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12 12. 91

No. 66- December i*i

The ESO Council Visits Chile

H. VAN DER MAN, Director General, ESO

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fhe actual Council rneetlngtmk place

on December 4 (In Antofagasta), 5 (atLa

Silla)and 6 (inthe UN CEPAL building In

Santiago) and dealt with a nnurnb%rd

Important matters. Councli was pleased

to learnthat the VLT project is proceed-

Ing aocwding to the for-n time schedule and, in particular, wRhin the

greed budget frame. The recent suc- cessful proddon of the first 8-metm

blank at Schott for the VLT {which stlll

hastobeceramimdintothe zero-wpm-

sion Zerodur material) was noted with enthuslmrn. The planning of the VLT instrumenhtion Is progmlng at a gwd pace (cf, the overview article In Messenger W, p.1Q September 1891). Another important agenda Item was a thorough dFscuaslon about the relations

with the host state of our observatories,

summing up morethan 25 years ofex&- lent wllabotatlon betweon €SO and Chile, and consiMng how in the future these bondscanbe made more effective

still to both partnew' benefit, now that ESO is buildlng the VLT Observatory.

On Monday, December 9, ths Pred-

dentofthe Republlcof Chile, DonPaMcio Aylwin Azocar, granted an audience to a

small ESO delegatton, headed by Prof.

Franco Pacini, President of the ESO

Coundl. Pmldent Aylwin was infonnsd about the state of development of our

Organlzatbn, in which he exprmed a

keen, appreciative Interest. The ESO de

legation expressed Rs gratitude for the hospitalNyand support from the Repub- Ilc's authorities during the past 28 years and looks forward to continued collab-

oration In the decades to come.

Most of the Council members re-

turned to Europe at the end of the week.

Wow departure, many of them ex-

pdsathfactlonabwtthevlsh, bv- lng found It very usefuland contributing

to the work of Council. They came away

with a better understanding of tho con-

dltiona at the remote sites and were

vlslbly Impress&

tions. This working visit had oeminly

fuMHed expectations.

by the €SO opera-

Jaime Lavadm Mont8s, Rsctw of the

Uniwmk4d de Chile (second Irom Mi); and M.U. van dw Leen, DIredw Gem1 of ESO,ai tha Ineugwah of the LiSO Exhiiblton at the Univmided da Chic /n Sentlago cn UacemW2. The display wit1 remain open to the public until fhe and of Jammy 1992, Whmafier It wlll be

bans- to Lg Smna for &My drving the annual summer fair In that city. From there It

Pacini, hident of the ESO CoundI 0;Prof

ktw tmv&

to Anto-a.

In my discourse 1 emphasized that the

W ty of any research enterprise de

pends first and foremost on its human

resources. The most important condi- tion for the successful elaboration of

as-

Silla by ESO bus. Hem the Council members were met by the ta SHla staff

and spent the rest of the day informing themselves about the state of affairs at

ESO's main tnstalIatlon, and also about

the preparatkns for the move to Sari-

tiago of part of the staff, In partl~utar the

Adminlstrathn, to win

in the course of

1992.

In the evening, vislts were arranged to

the various telescqm. The sky was dear and there was a beautiful view of

the sunset over the Paclf~c,at the pres- ent time with a particularly strong red hue due to the dust In the hl~h&no-

spherefromthe eruptlon earlier this year of the Plnatuba volcano on the Philip- pines (cf. the photo on page 68). Then

the marvellous southern &y came into view, adding this grandest of all Insplra-

tions In astronomy to the delegates'

many impresstons.

ESO's

partnership

wlth

Chlle's

fronomycemrnunlty Isthat community's

ability to attract more talents from the

body of students wkh Interest in sci-

ence,to astronomy. This point was also

discussed with care In two separate au-

diences with two of CMle's ministers,

Don Ricardo Lagos and Don Edgardo Boenin~er,in the week before.

The next day, Council travelled by air ta Antofagasta and onwards to Paranal

by bus. The stark desert landscapa was

admired by the delgates,some of whom vlsitad Atama for the first time. On the top of the mountah, they were received

by various members of the €SO staff,

Includingthose who have been respon- sible for the long-term she ttesting that finally led to the acceptance of Pamal as the VLT she.There was ample oppor- tunlty to lnsp& the progress of the

levelling of the top (Including a big blast that day!) and to get a Wlng fw the

unusual worklng and living condlons at

this remote site.

In the evening, CouncH

returned to Antofagasta and spent the night there. A visR was mnged to the slte in the outskirts of the town where ESO Is acquiring a small property for Its

Mure installdons in that ctty.

Council left Antofagasta In the early

aflemoon of December 4, flew to La %ens (Ladeco, the intmd Chllean air-

line, had been convinced to make an unscheduled stop there) and on to La

A rec@hn was heM at the EsO Guesthouse1 In Santiago, In the evening of mber 2.

VLT Contracts

Ad. TARENGHIand R.Ad. WEST,

The&BmetreMirrors

Last year, ESO awardedthe contracts for manufacture of the 8.2-metre blanks to Schott Glaswerke AG In Mainz and for their polishing to R.E.O.S.C. in Paris, respectively (cf.Messenger 53, p. 2 and

57, p. 34.)

At Schott, each of the three anneal- inglceramiting ovens was filled with a meniscus blank. On November 12 one blank came out after completion of the annealing and was transported onto a CNC machine for machining to the dmlred meniscus shape. This activity Was followed immediately by the next

cast.

At REOSC the new building reached the roofing stage In October (Fig. 1). In December the installation of the lNNSE turntable and SOCOFRAM computer- controlled polisher will start. It is ex- pected that the new 8-rn polishing fac- tory will be ready for the first tests on the 8-m dummy in AprH 1992.

The MainStructure

On September 24, another major VLT contract was signed with the "AES Con- sortium"of three Italian companies dur- ing a small ceremony at the ESO headqu&ers in Garching. It concerns the construction of the main mechanical structures of the four 8-m VLT unit tele- %opes, each of which will weigh more than 440 tons and yet must be machined with sub-mlcron precision in order to allow astronomical obsma- tions of the highest quality.

The Consortiumpartners are: Ansaldo

Cornpanenti (of the IRI Finrneccanica

Group, leader of the Consottlum and

active In the field of energy generation components, located in Genova), ElE

(European Industrial Engineering, in the field of engineering design, in Mestre) and SOIMI (Societa lmpianti Industriali,

the Asea-Brown Boveri

(ABB) Group, an integrated multi-ser- vice organization spgcldizsd In con- struction and maintenance of industrial plants, in Milan). The contract was signed by Messrs. Fmccio Bressani (Director General of Ansaldo Componenti), Gianpietro Mar- elliod (Member of the Board of EIE) and Lulgi Qiuffrida (Managing Directar of SOtMI) on behalf of the Consortium, and

by Professor Harry van der Laan, Direc-

tor General of ESO. It includes the design, manufacture, pre-erection and thorough testing in Europe of the four VLT unit telescope

member of

structures, 88 well as the subsequent dismantling, packing and transport to

the VLT Observatory at Paranal. The contract also covers the erection and final testing at Paranal. The items to be supplied by the con- tractors include all of the steel struc- tures which will carry the optical mirror cells and astronomical instruments; ad- vanced hydrostatic bearings on which these heavy structures wlll rest; direct drive motors wlth 9-metre diameter which will move the telescopes (the de sign of these motors is based on an axial, dual air-gap configuration and they will be some of the biggest ever built), and high-precision encoders that will measure the exact position of the

telescopes, so that they can be correctly and accurately pointed. A schematic drawing of one of the four VLT unit tele- scopes with all of these components is

shown in Figure 2.

Thls contract requires very high en- gineering quality with respect to techni- cal reliability, safetyand lifetime in order to guarantee the planned performance of the VLT and to fully satisfy the high

expectations of European astronomers in the scientific capabilities of their fu- ture giant telescope. Forthis reason, the Italian firms have decided to pool their extensive resources and experience. ElE and Ansaldo Componenti have made important contributions to the constructions of the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope, including the

construction of the octagonal, rotating building and the mirror cell with ac- tuators for the computer-controlled, ac- tive-optics MT mirror. EIE was also In- volved in studies of the VLT domes. Another Italian Consortium, formed by Ansaldo Componenti (leader),CRlV and INNSE, constructsthe 3.5-m GalileoTe- lescope for Italy, a twin of the ESO MT. The construction of the VLT main structureswill start within a few months and the parts for the first of the four 8-m telescopes will be delivered to Pmal in late 1994. The erection and testing will be ready in September 1995, where- after he giant mirrors, which are made In Germany and polished in France, will be installed. The other three telescopes will then follow in one-year intervals, so that the entire VLT complex can be ready in 1998, just over ten years after the decision by the Council of ESO to build the world's largest optical tele scope.

Next Contracts

The years 1991 and 1892 represent

the culmination of the VLT planning period. Durlng the next 12 months, andher dozen VLT contracts will be awarded after the normal tendering pro- cedure has led to the identification of the best suppliers. Among these contracts are the MI/ M3 units, the IW2 units, M2 and M3

mirrors, the VLT enclosures, the civil

Figure 1: The REOSC bullding at the new site in hint-Pierre du My. In the fm~mnd$ the

(Architect:

10-rn mtrance door, in the background the tower for the int~ometryt&s. AITEC, Constructionmpany: IPAC).

Figure 2: Definition of let-w

slructwa components and subsystems,

engineering work Including buildings,

roads,

systems, the main dements of intwbr-

ometry (a.g. auxiliary telescopes and delay lines). By the end of 1992, 80 per

cent of the VLT capital budget is ex-

pected to be committed.

site development and energy

STAFF MOVEMENTS

Arrivals

Europe

MILEMANS, Irma(NU, Rpgramme DocumontationAasktent/Ar&ivist RUPPI,Qiorgio(0, Wtware System Engineer

FREUDLING,Wolframp),Fellow

STEFL, Stanislav (CS), P,ssociate mu,Nenghang(RC), Assodate

Chile

MATHYS,GauEier(B),mate

STORM, &per

VAN WINCKEL, Hans(B),Student

(OQ,Fellow

furape

BAUER, Harry(D), UectronimlEngineer BECKER,Joaehim ID),VLTProikt Manager/Head, VLT DiviJon

The Paranal Observatory Becomes Reality

M.J. DE JONGE ESO

In the middle of September the first VLT contractor to execute work on the Paranal site, Interbetonfrom the Nether- lands, started to move its earth-moving equipment and basecamp to the site. Interbeton, contractedfor the levelling and landscaping of the mountain top, had prior to beginning the actual earth- moving work, to reestablish new topo- graphical references, The only topo- graphical reference in the Paranal area is namely on the peak of the mountain and would disappear with the start of

ths levelling work, While the survey work was going on, the base camp was finished and the contractor's staff moved into their tem- porary homes.

Drillingrigs, bulldozersand front load- ers moved to the mountain top and

started to make a first ptatfom, of a size

big enough to turn the trucks,to be used

for the transport of excavation material.

The levelling work, consisting of re- moving approximately 250000 m3 from

the mountain top to create a 20000 m2

flat area on which the telescopes, the optical laboratoriesand the Interferome- ter tracks will be located, had really

begun.

The first drillings led to the first earth removal by exp!osives and on Sep- tember 23 the silence of the Paranal area was broken, which initiatedthe VLT construction activity which will last till the end of the century.

The excavationmaterial will almost all be used to make an artificial platform to the east side of the telescope area on which the last part of the access road wit1 be constructed. This platform needs to be rather large since the road requires a 12-rn clear- ance width in order to allow the trans- port of large telescope parts and the main mirrors. As from the moment the Contractor moved to the site, also ESO staff be- longing to the VLT Division's Staff and Building Group installed themselves on the site in order to ensure permanent supervision of the levelling work. In par- ticular the compacting of the road plat- form requires intensive follow-up and

Figure3: DuiIIing rig in -,

preparing thenext wth rem~val.

Qure 4: ~cmationrmtadal Wng.

compaction

density tests are owltinu-

work of the road leading to tfw Paranal

ously made to verify that the specifid

loading capacity of the road, needed for

the heavy transports, is obtained.

h ESO staff furthermore initiated

sub-mil investigations at the location of Last but not least,the ESO staff was

area In view of improving the mad,

which is of paramount

importance for

both the construetlon and future opera- tion of the VlT ObsenratW,

the telescopes and started with survey

involved in designing, contracting and In

the installatfon of the construction base camp which pmvldes offices, dor- mitories and living quarters in which they will work and live for a number of years, until the new Observatory Build-

ings, under design with COW1 Consult in Denmark, are available.

A Report on the Second ESO Conference on High Resolution

Imaging by Interferometry

J.M. BECKERS and F. MERKLE, ESO

Over 200 scientists and engineem participated in the October 15 to 18,

1991 ESO Conference on "High Resolu-

tion Imaging by Interferometry", a

con-

ference devoted to ground-bd opti-

cal

intwferometrjc

imaging

In

as-

tronomy. This was the second confer- ence on this topic, the first one having

been held also in Garching in March

1988. In addition to four Introductory and review talks, the conference in-

cluded 150 conttibutlons on single- and

multiple-aperture interfmmetric imag- ing and three working sessions on adaptive optics, detectors and path-

length compensation. Sixty of these contributions were given orally, the rest by means of poster presentations. To keep the size of the conference within reasonable limits and to avoid parallel sessions, the scope of the meeting ex- cluded related topics like astrometry by interferometric means and contributd

papers on astronomical adaptive optics.

The Wer topic wlll be a major topic at

the Aprlt I 992 €SO meeting in Garching

on "Progress In Telescope and In- strumentation Techniques". Attendees

included parblcipants from Australla, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, the

USA, the USSR, and of come many European countries.

tutorials

As was the case in the first confer-

ence, R was preceded by a day d tuto-

rials intended for newcomers to the

field. It is becoming very clear, however,

that these tutorials havea muchbroader functlon. They are aIso attended by

"oldtimers" (old in this field means more

than half a dozen years!), including a

Nobel Laureate, who wanted to catch up on recent developments in the more

We here summarlre the parts of the

conference on speckle imaging, masked aperture imaging and multi-aperture im- aging. The outline of the conference is Mng followed. Using a number of real- time experiments in his magnificent

opening lecture,

Prof. W. Martiensen of

the University of FrankfurVMain demon- strated the dual nature of light, waves and particles. It was a fascinating ex- perience, even to the conference parti-

dipants most of

whom are experts in this

field but who, llke us; forget about the beauty of light In their quest to manlpu- late it.

Flgurs 1: irnv or the objmt RIM b the Masellank Clouds obtained with tbe Hobble

Telssoqpe MR,after image restweth) and by means of -Ie

Space

intertwometry with the La

Speckte Interferometry:

NBarine

Silla 2.2-rntel- (right). (Courtesy G. Weigelt et al.) In contrast to previous conferences and workshops on speckle interferome- try, there was relatively little discussion

relaxed atmosphere associated with the tutorials and precedingthe main confer- once. Over two thirds of the conference

obtained on relatively faint, complex ob- of the many different techniques avall-

jects. Recently full aperture, speckle in- terferometry with single telescopes has

patticipantsattendedthe tutorialswhich been complemented with single-tele gorithms was always discussed and

were given by Fmnpis Rcddler on Op- tics of the Atmosphere, Gerd Weigelt on Speckle Interferometry, John Davis on tong Baseline Optical Interferometry,

for the analysis of speckle images, with

tics.

ing algorithms the latter provides an im- a somewhat lesser attention given to the

and by one of us (FM) on Adaptive Op- In terms of the development of imag-

were presented at the conference. speckle masking and Mple mlation)

scope Interferometry using masks on the telescope aperture. Several results of the masked aperture observations

compared. The present discussions and

results focussed, however, mostly on'

able for the analysis of speckle obsenra- tions. In the past a wide variety of al-

blspectrum analysis (or their analogues:

Knox &Thompsonalgorithms. The latter requires fewer numerical resources for data analysis, otherwise the blspectrum

technique appears to

preferred.

Judging from the presentation of many

astronomical resub one has to con-

clude that this type of observation is

reaching a state of substantial maturity.

agreement between

the images of R136 obtained with the La

Silla 2.2-m telescope with those ob-

of observations. The trick in multi-aper- tained with the HubbleSpace Telescope

ture interferometry is the combination of

(Fig, 1) provides convincing evidence

tions. The algorithms for making images

are virtually the same for all three types

portant step towards

multi-aperture in-

TheConference Itself

Four full days were devoted to discus- sions on the rapid progress in the tech- niqu~of astronomical imaging by inter-

terfemrnetric imaging in which the sub-

apertures of the single

telescope are

replaced by an array of telescopes. In the resulting interference signal at the

combined focus

the ampludes and clo-

be

ferometric means and in the presents- sure phases are measured as is done in tion of recent astronomical results. the single masked aperture experiments

Broadly, the teohnlquea and their results and also in radio astronomy obma- Also the excellent

can be dlvided by single-aperture imag- ing and multi-aperture imaging. Single telescope intwferometric imaging

started In 1959 with Antoine Labeyrie's

pioneering work in speckle interferome- the radiation in such a way as to obtain

try. Since then these techniques have the highest possible sensitivity by mdn- At the conference results were pre-

sented of other objects, including ob-

come a long way, reaching the stage

where diffraction-limited imaging can be contrast. sewations of such diverse objects as

that speckle lmaglng has come of age.

tainhg the interferencesignal, w fringe,

Figure 2: Images of the variations d the red supergiant a ORI taken with the 4-m Herschel relescope at three epochs using aperture masking.

The width of the Airy disk far this tekmpe is about 30 rnilli-mm resuIting in mly 3 b 4 pixels In this 5U miIlikam8c star. (Courtesy Baldwin el

d.)

I

I

0

50

I

loom

a vldble speckle camera (seealso %p-

fsmber 1991, The Messenger)I Both oi these camem will make use of the

unique high imaging qualities of the VLT telescopes. In thelr performance my

will be aided by the VLT adaptive optics

which can be viewed as a way of im-

proving the astronomical seeing hence

enhancing the sensitlvh and limiting

magnitude ofthe cameras. In contributions by Roddier and one of us (JMB) the point-spread functlon of

optics was

so-calted partid a&ptlve

discussed. The VLT adaptive optics will

be design6d to work fully at 2 pm under

median -ng mnditioas. At shorter wavelengths it wHI wwk partidly. It Is bmming vary clear through numerid madelling that in such a partially func- tioning adaptive optics system the

point-spread function conslsts of a spike with the chamcterlstics of an Airy disk supwposed on a broad halo with

the width approximating the seeing

disk. The shape of this function Is not

unlike that of the aberratgd Hobble Space Telescope. The fraction of the total energy h the spike characterizes the point-spread function wdl. It amwnts to 10% M more at visible wavelengths depending on the seeing.

Because of the narrowness of the splke

p.0125 amec at 500 nm) and the rela-

tively large width of the halo (0.5 arcsec) the relative centmi intensity of the spike

is large. Rocidler therefore suggested

thatlong-exposure Images may be usecl

speckle images

to good advantage over

to give n hr IimIted semitlvity than

speckle cameras, of course after Imag~

restorationfor the background halo (61 la

Figure3: Layout of the VLT Intwfemmek hge divlrclrclm Indicate the loeiltiana

the 8-13 Hubbte)mThe VLTv'sib'e Spekle

Cam-

~copss.SmaII dark ~IEI~Sam the locations of the staths k the 180-mdiameter MIe

auxMiary telasebpes. Thelarge mhngle Is the Iocetbnof thetnMemmetrietunnel. A mailed

era

acc~mrnodatehis pd~dadwtive op

pmmly

be

dalgnd

to

dmcn'ptim of the VLTl laywt will appeev in a

fuhKe &sub of the Messenger.

ticq l~ng-~pw~r~limaging mode.

Eta Carlnae. the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068, the Galactic Centre (see Sep- tember 1991 issue of the Messenger)

and the Sun.

Impact on the VLT InstrumentationProgramme

With the 8- to 10-117 diameter tele- scopes corning on the scene, the tech-

nique of speckle interferome@ will re-

sutt in images with a linear resolution 4 times larger than shown in Figure 1 (or

16 times the number of pixels per reso- lutionelement).The VLT instrumentation programme includes two instruments for diactian-limited imaging with the individual VLT telescopes: a near-in-

frared camera for the 1 to be built by a consortium

5 pm region to headed by the

Figure 4: Artist's

view of the planned Keck Intedemmefric Amy consisting of two la-m

Aperture Masking:

a Step Towards Multi-Aperture

Interferometry

Many large-aperture telescopes (e.g.

Hale telescope, Herschel telescope and

Anglo-Australian telescope) are now be- ing successfully used for high angular resolution lmaglng using aperture masks to mimic multl-aperture interfer- ometry. Figure 2 shows a fine result of

these experiments far the variable red supergiant star Betelgeuse.

These experimental observations are

of great importance not only because of

their astrophysical impact but also as a

precursor to the imaging with multiple

aperture interferometem. By using aper- ture masking the valldity of imaging al-

gorithms can be evaluated under realis-

tic observing conditions, includingvari- ous levels of photon noise.

Multi-Aperture Interferometry

A great deal of time was devoted to discussing the progress In multi-aper- ture Interferometry. Incontrast to speck- le interferometry this is a field which Is

exphncing

wlopment Of

apid advances in the de- techniques

two-dimen-

but with the ability to do full

sional imaging still to be realized. Inter-

ferometeiinixistence are now usedto

do astrome@(not

the topic of the

conference) and to determine a limited number of parameters on stellar objects

like diameters and binary orbits and

separation.Table 1 liststhe interfemme ters presently routinely in operation. The last two Interferometers in Table 1 (SUSl and COAST) have only

recently come into operation and first results were reported at the conference.

What is especially impressive in these new InterferometersIsthat "first fringesm are obtained soon after the installation

of he interferometer testifying to the

I

>.

ilrtlli

14

r8b

i

c

-a -+ -la

I

I

I.,

ts

SD

- -

s

a

-

-a-iu-~&

fact that the construction of optical in-

tarferorneters and delay lines with the

tlonat properties is well within the state

ofthe art.

requird opto-mechanical and opera- In addition to the operational inter-

-

nwre 6: mistb view ol/lnto/nemrieb propos~~for a brier 4p~calvery age my, foreground me d th 27 teleswpes on its fransporter. To the right In the background the

hm--bining

swtion. (mufimyA, ~~b~~j~

Table 1: Optical lfiterfemmetm now In Operation

Locatton

Maximum

BaseUne

Number of

Telescopesn

Telescope

Aperture

----

CERGPJ12T

140 m

2

26

cm

CERWGITT

70 m

2

150 cm

CERMoirdwe

15 m

2

lOOcm

MMT

5 m

8

I80cm

Mt. WllsonlMarkIII

32 m

3

5m

Mt. WllsonllSl

13 m

2

165 cm

NarrabrVSUSl

B40m

2

14

cm

Cambridge UK/COAST

100m

2

40 crn

'- Number of tdmcopes In we at tMs time. Mben rrwre telescopes am phud.

Figure 7: IJbrneters of stars twrrndkd to the same magnAud8 as a fumtim of @fRl

observed wHh fheMark 111int-ter,

~1.0

(CourtesyR Ouimbach et a/.)

p Pegasi

&P

+

754 nm (cont.)

0

712 nm (TiO)

16.1 mas

17.6 mas

Projected Baseline

[a rcsee-' ]

figure 8: The Mnge vl8ibUlify # a funchn of interfmter basdine for two

bMs

centred mpecwy on a 770 moIecuIar band and the &y

cunthruum far the giant star

of *

B PEG. me W ved dkrnefwls of re~m0.01 76 and 0.0161 arm have an

O.OMH amm so that the dmfences are real, The dim are an important diagmfie for the extended ahasphere. (Coumy A Quirrenbachet at.)

ferometers listed In Table 1, a number of

interferometers are in the constructi~n

and planning phase. The former include

the Big Optical Amy (BOA) by the US

Naval Research Laboratory,

the US

Naval Observatory Astromdric Inter- ferometer, the ESO VLT Interferometer (see Fig. 31, the IOTA array by the Center for Astrophysics, an array at the Khazan

Obsarvatory (USSR), and the IRMA

array by the Univmity of Wyoming. In the planning phase are the Optical Very

Large Amy {OVLA)by Antohe Labeyrie,

the Kmk Interferometric Array (KIA)

shown in Figured, the CHARA inter-

ferometer of Georgia State University,

and extensions of some of the arrays

tlsted in Tabte 1.

Most of these arrays are Intended to

produce imagw in ways similar to the way this is done in radio Interferometers using image synthesis techniques rely- ing on tracking the object while It moves acrossthe sky,thus causingthe genera- tion of a number of tracks in the (up) Fourier transform plane. The relatively

large sizes of some of the telescopee

involved causes these tracks to be rela- tively 'YaV andtogive a good (u,v) plane filling nearthe low frequency origin. The latter is very impoftant in giving high

quality Images(seeFlg. 5).

At a minimum one night is needed to generate an image as shown in Figure 5. Often more than one night might be naededIf a good signal-to-noise ratio is

required. An lmpwtant advantage of the VLT Paranal site b the large periods of

clear skies alIowing unintenupted (u,v) plane track. Time synthesis techniques are, however, obviously inadequate for obsewatlons of full images of objects which change on a rapid time scale (less than one day). For that type of interfero-

metric imaging 'snapshots" are desired

which can only be obtained by arrays of many telescopes or by the capability to

rapidly reconfigure an array with fewer

telescopes. Antoine Labeyrie described

his plans to construct such an Optical Vey lage Array, or OVIA, co*iniw

27, or perhaps even 130, telescopes on

Earth and eventually on the Moon. Fig-

ure 6 shows an artist's view of the lunar version of OVLA. A price to pay for ma-

ing snapshot images by the sirnuha-

neous use of so many telescopes at

once, over an array of a few telescopes,

is the loss in signal-to-noise.

This results

from the need to mix in optical interfer- ometry all radlatton directly, so that th.e

signal for each two-telescope baseline

contains the photon noise of the light

collected by all telescopes. This Is a major difference between optical and radio intMerometerswhere such a lass

does not mur.

Some Reguttsof MUM-Aperture

Interferometry

As already mentioned, full imaging with multi-aperturearrays has not been achieved yet. The results of aperture masking expMments (see Fig. 2) gives confidencethat the imaging amp now being Implemented will result In as- tronomical Images within the not too dlstant future. Impmsive results were,

however, presented at the conference

on the orbii of spectroscopic bharies

and on

stellar

diameters,

Including

asymmgtrbs In the shape of stars like

Mira. As an example we show in Fig- ures 7 and 8 some of the diameter ob-

servations made with the Mt. Wilson Mark Ill lrttaferorneter.

Major Uncertaintiesaboutthe

AtmosphericWavefront Structure

Function

The spatial frequency distribution of

the wavefront distortions introduced by

the earth atmosphere is of great impor-

tance for the behaviour of interferome-

ters and for the wavelengthdependence of the seeing disk size, Frequently it is assumed to correspond to a Kot- mogoroff distribution whlch resub in

the RMS wavefront differences to grow

as the baseline to the power 5/6. Seri- ous concerns were expressed at the conference about the validity of the Kol-

mogwoff distribution. Obsewationswith

the two Mt. Wilson interferometers (Mark Ill and the ISt, see Table I)give very different results. Whereas the Mark Ill interferometer indeed gives results

consistent with a Kolmogoroff distribu- tion, the IS1 researchers find the expo-

nent to decreasefrom = 5/6 to =

good seeing mnditlons. This Is a vety

hrge difference which will have a major

influenoe on the predicted performance

of interferometers and large telescopes.

In for

Future Meetings

€SO plans to hold its next rneetlng in this conference series (High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry HI) in the spring of 1994. The topic of adaptive optics, of major Interest for interferome-

try, will be dealt with extensively in the

1992 ESO conference on

'Progress in Telescope and Instrumen- tation Techniques". From January 11-15, 1993 the IAU Symposium

April 27-30,

SClENTlST (DATA ARCHIVIST) - ref. ESD7A6

A position as Sclentlst (Data Archlvlst) wlll shortly be avalhble In the Science Archlve Software Group ofthe SpaceTelescope European Cmrdlnatlng Faclllty (ST-ECfl at the ESO HeadquartersIn Garchlng mar Munich, Germany, for a Sclsntist WIUIa unlverslty degree in astronomy, physics, or rdeted field,

huimrnenW

- $evefa!years of mearch experlenee, Including publicatbns In lnternatlonal refereed journals. The rmewch should be based on data obtalned with state-of-the-art Inatrumerttatlon, preferably also with spaoe-based telescopes.

- strong computer sclmence background, acquired either through formal education Or

through participation In major computer system develoment work.

- famllhrity wfth the principles of computer system management, networking and data

base management.

- experience wh UNUC and C; knowledge of VMS and Fortran an advantage.

- a high dmof familiarity with the principlesofsoftwaredevelopment rrsethdology, software system design and modern storage devices.

- exceltern English languagecommunication skills.

Mnnment:

The ST-ECF operates tha European Sclence Data Archive for the Hubble Space Telescope, whlch archhe has bwn developed In eollabwatlon with the Space Tele soope Sclenca Indtute. It Is alao used by ESO to store data obtalned at the telescopes on La SHla. The Archlve uses magnetic tape end optical disk storage, operated through a dedicated msor and data base hardware, The system is networked to the €SO computing faclllty and can also be am&s& through wide-area networks. The task olthe Scientist (DataArchivist) Isthe continuedmaintenanceand the further development and upgrading of the systm. He Is expected to develop cost-effective technical solutions, to negotiate WW and SN acqulsktons, and to supervise staff and

subcontmctors. Iwues of Importam are: system and data compatlbllity wlth the STScl, system reliability and security, flexlbllity ta incorporateuser mquirements. This pmitlon will beawarded Inkidly for a pew of 3 yews, renewableto a maxlrnurn of 6 years (Auxlllary contract).

Application forms can