 10.99 . The 45o . a2 + b2 = c2 Pythagorean Triples: Integral values of a.37 20 . Triangle or triangular numbers: 3.
. you get the answer. multiply it by its higher consecutive number.65 8 .T. second and second to last numbers and so on you get the same number every time so you only have to take half of this number (which turns out to be the average of the all of the numbers in the sequence) and multiply that by the number of numbers. + n.181 11 . n (n + 1) / 2 (it can be used to find the number of dots) To find 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + .63 . where a.17 17 . or right isosceles triangle: This is half of a square. b.15 .40 . If the leg is s.24 . 15.
A. and c. 28 (28 + 1) / 2 = 406 VII.112 ..12 . b.101 13 .180 . above!) . 45.35 ..45o .90o right triangle. 55 are triangle numbers.A. where the legs are congruent.+28.60 .school house) his teacher gave them busy work.41 19 . and you need to know the length of the diagonal.21 – 29 12 . and c are relatively prime (one or more of the numbers is/are prime so it can't be reduced in size): 3 . VI. they had to add all of the numbers between 1 and 100 on a chalkboard. just take n.. Pythagorean Theorem: Applications of this famous relationship occur very often in math competition and on the S.85 B.

fifteenths. the one opposite the 30o angle. This is an application of the Pythagorean Theorem: See Section Vll(B) above. be able to recognize. and the long leg. thirds. for example. All you do is apply the rules you've learned about exponents. sevenths. Don't expect me to do it for you. Area and Volume: A. sixths. Number of diagonals in an s-sided polygon: I've seen so many different applications of this formula:
C. elevenths.5. Volume of a sphere: V = 4/3 π r 3 J. (so hard. Area of a rhombus. percent equivalencies: You must know these backward. It also helps to know the twelfths. the hypotenuse is 2s. Area of a square. given the side: A = s 2 B. Area of trapezoid: A = 1/2 h (b1 + b2) G. (yes. so d = 2. which is opposite the 60o angle.
VI. and upside down. and sixteenths. III. You see this almost every week. Volume of cylinder and prism: V = B h H. twentieths. Area of a square.
. Volume of cone and pyramid: V = 1/3 (B h) I. tenths. given diagonal: A = d 2/2 C. he?). twenty-fifths. is s. A polygon having 45 sides has 45*(45-3)/2 = 945 diagonals. and that 9/11 is 81 9/11%. both multiplying and dividing numbers written in this form. How?) D. B. Area of triangle: A = (bh) / 2 E. once and for all?
IV. Scientific notation. isn't it time to learn the shortcut for this. fiftieths. that 83 1/3% is 5/6.60o .
s (s . sevenths!). Diagonal of a cube: s * sqrt(3) where s is the edge of the cube.
II. The short leg. V.90o right triangle: This is half of an equilateral triangle. Area of circle: A = π r 2 F. Surface area of a sphere: A = 4 π r 2 I also expect you to know the following procedures: A. decimal.s = 2. forward. Figure out why this is so.3) / 2 where s is the number of sides of the polygon. is s * sqrt(3) (s times the square root of 3). fourths. instantly and without hesitation. eighths. You should. Turning a repeating decimal into a simple fraction. Fraction. given diagonals: A = (d1 d2)/2 (B and C are closely related.5 * sqrt(2). The 30o . The halves. fifths. ninths.

C. There are so many applications of this in combinations and probability. E. If you think you can't memorize the relationships and formulas in this "Bible". You should. you are absolutely right. you're quite right!
. "without replacement". Example: 20 5/6% = 5/24 D. Know the terms "with replacement". "at least one". Be able to generate Pascal's Triangle on the spot. on the other hand. Can you think of any more? I can. simple reading.
This is just the beginning. you think this can be done. This is usually plain. F. If. Setting up probability problems.Turning a fractional percent into a simple fraction. Chances are the person ranked above you knows it better than you do.