Morgan French Technology & Technology Management Southern Company

History of Miller
•  Plant Miller is named for James H. Miller Jr., who was a senior vice president and member of the board of directors of Alabama Power Company. He was with Alabama Power Company for almost 30 years. •  Plant Miller first provided electricity in 1978 when the first of four generating units had been completed. Unit 1 began commercial operation on 10/12/1978; Unit 2 on 05/01/1985; Unit 3 on 5/01/1989; and Unit 4 on 3/05/1991. Each of its four units can generate 720 million watts of electricity. That is enough electricity to serve the needs of about 825,000 homes.

Plant Miller Facts
•  Plant Miller is the largest coalfuel power plant in the state. At the present, Plant Miller is also the largest operating electric generating plant in the state, surpassing all coal and operating nuclear plants •  Plant Miller burns around 9,600 tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal/day on each unit or around 12,000,000 tons per year

Plant Miller Facts Cont.
•  Plant Miller cost $1.9 billion dollars to construct. During construction 11.6 million cubic yards of dirt and rock were removed from the construction site, and 485,000 cubic yards of concrete were used.

Miller Environmental Upgrades
•  SCRs- Selective Catalytic Reduction
–  The Problem
•  Whenever coal is burned in air, the components of air – oxygen and nitrogen content in the coal – can combine to form nitrogen oxides, or NOx. •  NOx is a green house gas and is regulated under the Clean Air Act.

Miller Environmental Upgrades
•  SCRs Cont.
–  The Solution
•  SCRs reduce NOX, by 80-90% •  Units 3 and 4 placed in service in 2003 •  Units 1 and 2 placed in service in 2005 •  Cost of $400,000,000 •  The SCRs operate at around 700°F. Ammonia is injected into the gas before it enters the SCR. The catalyst aids the NOx and the ammonia mixing to produce harmless nitrogen gas and water.

Miller Environmental Upgrades
•  FGDs- Flue Gas Desulfurization “Scrubbers”
–  The Problem
•  The coal burned to produce electricity contains sulfur, an element that when burned in air produces sulfur dioxide (SO2). The amount of SO2 emitted is directly related to the amount of sulfur in the coal PRB coal contains approximately 0.4% sulfur while Eastern coal contains approximately 1% sulfur. SO2 can cause acid rain and is regulated under the Clean Air Act



Miller Environmental Upgrades
•  FGDs Cont.
–  The Solution
•  Scrubbers reduce SO2 emissions by 95-99% •  Reduces mercury and fine particulate emissions •  In service dates: –  Unit 3 (December 2009) –  Unit 4 (February 2010) –  Unit 2 (April 2010) –  Unit 1 (April 2011) •  Total Miller cost approximately $900million

Miller Environmental Upgrades
•  The Process: •  CaCO3 + SO2 + 2 H2O + 1/2 O2 ↔CaSO4 •  Limestone + SO2 + Water + Oxygen →Gypsum •  On Average, for every ton of SO2 removed:
–  * 1.7 tons of limestone must be used –  * 3.5 tons of gypsum produced

Plant Miller Today

Miller Environmental Controls
Since 2000 Plant Miller has spent over $1billion on new Environmental controls
Coal Fired Boiler NOX Control SCR
Air Heater


Old Stack

SO2 Control Scrubber

New Stack

Low NOX Burners
Bottom Ash

Gypsum Coal Mill Fan Flyash

Future Environmental Controls/Tests
•  Mercury Control
–  –  –  –  Calcium Bromide Injection Scrubbers Coal additives Etc…

•  CO2
–  ADA Solid Sorbent Technology

Project Goals
•  The overall objective of this funding stage is to validate solid sorbent-based post combustion CO2 capture through slipstream pilot testing. •  Project Goals: –  Achieve 90% CO2 Capture –  Make progress in limiting the increase of Levelized Cost of Electricity LCOE to 35% for a commercial unit –  Generate a high purity CO2 stream –  Successfully scale sorbents

CO2 Removal Technology
1 MW Pilot

•  Process
–  Flue gas passes through Adsorber module where sorbent particle adsorbs CO2 –  Regenerable solid sorbent CO2 cycles between Adsorber and Adsorber Regenerator. Raising the temperature of the of the Flue Gas sorbent releases CO2 Preparation
Flue gas


Baghous e

Regenerat or

Flue Gas CO2

Solid Sorbent Heat Exchanger

Process Blower

Potential Benefits of Solid Sorbents
•  Energy Penalty
–  Sensible heat requirement is less – although heat recovery should be considered –  Latent heat of evaporation

•  Corrosion
–  Less expensive materials of construction –  No corrosion inhibitors required

•  Air
–  Reduced emissions of amines

•  Water
–  Less cooling water required –  Minimal liquid waste

•  Process Flexibility and Operability
–  Can be applied to cycling plant “load following” –  No risk of foaming or other solventrelated challenges

Project Location

Unit 1 Scrubber

~ 80-90’

~ 50-60’


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