12 12.

91 The ESO Council Visits Chile
H. VAN DER MAN, Director General, ESO
F r fim a

No. 66 - December i*i

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m y W a l tr new, wHkrg O ( ~ e r b o d k i y w b w C~OI&I of mte d m in. Chileand lbnrrat amrrs man' a wdmm t the memo of and mi Indlvlstble pact o wbm, He f W,the m m b m d the qoundl the Gotmdl W~~IIhe wisbd a ~ ~ -tD ~ h ~ j u a t p i d a y o ~ ~ w i s i t t o t h e :~ p y ~ W s & y i n h t s ~ . ~ @ ~ E ; ~ ~ I w ~ ~ W W t ~ Wlatfong h the first $hm t&d ~utbatM&mdastmhqnW # W m d he IooW toward b n y e n a ~akbomttonn the future. i 3972. tlhdef pr deap nbluti "sky' they a Memos WMI ah a p p ~ m h b d ~ b s w d ~ flmm the dt0 offhe ~ V L T ~ O b w and In e

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mld&d de Chlh h Wntown 6anWw. A lag& mrnbw of Illu$Mpw g w t s mqmcled to the @ t I v o h nl n w by We Rector of the UnkwsIW db: O ,Prof, J B h m i o s MQW amt W ~ mysdf, The Chtleern Mini$& o? E d w am, Dm R i c h @Qs EscobarI WIVsread the MkM apmlrtg s-h, and many members gf the diplbmc mp

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f h e actual Council rneetlng tmk place on December 4 (In Antofagasta), 5 (atLa Silla) and 6 (in the UN CEPAL building I n Santiago) and dealt with a nnurnb%rd Important matters. Councli was pleased to learn that the VLT project is proceedIng aocwding to the for-n time schedule and, in particular, wRhin the greed budget frame. The recent successful proddon of the first 8-metm blank at Schott for the VLT {which stlll hast be ceramimd into the zero-wpmo sion Zerodur material) was noted with enthuslmrn. The planning of the VLT instrumenhtion Is progmlng at a gwd pace (cf, the overview article In Messenger W, p.1Q September 1891). Another important agenda Item was a thorough dFscuaslon about the relations with the host state of our observatories, summing up morethan 25 years of ex&lent wllabotatlon betweon €SO and Pacini, h i d e n t of the ESO CoundI 0; Jaime Lavadm Mont8s, Rsctw of the Chile, and consiMng how in the future Prof Uniwmk4d de Chile (second Irom Mi);and M. van dw Leen, DIredw G e m 1 of ESO,a these bonds can be made more effective U. i tha Ineugwah of the LiSO Exhiibltonat the Univmided da C i /n Sentlago cn UacemW2. still to both partnew' benefit, now that hc The display wit1 remain open t the public until fhe and o Jammy 1992, Whmafier It wlll be ESO is buildlng the VLT Observatory. o f bansto Lg Smna for &My drving the annual summer fair In that city. From there It On Monday, December 9, ths Predk w tmv& to Anto-a. t dent of the Republlcof Chile, DonPaMcio Aylwin Azocar, granted an audience to a In my discourse 1 emphasized that the Silla by ESO bus. Hem the Council small ESO delegatton, headed by Prof. W of any research enterprise d e members were met by the ta SHla staff Franco Pacini, President of the ESO t y pends first and foremost on its human and spent the rest of the day informing Coundl. Pmldent Aylwin was infonnsd resources. The most important condi- themselves about the state of affairs at about the state of development of our tion for the successful elaboration of ESO's main tnstalIatlon, and also about Organlzatbn, in which he exprmed a ESO's partnership wlth Chlle's as- the preparatkns for the move to Sari- keen, appreciative Interest. The ESO d e tar fronomy cemrnunlty Is that community's tiago of part of the staff, In partl~u the legation expressed Rs gratitude for the in the course of hospitalNy and support from the Repubability to attract more talents from the Adminlstrathn, to Ilc's authorities during the past 28 years body of students wkh Interest in sci- 1992. In the evening, vislts were arranged to and looks forward to continued collabence,to astronomy. This point was also discussed with care In two separate au- the various telescqm. The sky was oration In the decades to come. Most of the Council members rediences with two of CMle's ministers, dear and there was a beautiful view of at Don Ricardo Lagos and Don Edgardo the sunset over the Paclf~c, the pres- turned to Europe at the end of the week. ent time with a particularly strong red W o w departure, many of them exBoenin~er, the week before. in &nop d sathfactlon abwt the vlsh, b v The next day, Council travelled by air hue due to the dust In the h l ~ h ta Antofagasta and onwards to Paranal sphere from the eruptlon earlier this year lng found It very useful and contributing by bus. The stark desert landscapa was of the Plnatuba volcano on the Philip- to the work of Council. They came away admired by the delgates,some of whom pines (cf. the photo on page 68). Then with a better understanding of tho convlsitad A t a m a for the first time. On the the marvellous southern &y came into dltiona at the remote sites and were top of the mountah, they were received view, adding this grandest of all Insplra- vlslbly Impress& by the €SO operaby various members of the €SO staff, tions In astronomy to the delegates' tions. This working visit had oeminly fuMHed expectations. Including those who have been respon- many impresstons. sible for the long-term she ttesting that finally led to the acceptance of Pamal as the VLT she.There was ample opportunlty to lnsp& the progress of the levelling of the top (Including a big blast that day!) and to get a W l n g fw the unusual worklng and living condlons at this remote site. In the evening, CouncH returned to Antofagasta and spent the night there. A visR was m n g e d to the slte in the outskirts of the town where ESO Is acquiring a small property for Its Mure installdons in that ctty. Council left Antofagasta In the early aflemoon of December 4, flew to La %ens (Ladeco, the intmd Chllean airline, had been convinced to make an . unscheduled stop there) and on to La A rec@hn was heM at the EsO Guesthouse In Santiago, In the evening of m b e r 2

w i n


VLT Contracts
The &Bmetre Mirrors
Last year, ESO awarded the contracts for manufacture of the 8.2-metre blanks to Schott Glaswerke AG In Mainz and
for their polishing to R.E.O.S.C. in Paris, respectively (cf.Messenger 53, p. 2 and 57, p. 34.) At Schott, each of the three anneal-

inglceramiting ovens was filled with a

meniscus blank. On November 12 one
blank came out after completion of the annealing and was transported onto a CNC machine for machining to the dmlred meniscus shape. This activity Was followed immediately by the next

At REOSC the new building reached the roofing stage In October (Fig. 1). In December the installation of the lNNSE turntable and SOCOFRAM computercontrolled polisher will start. It is expected that the new 8-rn polishing factory will be ready for the first tests on the 8-m dummy in AprH 1992.

The Main Structure
On September 24, another major VLT contract was signed with the "AES Consortium" of three Italian companies during a small ceremony at the ESO headqu&ers in Garching. It concerns the construction of the main mechanical structures of the four 8-m VLT unit tele%opes, each of which will weigh more than 440 tons and yet must be machined with sub-mlcron precision in order to allow astronomical obsmations of the highest quality. The Consortium partners are: Ansaldo Cornpanenti (of the IRI Finrneccanica Group, leader of the Consottlum and active In the field of energy generation components, located in Genova), ElE (European Industrial Engineering, in the field of engineering design, in Mestre) and SOIMI (Societa lmpianti Industriali, member of the Asea-Brown Boveri (ABB) Group, an integrated multi-service organization spgcldizsd In construction and maintenance of industrial plants, in Milan). The contract was signed by Messrs. F m c c i o Bressani (Director General of Ansaldo Componenti), Gianpietro Marelliod (Member of the Board of EIE) and Lulgi Qiuffrida (Managing Directar of SOtMI) on behalf of the Consortium, and by Professor Harry van der Laan, Director General of ESO. It includes the design, manufacture, pre-erection and thorough testing in Europe of the four VLT unit telescope

structures, 88 well as the subsequent dismantling, packing and transport to the VLT Observatory at Paranal. The contract also covers the erection and final testing at Paranal. The items to be supplied by the contractors include all of the steel structures which will carry the optical mirror cells and astronomical instruments; advanced hydrostatic bearings on which these heavy structures wlll rest; direct drive motors wlth 9-metre diameter which will move the telescopes (the d e sign of these motors is based on an axial, dual air-gap configuration and they will be some of the biggest ever built), and high-precision encoders that will measure the exact position o the f telescopes, so that they can be correctly and accurately pointed. A schematic drawing of one of the four VLT unit telescopes with all of these components is shown in Figure 2. Thls contract requires very high engineering quality with respect to technical reliability, safety and lifetime in order to guarantee the planned performance of the VLT and to fully satisfy the high expectations of European astronomers in the scientific capabilities of their future giant telescope. For this reason, the Italian firms have decided to pool their extensive resources and experience. ElE and Ansaldo Componenti have made important contributions to the constructions of the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope, including the

construction of the octagonal, rotating building and the mirror cell with actuators for the computer-controlled, active-optics MT mirror. EIE was also Involved in studies of the VLT domes. Another Italian Consortium, formed by Ansaldo Componenti (leader),CRlV and INNSE, constructs the 3.5-m Galileo Telescope for Italy, a twin of the ESO MT. The construction of the VLT main structures will start within a few months and the parts for the first of the four 8-m telescopes will be delivered to P m a l in late 1994. The erection and testing will be ready in September 1995, whereafter h e giant mirrors, which are made In Germany and polished in France, will be installed. The other three telescopes will then follow in one-year intervals, so that the entire VLT complex can be ready in 1998, just over ten years after the decision by the Council of ESO to build the world's largest optical tele scope.

Next Contracts
The years 1991 and 1892 represent the culmination of the VLT planning period. Durlng the next 12 months, andher dozen VLT contracts will be awarded after the normal tendering procedure has led to the identification of the best suppliers. Among these contracts are the MI/ M3 units, the IW2 units, M2 and M3 mirrors, the VLT enclosures, the civil

Figure 1: The REOSC bullding at the new site in hint-Pierre du M y . In the f m ~ m n $ the d 10-rn mtrance door, in the background the tower for the i n t ~ o m e t r y t&s. (Architect: AITEC, Construction m p a n y : IPAC).


engineering work Including buildings, roads, site development and energy systems, the main dements of intwbrometry (a.g. auxiliary telescopes and delay lines).By the end of 1992, 80 per cent of the V T capital budget is exL pected to be committed.

Europe MILEMANS, Irma (NU, Rpgramme DocumontationAasktent/Ar&ivist RUPPI,Qiorgio (0, Wtware System Engineer FREUDLING, Wolfram p), Fellow STEFL, Stanislav (CS), P,ssociate Nenghang(RC), Assodate


Chile MATHYS, GauEier (B), m a t e STORM, &per (OQ,Fellow VAN WINCKEL, Hans (B), Student


Figure 2: Definition of l t w e-

slructwa components and subsystems,

BAUER, Harry (D), Uectroniml Engineer BECKER, Joaehim ID),VLTProikt Manager/ Head, VLT DiviJon

The Paranal Observatory Becomes Reality
In the middle of September the first VLT contractor to execute work on the Paranal site, Interbeton from the Netherlands, started to move its earth-moving equipment and basecamp to the site. Interbeton, contracted for the levelling and landscaping of the mountain top, had prior to beginning the actual earthmoving work, to reestablish new topographical references, The only topographical reference in the Paranal area is namely on the peak of the mountain and would disappear with the start of ths levelling work, While the survey work was going on, the base camp was finished and the contractor's staff moved into their temporary homes. Drilling rigs, bulldozers and front loaders moved to the mountain top and started to make a first ptatfom, of a size big enough to turn the trucks, to be used for the transport of excavation material. The levelling work, consisting of removing approximately 250000 m3 from the mountain top to create a 20000 m2 flat area on which the telescopes, the optical laboratories and the Interferometer tracks will be located, had really begun. The first drillings led to the first earth removal by exp!osives and on September 23 the silence of the Paranal area was broken, which initiatedthe VLT construction activity which will last till the end of the century.
The excavation material will almost all be used to make an artificial platform to the east side of the telescope area on which the last part of the access road wit1 be constructed. This platform needs to be rather large since the road requires a 12-rn clearance width in order to allow the transport of large telescope parts and the main mirrors. As from the moment the Contractor moved to the site, also ESO staff belonging to the VLT Division's Staff and Building Group installed themselves on the site in order to ensure permanent supervision of the levelling work. In particular the compacting of the road platform requires intensive follow-up and

Figure 3 DuiIIing rig in : ,

preparing the next w t h rem~val.

Qure 4: ~cmation rmtadal W n g .

compaction density tests are owltinuously made to verify that the specifid loading capacity of the road, needed for the heavy transports, is obtained. h ESO staff furthermore initiated sub-mil investigations at the location of the telescopes and started with survey

work of the road leading to tfw Paranal area In view of improving the mad, which is of paramount importance for both the construetlon and future operation of the VlT ObsenratW, Last but not least,the ESO staff was involved in designing, contracting and In

the installatfon of the construction base
camp which pmvldes offices, dormitories and living quarters in which they will work and live for a number of years, until the new Observatory Buildings, under design with COW1 Consult in Denmark, are available.

A Report on the Second ESO Conference on High Resolution
Imaging by Interferometry
Over 200 scientists and engineem participated in the October 15 to 18, 1991 ESO Conference on "High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry", a conference devoted to g r o u n d - b d optical intwferometrjc imaging In astronomy. This was the second conference on this topic, the first one having been held also in Garching in March 1988. In addition to four Introductory and review talks, the conference included 150 conttibutlons on single- and multiple-aperture interfmmetric imaging and three working sessions on adaptive optics, detectors and pathlength compensation. Sixty of these contributions were given orally, the r s et by means of poster presentations. To keep the size of the conference within reasonable limits and to avoid parallel sessions, the scope of the meeting excluded related topics like astrometry by interferometric means and contributd papers on astronomical adaptive optics. The Wer topic wlll be a major topic at the Aprl t I 992 €SO meeting in Garching on "Progress In Telescope and Instrumentation Techniques". Attendees included parblcipants from Australla, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, the USA, the USSR, and of come many European countries.

As was the case in the first conference, R was preceded by a day d tutorials intended for newcomers to the field. It is becoming very clear, however, that these tutorials have a much broader functlon. They are aIso attended by "oldtimers" (old in this field means more than half a dozen years!), including a Nobel Laureate, who wanted to catch up on recent developments in the more

We here summarlre the parts of the conference on speckle imaging, masked aperture imaging and multi-aperture imaging. The outline of the conference is M n g followed. Using a number of realtime experiments in his magnificent opening lecture, Prof. W. Martiensen of the University of FrankfurVMain demonstrated the dual nature of light, waves and particles. It was a fascinating experience, even to the conference partidipants most of whom are experts in this field but who, llke us; forget about the beauty of light In their quest to manlpulate it.
Flgurs 1: i r n v o the objmt R I M b the Masellank Clouds obtained with tbe Hobble Space r Telssoqpe MR,after image r e s t w e t h ) and by means of -Ie intertwometry with the La Silla 2.2-rn tel(right). (Courtesy G. Weigelt et al.)

Speckte Interferometry: NBarine
In contrast to previous conferences and workshops on speckle interferometry, there was relatively little discussion of the many different techniques avallable for the analysis of speckle obsenrations. In the past a wide variety of algorithms was always discussed and compared. The present discussions and results focussed, however, mostly on' blspectrum analysis (or their analogues: speckle masking and Mple m l a t i o n ) for the analysis of speckle images, with a somewhat lesser attention given to the Knox &Thompson algorithms. The latter requires fewer numerical resources for data analysis, otherwise the blspectrum technique appears to be preferred. Judging from the presentation of many astronomical resub one has to conclude that this type of observation is reaching a state of substantial maturity. Also the excellent agreement between the images of R136 obtained with the La Silla 2.2-m telescope with those obtained with the HubbleSpace Telescope (Fig, 1) provides convincing evidence that speckle lmaglng has come of age. At the conference results were presented of other objects, including obsewations of such diverse objects as

relaxed atmosphere associated with the tutorials and precedingthe main conferonce. Over two thirds of the conference patticipantsattended the tutorials which were given by Fmnpis Rcddler on Optics of the Atmosphere, Gerd Weigelt on Speckle Interferometry, John Davis on tong Baseline Optical Interferometry, and by one of us (FM) on Adaptive Optics.

The Conference Itself
Four full days were devoted to discussions on the rapid progress in the techn i q u of astronomical imaging by inter~ ferometric means and in the presentstion of recent astronomical results. Broadly, the teohnlquea and their results can be dlvided by single-aperture imaging and multi-aperture imaging. Single telescope intwferometric imaging started In 1959 with Antoine Labeyrie's pioneering work in speckle interferometry. Since then these techniques have come a long way, reaching the stage where diffraction-limited imaging can be

obtained on relatively faint, complex objects. Recently full aperture, speckle interferometry with single telescopes has been complemented with single-tele scope Interferometry using masks on the telescope aperture. Several results of the masked aperture observations were presented at the conference. In terms of the development of imaging algorithms the latter provides an important step towards multi-aperture interfemrnetric imaging in which the subapertures of the single telescope are replaced by an array of telescopes. In the resulting interference signal at the combined focus the ampludes and closure phases are measured as is done in the single masked aperture experiments and also in radio astronomy o b m a tions. The algorithms for making images are virtually the same for all three types of observations. The trick in multi-aperture interferometry is the combinationof the radiation in such a way as to obtain the highest possible sensitivity by mdntainhg the interferencesignal, w fringe,


Figure 2: Images o the variations d the red supergiant a ORI taken with the 4-m Herschel relescope at three epochs using aperture masking. f The width of the Airy disk far this tekmpe is about 30 rnilli-mm resuIting i mly 3 b 4 pixels In this 5U miIlikam8c star. (Courtesy Baldwin el n d.)

a vldble speckle camera (see also %pfsmber 1991, The Messenger)I Both oi these camem will make use of the unique high imaging qualities of the VLT telescopes. In thelr performance m y will be aided by the VLT adaptive optics which can be viewed as a way of improving the astronomical seeing hence enhancing the sensitlvh and limiting magnitude of the cameras. In contributions by Roddier and one of us (JMB) the point-spread functlon of so-calted partid a&ptlve optics was discussed. The VLT adaptive optics will be design6d to work fully at 2 pm under median -ng mnditioas. At shorter wavelengths it wHI wwk partidly. It Is bmming vary clear through numerid madelling that in such a partially functioning adaptive optics system the point-spread function conslsts o a f spike with the chamcterlstics of an Airy disk supwposed on a broad halo with the width approximating the seeing disk. The shape of this function Is not unlike that of the aberratgd Hobble Space Telescope. The fraction of the total energy h the spike characterizes the point-spread function wdl. It amwnts to 10% M more at visible wavelengths depending on the seeing. Because of the narrowness of the splke p.0125 a m e c at 500 nm) and the relatively large width of the halo (0.5 arcsec) the relative centmi intensity of the spike is large. Rocidler therefore suggested that long-exposure Images may be usecl to good advantage over speckle images to give n h r IimIted semitlvity than I speckle cameras, of course after Imag~ I I loom restorationfor the background halo (61 la 0 50 The CamFigure 3: Layout o the VLT Intwfemmek h g e divlr clrclm Indicate the loeiltiana the 8-13 Hubbte)m VLT v'sib'e Spekle f ~ c o p s sSmaII dark ~ I E I ~ S . am the locations of the staths kthe 1 0 m 8 - diameter M I e era pmmly be dalgnd to auxMiary telasebpes. The large mhngle I the Iocetbn o the tnMemmetrie tunnel. A mailed acc~mrnodate i s p d ~ adwtive o p s f h d ticq l ~ n g - ~ p wimaging mode. ~r~l dmcn'ptim of the VLTl laywt will appeev in a fuhKe &sub of the Messenger.

Eta Carlnae. the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068, the Galactic Centre (see September 1991 issue of the Messenger)

and the Sun.
Impact on the

VLT InstrumentationProgramme
With the 8- to 10-117 diameter telescopes corning on the scene, the technique o speckle interferome@ will ref sutt in images with a linear resolution 4 times larger than shown in Figure 1 (or 16 times the number of pixels per resolution element).The VLT instrumentation programme includes two instruments for diactian-limited imaging with the individual VLT telescopes: a near-infrared camera for the 1 to 5 pm region to be built by a consortium headed by the Max-Ptanck-lnstitut fiir Astronomb and

Figure 4: Artist's view of the planned Keck Intedemmefric Amy consisting of two la-m telescopes and 4 movable 15U-cm tel~scupes. (Courtesy R Mdnel et 61.1

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Aperture Masking: a Step Towards Multi-Aperture
Interferometry Many large-aperture telescopes (e.g. Hale telescope, Herschel telescope and Anglo-Australian telescope) are now being successfully used for high angular resolution lmaglng using aperture masks to mimic multl-aperture interferometry. Figure 2 shows a fine result of these experiments far the variable red supergiant star Betelgeuse. These experimental observations are of great importance not only because of their astrophysical impact but also as a precursor to the imaging with multiple aperture interferometem. By using aperture masking the valldity of imaging algorithms can be evaluated under realistic observing conditions, including various levels of photon noise.

fact that the construction of optical intarferorneters and delay lines with the requird opto-mechanical and opera-

tlonat properties is well within the state

ofthe art.
In addition to the operational inter-

Multi-Aperture Interferometry
A great deal o time was devoted to f discussing the progress In multi-aperture Interferometry. In contrast to speckle interferometry this is a field which Is exphncing apid advances in the de- nwre 6: mistb view ol/lnto/nem r i e b propos~~ a brier 4p~cal for very age m y , techniques foreground me d t h 27 teleswpes on its fransporter. To the right In the background the wlopment Of but with the ability to do full two-dimen- hm--bining swtion. (mufimy ~ A, ~ b ~ ~ j ~ sional imaging still to be realized. Interferometeiinixistence are now used to do astrome@(not the topic of the Table 1: Optical lfiterfemmetm now In Operation conference) and to determine a limited number of parameters on stellar objects Locatton Number o f Maximum Telescope like diameters and binary orbits and Telescopesn BaseUne Aperture separation. Table 1 lists the interfemme 140 m CERGPJ12T 2 26 cm ters presently routinely in operation. 70 m 2 CERWGITT 150 cm The last two Interferometers in CERMoirdwe 15 m 2 lOOcm Table 1 (SUSl and COAST) have only MMT 5m 8 I80 cm recently come into operation and first 32 m Mt. WllsonlMark III 3 5 m results were reported at the conference. Mt. WllsonllSl 2 13 m 165 cm What is especially impressive in these NarrabrVSUSl 2 B40m 14 cm new InterferometersI that "first fringesm Cambridge UK/COAST s 2 100m 40 crn are obtained soon after the installation ' Number of tdmcopes In we at tMs time. Mben rrwre telescopesam p h u d . of h e interferometer testifying to the



Figure 7: IJbrneters of stars twrrndkd to the same magnAud8 as a fumtim of @fRl observed wHh fhe Mark 111 int-ter, (Courtesy R Ouimbach e a/.) t




754 nm (cont.)


712 nm (TiO)

16.1 mas 17.6 mas

Projected Baseline [a rcsee-' ]

Most of these arrays are Intended to produce imagw in ways similar to the way this is done i radio Interferometers n using image synthesis techniques relying on tracking the object while It moves across the sky,thus causing the generation o a number of tracks in the (up) f Fourier transform plane. The relatively large sizes of some of the telescopee involved causes these tracks to be relat v l 'YaV and t give a good (u,v) plane iey o filling nearthe low frequency origin. The latter is very impoftant in giving high quality Images (seeFlg. 5). At a minimum one night is needed to generate an image as shown in Figure 5. Often more than one night might be naeded If a good signal-to-noise ratio is required. An lmpwtant advantage of the VLT Paranal site b the large periods of clear skies alIowing unintenupted (u,v) plane track. Time synthesis techniques &P are, however, obviously inadequate for obsewatlons of full images of objects which change on a rapid time scale (less than one day). For that type of interferometric imaging 'snapshots" are desired which can only be obtained by arrays of many telescopes or by the capability to rapidly reconfigure an array with fewer telescopes. Antoine Labeyrie described his plans to construct such an Optical V e y lage Array, or OVIA, co*iniw 27, or perhaps even 130, telescopes on Earth and eventually on the Moon. Figure 6 shows an artist's view of the lunar version of OVLA. A price to pay for m a ing snapshot images by the sirnuhaneous use of so many telescopes at once, over an array of a few telescopes, is the loss in signal-to-noise. This results f o the need to mix in optical interferrm ometry all radlatton directly, so that th.e signal for each two-telescope baseline contains the photon noise of the light collected by all telescopes. This Is a major difference between optical and radio intMerometers where such a lass does not m u r .
Some Regutts of MUM-Aperture

bMs figure 8: The Mnge vl8ibUlify # a funchn of i n t e r f m t e r basdine for two centred m p e c w y on a 70moIecuIar band and the & 7 y cunthruum far the giant star B PEG. me W e dkrnefwlsof r e ~ 0.0176 and 0.0161 a r m have an vd m of O.OMH a m m so that the dmfences are real, The d i m are an important diagmfie for the extended ahasphere. (Coumy A Quirrenbache at.) t


ferometers listed In Table 1, a number of interferometers are in the constructi~n and planning phase. The former include the Big Optical A m y (BOA) by the US Naval Research Laboratory, the US Naval Observatory Astromdric Interferometer, the ESO VLT Interferometer (see Fig. 31, the IOTA array by the Center for Astrophysics, an array at the Khazan

Obsarvatory (USSR), and the IRMA array by the Univmity of Wyoming. In the planning phase are the Optical Very Large A m y {OVLA) Antohe Labeyrie, by the Kmk Interferometric Array (KIA) shown in Figured, the CHARA interferometer of Georgia State University, and extensions of some of the arrays tlsted in Tabte 1.

As already mentioned, full imaging with multi-aperture arrays has not been achieved yet. The results of aperture masking expMments (see Fig. 2) gives confidence that the imaging a m p now being Implemented will result In astronomical Images within the not too dlstant future. Impmsive results were, however, presented at the conference on the orbii of spectroscopic bharies and on stellar diameters, Including asymmgtrbs In the shape of stars like Mira. As an example we show in Figures 7 and 8 some of the diameter observations made with the Mt. Wilson Mark Ill lrttaferorneter.

Major Uncertaintiesabout the Atmospheric Wavefront Structure

Function The spatial frequency distribution of
the wavefront distortions introduced by the earth atmosphere is of great importance for the behaviour of interferometers and for the wavelength dependence of the seeing disk size, Frequently it is assumed to correspond to a Kotmogoroff distribution whlch resub in the RMS wavefront differences to grow as the baseline to the power 5/6. Serious concerns were expressed at the conference about the validity of the Kolmogwoff distribution. Obsewations with the two Mt. Wilson interferometers (Mark Ill and the ISt, see Table I)give very different results. Whereas the Mark Ill interferometer indeed gives results consistent with a Kolmogoroff distribution, the IS1 researchers find the exponent to decrease from = 5/6 to = In for good seeing mnditlons. This Is a vety hg difference which will have a major re influenoe on the predicted performance of interferometers and large telescopes.


- ref. ESD7A6

A position as Sclentlst (Data Archlvlst) wlll shortly be avalhble In the Science Archlve Software Group ofthe Space Telescope European Cmrdlnatlng Faclllty (ST-ECfl a the t ESO Headquarters In Garchlng m r Munich, Germany, for a Sclsntist WIUI unlverslty a a degree in astronomy, physics, or rdeted field,


- $evefa!years of mearch experlenee, Includingpublicatbns In lnternatlonalrefereed
journals. The rmewch should be based on data obtalned with state-of-the-art

- strong computer sclmence background, acquired either through formal education Or

Inatrumerttatlon, preferably also with spaoe-based telescopes.

- famllhrity wfth the principlesof computer system management, networking and data base management. - experience w h UNUC and C; knowledge of VMS and Fortran an advantage. - a high d m o familiarity with the principles of softwaredevelopment rrsethdology, f
- exceltern English language communication skills.
software system design and modern storage devices.

through participation In major computer system develoment work.

Future Meetings
€SO plans to hold its next rneetlng in this conference s r e (High Resolution eis Imaging by Interferometry HI) in the spring of 1994. The topic of adaptive optics, of major Interest for interferometry, will be dealt with extensively in the April 27-30, 1992 ESO conference on 'Progress in Telescope and Instrument t o Techniques". From January ain 11-15, 1993 the IAU Symposium

Mnnment: The ST-ECF operates tha European Sclence Data Archive for the Hubble Space Telescope, whlch archhe has b w n developed In eollabwatlon with the Space Tele soope Sclenca Indtute. It Is alao used by ESO to store data obtalned at the telescopes on La SHla. The Archlve uses magnetic tape end optical disk storage, operated through a dedicated m s o r and data base hardware, The system is networked to the €SO computing faclllty and can also be am&s& through wide-area networks. The task o the Scientist (DataArchivist) Is the continued maintenance and the further l development and upgrading of the systm. He I expected to develop cost-effective s technical solutions, to negotiate WW and S N acqulsktons, and to supervise staff and subcontmctors. Iwues of Importam are: system and data compatlbllity wlth the STScl, system reliability and security, flexlbllity t incorporate user mquirements. a This pmitlon will beawarded Inkidly for a pw of 3 yews, renewableto a maxlrnurn e of 6 years (Auxlllary contract). Application forms can be obtained from [Indhtlng the reLno.): European Southern Observatory Personnel Admlnlstratlon and General Services Karl-Schwamchlld-Str.2 8046 Garehlng near Munich, Germany.

No, 158 in Sydney, Australia, on "Very High Angular Resolution Imaging" will

focus on interferometric imaging at both opttcal and radio wavelengths.


Optical Identification of Celestial High Energy Sources
G.F. BIGNAMI, P.A. CARAVEO and S.MEREGHKVI, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica del CNR,
Milano, liaiy J. PAUL, B. CORDIER and A. GOLDWURM, Service d 'Astrophysique,Centre d 'Etudes de Saciay, France P. MANDROU, J.P. ROQUES and G.VEDRENNE, Centre dlEfudeSpatiale des Rayonnernents, Toulouse, France
The problem of the optical identification of high energy (X-andy-ray) sources is a dassic of modern astronomy. It is only through the optlcal studies that one can gain complete understanding of objects, galllactlc and extragalactic dike, which emit a lot of their energy, through thermal and non thermal processes, in
photons 1000 or one million times more energetic than the optical ones. For hard
X-rays and y rays the problem I complis

~ated the swrce locatfon accuracy, by limited by the physics of the detection interaction. In particular, the focussing of photons is only possible if their wavelength is comparable to the surface roughness of the reflecting sudace, and this happens, in practice, only up to a few keV. This is why, in the presence of a poor-

ly positioned high-energy source, one tries to exploit the soff X-ray domain to zero on the possible optical counterparts. Broadly, this has been the stmtegy adopted in our Key Programme "Optical fallow up identification of hard X-ray/soft Tray murces discovered by the SlGMA telescope' (see alsa Blgnami et al., 1990). About two thirds of it have already been carried wt, and the first



been the target of several SIGMA observations which revealed its highly variable nature both In flux and spectral shape. In particular the presence on October 13, 1990 (Paul d at., 1991, Bouchet st al., 1991) of a significant bump In the 300-600 keV reglon, makes 1E 1740.7-2942 a very plausible candidate for the explanation of (at least part of) the variable 9%- annihilation Ilne measured, over more than a decade now, from the galactic centre region. Deep images of the region of I f 1740.7-2942 have been obtained in different filters, addlng slightly offset pointTo ing~. position the X-ray source in our Images we needed stars fainter than the mes contained in the GSC distributed on CDROM, so that we had to use the original digitkd GSC data, which were kindly communicated to us by 0 . Golombek. In Figure 3 the error circle has been superimposed to the 1 14minute image whlch appears to be about 3 magnitudes fainter than the SERC Iplate presented by Skinner et al., 1991. In fact, stars 1 to 7 are seen here for the first tima and their 1 magnitudes range from about 19 to 21-4. More objects are vislble I ttte 30 rn z n filter image shown in Figure 4. The very faint ones are better visible in the contour plot in Figure 5, where a marginally

Figure I : strategy of our ~ e Prcgmmme. y

several candidates are p m t down to a limiting magnitude of -21. The corm sponding R and z exposures did n t o reveat any candidate with peculiar colours. Given the low galactb lathdo of this field. absorption is a very critical
parameter, so that the next step would

Wsults can be briefly outtined in what

During two observing runs in January and May 1991, we used EMMt at the ESO) N I T tetescopeto perform imaging and spectroscopy in our candidate fields, selected following the strategy outlined In our original proposal. As mentioned, the idea is to bridge the gap between the SIGMA hard X-ray energy ( ~ 4 keV) range and the optical domain, 0 taking advantage, when feasible, of the location accuracy achievable from the ROSAT soft X-ray "all sky survey". As sketched in Figure I , this is hased on an ad hoc agreement between the proposing team and the Max-Planck-lnstitut far Extraterrestrischs Physik. This method was successfutly applied for the first time to the newly discovered G N A T source called GRS 1758-258, seen by both the French SIGMA and Soviet ART-P instruments (Sunyaev et d , . 1991). GRS 1758-258 lies only 40' from the bright soft X-ray source GX 5-1 to which prevkudy, for lack of resolving power, the hard radiation was erroneously attributed. Thus, the discovery of this new source is I itself a remarkable n achievement of the W e d mask technique, used extensively for the first tlme by the SIGMA and ART-P instruments. The position of the source, measured with -I' accuracy by the ART-P tetescope, has been dramatically improved thanks to the use of the ROSAT survey data In fact, using the welt-known posC tion 01 GX 5-1 as a reference, it has b m possible to locate GRS1758-258 within a 10" radius (90 % corrfidence) error box. Images were obtained with the EMMl red arm using R,I and z filtars on May 10, 1991 with the Ford Aerospace 2048 CCD, providing a pixel size of 0.35". The Guide S a Catalog of the tr HST was used to perform the astrornetry of the field in order to compute the source position and superimpose the ROSAT error box. The outcome is shown in Flgure 2 for a 1-m exposure in the I filter. The field is very crowded and

be obviously to obtain near IR images of this enor box.
During the May observing run, partially hampered by clouds and rain, we concentrated on 1E 1740.7-2942, a soft y-ray source 50' from the galatlc centre tine of sight. This source, already known to be the only high-energy source h the galactic centre region, has

I -


Fiwn2: I-bend Image of the sky region mtainlng GRS 1758-258. The enw baK radius is 70 mmc. NNorffr is t the top and East to the let?. o



k* cw)rahk@1E 1740.7-2W2. 7be emxbox radus is 12 Figure3 I-band : o f sy rvcsec. fJorthistoihe~andEBsttotheM.

molecular clouds in the centre of our galaxy, so thaf the search for a more standard counterpart should certainly not be abandoned. Further W ~ l e d Investigationsof SIGMA souroes must still await, at this time, accurate soft X-ray positioning to come mostly from the ROSAT mission. However, the case of Nova Muscae gives another example of an interesting correlation between y-ray astronomy from Sigma data and ground-based ESO observations, as pubtished by Della Valb e at., 1991. t In the spirit of our Key Programme we have also d e d towards the understanding, through the Investigation of optical counterparts, of a n u m h of peculiar, unidentified, presumably galactic X-ray sources. This has included, among others,recently discwered GINGA-ROSAT translents, and a number of other serendipitous mOSAT and Bnstein sources. Of particular interest is of 1E 120723-M08.8, OM of the the very few remaining Einstein HRI s o w w with no firm optical counterpart. The source is at medium galactlc latitude, in a non m d e d hkl, and e s ~ ~interesting because it is lol y cated near the aeometric centre of the SNR PKS 1255-82. Previous efforts (Malsui et 9881had an,y yielded a 17-magnitude field G dwaff inside the


detected source appears w the weak point-llke VLA radio source recently dlsowered by Prince and Skinner (1991) and proposed as the counterpart of 1El 740.7-2942. fhe relatlve positions of our new t-object and of the 0.6 mJy V I A source are such that an association between the two cannot be excluded. Of course, chance coincidence with a field source, b t h gdactic and ex-

tragalactic, I stlll potaible. s M r details on the optiml invesoe tigattons of GRS 1758-258 and 1El740.7-2942 can be found in Mereg W e al. (l991). l Recently, two papers (Bally and Leventhal, 1991; M i d et al., 1991) have appeared, suggesting in parallel a model for 1E1740.7-2442 based on a collapsed object embedded In a thick mdewlar cloud in the central region of the galaxy. The Idea is cerlainty tenable and also important because, if mm firmed, It wwld point to the first example of a new class of galactic high energy sources. Here again better ground-based observations including 1 R and radio millimetdc could be crucial fw an understanding if not of the object itself, pdxtbly invisible, at teast of its immediate surroundings. However, the C ~ coincidence of such ~cenatio I ~ is r a t k high, owing to the high density of



ngure 4: Image of the region of IE 1740.7-29r12 in the r W.

Image: gc2QmZ I I I I












5" HRI m r box, unlikely to be raponsible for the X-ray emWi. Our ffmr image with the NIT equipped with EFOSC2 in a night of gmd-to-moderate seeing ( . " showed the presence of a 09) 19-magnitude object 1.a" from the field star, and thus so far unseen. Thig is shown in Figure 6. The newly dlscwwed object is very likely to be the X - y source counterpart, although the preliminary spectrum taken a the K T t I, showing no obvious signature, d m not allow its irnrnedhte identiincation. The nature of this object cwld &Ill range from a neutron star, possibly asscciated with the SNR, to a field BL Lac. I conclusion, we would feel particun larly happy if our Key Programme, beyond its q u a n t i i v e muRs, had achieved its purpose of rendering the community aware of the importance of multiwavebnW astronomy from ground as well as from spa& -for tackIhg the new objectsdiscovered by highenergy astronomy.


Rgure 5: Contour plot d the image shown hr -re 4. The cross indicates the p & w d the d o sowce (a* 17 h 40 rn 4.299 s,d - 43'25" (1aO)). W


Wiy,J, m t h a l M., WQI, Nat 363,234. . Bignami G.,Caraveo P A , M m g t W i S. et al., 1 M , The -r00,16. Brxlcht L et al. 1991, A . (Letters). in p3

[)ella Vale M,, Jarvis BJ., West R.M., 1991, Aswon. Ashphys 247. L3h Maw1Y.. Long K.S,,Tuahy, I.R., 1988,&J. Mewhetti S., Caram P., Blgnami G F ,and .. Bell0111T 1991, subrnbted to A m Ae . , s . tmphys. Mirabel I.F., Mortis M.,Wlnk J. et d., 1991, Astron. , In press. Paul J., a aL, 1991, In Gamma-Ray Une a: Durouchoux Ph., ?rantN. ( h w York: IAP), 17. Pi T., Skinner G.K, 1091, IAU Circ. 5252. r m Skinner Q.K,e al., 1991, A s m . Amophys.., t I press. n Sunyaev R., e al., 1991, A m Astwhys. t s .
247, L29.



EMMI, Explorer of the Southern Sky
A new ESO video film has just become available, which desctibes the ESO multirnode Instrument, known as EMMl and now mounted at one of the N l T Nasmyth foci. The video explains in some M Ithe function of thls instrument and how It was built. There are also some examples of h a astronomical observations which have been made wlth EMMI. It can be obtained from the ESO Infomatim Service (address on last page). The cost I DM70.-. Premvment is reauired to s account NO. 2102002. Cornmerzb;ink Miinchen, B E 70040041.

ngure 6: ~ E F O S v image of I E I Z O ~ ~ - 5 2 0 9 . 8 . C ~ me tie10~istar (W=17.34)and the new candidate (m-19.04)are 1.8 amec apart, North is to the top and East to the left.


Trouble in the Magellanic Clouds!
First Results from the Key Programme on Coordinated Investigations of Selected Regions in the Magellanic Clouds K. S. DE BOER, Stemwade der Universitat Bonn, Germany F. SPITE, P. FRANqOlS, R. CAYREL, M. SPITE, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France B. BASCHEK, J. K~PPEN, lnstitut fur TheoretischeAstrophysik, Heidelberg, Germany 8.WOLF, 0. HL, A. JOTNER, Landesstemwarte, Heidelberg, Germany STA W.SEGGEWISS, D. J. BOMANS, E. K. GREBEL, E. M GEYER, T. RICHTLER, A. VALLENARI, Sternwarte der Universitat Bonn, Germany J. KOORNNEEF, Space Telescope Science Institute, on assignment from ESA F. P. ISMEL, Sterrewacht Leiden, Netherlands P. MOM RO, S. MONAl, G. VLADILO, Osservatorio As tronomico, Trieste, Italy S. D'ODORICO, R. LEISY, European Southern Observatory M. DENNEFELD,R FERLfl, A. VIDAL-MADJAR, lnstitut d 'Asfrophysique,Paris, France G.STASINSKA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France M, AZZOPARDI, N. MEYSSONNIER, G,MURATORIO, E. REBEIROT, Observatoire de Marseille, France J, LEQUEUX, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France
Does star formation proceed in an orderly way7 How homogeneous are the Magellanlc Cbuds in their metal content? Is the motion of the gas complexes welt behaved? In the course of the Key Programme we s M 8 d to doubt that our companion galaxies show systematic bhaviour. After two fairly aucce#ful observationat seasons with (except for the sliiless spectmmpy and #e photometry) good observing condions, conflicting evldence on some of the fundamental questions has been obtain& Our Key Programme was among the fimto be accepted and has as specialit y those two southern-sky gataxim

which unfortunately can be observed
under good conditions only in the southem summer. This means that Uw observational progress is slower than in programmes af survey nature. In addition, although our Key Programme does require a fairly large amount of telescope tlme, it consists of small subprogrammes, each of which takes a number o nights equal to that of any f reguhr ESO prop&. In short, especially the coordination aspect is important, both time-wise and with respect t o the objects (Regions) where the research Is carried ad. The regions had been selected on scientific grounds (see de Boer et al., 1989); here we show pictures of the MageHanic Clouds with the Regions marked (Fig. 1). The subprojects we are working on are the following: (1) spectroscopic survey with EFOSC (Marseille, Paris, Upp-

$&la); (2) CCD photometry in small fields within the regions (Bonn); (3) 1RAC photometty o the same (Baltimore, Leiden); f (4) stellar spectroscopy for the study of element abundance$ In the hot stars (Heldelberg)and cool stars (Meudon) of field and clusters; (5)the Investigatlm of the interstellar absorption lines (Trieste, Paris); (6) the study of the spectra of emission nebulae (Paris). All these p m jects are carried out in coordination and it I this aspect which promises (and s starts to show) new scientific results. During our first observing runs we concntmted on two of the regions with the young clusters NGC 3 and MGC W 1818. But also in Region E I the upper n edge of supershell LMC 4, in which one finds an old cluster and young stars, as well as in the supernova fleld observations were carried out. In dl cases puzzling effects have been found. A wv b w of earlier work and o new results f also from our Key Programme may be found in the conference praceedings edited by de Boer, Spite and Stasin& (1989) and by Haynes and Mllne (1991) respectively.

Reglon A in the SMC contains the young cluster NGC 330 which stands out from the field. Its age derived from

our CCD photometry I of approximately s 10 M y . The surrounding fietd population (If homogeneous) has an age of at least a factor of 10 larger. The cluster contains blue superglants, while the

field is almost devoid ofthese. Observations of the cluster area have been performed with EFOSCl in the slitless made using a grim and an Ha+[NIq Interference filter. Thanks to special software routines (Muratorlo and Aszopardi, 1990) this survey resutted in the Identificationof a b u t twice as many new Ha ernlssion-line objects as in the Curtis-Schmidt telescope spwtmooplc sunrey of tlte same field. This led to estimate the total number of Hc misc siondine objects in the SMC to about 40,000 (Meyssonnier and kopardl, 1991). In particular, about slxty Ha emission-line stars have been dismvered in the cluster NGC 330 (Fig. 2), while only 10 were known to Feast (1972). With the normal BVR CCD 6 servatlons, also an Ha wide filter was med for a few exposures. lncludlngalso Wmgren photometry, Grebe1 d a veloped in her Diplomathesis an elegant method to isolate the Be stars In the sample. Her Identifications could b confirmed completely with the EFOSC data From the final account of that work (Gmbdst at., 1991) we show the colourcolour plot (Fig. 3), demonstrating an exceptionat high Be star fraction in that SMC cluster. MetallIcity problems with NGC 330 emerged in a combination of studies. Spite, Richtkr and Spite (1991) and Barbuy et al. (1991) confirmed results of work carried out before the Key Programme, In showing that the metal content of red supergiants I NGC 330 is n -1.0 to -1.1 dex. Very similar results

Figure 1 : h the SMC and the L MC a l t 1o six regions have been defined where all studies of our Key Pf#gramme are concentrated. Region A: o8 f NGC 330and field. poor in gas and dust: Region 3 N27 and crowded field. rich in gas and dust: Region C: NGC 7818 and field, poor in gas and : dust Region D: N 159 and field,rich in gas and dust; Region E: NGC 1978. ElGC 1948. and N49. some gas and dust; Region?I SN Ig87A and field, gas and dust. (Picture with thanks to Reiner Donarski, ESO.)

have been obtained from one hot star in NGC 330 (see Reitemann et al., 1990. Jcttner et al., 1991). For work on hot stars it was necessary to obtain also IUE spectra to get reliable effective temperatures. For the field stars, earlier data by Spite, Barbuy and Spite (1989) and by Russell and Bessell (1989) from Mt. Stromlo, indicated that the field has a metal content of -0.6 to -0.7 dex. This was confirmed in a related study, where Grebel and Richtler (1991) could show from CCD Strijrngren photometry that the red giants and supergiants in NGC 330 have indeed a lower metallicity than those in the surrounding field, the difference being of the order of 0.5 dex. In short, the cluster NGC 330 is younger than the surrounding field stars but with a metallicity clearly below that of the field. This means that the SMC must be chemically very inhomogeneous! A sirnilar effect had been found spectroscopically in Region C in the LMC which contains NGC 1818 (Richtler, Spite and Spite, 1989; Reitermann et al., 1990). Here the data could not yet be substantiated through photometry. The abundance pattern of the elements in the Magellanic Clouds (Table 1) is in general not well understood. The large carbon deficiency found in the SMC HI! regions (Dufour et al., 1982) is neither found in the stars of NGC 330 (Barbuy et al., 1991) nor in those of the surrounding field. The question thus is: are the analyses of the

stars wrong or those of the HI1 regions, or perhaps both? Or is C still depleted in HII-region dust? The emission-line object sub-project (which was started late in the Key Programme) should soon give additional information. Type I planetary nebulae will be studied (C-N-O processes) and IUE data are being collected. How does the C abundance affect the dust content and the molecule formation in the Clouds? A related interesting result is that europium (an r-process element) is relatively enhanced in the stars of NGC 330 (Spite, Richtler and Spite, 1991). Does this indicate a

provided some input. But also the extinction may play a role. Recently, BesseIl(1991) has critically analysed the information available on the extinction toward the SMC. He found that E(8-V) is rather of the order 0.1 than negligibly small. In an effort to contribute to the discussion with our Key Programme, the strengths of the interstellar sodium tines in the spectra obtained for our stars in and near NGC 330 were analysed. It is found by Molaro and collaborators that the foreground E(B-V), as derived from the strengths of the Nal lines and the correlation of N(Na1) with E(B-V),

more primitive phase of chemical evotution in the Clouds (Westerlund, 1990)? The values for the extinction in the Clouds cause trouble too. For the study of the abundance In the red supergiant stars it is of utmost importance to have a very accurate temperature determination and here the photometry group has

amounts to 0.08 to 0.1 mag. Even a
smalt contribution by the SMC gas would bring the total E (B-V) near 0.1 1 mag. This new result indicates that some of the eaAer abundance studies may have to be reworked! Region E in the LMC, in the NW comer of the larger LMC-4 supershell,

Table 1. Derived metal abundance6 relative to solar




Eu/ Fe

Heglon A

HI1 regions


Region E

cluster field H ll regions

- 0.5

- 0.9 -09 . - 1.5 -

- 1.1 - 0.8 - 0.8
- 0.5


- 0.6

+ 0.7
+ 0.4




- 0.8

-05 .

- 0.3

- 0.9

+ 0.6


HII-region data from Ouiour el al. (1982)

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tRewdmfidd h a ageo*aWt ~ & W & u m a f O r @ M a n d m a r n y mn 1 GyY*m&&?md&ABmwi &eMng m be, o ~ ~ ~ 7 o ~ ~ ~ m o y j n t w ~ ~~ t ~ t@n F4WQ C M. promhrePd due is t h e d e p t h s ? w c b m d t b ~Forth58 . ~ ~ ~ d ~ a the dmo@bn inwamcMhpared wfth n d ' b
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far the classification of the stars as main Wuence or evolved star as well as with respect to the suitability for stellar and interstellar spectrosmpy. In ihe spectroscopic survey data hitherto unknown emission-line objects have been dimvBred, objects to be further investigated by the emission nebula project. the stellar spectra give in many cases Preliminary information on the interstellarabsorptionlines, although &en extra observations are required because of tha very high w l u t l o n needed. And, as indicated before, the I work helps to S determine the value of the extinction, an essential parameter in the abundance studies. The very existenw of our Key Programme has stimulated others to pool efforts and work on the same regionsas defined by us. The abundanm studies of hot and cool stars have benefitted much from the collaboration with M. Bessell from Mt. Stmmlo. Not only are &serving programmes coordinated, but the fact that h e l l analysed thus far stars of spectral type not addressed by us adds weight to our mutual research. RigM from the beginning, R was foreseen that our Key Programme would Intemct strongly with the ESO Key Programme on SEST CO obenrations of the Magellanic Clouds coordinated by Lequewt and Israel. For Regions C, D, and F the 12CO (1-0) observations are complete and some exist for the 12CO (2-1)trandtion. R q b n B has been partly covered and Region E Is bdng planned. In New Zealand, W. Tobin started patrolling some o our CCD fields in search f for variable stars. The M . John Universit ty Obsenratory (see Tobin, 1991) is farther to the south than any other easily accessible facility, lbelt with on average poorer weather conditions, but with Mr conditions for long-term monitore ing programmes. Finally, I cooperation with our Key n Programme, obsewing progmmmes are being canied out with ROSAT on the MCs. In patticular the Regions in the LMC will get goad coverage being so near to the orbital pole of that satellite.

HI 21 ern X=0.6 Y-1.0








heliocentric velocity (km/rec)
Figure 4: The intesstekr NEll spectnrm obtained at a resolutbn of IOO,OW In an expoam d 5400 set. with the 3.6-m shows ttm g m t dePaiI of the s t m m of the hfWsW& medium in the LMCh Region F Fwcomparlson theHl2l-cmptYle fmrnRohHsetal. ( 9 . ) . 1 8 4isshown to demmsh-ate thet (&isin a# lines of dght In Region g the 8trang H 2f -cm emission 270 km s ' I component I essmtMly absent In -tion, s Snce most of the materiel in this dlmtbn has a whx/fy near 300km s-l, the 270 km sl gas must be appmahlng thh part of the M C f m ' the mar r/ladilo ei a)., 1 1 . M)

Barbuy, B., Spite, M., Splte, F., Milone A. 1991, A s t m . As&uphys., in pr. BesselI, M.S. 1991, Aston, Astrophya, 242,

de Saer, K S . et al. 1389, 738 Meswww57, 27. de Boer, K.S., Spite, F., Stasinsker, G., Edltors. 1889, Recent M o p m n t s in MagdIank C l o d Research, Obs. de Paris. Dufwr, R.J., Shields, GA., Talbot, R.J. 1882, 4 . J . 262,451.

ESO was pleased to receive highlevel visitws from Gemany and Swltzerland a the Headquarters in Garchlng, t near Munich. On October 31, 1991 Mlnisterialdirigent Dr. H. Strub and MinisterialratinD . r A. Hansen (€SO Council delegates) spent a day with ESC) staff to Inform themselves about the latest developments at ESO, in particular about the VLT projed. Presentations w e made by senior ESQ staff, and the guests from Bonn 0. received detailed replies to thdr various Russell, S.C., Bmsdl, M S . 1988,Ap.J.S.70, questions. At the end of the day Ors. 865, Hansen and Strub met with the Gerrrtan Rekemmn, A, 3ascIwkt B , Stahl, Q., Wolf, staff members in the auditorium where a . B. lo90 Astron. Ashophys. a, 109. very useful exchange of views took Flohlfs, K., Krebehrnann,J., Slegmann, B.C., Fettzingw, J.V. 194, Astfon. Astrophys. place. On November 13, the new Swiss Coni37,343. Spite, M, Barbuy, B.,Spite, F. 1989, Asmn. sul General, Mr. P A Studer, and Vice . Astmphys. =,35. qnsul, Mr. R. Bloch, came to tho ESO Spite, F,. Richtler, T., Spite, M. 1991, Astron. Headquarters to learn about ESO-Swiss m y s , wbm. interactions. They were very pleased to Tobin, W. 1891, Pack Reg. IAU Meeting, become better acquainted with our orProc. M r . Soc. Australia, in pms. ganlzation, and €SO was happy to learn Vladtto, G., Molaro, P., Monal, S., D'Worieo, S*, Oennefeld, M., Fetlet, R., Vldal-Madjar, about the interest of the local Swiss authorities In promoting goad political A. mi,in prep. Westertund, 6.E 1990, Asfron. Astrophys. and industrial contacts between €SO Rev. 2.29. and their home country.

Feast* W.W. 1972, M.N.RAS. la,$13. Grehsl, EK, Rlchtler, T. 1991, 7he .. IWemmgws4, p. 56. Gmbel, E.K., Richtler, 7.1901, Astron. Astrophys. in pms, Qmbel, E.K., Richtler, T., de Boer, K.S. 1991, A s m . Asliuphys. submitted. Hetynes, R., MHne, D,, Editwrr. 1991, IAU Symp 148, The #a@knic C W s , Kluwer. Jllttner, A., Statil, O., Wolf, B., m e k , 5. 1991,inprep. . Mayssonnier, N., APapardl, M. 1991, IAU Syrrtp "MCs", p. 196. M o b , P., Viadllo, G., O'Och~ca, S,, nefetd, M., Ferlet, R., Vidal-Madjar, A. l , Symp. 448, p. 434. H MU Muratorio, G., -pard\, M, IQgO, P m . 2nd E m - E C F Oata Analflls WoMhop, p.

Visit to the ESO


Unusual Solar Halos Over La Silla
D. HUTSEMEKERS, Institut d 'Astrophysique,Univemit6 de Li&e, Belgium
Most of the halo phenomena associated with the sun, or the moon, are caused by reflection or refraction of light in ice crystals which are hexagonal In cross-section, usually in cirrus-iype clouds. The amazing variety of halos produced by these simple m sa is ytb nicely explained tn GreenWs bmk "Rainbows, halos and glories". Halos am not Infrequently seen over b Silla and, from time to time, interesting displays may be rscopded like the series of pictures in Figure 1 which illustrate the evoluth of a Wrghtly cotoured circurnzenithal arc as the aun progressively sets down. On January 27, 1990, we had the chance to photograph a rare and irnpressiue combination o solar Wos. f The phenomenon appeared around 2 p.m. and lasted less than 1 h. It Is- partly illustrated in Figurn 2 and 3, the dKferent halos being klentifled in Figure 5, The -loured ring around the sun is the 2 mfractlon bfo. It is particularly P sharp and remarkable for its brightness and high contrast. Downwards, we succesdvely encounter a part of the great 46' halo and the relatively r m a circumhorimntal arc well detaehed from the former. Despite k i n g fainter, both were significantly oolwred. The strlking featurn was the small pathdb circle Inside and tangent to the 22" halo. This halo surrounding the zenith and passing through the sun Is due to reflected sun-



arc. Figures 4-and 6 illustrate the complex of halos, unfortunately fainter, for a sun e M o n o - 6 : t& parhetic cirf 3"

maare also


p 1

&mhded* located



W e l i c circle and wdl detached from the 22' halo. It is qulte remarkable that all the phenomena described before may be

Rgwe 1: Fmm top b bottom, fils s e q m ot photos, obta(ned on F e b r w 20, 1994 illusfrrltes the evdutbn of the dfcumzenithd err: as the am -& v e sets down. The amurn the zenith, h~gh ttw shy, /n e~rcmamifha~ is a ran: e twb m/y a sun &vetlon l o w than w (see ~ l g . Y wre the most ~ianttly hirimeaU88d by b euyshuCs, W pufliy of Is coloum oftan surpatain~ d th8 wl@w, TMs t ttM o a because the ei-hd mm m xs not ceused by a minknum devlatlwr e f f w like for c other halos (Fls. 77.


Figure 2: The 22" halo and. inside. the very unusual parhelic circle photographed for a sun elevation of 79" on January 27, fm, about 2 p.m. local time. The colours indicate that the greatest halo is due to refraction while the parheiic (whitish) circle is due to reflected sunlight


seen in Figure 2, we have'computed the theoretical brightness distribution along the perimeter. Fresnel formulae for reflectance times of the reflecting faces predlct the intensity to be nearly constant along the perimeter except near the sun where it decreases to zero (see also Lynch, 1979).We find good agreement, but overexposition hampers a detailed comparison close to the sun. Finally, taking account of the angular diameter of the sun, the remarkable sharpness of the parhelic circle indicates that the oriented plate crystals producing it are aligned to better than O.ZO! Apart from their aesthetic interest, observations of unusual halos or combination of halos may certainly contribute to a better understandinn of ice crystal physics and ultimately one could hope to derive Some characteristics of the atmosphere by simply analysing the observed halos. From the astronomical point of view, the halo phenomena may provide a unique tool for detecting crystals (not only ice) in planetary atmospheres (Whalley and McLaurin, 1984). This was first pointed out by O'Leary (1966) who suggested to measure the changes of Venus polarization near inferior conjunction when it passes the 22" scattering angle. La Silla being located in a site where unique climatic conditions prevail and visited by many people equipped with

ngure 4: The halo phenomena p h o t w m s&wtwwsEa~((ebout5~40~pm.)fwasun &vation of -364 l3e pmhdic drde is now w f w y opmsd (sw m.6 and 8). r w ~ o ~ & o r s u n d O g ~ a m ~ t , W8lldebdmd h m fhe 22" hab as can be am f O r W s eleva~ofthesun. V

Figure 3: The lower pa17 of the halo c m a* itlustrated in Qure 2 It was m o d @ at the . same moment. in addHIon to fhe 2' halo, 2 wecern EdentMyepwtlonoftheWheloand

the circumhwhntaI m.

explained by the presence in the atmosphere of only one type of ice crystals: the plate-form crystals; pencil-shaped crystals if present would have produced additional halos like the circumscribed halo or the upper tangent arc (Greenler and Mallmann, 1972). The presence of a portion of the great 46" halo also suggests that plate crystals dominate (Plattloch and Trankle. 1984). Figure 7 illustrates the different light rays which may explain the observed halos; most of the phenomena are in agreement with the

/ o


'y -4-\





&nuary 2f, IB90. For the reivrrefed rays A and 8, the clystats act as t and €V W prisms, n3Spmdyy llght thfwgfwe Eonmimes near the minimum &viation, ~e., far Ice, near 22"and W. If the mptak are mndomly oriented in the sky, h rays are at thewlgnof ffie2Pand 4 8 e d ~ rhe shap of t h m halos is indepetwnt ot the sun elevaiim. ~attllng the air, some of in Ylese crystals. the lagest ones, tend t have a t M r fiat bases orient& hoiizontally Thrwgh thkWdmtedcrystals,mraysdtypeA p r o d m the l&ht m d e m a t h s celled sun obgs or parhalla. For sun close t ff, the rays enter nonrrrmaf t the c p t d s and o p r o d m sun & s loeared a t b sun &ova$ t


tionOtlttach~i&abthe22"helo. F o r h m the



dented crystal W h k m s i n g skewma The minlmum mgfe o deviation m u g h r f pliwn being higher for stew mjm, the sun

sun ~rewtlms, the rays penetmb

Figurn 5 *SEhematlC z m I t r n M pr&c: tkm iI!ustmting the hdo phenomena obsmedarwnd 2 pm. F I S2 and .


F m 7: g


&we IIIusfmtesthe l&ht rays passing f h w h pkm-fomr Ibe cwtals which are #?oughtto be respond* far all the halo phenomena observed on

W e d crystals, the reftactedrays C 8nd D fhe dmmhorbn&I and clrdumimiwarcswlrilereysE,m~edm~ cal he% an3 a fhe M$ln d the parheiic t data m glm ~arelsvdlflon,Is m y to a /t rmIk that the Ibht my6 C, 4 E q p m t t y coma fmm arcs or circl85 which are centred on the mi and Ile at constant elevarion ih above h e h o r l m (be Fig. 8). the fheb degree of hwdm kme h r d crysws being mWan a w n d W wticml ax&. The pw a' i c ~ g the h and sun may be seen fw any sun eievatbn. On the mn-, due to htemal twklion, the cireummIthd (rasp. ~ u m h w l z ~ r t a larr: ) cannot be m n lor sun @evations gmtw tkin 92' (lower than 58").

~~appaardechedmm 22"h for o r b & a m swr etemtims l o l ( g 44 InWactfng with the same subset d R.



cameras, it i clear that very interesting s effects could be recorded. For example, halos of radii different from 2 2 and 46*, or those occurring 180" away ihe sun are yet clear'y understood because of a lack of ~ o o d ~hotographic records. ~ h o t o m e G and-polarization measurements are even scarcer. Halo observations could be a nice goal get 'Or astmnDmera lucky enough cloudy weather! It ia a p l ~ s u r % thank my friends to and colleagues Marc Remy, Jean Surd9j and Eddy Van Drom for their comments and enthusiasm.

Figure 8: A s c h m a f l ~ p.npmtlve view of smne halos d i m e d h this paper.


cardon, B.L: ,977.Am. J- P h p k 45,331. Greenler, R.: 1980, Rainbows, halos, and cambridge university Press. Greanler, R., Matlrnann, A,J.: 1972, S-8

~ w n i w R., Mueller, J.R., Hahn, w., ,


mann, AJ.: 1979, Science 208,643. Lynch. D.K.: 1979.5. O t Sot. Am. 09,1100. p. O'Leaty, B.T.: 1966, 4 . J . 1443,754. Pattloch, F., Trinkle, E.: 1984, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 520. Whalley, E., Mclaurln, G.E.: 1984, J. Opt. soc. ~ mA. I, I 166. M~I-


Flower Power at La Silla
'Norte Chico" o Chile. Winter 1991 was f one of them and generated some unhappiness among the La Silla obsesv . m
For tourism and botany however the

Periodically a d n y winter hits the

interest was greatly enhanced. Down in the valley near the airship the Palo Santo (Fig. 1) oplend the exhibition in August. The shrubs, frustrated by


secutive years o drought, dressed up in f tiny g r m [eaves and delicate yetlow flowers. A b v e the Pellcano quebrada the evergreen C&wniI/o (Fig. 2 began ) a long sequence of white flowering which w l last till summer. I& branches are often chopped down for charcoal and It is now in danger o extinction. f Fortunately the La SiIb territory remains a pmsanratlon area. The ca&onillo pro-

duces a small almond-flavoured nut highly apprmlated by the Vizcacha rabbits. I the same area we dnd the n AlgambiIla (Fig. S), anolher bush exposed to Intensive exploitation. Its thick bean-shaped fruit has a very high content oftanin and I expwted to the laths er tanneries abroad. The really spectacular scen&s however appeared in Septemk when the

- -


Figure 4: Espino (Acacia aven)

Figure 3: Chaw


Figure 6: Algarrobo Prosopis chilensis)

figure 7: Soldadlllo flropaeolum looseril)

Elgure 10: Marlposa blanca (Sehizanthus candidus)

r*.,, *,.. ;gga:


,: <fif," *"t--.-,,-.. -*$: :;,-:\ ,@ ; ; . ,w- + ,

L' ;, '>

42-h2 **k
r 4 . -

, \% :


.'3: :.;I_$&*

Figure 8: Rosita (Cruckshanksia)

Flgum 1 I: Pata de Guanaco 1CsIanddlnia

Figure 9: Tercioplo V\rgylia radlata)

Figure 12: Viola del Campo (Viola ast8-I

purple Pate da G u m c o (Fig. 1l), cov- dreds of placea in Chile where the vil- the mountain cousins of the garden lages of Chafiar and Chafiarcillo m- Capucins. Sweral of those wltd species ered large extensbns of fields &ematb with the yellow W a s de! Camp pete in numbers with the A l m b o a pmpaeohrms) exist in Chile and the ( i . and the Rmib (Fig. 8). This is and Algamblllos. The elegant and thor- coastal slopes harbour a magnificent F g 12) the time when photographic cameras ny Algarrobo tree (Fig. 6) populates the three-cotour version. The white crosspetal Sohhpetelon get inspired and the telescopes emerge quebradas and has Invaded Mr. from unusual green surmundings. The Schumann's garden located five deserves a special mention as it is t t curious visitor will spot the Tmiopetas hundred mdm below the mountain adapted to wr activities. I opens up a Fig. 9) whom m ! o m range from top. It is moderate In water consumption sunsat and sends its honey smell n ygllow-orange to dark b n . The velvet and w1ll eventually outnumber the ever through the night before clodng f the flowers make a paint of growing on bare thirsty poplars and eucalipti, thriving on momlng. Many more wild flowers grow on our ground where other plants cannot com- wr waste waters. On the road to La Sllla the flower lopes: the candid Marlposas M a m a s pete. Of the two native t m s which gmw in festival is led by the Endim which (Fig10). AdesmIas, Seneclos, MaM/las our region the CkMr (Fig. 3) is the Chileans Identify with the lovely name and magnMoent W r n e W . Dr. G r e m , our walking encyclomost spectacular one during the flower- of the Caronilk d d fmile (the friar's pedia, has identified aver 150 endemic ing season. R shrouds IMtf in orange crown). On the mountain itself the SobdadIllos species in aur surroundings. Who said blossoms and attracts thousands of ' bees. The tree has lent its name to hun- Piffle soldiers Fig. 7 )llne up. They are La Silla is a desed .7



New Aspects of the Binary Planet Pluto-Charon
lnstituf f i r Astronomic und Astrophysik, Technische UniversitafBerlin, Germany; ZLandessternwarte Heidelberg, Germany; 3 ~ S 0 , Silla, Chile La

Never since the discovery of Pluto In 1930 has our knowledge about this tiny far-out planet improved so rapidly as during the past five years. The coincidence of two rare opportunities that occur together only once every 250 years kept astronomers around the world busy to solve the puale of Pluto and its satellite Charon. In 1987/88, the plane of Cttaron's highly inclined orbii around Pluto swept over the inner sofar system. This gave rise to a series of mutul occultations and transfs of the planetary disks that were observable from Earth between 1985 and 1990 (cf. Fig. 1). Nearly at the same time, on Sepiember 5,1989, Pluto reached the perihelion of its eccentric orbit around the Sun which placed the binary system within range for photometry with rnedlurn-sized telescopes. The shapes and the timings of the mutual eclipse light curves not only reflect the geometry of the system (which had been scarcely known before) but also provide information about the gross albedo distribution on Pluto and Charon. In an eartier issue of the Messenger (Pakull and Reinsch. 19861, we reported the analysis of the first eclipse light curves observed in 1985 and 1986 which revealed that the diameter of Pluto was much smaller than previously believed.

Thanks to generous allocation of ESQ time we were able to continue our study of the mutual eclipse light curves.
Eclipse O b s e ~ a t i ~ n s As the aspect of Charon's orbit around Pluto as seen from Earth varies
with time, different areas on Pluto


occulted during the eclipses (Fig. 2). The eclipse series started In early 1985 with
occultations of the north polar region on Pluto. While in 1986 and 1987 large fractions of the northern hemisphere were covered as Charon crossed in front of Pluto, Pluto's southern hemisphere was involved in the eclipses throughout the rest of the series until 1990. To exploit the full information provided by the mutual eclipses it was therefore ngcessay to spread observations over the whole period of eclipse phenomena. Due to the fact that the binary system is in a bound rotation It is, however, only possible to derive the gross albedo distribution on one hernisphere of Pluto and Charon, respectively. From 1985 to 1990 we successfully observed six transits of Charon in front of Pluto (inferior events) and eight occultations of Charon by Pluto (superior event@. The photometry was obtained with the ESO/MPI 2.2-m and the Danish 1.5-m telescope, respectively, using

CCD direct imaging techniques which allow high-precision differential photometry wen If sky conditions are not strictly photometric. Our data base was supplemented by published light curves of eleven further events (Binzd et al,, 1985; Tholen et al., 1987 b; Binzel, 1988, Tholen and Buie, 1988; Tholen and Hubbard, 1988). While the first grazing eclipse light curves could be analysed using models for eclipsing binary stars, more sophistlcated algorithms were required as the eclipse series continued. The light curves were then complicated by shadow transits which occurred displaced in time relative to the eclipse events (Fig. 3). The analytical model developed by Dunbar and Tedesco (1986) to derive the physical parameters of a binary





Figure 1: Apparent view of Chamn's 8.4-day ofbit around Pluto Behueen 1985 and f 990.

Table 1: Fbysicel pamnmtem and orbital elemmts of the Pluto-Chm system d&v& the W h m M of our w&vtiml model.



591 -t11


Radius r Fm]

1 5 f2 11 0
2.032 i 0.040 :

M a density e I&d
Absolute bi-i&~trtnes~ ,O) V (1

1,47 f 0.07 -0.848 k 0.01 0
0.61 8k 0.020
f 350 4 0.010

Mean geometric albedo R,
Appmnt lncllnatlon (17.4.87) I fdeg-1

0.372 f 0.01 2

8 . 10f 0.052 07
6.387244 f 0.000007

S I W orbkl

P [days)

The radii of (1151 f 20) km derived for Pluto and (591 2 11) km for Charon are 1987 in p o d agreement with our earlier resutts (Pakull and Relnsch, 1 8 ) They 96. conflrm that the radii are significantly lower than those found by prwlous obsenren using speckle interFernmetric techniques. The error uncertainties could be reduced by more than a factw of 3, and the slight discrepancies In the 1988 results of dMerent eclipse observers could ha solved (cf. Ounbar and T e h co, 1986; Tholen e at., 1987 a; Reinsch t and Pakull, 1987; Tholen and Buie, 1990). A comparison of our best-fitting model wt the o b m e d light curves reveals lh that systematic differences still remain. These must be attributed to local devlations from the assumed constant albedo of Charon and of Pluto's northern and southem hemispheres (cf. Fig. 4). Basad on our improved physical parametera of the system, we chose a numerical approach to derive Indlviduaf a]Flgure 2 Pmjected p m o G h m and fta bedo values for a grid of surfa08 areas : e f shadow acma & o t . 771s n m r n and on Pluto. The boundaries of t surface h southm eximes of the o b w w d rnmdfs elements were selected to match In am display& for each w. latltude with the five grwps of eclipse paths and to suit time-resolution of our data (longitudinal strips). We found that the significant surface planet from eclipse light curves was adapted to our problem. In a fhst-order structures needed to M the photometry approach, we assumed a constarR d- am already described by a glid of 17 b d o for Pluto and Charm. respectively. surface dements. The albedo dlstribuThe llght curves obtained wlth this mod- tion derived is independent of the pard showed that the albedos of the north- ticular method used to define the grid em and southern hemisphere were sig- (Iongltudinal or rectangular division, cf. niflcantly different. Therefore, we mod- Fig. 5). fled our firstlorder model introducing Our albedo map reveals that areas of separate parametem for the albedos df high contra& must coexist on the Chathe northem and southern hemisphere. ron-facing hemisphere of Pluto. The We performed a multi-parameter highest contrast found was that bebast-squares fit to our data using the tween the two polar cap. While the analytical model IlgM curves. Adopting south polar region appears to be the the oabital radius of 19840f 320 krn for brightest area on the planet, we found Charm determined by Bub and Thoten that the north polar region has the low(1980) the besf solution ofour fit yielded est albedo. This is a-surprising result the improved phySIcaI parameter8 of the because the south polar @ n o is the system given In Table 1. one that has been exposed to p e m -

d w e d jmms showing the tmnslt of C h m and Its shadow em nuto on May 1, 1988. r e
F " Q: Q,

o Pluto's rotational light c u m f between 1982 and 1890 using the Walraven photometer attached to the Dutch May 1, 1988 Inf. 0.91-rn telescope and the single0.0 channel photometer at the ESO 1-m telescope. The &sewations have been reduced to the "absoIutem brightness V(1,O) corresponding to unit distance 01 . Pluto-Sun and Pluto-Earth and to a phase angle of 0" (cf. Fig. 6). From Information theory It is known that the deconvolution of a light cuwe Is 0.2 numerically instable if the low frequency hltensity variations are largely contaminated by staYldlcd fluctuations. Tt'18 low and high frequencies can, however, be 03 . separated by computing the Fourier hnsformatbn d our Ilght curve, We found that our original light c u m is already well described by its first two 1 1 ' 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~ 4 1 1 1 L 1 1 1 1 Fourier components whin the statisd1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 cal errors of the data (see Flg. 6). We time CUT] have deconvotved this analflat light nourn 4: Drampls of an m / i p light curve 0bsewU on May 1, 1988 with the wOmaPI2+2-m curve ta derive the longitudlnel albedo tehwope (combinatbn of S and V-n/iwmeaauments), 7ha t o I I t m ~UperImFSd the variation on Pluto (Fig. 7). The albedo w On data mpmmt our pwely geometrical rrmdel (dashed Ilne) and our albedo model ( d ' n u o l ~ i distribution obtained shows a double peaked structure. The rnaxlmum of the flw* w . m latitude aveiqed albedo is attributed to the longitudinal strip which faces toIt fras been noted that the "absoluten wards Earth a€ rotational phase 0.65. nent Irradiation from the Sun as Pluto mean brightness V(1,O) of the planet has The minimum albedo corresponds to approached perihelion. From simultsneaus obsewattons I n increased by 0.3 mag since 1954. At the the region being In front at phase 0.95. While the features of our Iongitudinal dmerent cobur bands we found no sys- same time, the amplitude of the rotatematic mlow variations of the surface tional light variation has become signifi- albedo distrlbutlon m b l e most of those implied by the 'SHELF' model structures on Pluto. The eclipse depths cantly larger. were, however, detected to be d o u r Attempts to model the albedo dis- (e.9. maximum and minimum albedo), dependent fw occultations of C h n . In tribution on Pluto have already been the exjstence of a second maximum at mis case the eclipses o b m d In the B- publ'mhed using the Information pro- rotational phase 0.2 Is neither supportad filter were lightly deeper than those vided by this secular variation of the by the 'SHELF' model nor by our eclipse rotation@light curve (Marcialb, 1888; map*wed In the V-filter. We found no colour dependence of Buie and Thobn, 1989). Bule and Thoten derived two distinct configulsltlona of the rotational light curve and, con#The Rotational light Cuwe of dark and bright spots on Pluto that fit quently, of the IongMlnal albedo dlsPluto for the the out-~f-eclipsephotom&ry eqmlly trtbution. The colwr Pluto-Charon system is (B-V)weh = The w l a t m of Pluto's visual bright- well (models 'MAX' and 'SHELF). Whereas these models assume that 0.8462 0.010 and does not vary with ness with a period of 6.4 days (cf. Flg. 6) was first dwcted by Walker and Hardie the surface structures have not changed the rotational phase. From the depths of (1465) and has been intepprded as the dwing the past 35 years, there b some the superlor events where Charon Is torotational period of the planet, Thls rota- evidence from the detection of a sub- tally eclipsed we computed the colour = tional light curve contains independent stantial atmosphere of Pluto (Elliot d al., dlffmces for Pluto (&V)PI Bv h i n f o d o n about the albedo distribu- 1989) that a cyclic methane sublimation 0.871 lt: 0,014 and for Charon ( - c = and freeze-out may occur during Pluto's 0.701 f 0.014 which show that Pluto is tion on Pluto. eccentric wbR ( S m et al., 1988). This redder than C h m . would be an alternative explanation of the rotational light curve changes and implies that the albedo dlstrlbution on Our findhg o a dark north polar cap f Pluto could be variable on a time scale on Pluto I in contrast with the bright s 210 yean. A &raIgMoward mathod to derive potar caps required by the models of the albedo dlstributlon on Pluto has be- Marclalis (1988) and Buie and Tholen come available during recent years. As (I 969) to aocwrvt for the secular variawe have viewsd the equator of Pluto tion of Pluto's rotational light curve. The nearly edgbon around .I 987/88 a de- existence of a dark p o C cap can, howconvolution of the rotational light c u m ever, be understood if we amme that yields the instantaneaus longitudinal al- the surface structures have changed elements The a& bedo distribution on Pluto without re- during the past 35 years as suggested h m 8 grid of 17 by the rnodel of Stem st al. (j988). It wlll assumptions. bedodlsmution has b m ~ h d t o r e - quiring fu* Besides the eclipse obsesvaiions we therefore be important to continue p r o d m the spatial msdution ubiained. 738 have, therefore, obtained absolute pho- monitoring the out-of-ecllpsa brightness norfh pole I to the top. s


ESO/MPI 2 2 telescope .m



Figure 7: hngfiudinal albedo dktdbutlan on Pluto d e W by ~ n v o l v i n g mt&tlolPal the


0.40 0.80 0,80


Binrel, R.P., Tholen, D.J., Tedasco, EF., Buratti, B.J., Nelscm, R.M., 1985, Sc1228,
1133. Blnrel, R.P., 1988, Sd 241,1070. mie, M.W., Tholen, DJ., 1gSg,Icmm79,23. Dunbar, R.S., Tedese~,E.F., 1986 AJ 92, 1203. OHot, J.L, Dunhem, E.W., Bosh, AS., et at., 1989, Icanrs77.148. Marclalls, R.L., 1988, AJ M,9 1 4. Pakull, M.W., Relnsch, K , 1086, The .

rotational phase [ P = 8,38718 days]
R5ure6: T h e m ~ t i o n a l ~ t c u w e o f H u t d a n d C h a r r r n ~ b e t1 9m 2 e v l d f ~Ihe w4 . continuous fine ~ m tour a d y t l d dewiptlon of the light c m e mi& for the &ammlus


of Ptuto wt high precision photometry ih to t a k the secular variation of the rotarc tional light curve. The 'SHELF M e t of 6uie and Tholen (1989) predicts w Imnasdie reversal of the secular varlaffon 4. general brightening and a reduction ia In amplitude of the rotational light curve) whereas Stem e al. (1988) predlct that t
the reversal shoutd take place 7-17 years after passing periheliondue to the thermal hertia of Pluto's surface. The physical pmmters of the PlutoC h a m system seem to tia well established now. The largest uncertainty that remains lies I the exact: determination n of the semi-major axis of the system wHch measures only 0.9" on the sky. This Is the scaling factor of the d i m ten3 and the total mass of the binary m p o n m k . Future observations with high spatial resolution (e.g. with the HST or the ESO-Ml) wlll dlow a more accurate determination of Charon's orbit. One physical parameter which is independent of this scaling length is the mean density of the system that can be calculated from the binary period and the dlmensioras of Pluto and Charon retatlve to the binary separation. The mean dmdty of &bout 2 @ c d indicates that the Ruto-Charon system has a high rock mass fraction similar to that of the

space pro& may provide more detatled pictures of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon.

Relmh, K., Pakull, M.W., 1987, Asfm. Astmphys tn,L43.
Stem, $94, Tmftm, LM., Gladstone, G.R., 1988, I 75,485. fholen, D.J., W e , M.W., Swift, C.E, I987a,

Messww*, 3.


We wish to thank M. FWw, C. Motch, M. Remy, and N. Sleget who kindly undertook m e of the *atlons included In our analysis. We also thank K. B e u m n for fruitful dlscussions and continuous suppoPt durlng this work. k s t but not least we #rank the many people from the ESO staff for their technical support durlng our time critical obseming progmmme.

M e n , D.d,, Buie, M.W., B i m l , R P , Frueh, .. M.L, 1#7b. &1237, Sl2. fholen, D.J., Bule, M.W., 1988, M W , 1977. fholen, D.J., Hubbard, W.B., 1988. Amon. &Whys. m,L5. fholm, D.J., Bde, M.W., IM, 8AU 22,

Walker, M.F., Hardb, R., 1955. PASP 6 , 7 224.

ESO's Early History
The readers o the Messenger will be f pleasedto leam that the recent series of eleven articles about the early histwy of Em. written by Professor AdBlaauw, have now been cdlected In a book. The text has been hmughly r+ vised and includes photos whfch were
scientfsts with modern facilifiies for front-line inve9tlgatlons beyond the capacities of t b individual member stat&% P r o w A d r i a Blaauw, wdlknown Dutch astronomer. has been closely associated with ESO durlng all of this time. He actively participated in many of the events described and as a former Dimtor General of ESO (1970-74) he possesses first-hand knowledge of tha organization and the way it works. A scientist of international renown, Professor BIaauw Is atso a noted amateur histopian in his hwne wunby. The book Is available from ESO (address on the last page); the price is 25 DM, which mugt be prepaid by cheque or bank transfer to E W account No. 2102002 at the Cornmenbank in Munich ( B U 70040041). Please be sure b indicate "ESO History" In your order.

larger satelltes o the giant planets. f
The mutual eclipse series of Pluto and Charon has prwidd us with many new aspects o the binary planet Pluto-Chaf Ton. The albedo maps computed by different &sewers will hopefully converge as the data of all o b m e m will be combined. The spatial resolution that can be obtained by eellpse mapping is superior to that offered by the HST wen if it wauld be working to design sp8cifications. It will not be before the end of the first decades o the next century that f

not in the Messmgwartictes. The narrative begins with the developments in the early 1950's when leading European astronomers initiated a search for the best posslbb obsmatory site undm Uw comparatively unexplored southern sky. Ten years latw, in 1962, ESO was established by an International convention and soon thereafter a remote mountain top in the Chilmn Atacama d m , La SiUa, was acquired. It took another d d e to transform this site Into the world's largest optical obSwatory* ESO exempliflw the hihly sucwsful

European integratton in a fundamental fieki of science, providing Europaan

A Visit to Gaspra
This is a ground-based photo of the first minor planet ever to be visited by a spacecraft. On October 29, 1991, the NASA spacecraft Galileo flew past minor planet No. 951 Gaspra on its way to Jupiter where it will arrive in December 1995. The distance to Gaspra from the Earth was 410 million km at the time of the fly-by. Although Galilw's high-galn antenna has not yet been unfolded and could therefore not be used, JPL engineers succeeded In getting a 300-line Image via the low-gain antenna; the others will be sent when Gallleo is again near the Earth. The first image showed the irregular form of Gaspra and Several craters on its surface with a resotution of h t 130 metres. The diarneter was measured as 16 kilornetms. Gaspra was discovered on July 30, 1916 at the Simeis Observatq in the mountains of Cximea, the Russia. The discoverer was the welt-known Russian astronomer Grigorij Nikolaevich Neujmin (born 1886 in Tbilisi, Georgia; died I946 in Leningrad), who later became Director of that observatory (1925- 1931 and 1936-1941) and Director of the Pulkovo Obsewatoty near St. Petersburg (1 944- 1946). During three decades he discovered 72 minor planets and 6 comets. Neujmin's dedicationfor (951) Gaspra reads as follows: 'Named after the r e

sofi on the southern coast of Crimea, in which the famous Russian writer Lev Nikolaevfch Tolstoy (1828- 1910) spent many years of his life." The village of Gaspra is located about 10 krn southwest of Yalta. The present photo was obtained with the 1-metre ESO Schmidt telescope at La SIlla on April 9, 1991 and served to measure an accurate position of Gaspra, in support of the navigation of Galilm. The exposure lasted 10 minutes and Gaspra is indicated with an arrow.

On this date, Is distance from the Earth t was 262 million km and the magnitude was about 15. The background of the photo is a region in the southern constellation Ophlochus (the Serpent-holder)which is characterld by relativelyfew stars, but many bright and dark nebulae. The brightest of the three s a s in the top tr right corner is the 5th-magnitude Rho Ophiuchl, a hot and young double star. It is surrounded by nebulostty that reflects the light from the stars.

New ESO Preprints
(September-November 1991)

copic Study of UM673 ABB: on the
Size of Lyman-a Clouds. AstmphyeW

and W.W.
794. P. Meller and P. Kjargaard: The Expected Ionization of HI by UW of Sight Neighbour Q u m : Measuring the

Scientific Preprints
789. F. Bertola, G. Gall&

801. Bo Reipurth, S. Heathcote and Frederick Vrba: Star Fomlation I Bok n Globules and Low-Mass Clouds. 1V. Herbig-Ham Objects in 6335. Astrvnutny and Astrophvsiw. 802. Bo Reipurth, A.C. Raga and S. Heath-

ZeHinger: The Mlnw-Axis Dust-Me Elliptical NGC 1947. Astronomy and
795. Astrophysh 790. P. Padovanl and C.M, Urry: Luminosity Functions, Relativistic Beaming, and Unlfied Theories of High-Luminosity 796. Radlo Sources. AslrophysiEaI Journal. 791. (3. BerHn, F. Bertda, L.M. Buson, IJ. Danziger, H. Dejonghe, E.M. Sadler, 797. R.P. Saglii, P.T. de Zeeuw and W.W. Ullnger: The ESO Key Programme: A Search for Dark Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. Presented by F. Bertola at the 2nd DAEC meeting "The Distribution of 798. Matter In the Unhrem", Observatdre de M u o n . 792. D. Baade: Binary Be Stars and Be 799. Binaries. Invited talk presented at IAU Symp. 151 U E ~ l ~ t j o i w y ROCBSSBS in Interacting Binary S a s , held Aug. tr" 800. 5-8,1991 in Cordoba, Argentina. 793. k Smeite, J. Surdej, P A Shaver, C.B. Foltz, F.H. Chaffee, R.J. Weyrnann, R.E. Witliams and P Magain: A Spectros.

Quasar Beaming. Astronomy and Astrophysics. M.R. Rosa, H. iiinnecker, A. Moneti and J. Melnick: The Galactic Center In the Far-Red. Astronomy and Astrwhph. M, Beraanelli, P. Bouchet, R. Falorno and E.O. Tami: Homogeneous J, H, K, L Photomeby of a Sample of BL lac Objects. The Aslronmical JwmaII T Pnrstl, ti.-M. Adorf and E.JA. Meurs: . Young Stellar Qbieets i the lRAS Pdnt n Source C t l g Astronomy an$ A& aao. froph-. R.M. West and R.H. McNaught: Earliest Photometry of SN 1987A, A s m y and Asirophysics. M. Della Valltn: Nova LMC 1991: Evidence for a Super-Bright Nova Poputat i . Astronomy and AGtrophy&~, k t -

cote; Structure and Kinemath of the HH 111 Jet. Astrophp'caI Journal.

Technical Preprints
34. P. DMckx: Optical Performanee of Large G r o u n d M Telescopes. Journal of Modem O p t b , 35. W. SchrMer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L S c h ~ d e F. MsrWe and M. Ravens, bergen: Telescope Polntlng and Tacking with Optical G y m . To be publishM in the Proceedings of SWE, Vol. 1585


36. 6 . L8pm and M. Sarazin: Optimum Exposure Times for Intederometry. ESO Conference on High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, Garching, Oct. 14-18,1991.

M. Fdte, F. Pasian and P. hvenuti: HST O h a t i o n s of the Inner Coma of Cornet tsvy 1 9 9 0 ~ Anuaim Gmphy.

New ESO Scientific Report
No. 10 October 1991. M.-P. VBron-Cetty and P. V h n : A Catalogue d Quasars and Actlve NucM (5th Edition).


A Survey of Optical Knots in Keplerys SNR
R. BAND1ER4, OssenratorioAstrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy
S. VAN DEN BERGH, Dominion Astrophysical Obsewatory, Victoria, Canada

KeplWs supmova remnant (SNR) Is an ideal object for a direct investigation of the interadon of a blast wave with a hlghly inhomogems medium. Most of the optical ernissbn comes from dense (n 1 3 1O4 cm? and compact (r 0 1016 lo1' cm)knots recently hit by the main shock.The physics of the intwaction is complex and involves the formafion of smmdziq shocks, cloud crushing and evaporation by saturated conduction (see MKw, 1988 for a review). We here present some results of a tong-term project on Keplefs SNR. directed towards the study of links between the klnemattcal, morpholugical and spdmampical propertlea of a knd, and the phase of its Interaction with the supernova blast wave. Kepbr's SNR i a very young object (less than s 400 yr old), and contains features that evolve with time-scales considerably shorter than a human titime. For this reason It represents one of those rare cases in which the evolution can be followed 'in real time".

nant, and spanning directions from N-E to West (ckkwiise). Othw groups of knots are located closer to the remnant

shock in the direction of the stellar motion. In the bow shock the gas was compressed, allowing the condensation of dense clumps. Mow the supemova blast wave moves through t i dense hs and Inhomogeneousmedium. The effect o this is an enhanced emission in radio f and X rays on that slde. When the most compact clumps are 'ignited" by the arrival of the blast wave they become visible as optically emitting knots. Since the time-scale for the evolution o knots is considerably shorter than the f remnant age, the optical knots trace the actual position of the supernova blast wave. Knots are visible only on an annulus a the intersection of the bow t shock with the blast wave. Since the common transtation also has a radial s component, the bow shock gmmetty I seen from an oblique perspective, and this annutus appears as an ellipse. On this hypothesis the knots projected near the central regions of the SNR are actually part of this ( d i s t m ) ellipse. Wlth the expansion of the blast wave, new knots wlll appear on an ellipse that increases in sire and shim In position as

centre. Fainter diffuse emission I atso s
present along most of the northem rim of this SNR, as well as In the surroundings of the centrat groups of knots. No optlcat emlssion can be detected along the southem rim of the remnant. Actually the optical Images are not the most suitable for defining centre and size of Kepler's SNR; but one could use radio and X-ray images (Matsul et al., IW),w h m the remnant looks pretty circular. However also at these wavelengths W shows a strong asymmetry in the emission, with a N-W limb considerably brighter than the rest of the remnant.




3 Kinematics - A Bow Shock . Model?
By a comparison of plates covering the period 1942-1 976, van den Bergh and Kamper (1977) were abte to measure proper motions for 19 knots. Furthermore they collected radial velocity measurements for a few knots. Thdr data were consistent with an "expansion age" of less than 2 x 1o4 yr. Therefore it became clear that the optical knots in Kepler's SNR have hot been ejected by the supernova. On the other hand they are too dense and clumped to be interstellar (recall that the remnant is tacated about 500 pc above the &lactic plane, for a dlstanm of 4.5 kpc). Very likely the optical knots originated from a wind of the stellar progenitor. This hypothesis is also supported by the presence of a dlgM nitrogen owabundance (Dennefeld, 1982; Leibowitz and Danziger, 1883). In m e respcts the knots resemble the "Quasi Stationary FImuli" in Cassiopeia A. not velocities, typ~ca~~y some only hundred kWs, can be interpreted as random motions added to a common translation, pdnting towards the N-W. Bandiera (1987) notied that such a translation pdnts to the direction where the remnant is brightest, in the optid as well as in radio and X rays, and explained this in the following way: Assuming that this material Miglnated from a m l b r wind, Zts common motion may reflect the motion of the supernova progenitor. During that rnass-lphase, the wind was interacting with the interstellar medium, and formed a bow

Aftar Kepter's supernova (SN 1604) faded away, more than three centuries passed before its remnant was discovered. In 1941 Butde '(1943) flrst detected some nebulosity near the supernova position that was deduced from the historical records. He described Kepler's SNR as "a broken mass o T bright knots and filaments covering a fan-shaped area", but actually detected only the N-W brightest part of the optical remnant. In fact the location of thIs remnant is far from ideat for optical observations. It is highly redden&, and very crowded by field stars. Therefore faint filaments may be overwhelmed by the background, while same optical knots can & mistaken for stars. Deeper images o the f nebutar emlssion can h obtained only alter a careful suMractIon of the stellar continuum from narrow-band frames centred on conspfcuous emission lines, like Ha+[N II] (D'Odorlco et al., 1986), but also [S Ill, 1 I] or [Q 110 (Blair, Long 0 and Vancura 1991j. Such imagas reveal a great deal of structure. In addition to the brightest complex located on the N-W side of the remnant, there are some clumps of knots lying along the edge of the rem-

This geometry allows one to predict where new knots will appear. A nontrivial prediction concerns the central knots. These new knots should brighten to the south of those already existing (8andbn 1988).

4. The Restorationof Old Plates Here we shall describe the most important phases of a work (Bandim and van den Bergh, 19914, that allowed us to obtain clmnw and deeper images, and to follow h detail the motions of many knots and the evolution of their intensities over the last half century. We used plates taken with the Hooker 2.5-rn reflector (1941-1 943) and with t M e 5-m telescope (1850-1983). h As already mentioned in Section 2, the nebular emission is immersed in a crowded stellar fidd. This is particularly evident on d d plates, exposed with broad-hand filters. As a first step, we decided to "restore" these plates, by subtraction of the stellar continuum, wlth the dm o also extracting from f them information that was originally hidden. This requires an off-line reference image for the subtraction. However we did not expect the stettar field to have experienced significant changes

'a Fta$l






$: 4

' . r

Figure 1 (a) goad-qualily photogrephic plate of Kepler's SNR (Hale 5-m telescope, May 1950);(bJ the same aftw restoration by subtraction of : the stellar ~untinuum.

Over the last decades. We therefore dec l d d to use an image taken recently. Observations were carried out in 1989 wlth the 1.5-m Danish telescope on La Silta, with the RCA CCD No. 15, using broad-band as well as Interference flltefs centred on Ha+[N Ilj, [S II] Ilnes, and on the nearby continuum, Our aim was to produoe a reference image for the stellar field with a spectral response similar to that of the old plates. In this respect a BesselI R filter was found to give the best results. We first obtaind Ha+[N II] and [S II] images of the nebular emission, by subtracting the stellar continuum, after a proper alignment of the frames and an approximateequalization of the point spread functions. They were then us& for subtracting the nebular component from the fmme with the Bessdl R filter. In all the steps of #8 reduction procedure we stressed the production of i m g a that were as clean as possible, whiie deemphasidng the detection of very faint structures. The next step was the subtraction of the stellar continuum from the old plates. Thls stellar subtraction can be carried out only after a linearization of the chamcteristic curve of the photographic plates. Since this was unknown, we had to derive it from the plate itself, by comparison with the (line@ CCD frame. Thls is a difficult task, mainly because the point spread functions of the two images are also different. We solved the problem in an approximate way by comparing the Intensities of a set of stars selected independently on the plate and on the CCD reference frame, using the INVENTORY routine, implemented in MIDAS. By this procedure the image of the bright stars cannot be compIetely removed. However, for fainter stars which are more numerous, the characteristic curve of the plate can be fitt6d with greater accu-

racy, resulting in a more efflclent stellar subtraction. As an example, Figure la shows the appearence o a photof graphic image of Kepler's SNR, obtained in 1950 with a broad-band red filter. Figure I b shows the same image, after the stellar subtraction procedure described &bov%.

5. A Catalogue of Optical Knots After "cleaning" the old plates from stellar contamination, following the evolution of the nebular emissbn becomes an easier task. The comptete set of restored images has been pubtished by Bandiera and van dm Bergh (19914. Some knots are seen to brighten considerably. Most of these lie on the external part of the northern rim, but some are also located i the central regions of n the remnant. The evolution of knots Is of particular Interest for the understandhg of the geometry of this object, Newer knots brightened to the south of those already existing; in qualitative agreement with the predictjons of the bow shock model (Bandiera and van den Bergh, 1991b) described in Section 3. The qudity of the images is good enough to also allow a quantitativeanalysis of the evolution of the optbal remnant. As a first step, a catalogue of emitting knots has been prepared. In Kepler's SNR optical knots usually look to be well defined. When filamentary structures are present, they usually consist: of a group of aligned knots. In order to avoid selection effects produced hy manual recognition and centring of knots, we prefemd to perform an automatic search @y INVENTORY) In the region where knots are present Furthermom, this search was pehrmed independently on the different plates. We retained as real only those knots that
were detected independently on mast of

the plates. On average a knot was detected on 9 of the 12 available frames. Our catalogue was not intended to be complete. Even a few rather bright knots were discarded because they were almost coincident with a poorly subtracted star. Furthermore, a few very recent knots were not included, because they were only present on a few images, Our catalogue Lists only knots whose parameters can be detmlned with some accuracy. The total number of knots In wr catalogue is 50 compared to the 19 knots catalogued by van den Bwgh and Kamper ( 1 9 7 , who u& a similar set of plates. INVENTORY gives both positions and intensities of sources. Thewe positions can be used to determine astrometric motions of individual knots. Proper motions are combined to measure the amount of common translation, as well as expansion velocity. After correcting for Galactic mtatlon the components of the average hots motion are 117 f 10 km/s and 105 k 11 kmk, toward Wes? and North, respectively; the expansion velocity is instead 87 i4 26 km/s (for a distance of 4.5 kpb. These values are consistent with those of van den Bergh and Kamper (1973, but have a much higher accuracy. Approximate photom&y has been obtained by comparing the intensities of corresponding knots in different images, after additional cw7ections for effects of the residual non-linearity In the restored images. Absolute dibration is provided by the knot fluxes given by D'Odorico et al. (1986), At the end of this reduction we obtained light curves (basically in Ha+[N Il] emission) for all catalogued knots over a period of 40-50 yr. The relative aceutacy on the intensity estimates is about 30%. Bandbra and van den Bargh (1991a) prmnt all available quantitEttive infot-

Figure 2: Ma@t?g

( of pmper motb?s and (b) of evdutlon in brightness d catalog& 4

knots h KepWs SNR (see texij.

mation derived from astrometry and photomeiq of the catalogued knots. Our Figures 2a and 2b give a synoptic picture of the proper motions of knots and of thelr evolution In brightn-, respeciivefy.In Figure 2a each arrow represents the proper motion of a knot over 400 yr (the present SMR age). The c m indicates the position o the centre of f the mdio and X-ray image, and the arrow from its centre indicates the common translation of the pattern o knots. f In Flgure 2b a cirde centred at the position of each catalogued knot represents Its evolutionary phase: filled circles indicate brightening (newer knots), whlle open circles indicate fading (older

knots). Larger circles indicate faster evolution. As already discussed above, newer knots brlghtend on the northern rim central regions of Kepler's SNR. Most knots are fading, with time-scales generally longer than those of the brightening ones (9-fold time-scales are up t o 10 yr for brightening, and up to 30 yr for fading).

6. Effects of the Evolution on the

Knots' Propedes
Purpose of this Section is to give the reader a qualitative feeling of how the properties of knots depend on the phase of their evolution. Here we shall

present preliminary results based on images oQtalnd with SUSl a the New t Technology Telescope (May IN?), using narrow-band filters centred on Ha+[N Ifl, I IIJ and [0111] lines, respecS tively. For each of these three filters, after the subtraction of the stellar continuum. the retatlve intensities of knots catalogued by Bandiera and van den Bergh (19914 have bem measured. In Figures3a and 3b knot intensities in different lines are plotted ([Sll) vs. HatlPIII], and [OIIfl vs. [Sllj, respective l) Each knot is repmentedby a circle, y.

whose characteristics indlcate the
evolutive phase of that knot, according to the conventions already used in Fig-

Figure 3 WsMbutlon of knots at d I f f m e d u t h m y -888 :

in the ( &a+W 10 -Is 4 1

1 end (bJ IS I4 -[O /Ill htensily-planes (see i d . 4

h g .([Sn]) (arbitrary d t s )

llre 2b. Figure 3b contains only 30 knots, because the !NVEMORY routine failed to detect [0llu emission from the

Marseilb Obsewatory (Boulestelx et a]., 1W),howeuw, is ideal for radial w k i tY mapping.

Blair,W.P., Long,K.S., Vancura, 0 1Wt ,Ap, .
J., see,484-

Boulestetx, J., Georgelln, Y,P.. Mmlln, M.,

Monnet, Q., 1984, fn InsWmenhth in

From both figures it I se%nthat the s regions rrontaining ywmgar knots (filled circles) are separated from those containing older knots (open circles). In Figure 3a the correlation between [S ill and Ha+[N Il] intensities is rather good, but older knots are typically brighter in (S Ill. However, In Flgm 3b this cornlation L poor. Most of the brighter knots in [OIH] are young, while this Is wt so for Iq. These results qualitively agree with a scenario In which the knots am initially at a higher ionization level, which then decreases with time. However, quantitative conclusEons am beyond the scope of this discusslon which is still based on jnoomplete data.

Astronomy, Proc. SPlE 446,eds. V A BokSenberg, and D.L Crawford, p. 37. Dennefeld, M. 1 Astm. Astmphys. 312, Ref-= 215. made, w. I~~E~,A~.J.,Q?, 119. DDdorlw, S., Bandkm, R., W g w , J., Bandlera, R. 1987, Ap.J., 319,885. F d l , P. 1086, A k J., 91, 1382. s -era, R. lgm, In Supemova shelfs and ~ d b o ~ l t r , E.M., w p w , I.J. tm3. thdr Mrfh ad. W. Kundtt w m MrNRA.8,2W, 273. Notes in Physlcs S ~ W .P ~ ~ Veda, M&uI, Y., Long, U Dlckel, J.R., G d n , S W . , Berlin, p. 81. E.W. 1984. Ap. J., 287,295. Barsdiew, R., van den B e ~ h S. lQQf*, MCW, C. 1888. In , Ap. W ~~#nnsnts J., 974, 186. and tne I ~ t M a M u m , W Coll. 101, r a w h , S. 1991b, In SN Bandlera, R.1 gds. R.S. Roger, and f.L Landecker, Cam19874 and other SuPemova6 hid* Vniv. P , New York, p. 205. M ings of ESO/EIPC 1W eds. 1.J- Dm- van den Bmgh, S. Kamw, Yaw.1077, Ap. J., ziger and K. 1<1&, p. 661. 218,Blf.

Subarcsecond Structures in Kepler's SNR
We have shown that a spectroscopk Wmw-band frames of Kepler's SMR survey of apttcal knots, If combined with have been obtained on May 15, 1991, the p m t knowledge on their ~VOIU- using SUSl at the New Technology Teletion, can provide a wealth of information scope, during an offlclalrun devoted to on the temporal behaviour of the in- imagingand spectroscopyof this object. teraction of a blast wave with dense and Here we pmmt images of the most compact clumps. Therefore. It might conspicuous clusters of optical knots. represent a useful benchmark for These images are based on a 10-min theoretical models of this Interaction. exposure frame, taken with a narrowThe next step in this programme is to band flher centred on Ha + Iu lies; obtain a complete set of spmra for all the seeing was 0 7 arcs%. . catalogued knots. Intensity information After standard reduction, the stellar on many lines would allow one to see continuum has been subtracted using how physical quantltla, llke densities another 10-min exposure with an m-line and temperaturn, evolve with time. A narrow-band filter, obtained in similar further goal is to discriminate those seeing mnditims. Before stellar subspecbd features that mostly depend on traction the two pdnt-spread furdons evolutionary phase from those directly have been carefulty equalked, taking related to the Intrinsic properties of a care of degrerding the resolution as little knot, llke original density, size, etc. A detaHed mapping of the radial velocities of knots I also planned. With s Repls's SNR we are at p m t in the paradoxical situation that proper motions are known In more detail than radial velocities. These two components, once combined, will give a &dimension1 picture of the kinematics of this object. Such a study could provide vduable information on the structure and possibly also on the nature of thls remnant. The present advanced $tag9 of our investigdon is mostly due to obsmmtions taken at La Sllla. The equipment present at la Sllla is particularlysuitable for a completion o the survey with a f wasonably short observing time. MultlObject-Spectr~sc~py facillule~ t h most suitable for oQtimiring o h w i n g time when spectra are needed for a large number of nearby objects. A prlvat%instrument (but well integraw in La Silla environment) like ClGALE FabryPerot scanning Interferometer from

as possible. In the resulting Image the
miduals are about 7% Ipeak-to-peak) of the originl stellar images, whHe the seeing has been degrad%dto 0.8 arc=. In order to extract details on the fine structure of the opticat knots,we dtghtly drnutated an unsharpmaskingprocedure. We convolved the Image with a gaussian function of 1.8 arc= FWHM, and added a constant value of I .5 dmes the sky backgrrxrnd. We finatly div(cl& the original image by this "mash". The effect of such a procedure Is that of depressing the diffuse emission, as welt as that of compressing the dynamical range. The dynamlcai compression allows us to see at the same time knots that originally were differing in intensity even by a factor 100. The mults are

. ..

FU Or1 accretion disk) is located South(PA 12Q4 of the infrared cornpanIon, which m a i n s a somewhat myst& ous, probably protostellar object having a higher bolomettic luminosity. However, the binary system alone cannot account for the large far-infrared flux origtnatlngfrom the Z CMa region, a fact whlch leads Koresko et a l to speculate a. about the existence o a cool, extended f Structure sumundlng the binary. The observations m r t e d here meal this condensation, and &fernonatrate that it I s elongated fn the d i m o n perpendicular to the jet. These observations use COME-ON at the Casegrain focus of the ESO 8 6 m telescope, the adaptive optics VLT prototype described by Rtgaut et al. (1991 a h ; Astron. A ~ y s y in press, s . and are part of its continued scientific use (Eta Carinae: The Msmger W; Ceres: 77w Messer~ger The imuglng 86). camera is a 32x32 lnSb m y with a 0.108" pixel size on the sky. Standard Image pmesslng is applled and then followed by image reconstmdion uslng a classical &convolution atgorithrn from the complex vlsiblliies. The deconvolved image at L = 3.87 pn is ' shown in figure 1 together whh t VWh ious components needed to get a resonable fit of the visibilities (using ? minimization techniques). We find that #re masi probable model of thls complex object is indeed a binary system surrounded by an extended, fiatt'ened structure. The positions o the optical f and Infrared binary compnents were assumed to be those found in sp&le work, and the geonwtdc p r o w e s of the extended structure wete constde#d as free p m e t w s in order to fit the observed comptex visibifties. The cwtre of the disk-like structure is taken at the optical batycentre of the b l m y at L The inferred diameter of the disk' . like strukture is 0.4 f 0.W. It is orisnted at PA. 153 f P, whereas the U o w direction is at P.A W {dasheddottd line in the insert of Figure 1). We themfore suspect Wt the observed disk-l[ke structure, which m rrtai~ unresolved in the dimtion paralel to the jet, is in fact a - - d e disk, perpendicular to the oufflow axis and surrounding both components of Z CMa R is likely that this large-scale disk fuels tbe FU Orionis accretion dlsk Uaat sumxrnds the vhibfe component and provides a density gradient in the flow direction that helps to wllitnate the jet. In order to get the best possible fiito the vklbilities, the presence of yet another component must be assumed, to account far the relative maximum of intensity seen on the diffraction ring at P.A. 7) (SW insert of n g I). ~n a~ 10 brightness of t i third component is hs


CNRS Obsewatdre de Haute-Provence and
European Southern Obsewatoty


3rd ESO/OHP Summer School in Astrophysical Obsswations
Obsewatoire ale Haute-Provenee, France, July 15-25,19Q2 With modem observatories belng moved to ever more remote sibs, fewer
and fewer European students have ready access to up-to-date obsewlng facllitles. As om step towards balancing thls obviws shortcomhg In the training of young European astronomers, tlre ESOmHP Summer School offers the opportunhy to win practical experience under realistic aondttlom. In groups ofthree students, each gulded by an experienced observer, the participants wlll prepare a small o b ~ t n programmeto be c m M out with g telescopes o 1.2-1 .Q m aperture (dirW imaging and spectroscopy) at OHP. f The data reduction wlll be d m with MIDAS, on-line also wlth IMP. In a micro wohhop at the end of the school w h group wlll pmsent the1 results, includtng addMaml pertlnent lnformatbn from the literaturn, to the other partldpants. The preparation of the practical work wlll be supplemented by a series of 90-minute lectures which will be given by Invited specIdM. The subjects foreseen include (a) modem Mestope layout, (b)charge-coupled devices, (c) dmlgn prhciples of high-throughput optlcal instfirmmb, (d) crowded-field fh&om&ry, (13)hlgh-rasolution spectroscopy, (fJ taw-resolution and slHl#s spedmmpy, (g) astronomical infrared technology, and (h) data-reduction strategies. As a scientific htghllght, a talk on a m d o g l c d subject is foreseen. The working language at Ule summer school will be Engllsh. ( K e r n on the two previous ESO/OHP Summer Schools appeared in The Mmsengm see- No. #, p. 11 and No. 61, p. 8.) Appticdions are i n v M from graduate students worklng on an astmnomicai Ph.0. thesis at an institute i om of the ES0 memher countries. Appllcan tlon forms can be obtalned from the wganlm. The deadllne by whlch applicattons must have bean received is March 31,1992. A M e r of recornmenmion by a m l o r sclentlst who is familiar with the applicant's work wltl be requM at h e same time. Up to dghteen participanbwill be selected and have thelr travel and living expenses fully covered by ESO and OHP.

llte OrgElnhem
M.P. V h n
0. Bade

Obsenratolre de Haute-Provmce FOd.870 Saint-Michd-I'O-atoire
France Internet: MIRA@OBSHPADNET.

European Southern O r y Karl-Schwamchll&Str. 2 W-8046 G m l n g , Germany VISAS@ESQ.ORG


PSI-mail: PS1%020800r0042183::MIRA SPAN: OBSHPkMlRA
much lower than that of elther binary members; If canfirmed by further work, thts may represent either an mission h o t In the jet w a stellar object. This new r& reWs t power of h the adaptive optics technique to ~ p 1 0 r e the close surroundin@ of young stellar


objects. They appear mom rromplex than antidpahi, as demonstrated by this first direct image of a disk-llke stfuctum surrounding a Unary (100 A.U.). Further instrumental developments are under way, including the use of monographic techdques.

The VLT Adaptive Optha Wogrcunme (fhe hssmgw No. 69,p 13) The kue value of the incHnatlonoff he w e d rotationaxis of Ceres with respect t o the normal to t h ecllptlc plane la 4k89 a d not 20 b 30 as errrmerruay g l w h ~ Figurer. M COMBES, 0 SAINT&, ESPA-P~M .

Supernova 1987A in the LMC
Almost 5 years after the explosion, this N l T exposure (left) in the Ilght of
Ha was obtain& by €SO astronomers Christian Gouiffes and Maaslmo Della Valte on December 1,1991.8oth the inner oval nebula and the outer filaments are clearly visible. The exposure tlme was 10 minutes with a w i n g of approximately 0.65 am%. SN 1987A is situated SW of the Tarantula Nebula In a complex region containing extended emlssion nebulosities.Just south of it is a darker area of higher absorption, possibly the interstellar cloud In which the young star SK -6V 202 was formed, some mllllon years ago. The frame below Is an enlargement of an lNll] image, proceesed to better show the details of the SN 1987A surroundings. The small frame at the bottom shows the same area In continuum light,

in a spectral region wlth no emlssion Ilnes, The magnitude of the supernova itself has now decreased to about 18, and it has become significantly falnter than the two stars in the multiple system SK -6V202, in whlch the brightest star exploded on February 23, 1987.

'Institut fur Astronomie, Vienna,Austria; 2Universitdtsstemwarte Gottingen, Germany Introduction
Probably the most convincing definltion for what astwoseismology actually is, was given by Dappen, Dziembowskl and Sienklewlcz (IAU Symp. No. 123, p. 233,1988) as a method of testing stellar structure and evolution theory, uslng J avallable pulsation data (including also growth rates, phases, the fact that mode exists, and sometimes are transient, etc.), and not just observed frequencles. Asteroseismology probably opens the accessible parameter space well beyond the classical lnstabllii strips, if solar-type oscillations can be obsewed for a large variety of stars. It has become an increasingly accepted opinion that pulsation (probably mody In the form of non-radial pulsation) is the rule, rather than the exception. Unfortunately, the obsewable quantities tend to be extremely small and new instrumentation is needed, for ground-based observatlons as well as for observations from space. The prospects, however, are magnificent since it appears to be possible to test stellar Interior and evolution over most of the parameter space of the HR dlagram. Stars where relativistic effects are not important and whlch might therefore be classified as 'normal', will probably serve as most common targets for asteroseismology. 'Normal' stars are very Interesting astronomical objwts In themselves and certainly are not 'boring'. They play a crucial rote In the chemkal evolution of the Universe. Stars on me Maln Sequence and close to it are by far the most frequent and easily observable ingredients of the Universe. All our understanding of the Cosmos is based on caltbratlons (age, distance, mass, etc.) obtained from our closest neighbours. We will nat be able to appreclate our Cosmos untll we fully understand its constituent stars. Understanding stellar evolution Is fundamental for a coherent picture of the Universe, because the life of galaxies largely depends on the life of their basic, luminous constituents: the These 'normal' stars are best suited diagram. The most prominent new tools for significant tests for various asp&$ are: of fundamental stellar physics. Conpreclse distances, measured by the fronting realistic stellar models with Hpparcos satelthe, high-quality observations will tell us pulsation periods, observed wlth much about the underlaying physics. ground-based telescope networks In addition, stars constitute essential and with space experiments, laboratories for studying important asrotational velocities and magnetic fields, derived from surface imaging pects of basic physics (convection, MHD, nuclear reactions, equation of techniques, states, transport processes, etc.. . ..) new powerful d e t e r s which help under conditions which cannot be reto increase the S/N of obsenrations produced in terrestrial laboratories. For significantly, extremely high and low temperatures dramatic advances in computer and densities, this stellar laboratory is technology. indispensable for W i n g physical theories. These are just a few examples Scientific Goals for the significance of stellar physics The key Issue of asteroseismology is to what may be called laboratory physics. the theory of stellar structure and evoluNot surprisingly, many international don. In the present status of the theory, conferences have been devoted In re- a stellar model is typically characterized cent years to heliu- and asteroseismolo- by flve parameters (mass, age, initial gy. IAU Colloquium No. 137 (Vienna, compositions In helium and metals, and Aprtt 13 to 17, 1992) will be d w d , mixing length a parameter describing among others, to aspects raised in the the convective transport of energy) for present artlcle and is entitled "Inside the whlch we usually have only two observable~ (luminosity and surface gravity). Stars". A short ovewlew over the last 30 Consequently, stelIar models cannot be years of stellar astrophysics illustrates adequately tested. Moreover, we have the immense increase of knowledge some reasons not to trust our descrlpabout how stars are working, but also tion of stellar Interiors. Let us take two about the serious shortcomings in our examples. physical concepts and accuracy of our When ensembles of stars (like open clusters or binary systems) are obdata. In the slxties, a very important step In sewed for which independent constellar moddljng was achieved by qualstraints on some astrophysical paraitative!~ explaining the structure of the meters are available (same age and HR diagram at the level of accuracy of same initial composition for each star In the ensemble), it Is usualty impossthe observational data. h the late ible to reproduce the observed propseventies and in the elghties the deerties of the stars with the same valvelopment of solar neutrino astronomy as well as helioseisrnology showed that ue of the mixing length. This may there is not yet a satisfactory model indicate that the representation of which can predict the observed quanconvective transport by the mixing tities at the very high level of accuracy length theory I not adequate. s meanwhile achieved. The immense proThe obsew6d solar neutrino flux Is gress in this field, accelerated by sucmuch lower than expected, which indicates that modelling of the solar cessfut space experiments, suffers from interior is incomplete. a tack of generality, as was demonstrated, e.g., at IAU Cdloquium No. 121, Already these two examples demon"Inside the Sun". New steps forward are strate that an improvement of stdlar needed to constrain theories by study- modelting is absolutely necessary. Howing stars wlth different physical parame- ever, such an Improvement is possible ters (effective temperature, luminosity, only if adequate tests for current models chemical composition, rotation rate, can be provided, Asteroseismology is a magnetic flelds, etc.). new tool for this purpose. In the nineties, still more accurate observational techniques are being dePulsation veloped which are sulted to challenge theories in a parameter space more Classical pulsating stars have already complex than the two-dimensional HR been known since 1784, when 6 Cephei


For many years, astronomers have struggled with the problem posed by these 'simple' objects, but find themselves still far from the goal anticipated by Eddlngton who, In 1926, finished his book on The Internal Constltutlon of the Stars with the sentence: ". . . but It is reasonable to hope that in a not too distant future we shall be competent to understand so simple a thlng as a star."

Agure 1: S o k pmodes, equatwial cmss section 1-80, m -40. 1-3.175 mHz.

Rgure 2: Solar p-modes, qua-/ section 1-40, m-0, vc3.175 m M .


ngure 3: Sdar p-modes, equatorla1 c m section 1-2,rn-2, v-3.147 m u ,

was discovered as a variable star. It took nearly 200 mow years to understand the masons for this type of stellar

variability. Eigenmodes of pulsations cany a Wealth of information on the state of the Interior of stars. A mode of a glven deQrm is confinedto a glven cavlty wWn I h e star. High-dgree modes, llke the one represented In ngures 1 and 2, are restrictd to sub-surface layers, while low-degm modes, as shown in F l g ure3, propagate a!I the way to the centre of the star. The Ftgures 1 to 3 are quatorial cross &Ions through vibrating solar models and have been kindly provided by S. Frandsen (Astronomlsk Instltut, m u s ) . Amplitudes of the displacement m r s of the solar p-modes are colour wdd. Another Illustration of non-radial pulsation modes is given in Weiss and Schnsider (h Messenger, No. 33). For dlstant stars, ony tow-degree mode can be detected because of the lack of spatial resolution, Fortunately, these modes are precisely those that probe the structure from surface to centre. The roots of astermisrnology are, of course, the same as for the theory of classical pulsating stars. Thls can be best i!lumated I the wymptotic case, n when ttw degm Iof a pulsation mode ia much smaller than the ordor (overtone) of this pubation n. Tasswk (9980) has derived sn asymptotic solution for p-modes:


.JnJ =*I ,


The plytropic index of the model i s whereas a and 8 are constants depending on the internal structure of the

be measured to a very htgh accuracy In such a power spectrum: the "larg# and frequency v,, as obsewed f m the the "smalluseparations. The large ssps earth, is f u h e r spllt in a symmetric fre- sratton Av, I the frequency dierence between two modes of same degree I, quency multiplet according to: but of quantum numbers n diffel-lng by tot one. The small sepmtion 6, I the fm , s ot,nl Q , u,, = m (1 ,, quency difference between mode n, I with -I< I, m being an integer, Sa and mode n 1, I+ 2. Itturns out that Av, m< the stellar rotatation frequency, and C a depends on the 'average" sound speed constant whlch strongly depends on the In the steIlar interior, and therefore carries information on the "average" stellar structure. s In addfllon, the global magnetb fleld structure, while a,,, I sensitive to the structure of a star also Influences the detalb of the stellar structure close to elgenfrequendes and pulsation am- the core. On# the large and the small separaplitudes. Hence, arnptitude ratios of frequency multiplets allow to derive Infor- tions have been measured to a high o m a t h on this magnetfc field structure. acwracy fr a given star, one can, for As is evident, a full mode identlflca- example, locate them In the w-calted tlon (n,Iand m)- necessary in order to astemismologlcal HR diagram, where la oompare any pulsation ff& the structure constant Do,proporttonal quency wlth predictions. For most of the to the small separation, is plottedverws ctasdcal pulsating stars only one pula- the large separation Avo. This diagram tlon frequency has been observed, was Introduced into asteroselsmology sometimes two, v e ~ yrarely three fie by J. Chrlstensen-Dalsgaard (Aarhus). In quencles. Frequently, the observed f#- such a diagram (Fig. 5), llnes of constant quench do only poorly m r ~ p o n to mass (full llnes) and llnes of constant d those predicted h models. The solutbn central hydrogen content (dashed lines) y to #Is dlscmpancy fs oflen p m n t e d can be drawn. The central hydrogen s by an unknown full mode identiflcatbn. content I an excellent age Indicator. By placing the measured large and small separations In the asteroseismological Asteroselsrnotogy a New Tool HR diagram, one can derive wkh a good In a s t ~ 1 s m o l o g y analyds of accuracy the mass and age of a star. the Funher diagnostics Is provided in an the stellar structure wlll not be based on the observation of one or two fr@quen- 'echdle' diagram (Fig. Q in which the cies, but on a frequency spectrum frequencies are plotted moduto Avo, whlch allows the determination of The curvature of the linm appearing In characteristic pepiodk structum within an echelte diagram (one line for each wch a spectrum. No individual mode value of 1) is very sert.sltrve to the detalls of the structure just M o w the stellar idwrtrfieatbn la necessary in this case. The klnd of results we can expect for surface. Thus, low-degree modes can distant stars are Illustrated by the full also be used to probe thme regions. Finatly, and as was already mendisk aolar power spectrum obtained by the lphlr exprimem on bawd the tioned, a further dependence of the frePhbos probe towards Mars (Fig. 4). In quencies on the alrnuthal ordw rn is this power spectrum o the Sun seen Intraduced when a star rotates, known f h s as a star -, we can distinguish up to 30 as the rotational splitting. T l splming low-degrw modes. Two quantttia can depends on the Integral of the internal
star, and c is the travel s p e d of sound. For a rotating star, the unpertutBed





spectral resolution and the high S/N ratio required. They are also llmited to very slow rotators, because sharp spectral lines are needed to reach the desired accuracy. Unfortunately, slow rotators are not the most Interesting objects to study (no measurable rotational splitting, not efficient dynamo),and therefore the first class of methods should be prefetred for a systematic study. Although we are concentratlng here on 'normal' stars. it has to be mentioned that more exotlc objects, like whlte dwafls and nuclei of planetary nebulae, have knefmed enormously from asteroseismology. In concludon we can say that asteroselsmology I a powerful tool to s probe the Internal structure and dynamics of stars, and therefore to contribute to the solution of the current basic problems of stellar physics by providing two Independent obsewables (Avo and 2400 2800 2000 8000 9200 3400 3800 3800 8,3, However, as current stellar evolution theories characterize a star by flve Frequ-cg independent parameters (mass, initial Figure 4: Power spectrum of the /ow-p-modes from 160 days oT the IPHIR experiment. mass fraction of Helium (Y) and metals @, age and mlxlng length), additional data have to be provided for a full test of rotation over the region crossed by the amount to only 104 mag. for typical stellar interior and evolution models. mode under consideration ([.em most for solar-type stars. Aa will be shown Hitherto, In most cases only the effecof the stars the low-degree modes), and later, photometric measurements tive temperature and luminosity can be down to this accuracy are not p088i- measured, accounting for two further hence can provide an estimate of the internal rotatlan. ble from the ground. Independent parameters, out of the total Veloclty fluctuations induced by the of flve needed. Seismological techniques have been pulsations: Thesg are of the order of applled extensively to the Sun, and 10 cm 8' for solar-type stars, and Scienttfic Impact of Asteroseishelloseismology has brought an enormous amount of Information about the this type of measurements represent mology In the following sections we will try to an Important technological chalsolar interior. Among other results, It was shown that solar p-mode frequenlenge, not totally w t of soope, highlight the most prominent aspects of though. However, these measure- stdlar physics which will beneflt and cies are not compatible with praently from asments are Ilmited to only a few very have already benefitted assumed care mlxlng, with the exisbright objects, because of the high temelsmological projects. tence of Weakly lnteractlng Masslve Partlctes (WIMPS), that there is no fast sptnnlng core In the Sun,and that solar internal rotation Is not constant on cylinders, as suggested by some theories. For other sotar-type stars on the contrary, only very few results have been obtained so far. In fact, only marginal detection of pulsation has been claimed for two very bright slow rotators (Gelly, Grec, Fossat. 1986, A s h n . Astrophys. ,164, 383): a CMI (Procyon) and a Cen (f(igil Kent). In the respective power spmra for the radlal velocity variations, no clear evidenm for Avo and emerge and therefore no retiable Information can be extracted about the Internal structure of these two stars. T l lack of clear asteroseismologlcal hs results I caused by the extremely l w s o signal that must be detected In the case of, e.g., solar-type stars. Two obaenrable quantities can be used for as0 50 100 200 250 teroseismology: Brishtness fluctuations induced by t h e pulsations: These fluctuations ngum 5: m astwawismo\crgical HR Magram.






lodty gradient, and a hint on the rotatlonal shear at the base of the conW ~ o zone, n

Asteroselsmology at La Silla
Already since the early stages o asf teroseismology ESO has granted tele0 scope time to various projects In this fiekl. In the following we can only glue a very brief summary which wlll be biased towards our own activity and I based s malnly on after-dlnner 'shop tdalks' at La Silla. We apologize for being Ignorant of other impodant projects. One group of stars which contdbuted THEORY to the boom In asteroseismology is the group of pulsating magnetic CP2 stars, also called, but less precisely. rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars. Soon after the discovery of the first member of this group wlth periods of about 10 minutes OBSERVATIONS by Don Kurh: (South Africa) in 1979, conffrmhg observations were gathared at La Sllla wlth the 50-cm Danish tdescope in Strhgren and Hp colours. The I 1 full story Is already told In The I I L 1 Messenger, No. 33. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 In the beginning of the sightie, some surveys had already been initiated to SHIFTED FREQUENCY (pHz) check CP2 stars for stability against 8 Scuti type pulsation with few hours period. Our suruey at La Silla, e.g., is still ongoing and uses mainly small tetescopes (SO-crn telescopes, 0.9-rn Dutch mode ~xcitation,and as a con* Stettar interior: For Individual stars, quance on our understanding of stel- telescope and the f -m ESO telescope). as mentioned above, we usually have The recently descoped Walraven photolar convection. 2 obbservables: the absolute lumlnosAngular momentum distriMion and meter proved to be particularly useful, ity, which can now be known to a fransport: The probim of angular because it allowed to obtain simultahigh accuracy thanks to the Hipparmomentum is among the most Im- neous bcolour data. The potential of cos satellite, and the surfam gravity, portant in stellar physics. The issue b multicolour information on mode idenknown to a much lower accuracy. to understand how stars get rid of tificatbn Is illustrated In The Messengw, The mode frequencies provided by their initial angular momentum, how No. 34, p. 9. Furthermore, Matthews, the asteroseIsmologioal data will angular momentum is distributed Wehlau and Walks (Astrophys. J. Len;, yletd additional obsembles to test and I transported in stellar interiws 366, MI) have shown that such obsers stellar models. In particular, the large during a sW1s life. Providing an esti- vations, supplemented by data from the and the small separatims will be mate of Internal rotation through ro- IR, allow to derive the atmaspheric tmmeasured to a very high accuracy. tational spliings and a measure- perature stretiflcatlon, The first observaThese two observables are directly senJtIve to the detalls of internal ment of surface ratation through ob- tions of roAp stars In the near IR have t served rotational modulation of white also been obtained a ta Silla. structure, while the usual obsarvLa Slla usually plays an important role light as well as o UV lines wlll give a f ables are surface properties of the hint &bout angular momentum dis- in &sewlng campaigns orgsnlred to stars and are only Indirectly sensftlve tribution wlthin stars. The differences obtain long and uninterrupted data sets to the Internal structure. seen between stars of d i i t ages which are not affected by the day-night Stellar evelullon: Wlth the availabl4lty will tell us how angular momentum is cycIe. Several such carnpalgns have of very preclse frequency measurealready been successful for various transported during stellar evolution. ments it will be possible to detect Dynarmo theories: The mode fm 8 Scuti (9.g. M. Breger With Bochum stellar evolution effects even withln quencles and the separatbns pro- observers) and roAp stars. an active life time of a scientist. This The observations 0 solar-type oscil5 vide an estimate of stellar a p s and has bwn Investigated, among masses. The frequencies and sep tations of Procyon and a Cen, menothers, for white dwarfs by D. W n lg arstions, with the addition of mode tioned earlier In this artlcle, have been et,for roAp stars by St. Kawaler, and amplitudes and life-times, will result obtained by the Nice group prirnarlly at for 8 Scuti stars by M.Breger. h constraints on the structure o La Silla. Other very Important actlvitles f Excitation and convection: Convecconvective zones, Moreover, as indi- In astwo58ismology are currently ongotlon is thought to be ~ n s i b l for e cated prwlousty, the slmdtanmus ing at the Danish 1.5-m telescope, mode excFtatlon In solar-type stars. estimates of Internal rotatlon (rota- where S. Frandsen (Aarhus) and his colTherefore, measuring mode amtional spltttlngs) and of surface rota- leagues investigate various ctusters of plitudes and life-times of stars of diftion (rotational modulation) will pro- diirent age for 6 Scuti stars. The ferenttypes and ages will have a very ulde an estimate of the angular ve- Geneva group has amurnulated and Important Impact on the theories of


publfsheda lot of data related to micro- llw elimination of atmospheric nolse variability, 6 ScuN, p Cephel and RR Lyr and the posslbllitles of very long, convariables. Slmlkr holds true for the tinuous data strings wlth a large duty Lelden group, using the famous Watra- cycb are the main reasons. One such ven photometer. Very probably, this list asteroseismological space experiment of photometric and spectr~cwic pro- is already approved for the Swjet jects carried out at La Silk 1 hcom- MARS-94 probe and has the acronym s plets, but yet suited to illustratethe sig- EVRIS. The other space project, more nificance of the excellent ESO site for versatile, elaborate and powerful, Is &eroseismology, as well as for the Im- presently h Phase A study at ESA and I s p o r t and effectivity of small and called PRISMA (Probing Rotation and ~ ~ medium sized telescopes. "Blg Sci- Interlor of Stars: Micrcrvarlabilltyand Acence" not always dmands "Big Tele- tivlty). soopm", As already shown earlier In this article, Flnally, we would like to brlefdy touch supplementing ground-based obsemon our future projects at la Silla wlated tions are mandatory for a fulI exploitato asteroseismology, In addition to con- tlon of the scientific potential of astlnulng our survey and participating in teroseismology. In the case of N I S , wotld-wide obsetving campaigns. bask stelhr data of sufficlent accuracy, As has been clearly demonstrated by Ilk8 effective temperature, log g and a recent ESA Assessment Study for pro- luminosity are missing for many EVRlS ject PRISMA ( E M SCI (91) 5, as- target stars. Furthermore, a careful interoseismology will anter a new em, If vestlgation of the Immediat8 vicinity of observattons can be done f o space. the very bright target sstar is necessary rm

In order to avoid a poor target choice. Photometric problems may arise from even very faint background sources which d In and out of h e photometer m aperture due to satellite jitter. To our surprise, there are presently no data archives available which would allow M extract the required astromdrlc and photometric Informationfor EVRIS. As a consequence, all the candtdate target fields have to be carefully observed In various colwrs wlth CCD techniques. This synergy between space- and grotlnd-basd obsewations Is another example for the necessity to develop both and not to ignore one at the expenses o the other. f

Words of thanks: Many colleagues, ImposJble to llst all here, have contributed to this article through discussions, cooperations and contributions. WWW is particularly grateful to the teams of EVRlS and PRISMA.

Multi-Wavelength Observations of Infrared-Bright Carbon Stars
'AstronomicalInstitute 'AntonPannekoek ' Amsterdam, the Netherlands , %RON, Laboratory for Space Research, Groningen, the Netherlands
1. Introduction
gy distribution they calculated infrared

The carbon star phase is one of the last phases of evolution of Intermediate mass stars (1-8 solar masses). Carbon stars reside on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) In the HertzsprungRussell dlagram. The carbon is produced in thermal pulses, short periods of explosive He-shell burning, and transportedto the surface by convective mixing. Many of the physical processes that play a role in the formation and evolution of carbon stars are still poorly understood, e.g. the production and dredge-up of carbon, the origin and evolution of the mass loss. Here we briefly report on an observational study of infrared-bright mrbon stars, In a recent paper Groenewegen et al. (1991) have studied an infrared-complete sample of bright carbon st= containing all 109 carbon stars wlth S12>1 Jy in the IRAS PSC. This sam00 ple is more complete than others prevlously studied i that both optical and n Infrared carbon stars are included. Uslng near-infrared photometry from the literature they derived near-infrared colour temperatures and from the ener-

bolometric corrections. Distances were derived assuming Mbd--4.9, corresponding to L=7050 to. From available CO data mass-loss rates were calculated for about 80 stars in their sample. The sample was divided into five groups depending on their Infrared properties, extending the classification of carbon stars of Willems and de Jong (1988). Group I stars show the silicate feature in their LRS spectra, possibly because they are very recently formed carbon stars. Since none of the known Group I stars is bright enough to have made it into the sample they will not be dicussed further. Group II stars have a pronounced 60ym excess, high nearinfrared temperatures, small bolometric correction and low mass-loss rates. They probably turned into a carbon star quite recently and their excess at 60-prn is due to a cool circumstellar shell, probably the oxygen-rich remnant of the preceding high mass loss phase. From group 111 to V the mass-loss rate of carbon stars steadily increases, and as a consequence the near-infrared temperatures decrease and the bolometric corrections Increase.

Using average bolometric corrections for each group the infrared-complete sarnpte was transformed into a volumecomplete one, The scale height of carbon stars is found to be I90 pc and their local space density equals 185 kpC3. From the ealcutated space densities of carbon stars in each group relative timescales are derived. Adopting a Ilfetime of 20,000 years for group II stars from model calculations, Graenewegen et atafind a total lifetlme of the carbon star phase of about 26,000 years, uncertain to a factor 2. The total mass lost during the carbon star phase equals about 0.04 h h ~This number is uncer. tain to a factor 5, a factor 2 arising from the uncertalnty in the llfetime of group II stars and a factor 2.5 arising from the uncertalnty In the mass-loss rates. For an adopted average white dwarf mass of 0.65 Mo this imples that most stars are already of low mass when they turn Into carbon stars, probably around 0.69@ and certainly less than 0.85 Ma. The location of the 109 stars in the IRAS colour-colour diagram I shown In s Figure 1. The cdours C2,=2.5 Iog(%S/ SI2)and C32=2.5 log(S&Szd are indicatecl along the axes. As discussed

the 22-m telescope as well as HCN (1-0) data from the SEST. ln section 2 we present the data ob t a l d for three stars in our sampIe for w h i i we obtained N R photometry and 1 CVF spectra as well as CO and HCN data. They are 08074-3615 (a group IV star), 11318-7258 (group ill) and 13477-8532 (group lv. Several obsewed pwamtw Ilk9 galactic longbde and latitude, cotour-corrected IRAS fluxes, Gal and CS, LRS classifhtion and VAR index am listed in fable 1. In sections 3 and 4 we derive mass-loss rates from the 00 line proRIes and fit the energy distribution using a radiative transfer model. The results are briefly dlscussad in section 5 .

z me Data
Near-infrared photometry was abtained an February 17-18,1#1 a the t €SO 1. m telescope and on February O 25-28 at the ESOIMPI22-m telescope. We wed the standard INSB photometer with apertures of 15" and 8" and a throw of 20" and 15" a the 1. m and t O 2.2-m, respectively. Standard stars were observed from ths list a Eouchet f et al, (1881). The reduction was done at La Sllla uslng the reduction programme written by P. Bouch&. The results are given in Table 2. The 3-pm spectra were obtained at the 2.2-m telescope with a Circular Varlable F l k r w h d . A f l a observing a programme star, a nearby standard star was oobserved. We used the standard ~ g ~ reduction Mnique of dlvidlng the source sparurn by the standwd star spectrum and then multiply either by the assumed blackbody temperature of the standard w the known mntlnuumflux In case of G-dwatfs (Koomrwef, f 983).Absolub calibration was achieved by adopttng a K magnitude for the standard, The standard stars used with their adopted magnitudes are listed h Table2. The c a l i b W spectra we shown I Ffgure 2. n All three $tars show the charamstic carbon star feature a 3.1 pm attributed t to photospheric HCN and CeHp (Ridgway at al., 1978). For I 1318-7253 this IS not surprising since R I a known optical s carbon star ( C 3 W in Stephenson's 1989 catalogue of carbon stars) with an 1 W LRS clasmcation of 44. for 08Q74-3615 and 13477-6532 t k e ob-

4 1

Figure I :Theiocrltlwr of-

70s c&un s m In the I c o t w r - c o l o ~ a d iIn the tPp low ~. ~ t h e ~ ~ d h n ~ ~ d ~ n t o t h e dln t h n m - e h ~ u f ~ e t t e tot& srlmpb & p w 7 &Id Hne Micat& the h t i m ofthe W a C W I~I-w. l o . M

To study the group IV and V stars in more Wl we had s w d obsewing t runs at La SiHa In the beginning of 1991. Optlcal fd, R, I) photom(etry was obtained at the 1.5-m Danish teletlons are biased agafnst inkared carbon m p e , MIR photometry at the Im0-nl stars (groups IV and V). For example, and 2.2-m telescopes and CO data at NIR data existed In the literature for 14 the SEST. One of the purposes of tha ob~rving out of the 15 group II stars, but 10 out of 48 group IV stars (-20 %) did not have nrns was to confirm that same of our NIR photometry. Wewise far the CO stars were indged &sfars.Many of data. For group 11 stam, 13 out of 16 the inffared e o n stars d i h y the sillhave h measured In either CQ(1-O) con &Me (Siq feature In thelr LRS o GO@-I), for group W this I only 29 spectra, but some have an almost fe& r s out of 48. With regard to optical pho- tureks LRS spectra (the g m p V obn tom* the artuatlon I even worse. l- jects) or are misclasstfled L the LRS s 3 cept for the well-known d o n stw CW atlas. Therefore, we obtained CVF spectea none of the group IV and V stars tra wound 3 pm for a number of stars at m s to have been measured at o p t i d wavehngths. There seems to be a mlsconceptionthat l n f -&on ~ stars [or Table 1: Qsnsral parameOers ~ I general Infrared AGB stars) hsve no n Optical counterpart. However, d of these 'ohcurad' stars (usually AFGL sources) have been idmttfid (e.g. Lebofsb and Kieinrnann, 1976, Allen t3t d., I G n , Cohen and Kuhl, 1977).

above, avaltabb new-infrared (NIR) data were used to catculah bdometrlc oormt10ns and CO data to calculate mass-loss rates. Seamhing In the literature we naticd that existing o h r v a -

T&le 2: NIR photmehy and a p e c t ~ t a u n ~
Name 08074-3615

H Standard* - K - L - M - K-nIag.



5-11 f 0.04

18.7 f 0.7 3.12k0.08

9.m 10.02 9.78 f 0.05
1.52SO.08 1.4B f 0.01 7.28 k 0.08

3.00f042 10.3Bf 0 0 .7

4-51 f 0.04 4.57 lt 0.02 -0.47k0.05 -0.47 f 0.02 2.91 k0.03

2,78 k 0,05 2.92 f0.04 -0,73*0.05 0.89 f 0.03 4 .W f 0.03

HR 3842 HR 4523

33 .9




N o k I f t w o r n M e e a r e g f v e n , V l e t o p r o w d t # t i t o ~ f r w n t h e 2 . ~ - m ~ a n d f h e b o t t w nbtk 1 ~ ~ A w r l p n I n d l c a b e s a n ~ v a k o e row

sewations establish their carbon star nature. They have not been c ~ l f i e d as optical carbon stars before. Their LRS classifications are 22 and 04, although visual lnspectmn of the LRS spectrum revealed weak emission around 11 pm. The SEST data were taken on March 24-26, 1991. We d two Schottky receivers with the wide-band AOS backend. The main beam efficiencies and HPBW (half power b a r n width) at 88.8 (HCN(1-O)), 115.3 (CO(1-0)) and 230,s (CO(2-1)) G k were 0.76 (58"), 0.71 (447, 0.50 ( 3 ) respmiwly. The 2" velocity resolution at 115 GHz wets 1.81 km/s. The W(2-1) data were smoothened to give the &me resoiu10 tlon. lhe pointing was found to be accurate within 10". Calibration was done by a standard chopping whwl technique, switching between the sky and an am@ 11310-7258 blent load. Unear h e l i n e s were subtracted. The spectra were obtained u s ing dual beam switch mode with a throw 8 of 11- ' The s-ra 5. are displayed In Flgure3. The derived parametem are given in Tabb 3 where we list the rrns 7 noise temperature, the velocity with respect to the local standard of rest, the expansion velocity as measured as hatf the full wldth at zero intensity, the peak 8 temperature and the inteIntensity under the line. The velocities are in km/s • and the temperatures are In K ex5 - : : : 1 : : : : 1 : : : : ; t : : : pressed as main barn temperatures. IRAS 08074-3615 was detected af COII-0) by Zuckerman and Dyck 8 (1gag), Their peak temperatureof 0.20 K 13477-6538 oompaws well to our value. They quote an expansion vdodty of 17.3 km/s e m . . whlch is smaller than ours. They did not publish the spectrum so we cannot 0 I comment on the dlfbrencs. The HCN 3 m . (1-0) transition was detected by Lucas Et et al. (1988) with an intensity of 9.2 K L * # kmrs. Agaln, no spectrum was pub* * 0 lished. IRAS 11318-7256 was Endepsn"! ;dently detected recently by Myman et al. 2 u (1991) In CO(1-0) with a peak temperature (0,17 K) and intensity If K kds) which are very similar to our values. Our measurema of CO(2-1) and 2 HCN(1-0) In 11318-7258 and C0(1-0), 3 3.2 3.4 WAVEMdTH (Cc) W(2-1) and HCN(1-0) I 13477-6532 n are ell new detections. Flgure 2: ??183vun CVF spectm of the #me sfam dIseuSSBd hem,


. ...I. . ,I... ' ..,. I














3 The Analysis .
The NIR and CO data am used to determine bolometric corrections and mass-loss rates In a way Identical to Groenewegen et al. (1991) to which we refer for detalls. Distances were determined from the obsglved bolometric flux using MbDI=4.9 &=7050 LO), the mean value observed for carbon stars in the LMC (Frogel et al., 1980). Near-Infrared coIour temperatures were derived by flttlng a blackbody to the J, H, K, L, M magnitudes. Mass-loss rates were determined from the CO line profiles as discussed by Groenewegen et al. The results are displayed In Table 4 where we Ilst near-infrared cotour temperature, total observed flux at earth, bolometric comtions with respmt to the colour-corrected IRAS 12 km magnitude (BCrp), the distance in kpc and the mass-loss rate. These values supercede the data listed for these stars in Tables 2 and 5 of Groenewegen et al. Note however that due to the radiative transfer rnodelllng discussed below and the numerical uncertainty in calculathg the observed Rux at earth, the flnal values for these quantities are dierant.

4. A RadiathreTransfer Model
Combining the NIR data with the IRAS data, we have observations of the most important part of the spectral energy dlstdbutlon (SED). Since these stars are fairly red, their energy output In the optlcal is instgnficant. In this section we present the results of radiative transfer calculations attempted to fit the absewed SED as well as the LRS spectrum. We used the model of Grosnewegen and de Jong (1992). T I model allows hs for timadependent mass-loss rates and radius-dependent velocity laws, In the catculations presented below we restrict
Table 3: CO and HCN data

oursdves to simple rZ density laws unless otherwise mentioned, The programme simultaneously solves the radiative transfer equation and the thermal balance equation for the dust. me inner radlus is determined by the model to equal the adopted dust temperature at the Inner radlus, whlch is an input parameter. The outer radlus I deters mined from the condition that the dust

temperature at the outer radius is 20 K.
Other input parametem are the expansion velocity of the clrcumstellar shell and the mass-loss rate, both assumed for the moment to be constant, the absarptlon coefficient Q which Is assumed to be a mix of AC amorphow carbon

CO(l-0) COP-1) HCN(1-0) CO(1-0)

, ,T
0.042 0.11 0.012 0.028



T m (w

1 (K k d S l 5.6 i0.2 <4.aa


21 -18




CO(2-1) HCN(14 ) CO (1-0) CO(2-I) HCN(1-0)

0.082 0.025 0.042 0.14 0.012

2 5 -43 -44 --40



0,18 0.52

1.20f 0.03
7.2 21 8.9 9.9
k0.7 f 1.0 f 0.8

28 28 19 15

0.36 0.70 0.048


f0 3 . 14.6f1.0 0.9 f 0.1

Note. h i v e d froan V ,

a s















$ or


0,a P

3 ?















Observed and predicted spectral energy dlstrJbuths and M S spectra. For details of LhB model pametem see text.

(Bussoletti et at., 1987') and Sic (Pegourte 1988) and the dust-to-gas ratla yl which will be the main Independent variable. Mlnor Input parameters are tha grain size a, assumed to be 0 0 p and the rain denalty Q, assumed .3 to be 3.3 glcm The shape of the speetrum, for a flxed temperature at the inner radius, I solely determined by the s optical depth at some reference wavelength.


The temperature of the central star was assumed to be 2500 K. Thls choice Is not critical as long as most of the radiation is reemitted in the infrared. The stellar radius was fixed at 447 RQ. Because the lRAS souroes are variable with unknown periods, the NIR and lRAS data cannot be expected to have been taken at the same phase. Therefore we pmeeded In the foUawing way. The optical depth r was chang6d In such a way as to flt the NIR data. Then the 25-pm flux was scald to fit the

model prediction. The same scale factor was applied to the other lRAS fluxes. This is jwtifted because the predicted Car C32 and C43colours hardly depend on the optical depth and Wir variation is much less than the error in the obsewed mlours due to the uncertainty in the IRAS fluxes. The LRS s w u m was scaled in such a way that the long wavdengtfr part fr 8 lr) fitted the i1 model. It proved necessary to comct the observed 1RAS fluxes of 08074-361 5, I 1318-7256,13477-6532 by -55 %, +13 % and -17 48, respectively. The largest m e d o n Is mxssary for the IRAS s o w with the highest variability flag. Because a change in the IRAS fluxes changes the integratedflux at earth and therefore the distance (for a flxed luminosltyj and mass-loss rate we recalculated both quantities, The final values are d-3.04 kpc, = 5.6 10" Mdyr (08074-361 5);

d = 0.70, 6l 4.90 10" (11318-7256) and d = 2.07, = 3.3 104 (13477-6532). The results of some radlatlve ealculatlons are gathered in Figure 4 where in the left panel the observed NlR magnltudes, ths 3 pm spectrum, the IRAS data and the tRS spectnlm is plotted together with the model fits and In the right panel the o b s e ~ e d LRS spectrum and the fits (the full Ilnes). It should be noted that we did not attempt to fH the 3-pm s w m . The parametersof the mdds am collected in Tables, whew the assumed mass percentage of SIC and the assumed temperature at the Inner radius am listed. Derived parameters are the inner and wter radius Qnstellar radli), the optical depth at 0.5 pm and the dust-to-gas ratio. In the case of 11318-7256 we also calculated models with lower values of


fable 4: Some &Wed parameters
Name ~ W/m2) 3CI2 D - T* (K) F ( 1 -" - (kpc) h ( f d ~ / @ @ 08074 -361 5 13318-7256 13477 6532


l y we rnultlpndthe C-uduw of msdettl d al. by a factor of 5 to let thelr rewb a m with g t h m of Kolke st sl. 1#0.


490 1294



5.m 0.66

8.53 6.54 8.14

2.0 0.63 185

2.5 (-5) 3.9 (-6) 1 6 (-5) .

Rgure 5: The l o n g - ~ pmt h the specbvm o 11318-7256 for the standard ~ of f (WM Ihe) and for mad& with r e d m absorpfiv/ty (dash& line), w d a h ~ R S S loss (dotted /lm)and smllw outer radlus (dot-dashed line).

seem to be two broad features: one between 7.5 and 10 prr~and the other between 10 and 12.5 pm. The latter feature seems to be too bmad to be explaind in terms of Sic. The feature between 7.5 and 10 w, peaking at 8.6 pm Is most purzling. Wlllems (1988) discovered an unidentrfied feature at 8.6 prn in the spectra of group II stars. He did not flnd it in group 111 stars (asistent with 11318-72561, tween 7.5 and 10 w. which haw thicker circumstallar shdls. Now we find a feature at 8 6 pm I group n IV stars. with even thicker shells. I this s 5. Discussion feature (see also Baron et al.. 1987) reWe presented NlR photometry, spec- lated to me feature in group I1 stars? In all three cases our model predicts trophotometty and W C N data for three carbon stars from the infrared- tw much Rux at 60 and 100 pm. We complete carbon star sample of consider fwr posslbllities: (1) the enG r m w e g e n et a]. (1991). Assuming a v e l w is resolved by the IRAS beam, E2) mean luminosity of 7055 0 we derive the outer radlus is smaller, (3) a stgepsr distances and mass-loss rates. Using a emissivtty law and (4) a lowm m a d o s s radiative tmnsfer model we derive dust- rate in the past. The 100-prn emission comes mainly to-gas ratios of Y==0.0007 (==1/1600). from the region with dust temperatures The main uncertainty In this value is tha absolute value of the absorptivity. When -30 K whlch is at about 21,000 stellar the mass-toss rates are cdculated from radii oorrespondlng to W dlameter at a CO data (1.e. -Da) and for fixed dm- distance of 0.7 kpc. The IRAS beam et I00 pm was roughly 100" so tfw shell is tive temperatures, Y scales with D'] or LO", so the assumed luminosity is probably not resolved. To investigate the other possibilities not a major source of uncertajnty. The we calculated three additional models dust-to-gas ratio we derive C a factor of 2 lower than usually quoted (0.0013 for for 11318-7256 with (a) a smaller outer our value of n(60 Ir) = 520 cm2 g-' ,Jura radlus (rod, 500Q R*; the dot-dashed n 1986) but recently Sahai (19W, using a H e in Fig. 51, (b) an emissivity law Qb for h >40 ym (dashed line) and (c) a self-consisterrt CO modd for U Cam finds V c 0.00015. Analysis af other mass-loss rate which increased by e n stars also tndicatelow dust-toTabb 5: Radiatlw Mmfwmode/ m e f e m gas &tw (Sahal, 1091).

T .I , Only values >I300 K give good fits. A mixture of 40 % Sic and 60 % amorphous cahon can explaln the feature at 11.3 pm fairly wdl. For 08074-361 5 and 13477-8532 only pure amorphous carbon models are shown because we could not get a satisfactory flt of the broad feature between 10 and 123 pm wlth the SIC of Pegourie. Furthermore, there is evidence I both stars for emission ben

a factor 2 over the past 3300 years (dotted line). One cannot disthguish between these three possibjlltles on the basis of the fits in F~ure R has been 5. advocated that the detection of HCN emission is a sufficient criterlum to idwtlfy optically invisible carbon stars.However, oxygen-rich stars have also been detected in HCN. From Undqvkt et al. (1888) we derive that the mean of #e d o I(HCN)/I(CqI 4)) their 10 oxyIn gen-rich stam wlth detected HCN I s 0.12 and the maximum value *wed is 0.26. The same ratio In our stars is 0.23, 1.24 arld 0.09 respecdvely. This means that solely on the basis of HCN emission, in 2 out of 3 cases the eonfirmation as carbon stars could not have been made. We suggest that the presence of the 33 prn fature I a more . s suitable artan star identiffcation mark than the HCN/CO ratio.

Acknowledgements The research of MQ is suppwted
under grant 782-373430 by the Netherlands Foundation for Astronomical Research (ASTRON), which receives its funds from the Netherlands Organization for ScfmMc R h (NWO).

Allen D.A. HylmdAR., longmore AJ., CmWl J-L, Goss W.M., Haynes R.F., l g n 4 . J . 217,108. Baron Y., de Mukon M., Papoular P., Pegoutia B , 1987, Astrontron . Astrophp. Bwchet P., Manfmld J., Schrnidw F.-X., 1991, ESO mn 748. it BuWetti E, Colangeli L,Borghest A, Om. flni V., 1987, A&m. As-. Suppl. 1 , 0
257. m M., Kuhi LV., t%7, PAW 89,829. Fwel J A , Persson 8E., Cohen J.G., 1980,






&J. 2m, 495. Qrwwsgen MAT., de Jong T., van der Blkk N S , 8iJkhuisS., Willems F.J., 7391, Aohr. A s m * . In p r a . Oroenewegm MAT., de Jong T., 1992, in preparation. J u M,, 3980, &J. 303,327. ~ Kdke C., W a w a H., Manabe A, iQW, Ap,d ss6?, 495. Kuomnmt J., 1W3, Ask#, ktmphp. $28, 84. Labofsky MJ., Kleinmmn S.G., 1976, A.J. 81, 534, Undqvlst M., Nyrnan LA., Olofsson H.,Wnnberg A, 1988,Astron, Aslrophp. 206, L15.

With regard to the broad-band features in the LRS spectrum we showed that in the case o the optically f visible group Ill star 11318-7256 a satisfactory fit could be obtaintad with a mixture of 40 % SiC and 60 % amorphous carbon. In the case of the two infrared carbon stars of grwp IV thsre


In Figure4
solid tine line dotted line mltdline dotted Bne


Sc i
11318-7256 0





28.8 7.62 8.01

0.00088 0.00085





40 0

000 1800 1800 1000



I . 1.68 7.20 4.42

0.00072 0 . W


20.7 28.0

hm R., Q d l l ~ t e a Omont A, l w , S.. Astmn. Amqhp.104,230. Nyman LA, Booth R.S., CWstrpm U., HabIng H.J., Hake A, Omont A, S a M R., Stark R, van der Vwn W.E.CJ., Wn iA, 1991, &!ton.

Astronomy from Large Databases II
Strasbourg Observatory- 14- I 6 September 1992
went to the 1887 conference m "Aebonrrmy from Large D a Hsu;k, ES0 Conf.and WmWhop P m . 2 4 is timely. The area has wen much progms. my trrrm lerge Datah#s II* wll allow mhlval msmrch resub fmm var3ws M e i nst be reviewed. p rm t a Much has happened In the area of mtmornical datahes In redent years* HST is In full operatian: m e such as D ( W T have stopped growing and now W I o n for retrleva! purpow-8only; NED has c m e Into belng;etc,Hundreds, or wen thousands, of papers h v e based on data r#eved from Archived material from vadous Is Jnweaalngly combined wlth data obtalned through ]OM b a o t r o d m p d g n s InvdvIng grand-based and apace-borne wwfments worklng in different wavelmgth ranges.
A follow-up

Pegouile B., 1988, AWon. AstrophyB. 1194,





(Ws. M u m and A. F.

FUdgway S.T., Carbon D.F., Hail D.N., 1W8,
ApJ. 226,138.

WJ R., 1 , m&J. 382,852.
Sahai R., 1991, In preparetbn. Stephemon QB,, 1989, Pub, Warner and Swmey Obs., vor. 3,no. 2. V c Vwn W,E.C.J., Oldsson H,, I-, m h F m h l h s t o ~ m y N ~ & . M.O. Men-&, A. Omontt Edbns Froniihrea, af-sur-Yvette, p. 13Q. W R FJ., 19M, Astrontron W Asbphy$ 203, 51. Wnlems EJ,, de Jong T., 1988 Mmn. A s b tM, 173. ~ c k e m r a n Oyek H.M., 188% 4 . J . 311, B., 345.


TechnIeally datab~es have evolved. SlMBAD 9.0 is fully opemttanal. User inteifaces nwv Indude whdonra and polnt4-cllek aoeess mechanlm, hyped& and hypermedia. Commercial produrn have m l d e r a b l y Improved, MMbuted daCehases arit now highly relevant, pdntlng to the Imp-t role o n e t w k . CD-ROMs and other l starage medh are mr#e and more W e l y used. The I987 canbrence predates the births of E I and ADS, among many other developments. SS &lentific OrganUng Commmee: M. F. A " H m (Unlveraity of Mayland, C a Park): P, Benvenuti (ST-Em, Gmhlng); w R. Bonnet (ESA, Paris);M. C F u r g Observatory) (Chdmm); A. Qlaoconl (STSel, Wtimoae): B. Hawk (Instltut d'Astmmle, kusanrse) A. H c (Strasbwrg ek O ~ a t o a y () P W I n g s Edbr); Q HJou (IPAC. Pasadena); F, Murtagh (W-WF, Gmhing) tPme&lngs Edltorl: S. Nhhimura (NACM. Tokyo): Qi. Riwler (NAGA, Washington); P. Glommi @BRIM, Frascatl); M. Strlckrnm W , Washington); P.A. L V d e n 60ut (NRAO, Charlottesvllle]: H van der Laan (ESO, Gmhlrya); and HrU, . Zimmemrarm (MPE, ~ h ~ ~ , The P W i n g s w l be publlshed by the Europman SouVlem Obwwabw.

Open House at ESO

On Saturday, October 12,1991, ESO Headquartem in Garching agaln opened Comtact a d its doors to the public. More than 2000 And& He&, Obwmtolra ~ n o r n f q w 11 Rue de I'UnhersW, F470M1 Stmbourg, . persons took the opportunity t Vidt the o France. Tet.: + 3388358222; Fax: + 3388250160; E-.-mall: heck @fmWl .bent organhation and learn about science heck@~ v s . u ~ . f or , r and technology at our organization;this Flonn Mh -, Spam TeCescPpe European CoorrirWng FUllty, Eumpwn Southem c o m p o to I person every I set~ 0 Obewatwy. Tel,: + 498332Uil6298; % + 48932 006440: E-mak frnurtaghQew, onds. Thew W&B a lot of interest and org, murtagh @ a o i ~ s t s c l edu. . curlosky, especially about the VLT and tha HuMle Space Telescope, the tatter M n gp w by the EWES0 Space Telescope Ewofwan Coordinating Fa- lighted Milky Way panorama and finally and were present durlng s e w hectic cllity, krstaltad at ESO HQ. Wsitm of all filled out the "Star-Qulznto participate in houn to guide #re many visttm. There q m could chmw among various at- the lottery wlth ESO books and p e e r s was a continuous, very lively interaction tractions; they saw some of the €SO as main p b and by the end of this long day, the video films, were introduced to the virAbout 20 ESO staff members to& good result IR quite a few smiles on kees of large CCDs, admired the w- part In the pepamions for this went otherwise worn-out


Surface Imaging of W Ursae Majoris Contact Binaries

OsservatorioAstronomico d Roma, Italy; i

*!nstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France;
3~bsen/a and Astrophysics Laboratory. University of Helsinki, Finland tory
mass transfer is a direct consequence of the angular momentum loss experienced by the system by virtue of magnetically trapped ionized stellar winds and controlled by the dynamo of the convective zone. The angular mornenturn loss mechanism, first formulated by Schatunan (1982) for solar-type single stars, is also a fundamental Ingredient In the process leading to the formation of solar-type contact Wnaries from detached systems. By virtue of spin-orbit coupling, in fact, R will produce a shrinking of the orbit and finally transform the

The W UMa type binarles are contact systems formed by two solar type components and are probably the most enigmatic group among close interacting blnaries. The eclipsing W UMa systems show a fight curve with minima of about the same depth, therefore the effective temperatures of the two components should be almost the same, In spite of the fact that they always are dwarf stars of different mass. The difference AT, Tear Teb2, index 1 indicating the the primary (I. e. the more massive) component, is not more than some hundred degrees. even for mass ratios of only some tenths, and it can even be negatlve, wlth a smaller component hotter than the mom massive one (again by some hundred degrees). The physical explanation of these well-established small temperature differences is one of the challenges, untl now without a completely satisfactory answer, of close binary astrophysics. Binnendilk was probably the first to realize this paradoxical situation and we may call this unexplained but well-known property the Binnendijk paradox. This peculiar temperature difference, which is certainly related to the production and to the transfer of energy between the two components, is not the only enigma of W UMa binaries, Already in the fortis Kuiper (1941) pointed out that contact binaries filling the inner Roche lobe should have a ratio of the volumes determined by the Roche geometry. This predicts, in a very large range of mass ratios, V@, = qlda5.On the other hand the ZAMS relation requires V a l = qu wlth a = 2,O & 0.1. The two relations can be simultaneously fulfilled only for q = l , but all the known W UMa systems have mass ratios smaller than one. This is the so-called Kuiper


envelope. This cannot be performed without taking into account strong Coriotis forces and unknown magnetic fields between tidally Interacting cornponents. The problem deriving from the Roche lobe fllllng of the two components, which is confirmed by the Ilght-curve solutions obtained by means of the W1 1son-Devinney procedure (see next section), is also without clear solutions. The major dlfflculty is, in this case. to predict how the volumes of the two stars will react in the case of mass transfer, This









Both paradoxes teach us that the components of W UMa binaries have temperatures and radii that strongly deviate from the predlctlons for single stars evolvlng between ZAMS and TAMS, at least for one of the components. The difficulties in formulating a eonsistent scenario are enormous: for instance the solution of the Binnendijk paradox requirea the modelling of the energy transfer through a thin common

Fgure 1: Band V light cwves of W En end AE Phe. The continuous lines (often hidden by fhe observed points) are the 1 l g h t - c ~ ~ ~ ~ solutions.

and mass exchange producing hot spots) and mose of magnetic activity, The b e t way to salve the problem is a Doppler lmaglng analysis of high-dispersion spectra which yldds a brightness surface map of the system. This I s the reason why we proposed a programme of Jmultaneous spectrcwcopic and photomewic obaervations of two suitable southern W UMa system, AE Phe and W Erl. The programme, the method of data analysis and the (provtalonal) results are d d b e d in the following sections.

2. The Observations

htn #a tightsdutFbn of W M at pPIase 0.25 [tha same, in this m e , as the d M u at phase A75). EfhWh i bW s ature goes from 5050 to 5890 K. ma &our W goes h m dilrk red to Mte with Irk


ceasing Ts.

2.1 The photometry
We had six observing nights In

ESO 50-cm telescope (with Its single channel photometer, the EM1 97894 photomultiplier and the standard 8. V filters). Unfortunately in the I s8ason 989 three nights out of six were non-photometric, AE P b was observed for two nights anrl W Erl o l for one. As a ny d&acbed system into a contact binary consequence we got only incomplete (Van "tVeer, 1975; Wlhu, 19821, llght curves. The 1990 season, however, There is no doubt about the presence was completely successful: we had of even strong magnetic fidds In these 100% of photomeftic nights. stars: we have direct evidence from the The first thing we found out was that light cwve @rturbations, which are at- the primary minima were In both cases tributed to dark or hot spots,and from delayed by about half an hour with reindirect clues, i.e. the excited chromo- spect to the ephemerides glven by spheres and mronae. Gronbeck (1978, for A Phe) and 8 E In principle dark spots on the surface (1081, for W Eri). m8 means a phase i of the primary component can explain shift of respectively 0.0m and 0.077. the inversion of the t e r n m u r e differ- Tihe fact is not surprising given the ence, but this type of model would re- s h o r t m of the periods (both around quire the permanent presenm of ex- 0.3 days) and the long time passed tended dark spots on the back hemi- since the last ephemerides. sphere of the primary, a thesis difficult From the individual obsmations, to support. However, we know that (Fig. 1) we derived the mean point light bright mdlpr dark spots with shomr curves which were solved by means of lifetimes (say, some years) are pres- the W i l m and Oevinney code, in the ent from the perturbations of the light last standard distchted version Wlcurves. All W LJMa binaries that have son, 1979)which Includes a partlaltreatbmn observed for some years show ment of darWhot spots. light-cutve variations. These can cover The code uses a physlcal model of the every phase domain, but they are best cantact binary h d on the Roche lobe visible during the maxima and minima oonfigurdon. The surface brightness and may consist of a change of height distribution of the common envelope and depth of these extremes. It is also deviates from a uniform distribution b e possible that the phase of one or more cause of gravity darkening effect (von of these extremes is shifted. Zelpel. 1929; Lucy, 19881,which makes Even if the signatures of surface in- the poles brlghter than the back and the homogeneiti~ clearly appear in the tight equators of the components, and becurves, the photometry alone annot cause of the mutual reflection of the unambiguously determine the type of irradiated light (brightening the facing the perturbations(hot w dark), and their hemisphergs). The model is used to lodon, so that one cannot dlstingutsh compute a thsoreticd light cum as between the effects of the interaction function of a number of physical parabetween the two components (energy metem the wavelength, the mass ratio,

W , h i m the light-cutw sdulfon, lor the sudce of AE he visible at phese am. Effecthe temperatwe from 5020 t o 6T30 K ?Reeolwr scale I shown In m r 3. s ue @) EfieaYw tempemturn dlstdbutflon of A E Phe at phase Q 75.

Nwember 1989 and wn more one e year later. The stars were simultaneous- the inclination, the filling factor (which ly observd with the CAT telescope, mprw the degree of filling of the space equipped with the CES spectrograph, between the internaland external W h e short camera and CCD and with the d c a l surfaces), the difference between the effective temperatures, the luminosity fatlo and, finally, three coeffdents taking Into account the Bmb darkening, the gravity darkening and the reflection effect. An elementary I i n h d least s q m algorithm, with derivatives computed by finite diiences approxlmatlon, provides the differential corrections to a statting s t of adjustable parameters, e By m s of an iterative procedure the method converges to the best set of pameters, 1.e. what is commonly called the light-curve solution. ThC numerical procedure Is often hindered by strong mehtIons among the adjustable parameters, which demands a decrease of fhdr number, by using theomieal M estimated values (this is olten the case for the values of the gravity darkening, the limb darkening and the reflaction coefficients), and Ule use of the method of subsets (Wilson and Blermann, 1976). The WD code is In general successful in finding morphologidly exdlent and physically mnlngful solutions {one should perhap mention that the most common difficulty with it is the nonuniciiy, at least with respect to some parameters, and not the lack of sohlions). This is bue at least as long as the curves do not show petturbatlons asyrnmeftlc with respect t the minima. o In the last case it is still possible to model the wmmon envelope irrtroducing hot o dark spots, even If, for r reasons connected to the deteminacy of the-solutions,the spot parameters are not adjust&. However, in spite of this constraint, the solution with spots Is very often non unique: the photometry alone does not contain enough Information to discriminate between a hot spot


In practice, however, the "inverse problemm reconstructinga brightnm of surface map from the p r o f l l ~ rather is difficult, being an "ill-posed" problem. This means that one can find many spot distributions producing the same effect on the line profiles. As a consequence one has to apply further conshints (usually in the form of a regulariring function whlch chooses the simplest of all possible maps). A detailed descrip2 2The high-dtspe~i~n . specfmtion of the method can be found in V W copy and Penrod (1983) and in Piskunow. The Doppler Imaging method is based Tuorninen and Vilhu (1990). The application of the Doppler imagon the fact that a dark starspot produces a bright bump in a rota~onatly ing technique to contact binaries I not s broadened absorption llne profile. This at all straighffoward. First of all, m e r e can be intuitiiy understood consid- constraints H R the observable sample. m ering what happens to the llne profile If The most serious dlfftculty arises from we insert a completely dark (and small) the short periods (and heme high rotaspot on the surface of a rotating star. tional velocities) coupld to low The efFect will be the disappearance of luminosities of these systems. The exthe contribution of the now darkend posure tlmes should be a compromise regim from the profile. This consists of between the need of high SM ratio, a narrow absorption feature, displaced necessary to resolve weak features In a from the line centre by the mation, and heavily broadened profile, and that of of a contribution to the continuum at all covering no mom than 0.05 in phase the other wavelengths of the broadened (which means exposures shorter than line. The flnal algebra gives that at the 20 minutes)&With GAT telescope and wavelengths corresponding to the ve- CES spectrograph at a resolution of locity shift o the spot the flux deereases about 60,000 we were obliged to select f less than at the othets. thus producing relatively bright systems (m, 8) and , the bright bump. During a stellar rotation strong lines: the Balmer H line at the bump moves across the profile In a 6563 8( and the Sodium Dl and 02 at way connected to the posltion on the 5890/95 A. The disadvantage of the e surface. It is therefore clear that one strwlg lines, compared to the weak F can, In principle, extract information on lines commonly used in Doppler imags s the surface brightness distribution from ing, I that their interpretath I more a s t of Doppler-broadened profiles ta- difficult, because of contamlrsation by e the chromospheric layers. However, ken at d i i phases.

of given locatlon and size and a dark spot elsewhere {see for Instance Macemi,Van 't Veer and Van Hamme. 1990. Maceroni and Van 't V w , 1990). A long continuous series of (multi-wavelength) Observations of the- same system can help to overcome the problem, but repeated homogeneous observations erre not available for most of the known systems. T l explains the ImpMtance o hs f uslng simultaneously the photometry and the high-dispersion spectroscopy, which yields independent information about the location of the pertuhed regions. Figures 2 and 3 show the g e o M c d configuration corresponding to the simultaneous on B and Vj solutions of Figure 1, tqether with the spot location and the effective temperature distribution. Both systems show asymmetric ~ert~tkatlons the light CUM; the of most evident feature of this effect i s that the maximum following (max I) is brigMer than ths other (max 11). In the case of AE Phe we modelled thls feature by means of a hotter spotted region reaching maximum vlsibiti at phase 0.25. This choice was sugg-d by the first indications from the spectroscopb data reduction, howlng the presence of extra emission in H,, at max 1 . With a similar procedure we have found the solution of W Eri. In its case we find a region of enhanced brightness on the connecting neck.

?aPHE HaLpha 89


phase=O. 5 0


mapped qwb'm Is'he-bHwof the 4: D @ L K 0 M ~ ~ f Y Ilkre is praseurf, S s 0 means emission /ins. e g u l h t width (miextj. S O means that wm t l w q p ~ ~ b u ~ gens8 that darC ~ V B B S h t in Un, mnwparm (o the l o w T,.




they rue atso sensitive to photospheric spots and one should also say that enh a n d chromospheras are probably connected with spots. Additional difficulties are due to the fact the modelling of a contact system is much mwe difficult than that of a single star (or a detached binary): the unperturbed photosphere 0.e. without spots) is not uniformly bright and, moreover, one has to take into account the surface shape and the corresponding radial velocity distributions. The surfaceimages o Rgures4 and 5 f are the prellminq results o the analyf s s of the H, profiles. In the first step of i the treatment we assumed that the H, equivalent width, W, could be expressed as W = &WO, being Wg the solar value and S only functlon of the position on the surFace. Furthermore, we also assumed that the pmte shape is the same as that of the sun, being again slmpty scaled by afactor S. This is only a firstorder approximation, the next step will be the computation of the local line profile by means o model atf mospheres. The focal profiles were broadened and weighted uslng the local radial veblties and outgoing fluxes in the observer direction computed by means of the W code. D The maps of Figures 4 and 5 show with different grey tones the resulting S dlstributlon. The transformation of the S scale into a temperature scale, directly comparable with Figures 2 and 3, r e quim the dependence of W on the effective temperature and gravity, and

YY ERI ItaLpha 90

this approach was clear. From the rneasurements of vbiMe light curve, UV and X we know that these binaries are seats of magnetic activity. Furthermore, R is gmerally believed that high AML is controlling the evolution of theser binaries towards the singla-& stage,involving mass transport from the secondaty to the primary component. Nobody presently understands how this mass transport takes place and how it is Interacting with magnetic, tidal and Corfolk forces. It can be hoped that from a better survey of the brightness inhomogenelties on the surface, a better insight In the origin of Wese inhomogenehie$, and related large-scale motions, can be obbind. Our first results ate encouraging for a further development o the applicdion f o this method. However, we feel that f the next step wilt most probably require the use of the 3.6-m telescope, to have the possibility of enlarging the observable sample and of analysing less strong (and simpler) spectral lines.
we have a T distribution over the surface, which implies a varim-on of the line equivalent width and affects the reference values of S 0.e. the value m e spondhg to the unperturbed photosphere). To disentangle this effect from the actual brightness variation we are undertaWng the computation of local profiles by means of model atmoBjnnendijk L 1970, WsM In Astron. 12,217. E w e r M. 1981, PASPW, 528. Q r o n W , 0. 1976, A s t m . Astrophp. SUM. 24,399. Kuiper P.G. 1941, Ap.J. 93,133. Lucy LB. 1908, Ap.J. 151, 1123. Maoeroni C ,van Hamme W., Van 't Veer F. . 1W ,Astm. AstmMys. 234,177. Maceronl C ,Van 't Veer F. 1990 I Active . n Close Blnark Ed. C. tbanoglu, Kluwer Acad. Publ. Dordrecht, p. 309. Piskunov N E Tuorninen I., Vilhu 0. 1990, ., Asttvn. Astrophys. 230,383. S c h a k m E 1962, Ann Astmphw. 2 , 18. s Van 't Veer F. 1975, ktron. Astrophys 40, 167. Wlhu 0.1Q82,A s t m Astrwphys. 109,17. V-1 S.S., Penrod G.D. 1Q83,PASP 95, 565. Wilson R.E 1979, 4p.J. 254, 1054. Wilson R.E., Biennann, P. 1970. Astmn. Asw y. hs 48,349.

hence the use of the appropriate model atmospheres. However, on a more qualitative ground, we know that darker toms correspond to colder areas; from a flrst rough estimate S 1.83 corresponds to 350 K above the mean and S = 0.5 to 400 K below. The similarity between the photometric and spectroscopic maps is evident, at least with reference to the distribution on a large scale. In both cases the fitting of the data requires a smooth nonuniform temperature distribution with the stdlar poles hotter than the backs and the equators. Therefore we can say that the mbdels from photometry and spectroscopy are at this level fully consistent. On the other hand, the detailed analysis of the s u b e features requires a less simple treatment, that we are still developing. Even In absence of spots



3. Discussion and Conclusions
The Doppler imaging was already successfully applied to less rapidly rotating cj b- by other people, but as far as we know never to W UMa stars. Wrth this experience we intended to examine if it I also possible t obtain new s o fnforrnatlon about these capricious, rapidly rotating objects. The reason for

Are the Nebulae Around R Coronae Borealis Stars Evolution or Ejection Related?
D. POLLACCO, Department of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews University, Scotland
The R Coranae Borealis p CB) stars are a rare group of cool hydrogen-deficient supergiants whose Ilght variations are characterized by dramatic fading of up to visual mag. 9 and a slow recovety to maximum. Spectroscopicdly they appear to be extremely hydrogen-deficient and carbon rich. Their evolutionary history has been the source of much controversy. Mixing scenarios for single AG8 stars (Schonbemer, 1986) have been unable to reconcile the observed photospheric abundance3 with model predictions. Recently two rather exotlc scenarios have emerged that address

this problem: The last thermal pulse scenario (Renzini, 1979, 1981 and lben et al., 1983). Calculations have shown that If a whie dwarf suffers a thermal

pulse it may be intense enough to reignite a helium-burning shdl sending the star towards the AGB fr a mo ond time ('h AQB star). The again' R CrS stars are suspected to be a t this stage. This process is accornpanied by large-scale mixing of the photosphere. Although the computational work i great it does appear s that the time spent at the AGE is

8gr is rapidly evolving towards #he red supergiant region of the HR diagram probably the R Cr3 reglon, In order to test this scenwb more tbmugh~ywe (Poltacco e d., 1891) t have used the Wr to #arch for falnt nebulae around cool R CrB stars. Multiple [mageswere obtained of UW Cen In very deep minima that dearly show the star to be surrounded by a faint (and small) nebula of unusual physical appearance Fig. 3). The morphology conaists of a fainter outer envelope of circular appearance wblle the central p& are dominated by a palr af reasanably collimated and diagonally Rgurs 1a/b; #wow-bandimages of V 546 S rand Its surmuding nebula &ken with tfra ESCa/ g MPl2.2-m teI 1 ~ 7ln. each c~dscr re am ten mnWm w d y W n the opposed "jets" (I use thls word Ilghtty). Narrow-band imaging and spectra sky level and the peak flux h the centrrrl WE. e images am m L h t U u m sb m s ualtbwgh dWferences in the PSF thrwgh the d l m n t fltem and images show that mm% stellar (Fig. 4) owned with the M n suggest m u maim i e d that the nebular emlsslon is dominated by a scattering component with no obvious signs of line emission (our detecDestrongly mass dependent and even These Images are continuum subtracted tor had little efflclencyat A3720 for the lowerst mass o b w may be and show an amazing morphology spite h e omhelming excelknce and too short to account for the sus- d M n c e (normally lmqes of PN in hence enjoyment of uslng the MTI; this J pected R CrS lifetimes. Subsequent these ions display m~@llym i h sttuc- nrn was overshadowed by a certain evolubon is via a S~h:Rbnbemr track tures). Spectroscopy obtained wtth the student who shall remain nameless to the white dwarf configuraffon. M T (Ag. 2) shows the nebula to be o who found during a long stew that he f d The merged wfilte dwarf m a r f o low excltatlon. An analysis of this I - was unable to control the contents of (Webbink, 1984). It I thought posst cated that bllurn I heavily membun- his stomach. s s This structure i proving difficult to s ble that a double dggenemte binary a n t , while simple and more oornpl2f consisting af He and CO white cated modelling faild tn predict the ob- understand m the context o the dwarfs may lose suPFicient angular served nebular ionrzatlon and extent at evolutionary scenarios & out above. momentum by gravitational radia- the inferred surface temperaturn of the Mwever, considering the ejection vetiodmatern'al ejection to allow the central siar (-20,000 K SchBnbemer locities lrnplled by chromospherjc lines : )' s t r to merge within a Hubbb and Heber, 1986). However, conver- (-200 km's observed during the depe m tlme. h these circumstances it is ex- gence was achieved using black-body cline to minimum, these structures pected that the lighter He d W will models (the limlflng case) if the stellar could m l l y be poduoed within the be smeared muhd the other pro- temperature wa8 raised by some 10,000 theomt'cal age of the R CtB phase ducing the obsewed abundanoes. K (Pollacco e al., 1090)- spectra do (SchBnbemeP, 187). Hewe It is more f UV e s The firat clues to the e v o l u d o n ~ not give any indicatbns of mother body Ilkdy that the jt structure I related to status o the R CrS stars may have been In the system, so we are forced to the process causing the minima. In line f et d. (1901) sug@ fwnd by Herbig ( 9 9 1 4 1988) who while =pt that V 348 Sgr must have been with this, Polo b w i n g the proto-type R CrB in deep hotter In the recent past (the reoomblna- that in UW Cen and by lmplicatlon all R mlnima found possibk evidence of [O Ir] tion t l m l e of the nebula is Cr6 stars, there is also &jetIn or close to h3727/9A emission. These lines only 120-2300 yr). We cmlude that V 348 the tine ofsight. occur in low-temperahre and density material and suggest that R ch-6 may be sumwnded by ;?ow-surface b r i g h k nebula. lRAS obmvations of R CrB have revealed the presen- of a huge fossil dust shell (Walker, 1986) some 8 pc in diametw. Gillett e 4 (1986) tried t . to undestand the haaflng of the shell but concluded that the stellar and Intarstellar radiation fields are far too W l e to account for the obsmed shell tempetaturn. The hot R C B stars are thought to be r similar to the R CrS stars but have much higher ph-pheric tempetaturn Pollaem, 1989, Pallaoco and Hill, 1MI). f h e brightest member of this elm, V348 Sgr, I known to be surrounded by a faint s . ' ' L ~ ' ~ ~ ' m l ' f m nebula. Figure 1d shows the nebula's b S880 -0 4WO WW HW -0 6800 MP O morphology as o h w e d through Ha -mw and [NIU ~ 8 ' 4 A narrow-band fllters u k Flgum 2 sum of 5 hr wwth o IPES spectra t m Wm'theR4f In 1987. N& me w~uuely : f a fng the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope re- strongappsmce of~sl1587d whbhIs mtexpmwfwlaaentmlaclwoeofthistum (-rn,,oOo @ motely from Gaming.








Discovery o the First Eclipsing Binary Barium Star f
' ~ u r o ~ e Southern Observatory;21nstitut dHstrophysique, Unlversit4 de Li&ge, Belgium; vrije Universiteit an h s s e l , Betglum

I. Barium Stars
Barium stars are a family of peculiar red giant stars whose envelopes exhibh Werabundances of carbon as well as of dements heavier than iron, flrst identifled by Biddman and Keenan (1951), they represent about 1% of all red ghnts of types G and K. Their kinematic behaviwr apto be similar to that of A or early F main-sequeom siars; acmdlngly, barium stars shwtd have an average mass of about 15 to 2 MQ . (Hakkila 1989a). McCture (1983) found that a large fraction of barlum stars belong to spectmoopic binaries. Jorissen and Mayor (1988) showed that virtually all known southem barium stars with large barium overabundance a e spectroscopic r binash, and McClure and Woodswwth, (1990) obtainad o b t l periods In the ria range 80 d to more than 10 y. Whiie dwarf (WD) companions are inferred fmthe mass function distribution, although very few of them can be detected directly from their UV radiation (Btihrn-Vltense, 1980, Dominy and Lambed, 1983, BBhrn-Vitense. Nmnee and p m , 1984). The fact that all barium stars belong to binary systems clearly rneplns that binarity must m e h o w be responsible for their chemical peculiarities. It was sometimes suggested that the presence of a companion could perhaps modify the outcome o the hellurn flash occurf ring in tow-mass stars, possibly triggering the extra-mixing leading to the synthesis of heavy elements (e.g., McClure* 1984). However, soma barium systems are quite wide (P > 10 y), and It is difficult to imagine that such a distant companion could have an effect on the internal structure of the M u m star. Mass transfer from the former primary towards the barium star, when the ptimary was a bvy-etement rlch S or carbon star on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), seems more likely. The observation of a 10 pm (N band) excess in many barium s a s (Hakkila, 1989b), tr which is not correlated with the other atmospheric peculiarities, may polnt towards the presence tn the system of dust left over from a former mass-loss episode. Again, many barium systems appear to be too wide for mass transfer through Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) to occur (Tout and Eggleton, 1988)b Moreover, post-RLOF systems general-

ly have c i r e u l ~ r b i i (e-g., Webbink, o 1986), which is not the case for all barium stars. Boffin and Jorlssen (1988) suggested instead that ttse accretion by the m u m star of tfie wind from the former AGB primary may be efficient enwgh to account far the obsewed dwmlcal peculiarities.

2 Interest of a Photomettic Modbring o BariumStars f Slnce barium stars are single-llned
s m s c o p i c blnarie (SBI), mly partial Information cm be obtained a b u t their o r b i t parametem The detection of possible photometric variations related to the binary nature of these stars could provide furthw insight in the characteristics of these systems. However, the relatiJely Large orbital separation (estimated as sevef8l AU) and the l w lumlnos'ty of the companion (dico tated by the SB1 nature of the system) Imply that photomettlc variations, if present, should b of rather small amplitude and have a long period. LandoR (1983) was the first to look for photometric vdability o M u m s a s f tr. He obtained UBV photoetdc obswvatlons of several barium stars at KPNO and CTlO at Irregular internal3 over a time span of more than a decde. His photometry was baslcalfy non-differential, but included the measurements of a numbw of standard stars of similar brightness as the barium stars of his programme. Assuming the m n m r of obsmdons in V for standard stars to be about 0.007 magnitude, he wncluded that 6 stars of the sample (which containd 17 M u m showed v & ations at or above the 3 o level. All stars were however obsened less than a dozen times under very different o b m I n g conditions and no lightcum is provided. Our more accurate photometric mwtitorlng, described in Section 3, does not confirm these variations In all but one case.

3. The Long-Term Photometryof Variables Programmeat ESO
High accuracy and homogeneity over periods of several years are required for monitoring barium stam. Both require ments, together w ' h the potential of extenslve observing time (4 to 6 months/ year), are offered by the Long-Term Photombtry of Variables (LTW) pro-

gramme operating at €SO since 1982 (Stmian. 1983). The Str6mgren uvby magnitudes of a sample of 19 barium stars have been monitored since July 1984 in a differential way: fw each programme star, two comparison stars were selected among nearby G or K giants. The observation frequency is about me during ek typical one-rnonth observing runs. That frequency was increased to one measurementlnlght during three observing campaigns around the predicted time of eclipse of the companion of HD 48407 by the md g M (Section 4). Obmm&ns were performed an the ESO 50-cm telescope or on the Danish 50-cm telescope (four-channel simuttaneous photometer). The reduction to the standard uvby system is performed with the "multi-night" algorithm d+ sctibed by Manfroid (1985), taking into account the total set of measurments carried out at the ESO 50-cm w Danish 50-cm telescopes since the beginning of the monitoring. bbehnreen observing runs are avoided in that way, since thsre is lust one colour matrix for the whole set of measurements in a given system. Checks were of course made to control the stablllty of the system over the whob period cons id^. The accuracy of the differential magnitudes can be estimated from the standard deviations of the dWmces between comparison stars. For both the Danish50 and ESO 50 systems (referred to In the following as D50 and W-6, respecttvely, according to the notation of Jobsen, Manfroid and Sterken, 1991; see also Manfroid et al., 1991), 50% of the consldsred comparison pairs have a standard deviation In the y channel smatler than 0.003 mag for observations spannlng several years. The mean value of these r.m.s. deviations Is somewhat smaller for the 1350 system (0.007 mag) than for the E50-6 system (0.009 mag). Colour Indices in the E 5 M system are however much less accurate than In the D50 system, mainly because the latter are obtained with a fwrchannel photometer. In what follows, we fill therefore malnly make use of the more accurate D50 measurements. More details about the obsenrhg policy, the redudon method and the resulting accuracy can be found in Manfroid et al. (1 991). A deteriled discussion of the results of the photometric monitoring for the sam-

McCIum and Woodsworth, 1990). HS spectroscopic 1 I ~ - 0 . 0 1 ^ _ 1 I 1 ' L I ' 1 ~ I 1 1 L I 1 L 1 I ' 1 1 I C - 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 L 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ephemeris was used in e order to predict the times of a posslbb 4 eclipse of the companion by the barium star. During the ?-year span of the .: 4 - monitoring, only thrw ecllp ~ e swere 0 \ pmdicted to occur at a time when the 4 star was w i l y o h w a b k HD 46407 was obsmed once a night fw 20 to 4 0 4 nights d u h g these periods (FebmarY 0.01 1985, Noamher 1488 and February 1990). A clear dlp is seen in the lightcunre In November 1968 while the comparison -0.0 1 pair remains stable (Fig. 1). Since t i hs dip is exactly centred on the predicted time for the total acllpse, there ts littler I * A *a - 1 m . doubt that an eclipse has %ctudlybeen t * AY 0 ' . 8 0 accurate . detected. Veryout ddngmeasurements * v 7 * were carried the FebnmY a . v #mom 1990 campaign at the Danish 50-cm 8 telescope, and m a that, I any, the el 8 A - eclipse was much shallower. The mea0.01 surements of February 1985 are puz-







.', .I*.





1. lo*

: I


+* :


to twrsspond to the eclipse Ingress, there wwld be a > 0.03 phase lag m a wml respect to the spzhamplc I ephemeris. * t - 4 Figure 2 presents the phase diagram -I a, 0 rn 7 for all D50 measurements,adopting P = 458.1 d and T = JD 2 445 296.0 (time of maximum velocity), whbh cormpond *, t~ the lower bounds of McClure and 0.01 W o o d s W s elements. The measure mmi of February 1985 are lagging in that phase diagram as well, so that the current uncwtalnty on ttw circular orbi0.5 0.7 0.72 0.74 0.76 11.78 0.8 0.7 0.72 0.74 0,76 0.18 0.8 tal elements (f d on P and k1 d on T) annot resolve the discremcy. The phase superposition of the February 1985 eclipse ingress on the Novembw 1988 Figml:R ~ o f m ~ ~ n g w l m p a r s n ~ m n d t h e t l m e d t h e p r e d W e d l ~ & t ( Q U X ) : h b m y 1% (ypper p m I ; cycle I), l y o v ~ r n b r1 (middle pamid; cycle 4 m , d would require a 451.7 d period, not vwy dMmnt from McClure'e spwtrosF m y TssO low^; c* 5). Phases am omputlad adqothrg ma c&bI &emen& of McGIure and W m d w m h (I-). Tha martainty on Me prt3dicted tlme o i t ! a d l p is coplc period, although well outside its f oa dispiayedbythehQMmtaImbaramndthe valwpl-0.75 5 . ~ f t the ~ formal m r bar. ~ t d i t Y ~ 8 -+Bp I mgdtu& in the SlrSmgren y channel, whereas the rightp a d dlspfay The phase diagram .of Flgure 2, h 6 1 ~ ~ 1 l A - B y m a mwhere,PstanderWMeMumemandAandBfarMnuo adopting McClure and Woodsworth's g ~ , ~slars~p~tivdyHRP373andHRTh6~~ rnhtofthe~tuds~ 23emp (1990) s ~ l period, reveals c C the mean W e of the mmapondlng dfmmntrsl mgnftude In a glven system (P * M O w that a wty broad secondary eclipse may S~SWI: E m ~ p t ~ m ; Em8 s t e m ; 7 ES050-8 m r= A ; E5U-x system). be present as well. A clear trend was in d w a x i a i s w l e n W i n s u c n a w a y m t a ~ h ~ ~ s t o a d p i n W fact &sewed for 0.35 c cp c 0.5 in E m . cycle 2, and the drop in brightness around phase 0.35 was conf~rmedby pie of 19 barium stars is presehd in between the cormpanding comparison the observations of cycle 6. Again, the Jarissen, ManfroId and Wrken (1991), stars) we specifically related to the bi- large scatter in that phase range indlThe main result of our rnonltoring Is that nary nature of t b etar, or whether HD cat= that the spcmmopb period is for the two M u m stars with the shortsst 121447, which is also the coolest known probabjy not the best ~ M c e conorbital perlods in the sample, HD badurn star (K7 Ill, LU et al., 1983), is structing a photometric phase diwram. f 21447 (- 185 dl JoPissen and Mayor, in simply a mIcrwariable as any other very A careful pert& analysis of our data pepmation) and HD 46407 (458.6 d; red star. remains to be done. In summary, the Itghrcunre of HD McClure and Woodsworth, 1890), are 46407 derived from the currently availthe only ones to present small, albelt 4. HD 48407: The Rrst Eclipsing able photomettfc observations i the n significant, light variations, In the casa of Binary Barium Star 050 system displays a sharp "primaryb HD 121447, it Is not yet clear, however, HD 46407 (HR 2392, y 6.27, b - y a eclipse (companion &hind the barlum whether these variations at a Iwel o , 0.020 mag ( o be compared with ay t 0.60, KO111 8 3 hasthe second shortest star) and a p d b b shallow "secona) 0.009 mag for the magnitude dMemnce otbital period in our sample (P = 458.6 d, dmyn eclipse. In November 1988, the


1t1rrI1 TTT--Ctt i i i 1

1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 - - I

1 1 1 1



z l l g , since a M s t i d l y significant trend is ind& o b s e d , but I It were f












































tMvefy: ~ "depth of the eclipse will the ~ l l " ' yield an &mate o the mount o dust f f q u l r e d and the wavelength dependence o the swtterlng cr~ss-sectIrn f

ing questions also remain to be enis such an explanation cornpat.4" # s with the absence of IR excess for I HD 46407 (Hakklla and McNmara a I * r 1987, H W l a 1989b)? And how can dust grains remain trapped around the companion for long periods of t h e ( on l - P y bwR -I? O f l 8 b ' t The pfiatwnetric monitoring of HD 2 a a 4 W 7 is still going on; potarlmetricmea0.01 surements are also I progress. Finally, n 0 a similar photometric mbnitotim is being &ed out fw fhb two barium stars, I with the &omst known ohW persods (HD 77247 and HD 12144?), and it will be Interesting to know whether a be0.2 0.4 0.0 0.8 0 0.2 O,4 0.0 0.a haviwr similar to that of HD 46407 will phase pbaae be observed. b 2 : #wedlagram forthe wtmk setofy m ~ i fheD51lsWm NRpensl: n In conclusb, the behaviour of HE) ~ ~ ~ & t R n e t o ~ ~ c ~ t p a n e l : m p a ar W s Q ~ s~P, e e ~ 48407 Is a clear example of a phenomel W 7 n ~ ~ l i o v n I W e C ~ a n d W o o c ~ s w w t h ( f ~ ~ h e v a r l w s 5 ~ r e f a nono f h can wly be studied as part of a r t that e d ~ ~ y d e S ( s l c d & f f f # n ~ ~ ~ r 1 4 5 ~ , f l : 1,r =cyele2,e=~b4,*~Gyda carefully planned long-term project rely~*cflle s , D - ~ 8 . W f f i e ~ o i a w w i d e ~ e d ~ W d * ~ i f l ftpnt of the barium slarb Note that, bemuse P-,WEW involves the ~ W of the Wo ing on m d c e obsenrfng: If) continurns P photometric monitoring should be C R W+&&k tlmeS 8 d l e r than ~ I/Z s m w me88MWl#h P-A tvld P-8, carried out In order to get the general theontronA-B, light cum; ( ) eaeh eclipse naeds mom 3 Primary eclipse had a depth of 0.02 since dust ought not to be distributed In than one month of dally obswing; (iii) . mag In y and a full w d h of ~ r p 0.05 ;a spherically symrnet* way mund the they only occur every 73 years and one lt third of them am missed because of the 6.e &out 20 dl; the primly eclipse was companion. . much shmllwer in February 19%). The ~lthough this m d seems to proximily to the Sun. In dditron, we must also emphasiz~h a t only a small shdtow secondary ec~ipse oaurs when account qcratitativdy for bhe tdwmpe is needed. The LTPV project the companion is in frmt of the barium beviour, It remainsto betested Wanb depth ts a least 0.01 mag in the t Y band and It m d s over about 60% of the orbital period. It mlgM well be that the brigo HD 4W07 b slowly f W F n g over the whole OW period. lha b y index is mqinally variable, at variance with the v b index which exhibfts large vlvlatlons. Quite interestingly, the variations 05 the v b index and of the y magnitude appear to be roughly comM& when ths star is falnter, R is alm redder, as shown by Figure 3. This mhaviour L tvpicaI d light-,p SO that we suggest that the ecllpmd light is actuaily tho light from the barium star ttself which is backscamred by dust trapped fin a disk?) a n d the companion. Rust must be present in a rather extended region around tlw companion, since the November 1988 eclipse was about thm$ times longer than ft would have been expectid for the eclipse of a point-like swroe by a red giant o mdlus f 15 Rg (and a m i m a j o r axis o 1.5 AU; f total duratlon of 7 d or Arp = 0.015). Mwewer, then does not s m to be a flat battom in the d i p lightcum, indicating that the e c l w i never total. s The phase tag o February 1 f can dm be acoounfed for by mls Wanatlon,





should be oompatlble with the relattve variations of b -y ewld v - b. The follow-

-. -. .

a ,










at ESO clearly represents the only available opportunity to address that kind of problem.

Bldelrnan, W.P., Keenan, P.C. 1951, &J., t14,473. bffin, H.M.J., Jodwm,A. 1 9 8 8 , m . A ~ m Y, 155. Rs mm-w,E 19m, Ap.J., 2aa,L79. BBnm-Vltense, E., Nemc, J., Proffltt, Ch. 1984, ApJ., 270,726. Domlny, J.F.,LamM,D.L.lW,Ap.J.,270, 180. It is now almost five years since SN Hakkila, J. 198Oa, A.J., 98,699. Hakkifa, J. 1989b, m n . Astmphysys, 219 1987A explded in the LMC. In the meantime, the visual brightness has d e 204. Hakkita, J., MeNamara, 6.J. f 987, Astron. m a & to about one millionth of what it , 10B, 255. was at the time of maximum. If is still Jotissen, A., Mayor, M. 1988, Am Ash- being observed with large telescopes, s . p m 1!W, 187. h , also af ta Silla, but the elusive pulsar JoriSWI, A, ManWd, J Sterken, C. IWl, . , has not yet bean directly detected. &irona Asiqhys., In p-. The four plctures were taken during Larwiok, AU. 1983, PAW, H,644. ambur patrols in Australia at the time U,P.K.. D a r n , D.W., Upgren, AR., Wels, of the explaslon by Robert H. McNaugM E,W. 1983, &J., 62, la. . Manhold, J. 1985, habiT~t,theds, Univ. of (Plates 2 3 and 7)and frank 6. Zoltowsky (Plate 5). They show the early rise in we. hamfroid, J., Swken, C., Bruch, A.. Bwger, brightness o this famous object; the f

M., de Groot, M., D u W , H. Duemmler, . R., Figer, A,Hageman, T., Henaberg, H., Jorissen, A., Madejsky, R., MandeI, H., Ott, H., ReItermann, A, Schulte-Ladbeck, R., Staht, O., Steenman, H., vander Unden D . . irckgral, F A . 1991, A t , Astrophyw sm 8up@., 87,48 1, McClure, R D 1983, ApJ., 268,264. .. McChrre, R.O. 1984, PASP,# 117. ,

McC~U~, R.D., WQO&WOT~~, AW. 1980, Ap.J*, 932, Starken, C. 1983, The M e s e n g w , 33,IO. Tout, C.A.. Eggleton, P.P. 1988, M N M


Webblnk, R.F. 1886, In: W a l Obwvatlons vsPhysicalM&forCl~~131~Systsms,eds. KC. Leuw and D.S. Zhal, Mew Yo&, Gordon and Breach.


The Rise of SN 198749

intensky and the angular tarte have been rescaled to allow direct corn@son. A r w n t , careful remeasurementd the magnitudes of SM 1987A on these plates has shown that earlier publlskd estimates are too faint by 0.2-0.8 magnitude (McNaugM and West, to appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics). The new values are in better agreement with the theoretical Ilghtcuwes, but they do not by themselves permit to decide which o the two neutrino events that f were observed In the morning of Febmary 23,1987, w~ the actual time-zero.

A New Large Arc Revealed by Early NTT lmages
The internationaleffort devoted to the search for gravitationalarcs has recently been reviewed by 8. Fort (1991) in Hamburg. About 10 clusters with at least one "large" arc (length > 1O") are report&. fhe cluster presented here was detected as an X-ray source of 31 6-0' . 1 -3 ergs cW2s-' by the Imaging Pmportional Counter on board of Einstein Observatory, and was identfied with a faint cluster of galaxies by Gioia et al. (1984, Second Medium Sensitivity Survey). Its optical position is RA=0302 44.8, &I. =+165828.0. Images show a very rich cluster with two large galaxies, a morphology which is roughly similar to that of Abell370. 1 reobserved this cluster between November 1989 and January ID90 with the NIT. Such a northern cluster was observed from La Silla because at that time the MT field rotator was still under testing. Eight images were obtained in V and R, with two different CCDs mounted on EFOSC 2 (Melnick et al., 1989): the RCA No. 5 which has pixels of 30 pm giving a scale of 0.26 arcsedpixel and a momson low-noise CCD with pixels of 19 pm. Images were taken at various position angles. They were corrected for flat field using master flats built up with images taken during the same night, aligned, rescaled and coadded at fractional pixel value. The central part of the final image is shown in Figure I. There is a faint halo, well visible In R, around the two brightest galaxies. Approximately at middistance from these objects is a faint filament. Perhaps the first idea when looking at this image is that of a shock wrface between the halos of two large colliding galaxies. Another mible explanatibi is gravitational lensing of a faint (V > 24.5) background object. Simple gravitational ntGels with 'two potentials predlct well the orientation of a nearly straight arc at this Iwtian. If this is a genuine gravitational arc, the amplification would be of the order of 15, presenting a rather unique chance to obtain a spectrum of an otherwise -25" magnitude galaxy. Rich clusters are slowly staftin0 to play a role of gravitational klesco6 for the invesbgation of the remote populatlon of galaxies. They discnm~nate the gravitationally lensed arclets from other extragalactic faint objects, although any arclet may be an elongated cluster member. Assuming that the arclets are amplified objects, the exposure time for acquiring a spectrum is shorter than for the source obj&. Mast of the arclets, however, are still mond reach of p r e
ent-day spectroscopy. Finding large arcs, i.e. with large amplification, is probably a unique way of shortening by a factor of 5 or more the exposure time needed for spectroscopy of these otherwise very faint objects. Deep photometric surveys of galaxies have shown that the number-galaxy counts in 1 are close to non-evolution models (Tyson, 1988). Counts in B and U, however, have a much steeper slope that can only be accounted for with some form of evolution (Shanks et al., 1984, Metcalfe et al., 4987, Tyson, 1988, Majewsky, 1989). At falnt magnitudes the difference in slope between number counts In B and t translates into an increasing fraction of blue objects. In the past three years, intwest in this population has increased enormously, but the redshift distance of these ob-

jects and the nature of the blue population are still unknown. An open questlon is why this blue population seems to have disappeared today. Were they compact AGNs? Extended objects with nuclear or extranuclear star fwmation? Mergers? Did they disappear after an initial starburst (Cowie et al., 1991)7 Did they merge to farm the present-day giant galaxies (Guiderdoni and RoccaVolrnerange, 1%I)? Very good deep images, selected among the best taken durlng the commissioning period of the Nll, show that at magnitudes between V=22 and V-24, the very blue objects do not belong to a single population (Giraud, 1991); there is (a) a class of compact objects surrounded by a nebulosity, (b) a class of irregular objects with probable Isophote distortions a the limit of resot


I 1
I 1





Figure 1: The central region d the X-ray cluster CL031M+ 1658 at 2-0.4 &wing the two m i n galaxies, a weak halo, and a filament of 20" wpmximately, which might be eihrrer a @avitathI arc w a featmrelated to the intraduster medium.

lutlon and (c) double or multiple systems. It is for example pssible that nuclear activity. chaotic star formation and merging are responsible for the blue colours in campact, irregular and multiple Sysmls, respectiuely. spectra of

Nn*, instruments, and new detectors working a best during these nlghts of t he commhiofiing period. Ithank Jorge Melni~k the allocated time. for

blue, low-surface-brightness m will pawide us with the redshift distance o f these objects and posslbly with some indications o their physics, f


Cowie LL, Qardner J.P.. Waincoast RJ., Hodapp K.W., 1W l , preprint. Fort B., 1991, preprht. GldaI.M.,&al., 1984.qo.J,283,45. O M E.. 1H1, ESO m r l n t . I wout like to thank the technicell SM Guiddonl 6.. and Rocca-Volmepange 6.. d

Ully S.J., W l e LL, a d M n e r J.P., I=, AP.J.0 Wprlnt. &A-o 18% I fh@ n of Fbmlrltion, Eds, Frenk & al., Kluwer Dordtecht, p, 86. Melnlck J.. W k e r H.. and D'Odorlm, 1988, ESO O mI Manuel No. 4. p tw MetcaHe H., Fong R., Jones LR., Shmka and T., t987, In High & h R &i and Prlmdaxks, Eds. Bergeron et at., Mltton F r o n t l h , p. 37. Shanks T !Sevenson P.R.F., Fang R,, md . , McGllllvray H.T., 1984, hdon. Not. FI. Ash. n SQC,208,707. Tywn JA., 1988, AsfrOn. J., 96,l.

an hSilla for thdr efforts in making the

Diffuse Bands and Peculiar Interstellar Clouds


'ST-ECF, €SO Affiliated to Astrophysics Division, Space Science Depadment, ESA; 'Stazione Astronomica, Cagliari, Italy.


1. Introduction The Diffuse Interstellar Bands or DIBs, as they are wually called, are absorptlon features which are generated In the interstellar medium by a stlll unidentified set of carriers. The Dl& were firstly mentioned by Heger (1921), while their stationary character and their interstellar origin was confirmed by Merrill (1936). The mast exter~~iw wmy has been published by Herbig in 1975, on the basis of photu~raphic plate spectra: he reported 39 DIBs in the spectral range 4400-6700 A, 24 d which were obsewed for the first tlme. By now six more OI8s have been discovered beyond 6700 A. During the past years the interest for the DIES has grown considerably, parPcutarly b'ecause the new obseruing techniqum and the improved quality of the spectra allowed a deeper analysis of their profiles, highlighting more and more details on their behaviour and therefore making them an interesting candidate as markers of the physical and chemical status of the interstellar medium. However, in spite of the higher resolution and the excellent high WN ratio which can be obtained from modem spectrographs coupled to CCD detectors, the nature of the carriers of the Dl& remains a mistery: thelr long lasting challenge may Indeed be among the rsasons for the continuing interest in them. Comprehensive reviews on the DIBs' topic, togethsr with extensive bibliography, have been published by Bromage 0987) an Krelowskl (1989). In this short paper we discuss our approach to the study of these interstel-

lar features and present some of the

results we have obtaind so far.

2. D I k What Do We Know?
The most recent highquality (high resolving power as well as very high signal-to-noise ratio) observational data (Snell and Van de Bout 198t, Massa et al. 1983, Seab and Snow 1984, h lowski and Walker 1887, WMerlund and Krelowskl1988, Benvenutl and Porceddu t 988, Crawford 1990, Le Bertre

1990, Porceddu et al. 1991), and the parallel theoretical studles (Muglas 1977, Van de Zwet and Allamandola 1985, L g r and d'Hendmourt 1985, Be Allamandola et al. t 989, C o w - M a g o s and Leach 1990) allow us to define some constraints on the D I W problem: the presence of DlBs is relabd to the

oolaur excess, in the sense that the lack of reddening Implies the absence of the DIBs: but the DlBs' intensity along one line of sight is only loosely correlated to the value of the







t86 i0

L " " 1 " " " " " " " " " " " " 4

- 0.8

- 0.0



. .

. . L . . . . I . . . . I L . . -

- 0.8

bWV = 0+19

6W 7



Wavelength (A}
Ftures 1a and b: The intensity ntio of the 018s 5780and 5197and ifs v e h t h along diff#nt lines ofsight.

reddening in that ditct[on. This fact becomes partlcuhly evident for low reddening vdum which impllea obscuration by a single intmtellar cloud. For higher values, the awraglng effect over several clouds tends to

fiatten out the differences;
similarly, the DDls Intensity b not strongly comlated with the 2200 A extinction bump: dust and arriers of the OISs, although coexisting in the Intmtdar medium, have an Independent history; the line profile of the 0 6 seem quite 1s stabla, both for the narrow and shalbw features. With the exception of an Intriguing case which is disc u m below, Ute otwwyed bradenlq o the praflle can be explained f In terms o Doppler s h i i due to the f different velocities of the Intervening clouds; ther OlBs seem to be generated not by a single agent but by metal carriers: they can therefom be grouped into ufamllies", compothe nents of which show well-defined Intensity ratios; the most r m n t theoretical works indicate the Pdycycllc Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a strong candidate for a molwular carrier of the DIBs: but the laboratory results have still to tw confInned by the observa-

Wavelength (A)

6203,6 @ and 6284 A, while fw a 2 subset of the targets we observed also the DlBs at 5705,5860 and a 4 A Some of t obsewations have been h
done by remote control from Garching. The experience with thIs new obsewhg style has b m ~ generally posithe, al-

These facts have modified the praviw hypothesis of an interstellar medium s producing w q w h m the same whole set of d i e bands*Therefore, a g o d strategy for further investigation is to mncentl.ate the obsewtional effort on lines of sight along which some camp nents of the Interstellar Medium (including the Dlt38) deviate from the a m behaviour.

( W W n d and Kfebwski 1988, Pcrceddu et al. 1991 4 . Flgwes 1 a and 1 b show the varying W v i o u r of the two features in two selected cases. belonging t dlfo f e m t "famiSi" is evident frwn the independent intensity variation*

3. ObsewationaI Matdal and Discussion In 1986 we m e a wide sumy d on the 016s i the spectral range n 5700-6700 A. 'Ihe who18 data set comes from &enrations obtained wlth
the ESO CAT/CES telescope equipped with the Short Camera and the RCA CCD +9. Given the relative brightness of wr targets, the GATCES instmenb the most suited for such a survey, also becam R offers the possibility of obtaining the necessary obaenring tlme.Thequalityof#edata,asRoanbe seen from t figures, I excellent: some h s lltnltationa Ms from the limiting maga r i e nitude, which is about 8 fM the G)awt Camera at a a o l v l n ~ power o 50,006. f Our current database Includes about me hundred lines of sipht in t h dim~ tlon of bright s; for all of them we observed the DIBe at 5780,5797,6196,

though we sometlmea fek the f w d for a closer and more extended checking of the Instnrmmtd set-up (. as well as a longlng for the midnjgM snack!). In the following, we describe some of the most peculiar s M l o n s we found in our data, in paxtloular: the varying Intenslty ratios batween features belonging to different familes, the lack d some of the dWse bands along peculiar lines of sight, and the apparent absence Qf DlBs when the reddening is mainiy due to circumstdlar matter.


32 rite vaying intensity ratlos 11: .. the 01~s ~ZOOA around
The group of dffFuse featurn around 6200 A fat 6196, 6203 and 6205 is sllgMly d i r e n t from the previous case. Tho spectra and related codusions whlch have been p r e s w by several authors [Chlewickt d al. 1987, KretowskI and Walker 1987, mvenutl and POP: ceddu 1 W do not allow us to asslgn In 9 f a definite way these features to a single DlB's family. O r obssrvatbml data u (Bewenuti and Pwceddu 1989. and P o W u et at. TW1) show that the broad, asymmetric DIE absorption at 6203 A a n be resolved into two overlapping features, the second one being


The 5780 band is a relatively Strong

and n e w feature, showing an
asymmetric proflle, while the bmU at 5797 is very narrow and weaker than the 5780 one, Only recently has it be8n shown that these two d j f f ~ s d s do W not share the same cartier (Chlewkki et el. 19&5, Krelowski and Walker W 7 , Benvemrtl and Pomddu 1489); all these papers dso r w r t that the varfation o relative tntenstty of the two f diffuse m u & is not usually aceompanled by any profile change. Moreover, their intrinsic profiles, 1.e. the ones which originate In a single ckud, were found to be the same also in clouds producing different extlmtlzm curves

cenkrrdatabwt6205A~shcernbe seen from flgwea 2 a-c the intensity ratlo between the two components at 6203 and 6206 & is not constant. Analysis of the complete data set indicates that the 6196 and 8209 A DlBs may share f he same family of the 5780 featurn, but the 6205,if pmsmt, does noi.

3.3, Missing DlBs andprofile bmdening As it has been seen from the previous
examples, the r4ative intensity ratios of the DlBs which are members of different


I " " I -

" ' I " "

l " '




& "6780" DIfl


which the observed reddening is mainly due to circumstellar matter. As it can be


. I


HD 37023 b v r 0.33



- 0.9

"6780" DIB



-1 o


HD 179419
I ,


, , ,




- on


HI) 144217

"5780 IIIB



Lp O,l9 =
I . . . .










- 0'8





Wavelength (A) Ftguw 3 a-c: M l s s DIBs: tRe 5797 Ieatum disappears and the 57843 htmify I srtwgly ~ s reduced along "pecuIIaf'lines of sight.

families are strongly varbblw we can thlnk of the lacking of one or more d h e bands as the extreme case of such a variabiliy. We found cases In whbh the 5797 A DIB is strongly red u d or campl&ely absent: for instance, the star 8 Sco (HD 144217, Fig. 1 b and 3 c), presents a strong reduction of the 5797 feature In comparison to the 5780 one. But probably the most representatbe case of lacking of the 5797 is star HD 37023 (0' Od D), Figure 3 a. Indeed, all the Trapezium stars share this pwullarity, as they are evidently embedded in and seen through the same cloud, whme mtum should be responsibb for the weakness of the 5780 & Dl6 in relation to the value of E@-V) a 0.33. The m e behaviwr is shred by a few more stars, as, f r example, by HD o 179419 (Em-V) 0.35) which is shown in Figure 3 b: in this case, despite the relatively high value of the reddening, the 5780 feature is extremely weak and the 6797 is not seen at all. The medium in the direction of the Orion Trapezium stars is interesting for another raason, i.0. the observed unusually large broadening of the 5780 h d . The observations o interstellar f sodium lines by Hobbs (1978) Indicate that several components are prewent toward the line of 819M of the Trapezium stars. These components have recently been confirmed by our high-resolution (R=100,000)spectra (Porceddu 1991, in preparation) and from t h m the velocity of the clwds txn be accurately meawred, However, a Doppler broadening of a asingle-claud"5780 DIB profile, obtained by uslng the velocity lnfwmation

fram the sodium spectra, is not large enough to justify the obsewed width in the case of the profik of HD 37023, supporting the hypothesis that the broadening is intrinsic (Porceddu et al. 1991 b). If this fact is confirmed, and, more impottant, observed in other welldefined Interstellar clouds, R may be used In further constrainingthe nature of the absorbing carrier of the 5780 DIB.

seen from Flgure 4b,the 5780 and 5797 DIESare completely absent, despite the relatively high value of the reddening (compare the spectrum of the "normal" star HD 44458 h Rgura 4 a). This absence may indicate that these DlBs mm *nmM ruMr in environment such as the clrcurnstdlar ~ shell of a Be star. Indeed, other studies, e.g. on the behaviour of the 2200 8( feature, indicate that the circumstellar material may be quite different from the d i s e medium. particularly fn the dust grain composltlon. It seems therefore promisingto further Investigate how this "en~irOtIment~" difkmnces, lncludlng the irradiation by the mntrai star, affect the various "families" of DIB& A more detailed analysis, based on a wider sample of Be southern stars from whlch we picked the above example,is in preparadon. In this case, a wdlknown problem in the interpretation of the data is the difficulty of disentangling the circumstellar from the diffuse medium contributbn in the total reddening. We could overcome this problem by absatving an open cluster in which normal and Be coexist and for which the diffuse medjum reddening is obviously the same: If we get the necmsary ab-

s8wIng time!

mnvenutl, P , Porceddu, ,,, Ast .


3.4. Where the Di&s seem not to Ilve: the case of the 8e stars The last interning WamPle haw h c l a In our gallery of peculiar k that of the spectrum of a Be star, in
5760 6785

Chlewleki, G., van der Zwet, O.P., van Ijmd m , LJ., Greenbarg, J.M., Astrophys. J..
SQS, 455,1986.

Cosmt-Mag-, C ,Leach, S., Astron. Asfro. 233,559.1990. Heger, M.t,Lick Obs.Bull., lo, 148, 1922.
6~80 6786









0.m 1

"5760" Dm
I . . . . l .





&-* = 0.22
. r . l . . . . l . . , .

- 0.96

X {



HI263462 by 0.18 =





Wavelength (A)
Flgures 4 a-b: fhe missing #Ss in Be stars.


KWowskl, J,, in InferstelI~r Dust, LJ. AUaimndola wd AG.0.M. T l e m (eds.), IAU Symp. 136, Kluwer Aad. Publ. p 67, . 1909. e k l , J,, Westerlund B., Astmn. AGtmphys., 190,339,1488. Pwceddu, I., Benvenutl, P., Kretowgki, J., Astmn. Asmphp., h press, 1991 a . m d u , I., Benvenutl, P,, Krdwski, J., Astmn. Astrophys.., submmed, 1993 b. h u u n d , B E , Wadi, J., A t . ASsm
tmphys., 203,134,1988. Westdundl B E , Krelowskl, ,, Astron. AsI . , , 218,216, i989.

The ESO exhibition opened a ths t Zelss GroBplanetarlurn In (East-) Wlln on November 1,1991. The CIty of W i n was represented by Mr. Arndt, Staatss e k W fiir Schule, BerufsbHdung und Sport and the Mayor of Berlin-Premlaua Berg, Dr. Dennert. This pkmhriurn is one of the wortd's largest and was lnaugumtd in 1987 on the occasion of the 750th annivemaw of brlin. It has the latest Zeiss projector with all posdMe technical finesses.

Already on the opening day there were lots of visitors and many more are expected during the 3 months' duration of the exhibition. ESO Is particularly pleased to make its exhibition available at an lnstltutian which only recently w hcorpomtsd m Into the Federal Republic, at the time of the German re-unification. There is little doubt that it will be of particular Interest to the l n h a b i i of the p a h of Berlin surrounding the Planetadurn.

M . Amdt, Udammtmy d St& for Education, Voceflonel TrsJningm WS, r d

mibfthin B d f i

Looking for Optical Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursters
M. BOER, C.IWOTCH, Max-Planck-lnstitut fur ExtraterrestrischePhysik, Garchingbei Miinchen, Germany H. PEDERSEN, Copenhagen University Observatory, Denmark S. BRANDT, A. J. CASTRO TIHADO, N. LUIVD, Danish Space Research Institute, Lyngby, Denmark A. SMETTE, ESO, L Silla a
1. Gamma-Ray Bursts: a 20-YearOld Mystery Discovered some 20 years ago [I]
gamma-ray bursts (hereafter GRB) remain mysterious: these transient sources emit only during times ranging from a few milliseconds to several minutes, and they are observed only in the X-ray/ Gamma-ray range, from 1 keV to more than 100 MeV. They have no obvious counterparts, either transient or quiescent, in other spectral regions, 8 g. opti. or 3 4. cal [2] in soft X-rays 1 1 11 Furthermore, their light curves, and their energy spectra are extremely diverse: there is no "typical" gamma-ray burst and among the 600 bursts observed until now, not even a general classification has been established. With 3 notable exceptions, none has been observed to repeat. The exceptions are the soft repeaters SGR 1806-20 [5] [q, SGR 1900+14 and the GBS 0526-66 [8] March 5b, 1979 GRS, which is located in the direction of the LMC). Until recently, there was a general

agreement on the galactic neutron star origin of these sources, based on the characteristic time scales of the events (sometimes less than a millisecond) and on the presence of strong magnetic field signatures in their energy spectra. In that case, with more than 600 detections to date (and an actual detection rate of 1 per day), GRSs would have been the most common manifestation of neutron stars in our galaxy. However, recently the situation became quite confused with the announcement by the

BATSE team [Q] that the distribution of pmm-ray burst souroes is apparently quite Isotropic and (from the analysis of their detection rate In e way drnilar t o the logN logs test) that their expePiment seas a t all GRB occurrences, Taken togefher, these observations exclude a gabctic origin and favour a cosmdogical origin for GRBs although a very local w an extended gal-c halo origln seem not to b~ excluded, and there is some debate on the possible instrumental biases. However, none of these qgestlons fit all ths abaervations and t i shows the need to obtain hs independent data on these sources.







2. bcal'lzingthe Sources There are two ways to localize GRB sources. The Rtst one is the go-called trlangulatIon (or time o arrival) method. f




Ilh 4Sm B UT) s



Tme (seconds

Ftguml: ~ t ~ d G R B 9 1 ~ f ~ a s s e e n b WATCHInstmmmth the IS- 180k13v ythe m@tgymtgewHha timemuhfbn d 0 . 9 1 1 4 ~ .

Using the time delay between We d e w tion of the same event by several Instw ments, widely separated in space, one 3-Do GRB Emit Visible Light? can derive the diredon of the source. In order to obtain awurate podtims, the Based on wotk on archival plates I0 11 triangulation method needs at bast 2 [I I] [12l them were claims that optical r detectors on Inteqlanm spacecmk transients were observed in o n w The current Inkplanetaty network uses some gamma-my burst m t barns. The o the GRB detectors aboard the Pioneer reality of these events is not yet est&bVenus Orbiier (WO) and the Ulysses lished and b the subject of a v q hot mission (which will leave the mltptle I debate [la] [I41 [is]. However, GRB n Februmy 1492) in addition to the instru- sources may well a p m to be e m t W ments on near-Earth platforms (Granat, at optical wavelengths, eitheras the ref Ginga, SoIar A, Compton GRO, OMSP). aufl of the reproeassing o the gamma This M o d may reach my g m d rays In an aceretion dlsk or In the photoaccuracies, 025 arcmln2 for GRB sphere of a binary mmpanion, or b e 790305b {Gamma-ray bursts are usually muse o the thermal deoay of the muf designed by the letter ORB fdlowed by tron star surface afker the burst, which the event date, here March 5,1979, and depnds on the amount and on the eventually a I&er indicating the wdsr of depth of the energy release. the event In the day), but for a very small The goal o our project is to find this f number of strong bursts with a well- emission, or to s& eonstmints on it. The defined time structure. WATCH, BATSE, and CClMPTEL teams The other approach uses the a n i s m - m y provlde rough locdIraf'10n withln 12 phy of the detector response to the slg- to 14 hwrs a m h e burst. Shortly after, wit direction of Incidence, wlth several we expose a plate at the ESO Schmidt detectors (8 for the Burst and Transient teiwope. This plste may then be mExperiment hereafter BATS€ on- pared with the ESO, Patomar or UK sky board the Compton Gamma-ray Obsar- surveys. If a new object is found, then vatory CGRO) locatized syrnmetrldty follow-up studies may be triggered at on the same s p a m f t . In this 're- hqef telescopes, Later, when a more sponse anisotrophy" method, the accu- precise localhation is eventually derived racy reached Is not as good, 1 to 5 using the frlangulation method, a mom degreesfor BATSE onCGRO, butalmost careful study of the GRB a m may ba A bursts detected may be locallzed done. 1 (about 180 during the first 6 months of The discovery of an optloat transient t h CGRO rnfsslon).The WATCH expert- GRB counterpmt may answer several ~ rnent, onboard the Granat satellite, uwa questions about these elusive objeats, a third method, with a rotating oolllmator such as thdr distance (@tactic vs. cosgrid, and provides localbt!om wlth an mological), thdr membership to a birvary intmediatsaocumoy,typicaJly0.3 deg. system, the energy process. . . . A defor strong events. Except for a handfulof tection would pmvlds w also with a bxe8 ~ h k h well ~ ~ l ~localkation suitable tor a real deep g h locallred with the triangulation method, search far a quiescent counterpart, and fhe emr boxes are far too largeto search may result in a breakthrough in our for qulescmt counterparts at any understanding of these enigmatic sourwavelength. a Even repeated non-detection .

would set stringent constmlnts on M amount of energy emitted a optical t wavelengths during and after the burst, on the thmat decay time of the mum and on its nature. This would also be an Important point In the debate on UI% h r e a l l t y of optical flashes, thdr astrophysWl origin, and their as#ciatlon with the (3RBphenomenon. Whatever is the outcome of our prqect, we hope that it will Improve signifbantly the knowldge o gamma-ray bursf sources. f

[I] Klebesadd RW., Strong I.B., Olson R.k: 1873. AshWhp. J. Letttws, 182,



85. Motck, C. et d.: 1985 AHm. A i m phys., 145,201. 131 &rer M. et at.: 1988, ABfFOn. ASftophp., 202,117. 141 W M . et at.: 1991, Astron. A&whya, a49, t i & ~tteta 4 :w,~ et .1 p ~e~ters, J. .



sno, 105.

Il Fenimw et d., 1987,Ashqhys. J. Let6

l7l b t s , ES. et d.; dgm, ~ L&em 6,343.


wAs-. .

[Bj Golenebkii, S., Ilylnaki V., Mmts E.: 1964, Niature, W , 41. p] m n C A e al.: 1891, IAU C h l a r l


DOl SdmeW, 6.E et d.: 1981, Natwe,2W

[It] H, -

R. Per-,

R.. Match C.: IW,

Maumann, C,, Wenzel W.: 1891, Asttvn. Asimphys.. 24$L425. 1 3 Zytkow, A . t BQO, AstmpW. J., atia, 13 N: 138. [I41 Greiner, J: 1991, Ashoh Mrophys., . 254,251. [I4 S c W RE., WI, As&@@. J., 9BA 590.

[la Grelner, J.,

A t . As&phys., 285,174, pm

Long-Slit Spectroscopy at La Silla: an Annotated Menu
1. Introduction
Spectroscopy of extended objects

findsapplication both in Galactic (9.g.
gas kinematics in planetary nebulae)

a d extragalactic fields. For many years measuring the klnwnatica in galaxies

gions of interest: for emission Imthe region around i Ha (X6563A) including the IN Ill lines (A6548 A A6583 4 for andyslng the gas kinematics; for absmpthn lines: AX3700 4400 A (including the Ca II K and H lines and the G band) and M4900 5900 8( ncluding Fe 1 14921 A, Mg 1 A5175 , E hand and the Na blend A5893 4 wlth CCDs was It then posslbleto obtain for deriving the kinematics of the a similar field as with photographic stellar component. Limited informaplates. The spectral and spatial m l u tion a h t the gas kinematics may tion, however, depended rrsalnly on the also be obtained in these wavelengtfi plxel size, which for the first CCOs was regions by rr~easudng [0Ill doub the quite large (30 Clm2) and somewhat conlet (U3727-29 A) and the (0Ill] line StWned the o b m t n g programmes. WW7 A) respectively. There, the situation improved consldAt the same time the observer wants erably wlth the arrival of the high-resolu- to obtain as much spctrai resolution as tlon CCDs. The latest upgrade now In- possible In these wavelength regions. In Wuced m u h i - p u m instruments Ilk8 h e case of kinematic obmmtions, for EFOSC and EMMI. Thls genePation of example, a sampling better then 1 A Instruments not only allows a can* pixel-' I desirable. Because of the highs nient change of wavelength ranges, dis- er red sensitivity of CCDs most part of m i o n s and SIR widths In the course of the observational wcrk is now done in a night but give the observer also Mi- the region >4000 A. The physical siza of hility in selecting direct imaglng or spec- the detector, then, detmines the tmcopk W e . wavelength intmal covered. Nowadays In the following chapters a brief guide CCDs usually have 1024 pixels (or more) to the Instruments at La Silla with long- in the direction of the dispersion, so that

Step was the replacement of photagraphic plates wlth linear detectors. The first generation of linear detectors at La Silla was the Image Dissector Scanner (IDS) In combination with the Bdlet & Chivens spectrogrsph at the 3,6-rn tele scope. This detector allowed a very limited spatial resolution. There were two channels of which one usually was used for measuring the background. Only

was restricted to the analysis of emlsslon lines which can be traced ~IativeEy instruments. m l l y out to great distances from the nucleus. By contrast, absorption lines h galaxies are much more difficult to mea- 2. fhe InstrumentationAvailable at ESO sure, because they are broadened by tfie velocity dlsperslon of the stellar In Table 1 an ovewfew is given over component and since the intenstty of the specific instrumentation prasently the continuum decreases quite rapidly avallable at La Sllla. For oompwison away from the centre. Only with im- also the Boller & Chivens spectrographs Proved detecton3 and Irnprowd data at the 3 6 r and 2.2-m are Included .-n analysis techniques was It pmsible to although they are not offered any more. access also thb piece of information on The setup of the instruments depends of the kinematics of extended objects. course very much on the specific obAlso in the case of analysing spectra of serving programme. In the following disfaint paint sources, long-sl# spadm- cusslon more emphasis wlll be glven to Copy allows an efficient sky subbgctlon. aspects of klnematlc observations 0.e. The last years have seen a quite rapld obtaining radid velocitlgs and vetoclty mlution on the sector of the instrumen- dkpersions) because they require high tation. until the mid-elghtles most of the spectral and spatial resolution on the data were still obtained with image tube one hand, and on the other hand a relaSpgctrogmphs (8.g. a Boller & Chlvens tively large wavelength range needs to spectrograph equlpped with an EMI im- be covered In order to analw as many age tube as It was available at E N ) lines as possible. The major applications on photographic plates. The plates of long-slit spectroscopy, partbularly In needed then to be digitized in order to extragalactic astronomy, are centred be processed further. The subsequent upon a few "tradltlonal" wavelength re-

slit spectroscopy capability I pms sented, Slnce Ulem is a variety of lnstrumentation avallable, thls artlcle is lntended as a help for the potential user in selecting the most adapted instrument for his purpose. For the basic description of each instrument one may refer to the respective operating manuals of the

each of the relevant wavelength regions can be observed w b one grating setting only. For each insmment the optlmal grating (or grim) has been selected in order to cwer a wavelength region of about 1000 8( centred at h = 5200 8, (except for the EMMl Blue Channel configuration which refers to M3700 4400 The resulting sampltng and spectral ~ l u t i o n are complld in Table I The a . entrance slit widths w and spectral resolutlon qMtlisted in Table ' for each I Instrument are calculated for the maximum spectral rmlutlon satisfying the Nyquist sampling theorem.



2.1 The Boiler & Chivens




Odginally the Boller & Chlvens spectrvgraphs were available at the 3.6-m, 2.2-m and 1.52-m telescopes. But preaently only the one at the 1.52-m telescope is offered. This type of s graph turned out to be a vwy stable instrument optimized for long-slit spectroscopy of extendd sources. In particular, the optimized collimator/camera focal length ratlo allows smatt insbumental dispersions to be conaidered with relatively large slit wldths. A wide range o gratings is available which f allow to cover more or less the full optical wavelength band in various dlsperslons. A detailed list of the gratings together wRh their relath efficiency curves may be found i ESO Operating n Manual No. 2, The dispersions typically used are of the order 58 A mrn" yjeldlng a resolution of about 0.9 A pixelq1. The change In the Instrument orientation wlth respect to gravity as the Mesoope tracks the object In the sky I the s principal cause for instrumental flexure, wlth the amount depending mainly on the zenith distance and the sllt orientation. For the Bolter & Chiws spectrographs the maxlrnum shil? measured In conwcutlve c a n p a d m Ilne spectra was ~ 0 . plxel in an Interval of 3 hours, 5

2.2 EFOSC 1 and EFOSC2 The €SO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camem Is available at the 3.6-m (EFOSCI) and Its twin Is available at the 2.2-m telescope (EFOSC2). This type of instruments usas grlsms for s p m copy which have a fked wavetength range. Grisms have in gened a higher aciency than gratings. At EFOSCl the highest dlsperslon available is about 120 8( mm" covering the wavelength

mgion between %00 A to 8600 A (grisms 0150,0150 and R150) In Intarv of a b ~ u t O k yielding a maxm MO imum resolution of about a 1.7 & pixel", Only EFOSC2 mtalns a set of grisms (#7, #8, #9 and #10) which is r d l useful for kinematic work [u 1.3 pixel-'). But, as Is evident from Table 1, in order to exploit the full resolution of EFOSC, a very narrow entrance SIR is required (about 0.7 ar-1. At the tevd of a comparable instfilmeml $&up EFOSC (and also EMMI) may be considered about three times more dficient than the Bdk & Chlvens spectrographs. No significant instfirmental flexure has been measured. Regarding h e operation of EFOSC, me has to remember that there is no sllt viewer. The posittoning of the object on h e sli has to be done via dirsct lmaglng and calculating the OMS IHAP with b a t h . Depending on the muracy of the posIUoning, this may be a timconsuming task, e&pecjally 1the instrument is rotated.





RCA #B 640x 1024 (1 5m) plxd TEK #28 512 x 512

640 x 1024 (15 pm) P b l

EMMl Blue




TEK +28 1024 x 1024 e4m pixel Th #tb 1024x1024 (I awl p~xt~l

The ESO Mutti Mode Instrumfit at the MTT has a stmltar concept as EFOSC. In addition to grisms also gratin~sare available where the obsmer may change remotely the central wavelength in the course of the night. A dichrold allows simultaneous obsewatlons in the Blue and Fled Channel. As for EFOSC, also EMMl needs a rather narrow sllt In order to exploit the full spectral resolu-

... bng-slitmode with shod cameralf/1 .a and 51d g m mw' Bohelle gr8,W ... dlspedm at Ha w n o t be repIaeed by a Tek 612 x 512 (27 pml p W OCD (&a) durkPg Md49 o * ... ...EFOSC 0150 grim wlth nuad mvdmgthrange W - m W , A . . . W B ~ ~ A U ~ M ] - ~ ~ O O A during ...e x w e d to be replacadby a w t e d FA !2WB x 2048 (15 lxel W [#MI PeriPd 40 ...ffOSC2 #8 grim with wrthed waden& range W - 5 9 5 0 1

... ~ b n g e r o f t m d

The difference between EMMI and EFOSC becorn= Important malnly In terms of spectral resolution: w(th an lntegration time of 1 hour spectral Informatton down to a surface brightness level of about 21 mag ar~sec-~ was reached, with both lhe 3.6-m and Ule NlT, but in the m e o EFOSC the Inf strumental dispersion was qnmt 150 = km sdl while with EMMl q = 20 km s' , wsts obtained. For a almilar surface hrightnees level, two hours of integration time at the 1.52-mtelescope war% needed (aw 45 krn 8'') udng an RCA CCD as detector. This demonsfrates that the Boller & Chivens at the 1.52-m t e l w p i for many appticatkns a s Sepl~lrs attemaffve to other Instruments, particularly to EFOSC2 at the 2,2-m. Ttw strong points of EFOSC wd mAMl &retheir high spatial resolution and their efiiciency In reaching falnt surface brightness levels. Slnce at the MT the Instrument adapter follows the field rotatton, the amount of instrumental flexure p m n t in the spectra depends on the length of the exposure Ume and of the posltion of the object on the sky. After a 2.6-hour Inte-

Notes to the aolummr: IS) /h sale on the U&mw I: 1 l 2 maximum sit length 1 h: -

whkh cm be W In E unvlwetid fldd a f4) wt the m x p t b n o EMMl the dratlon d d ih f l Is alwaysa l l w wlth the c d m ofthe OCD @ n r:grearngsll~wlnga~~8~@engthatrwnd6a~)A m


Me 2: &$Ion

[A m-'1

(7) m i n l m entranwr ellt W h Iwmc] vAneh satlsflw #le Nythmm @ i ~ p r o ~ l e ~ s - ~ ] d n g t h e s l l t ~ ~ 1 ~ h c o l . ~ c e l a ~ a t e d a t X - % ~ ) )

gratlon a shlft of about 0.4 ptxds waa measured. This mount of shift can, however, be easlly corrected hy taking arc spectra before and after the object

2.4 CASPEC An interesting abmative for high-=olution IonpsL s ~ s c o p y the to above cited inattuments Is the €SO Cassagraln M l e S W t p at the p w h a 3.Bm t e l m p e . A desoription of the latest upgrade ts given by muhl and
Gilliotte (1901). By replacing the cross disperser with a flat mlmr In combinat o with an int-mce in filter an about 50 A wide region can be isolated allowing a spatial coverap of about 2.4 arcmln. In the present conflgumtion several trrtmference filters are avdlable for the Ha, [O 114 (A5007 4 and [O I1QLh3727-29 8$ regions at various redshlfts.

In principleom can uae CASPEC also in its standard conf@uration if the Interorder spacing (ranging from 5 to 19 arcsec as a function of wavdmgth) is sufficlent for the required spatial extension. However, regarding throughput, the crass d i m is certainly tess effldent than the flat minor In the long-slit modeOne may consider CASPEC about a factor 2.5 less MItient than the Boller & Chivms with an optlmal 600 groves mm-I grating in a comparable wavelength region and with comparable


3 Detectors .
The detectw is one of the decishe factors In determining not only the spectral and spatial resolution and coverage but alao the total eficlsncy of the instrument. A certain llmltation of the o v d l performance were the RCA CCDs with

4.2 C m p i o n spectra Good arc spectra are also an Important factor In obtaining high-qudw data, In the case of the Boiler & Chlvens spectrographs tradMmally HdAr lamps are used, which provide an arc spectrum wlth satisfactory S/N ratio m n with s o t exposures ( y l d y 5120 hr tpcl seconds). At EFOSC and EMMl the Situation I somewhat different: In particular s in the case of EFOSCl where the light of the c&llbration lamps is projected 1 a mita. large distance from the lamps, the nThe fact that the CCDs become pro- sultlng arc spectrum I quite Mnt. At s gressively larger has on the one hand EFOSC2 and EMMl the resub are betthe obvious advantages in terms of ter, but compared to the Boiler & Chilarger wavelength coverage and gain in vens generally longer integration timee spectral resolution, which may Improve are n e d d (up to 500 seconds)in order the Mciency of spending OW- arrive at an adequate Intensity level. to lng time. But on the other hand one has There is also the problem t h d In the to realize that in the presmt configura- wavelength reglon N O 0 0 MOO A tion of the data-aqulsitlon systems at there are only few Ar lines which, furLa Stlla a certain limit of data-process- thermore, are aho fdnt, whereas the ing capability has been l l e a M or even He llnes easily saturate even wlth a exceeded. The H P - b a d computers 1-second exposure. In the case of EMMl are s.g. not capable to handte the full the Th lamp proved to be more useful I n 2048 x 2048 pixel array data of the FA this wavelength region. In addition the CCD. It has also to be taken in consid- arc spectra are often contaminated by eration that the read-out of a 1700 x Internal reflections ("ghosts"). But In 1700 pixel window, which is the msx- general an accurate sdution for the imum possible, takes about 3 minutes. wavelength callbration up to about 0.1 Therefore the obsemr is well advisd to pixel could always be achieved. In the select a reado~lt window as small as context of the accuracy of the possible for hs purpose in order not to wavelength calibration dm the instrui lose too much time in readsut and mental flexure Is an Important factor as handling of the images. discus& before,

their rather high read-out noise (typically h e a n 40 and 6tl e') and often bad Cosmetics. Thk f o r d the user to maximize the integration tlme which on the other hand produced an excessive number of cosmic-ray hits on the CCD. The removal of cosmic rays without modifying the underlying spectrum Is not always an easy task, especially In the a m of the object image. The safest approach consists in splitting the total exposure time in several shorter exposures. Then, one can rather easily mmove cosmic-ray events by comparing intensities on a pixel-to-pixel basis. Here the change to the low read-out noise GCDs (like e.g. the Fordherospwe, Thomson and Tektronix CCDs which are available now at La Sills) ImWves the situation. But one has to pay attention that in Particular the FA and Th CCDs have a much lower relative quantum d c b n c y than the RCA and Tek CCDs. An RCA CCD has typically a peak RQE ofabout 75% while the FA and Th CCD have only about 45% relathe quantum efflclency. The diereme bcomes dramatic especlally in the wavelength region M4000 5000 8, where it goes up to ARQE = 50%. Therefore, in order to use a given instrurnent/&tector combination at Its maximum efficiency, one should comPute beforehand whether the obswvations are going to be sky or noise II-

pmesdng ti'te exposures. Them are no 4.1 Sky subtaction major dlflerencm In the operation of the The subtraction of the night sky from different telescopes. All the four telespectra of extended sources is very cnr- scopes In question have a sufficiently cial, in particular for absorption-line accurate polntimg that the object will be measurements. Ideally one would re- found In the central reglon of the field. cord the sky "on-line" togethet with the Apart from the 1.52-m telescope, there object spectnrm on the same exposure, are also similar p d u r e s to determine provided that the slit length I sufficient and control the tetescop focus. h s to have a region where the contribution many applications of long-slit spectrosof the object Ilght is negligible. Due to copy R is necessary to rotate the lrrstruthe relatively small fleld at the 3.6-m ment. A m o t e control of the rotator is telescope (about 3 arcmin), problems available only at the 3,B-m telescope with the s y subtraction may arise very and t h NIT. At the 2.2-m and 1.52-m k ~ easlly, especially If the angular extent telescopes the rotation of the instrument of the object exceeds 60 a r c s and requlres a manual action at the teledeep spectra want to be obtained. A scope which can be carded out in most rather reliable solution to this problem cases only if the telescope has been put proved to be bracketrng the object ex- to the m t . The 1.52-m telescope has lh posure by two exposures of a blank sky no autoguider unR which may be a cerregion having a comparable exposure tain disadvantage for long exposure time. times although the tracking is generally
very good. The Boller & Chlvens, CASPEC and



EMMl have a slit viewer allowing a dlnct positioning of the object on the dit. In the case of EFOSC the positioning has to be done via offsets calculated from direct images. Regardtng the instrument control and data-acqulsitlon system,the operation of EMMl is cemlnly the most time-consuming one. One needs on the average about 5 mlnutes to handle an exposure which cornparas to abut 2 minutes with other instruments. For most 'standardmobsetvatlons the Bdler & Chihivens spectrograph at the 1.52-m Wescope may turn out to be d l in all the mom efficient Instrument, dnce, altogether, there is much less time overhead due to positioning the object on the dit, instrument rotation, obtaining the arc spectra, read-out tlme of the CCD, etc. This becomes particularly Important when the sclsnce exposure times are short (typically <I hour). In addition, the newly available FA CCD at the 1.52-mtelescope allows to cover a wavelength range of up to 2048 A with a sampling of 1 & pixel''. For highresolution work at faint surface brightness levels, on the contrary, EMMI I s clearly the mob adapted instrument. I would like to thank Mettlch Baade and Sandm D'Odorico, whom suggestlons helped to impme thls article.

ESO CCD M a ~ l 3m ation (ta SHla, May , 1osl). ESO 9peratIng Manu611, No.2 The Boiler & : Chlvens spemcgraphs (IsBs), No.4 EFOSC (1989). No. & CASPEC (1989). Mo. 14: EMMI {dMt 1Wl). Melnick, J., aOSC2: Not= for observers (La Sllla, April 1991). EMMI: Notes for obwv m (La Sllla, Sept. 1991). Pasquint, L and GillIotte, A., fhe W n g e r , 66,so (1991).

4. Concluding Remarks In the prevtow sections, emphasis was given on Instrumentatlona) aspects for obtaining science data. But there are several additional polnts whlch, already at the moment of the observation, Inftuen- the quality o the results obtainable f from the data reduction.

4.3 Selecting the "right"instrument Apart from the purely instrumental questions, another Important criterion for setecting a certain telempa/lMnrment combination is the opratlng Miciency of a given system. Depending on the mnflguwkion there may be a considerable time overhead in preparing and

Near-Earth Object Observed at ESO
The strange object 1991 VG was observed at ESO with the Danish 1.54-m telescope durlng the nlght of December 1-2, 1991. This object in the solar system was first seen as a small, moving point of light with the Spacewatch camera by astronomers in the USA In mid-

November, After some days, it became possible to compute its orbit and, most unusually, it was found to move In an orbit that is very similar to that of the Earth. It was also calculated that it would pass very close to the Earth in early December, possibly at a distance of about 450000 km, that Is lust outside the orbit of the Moon. The obsewations at €SO indicate that this object may not be a natural object (a celsstlal boulder), but is perhaps artificial. It may for instance be an old rocket whlch was used to launch a spacecraft Into interplanetary space many years ago. The observations were carried out by ESO astronomers Richard M. W s and et Olivier Hainaut in the early morning of December 2 , when this object, now known under the designation 1991 VG, was less than 800,000 km from the Earth. It was movlng rapldly over the sky (about 12'tday) and could just barely be followed by the telescope. They measured the brightness to V = 17.7, whlch transforms Into a size of about 1 metres, and found that it 0

The figure shows the raw CCD image with the very long trail of 1991 VG, as obtain& on December 2.15 UT, when it was moving at a rate of nearly 12"/day. me exposure lasted 4 minutes. me v&abI~ brightness along the trail Is caused by the tumbling motion of the object.

rotates rapidly, several times each minute; It is probably tumbling during Its flight. The ESO astronomers also obtained accurate positions of 1991 VG, which

will now help the Arecibo radio observa-

tory to direct radar beams towards 1991 VG, when It comes wlthln the reach of these Instruments tater in December. The radar studies may finally settle the question about the nature of thls mysterious object.

Sunrise over La Sitla, behind the 3.6-m dome, as photographed by ESO astronomer Alaln Smette at the end of October 1991. The sky Is coloured red by the dust ejected into the stratosphere by the eruption earlier this year of the Pinatubo volcano on the Philippines.


MlDAS Memo
€SOImage Processing Group
1. Appllcatlon Developments
summary is Included in the associated solution data base and a reference to a 'patch-file' containing more detalls (e-g. code mdlfication) is glven. This facltity has bean developed in conjunction with the ESO Archive and I s available to both Internal users and external Midas sites through Starcat In order to access it, Internal users just invoke starcat ESO midas from any of the organization's main computers. External users needto connect to ESO ff rst and log in under the demt account (no password required), within s a t type tm ESO midas to access the DB.
will ensure that users will have both a stable core system, and access to new applications developed between the reteases. MlDAS sites managers will be informed when this faclllty has become avalLable.

The test and

valldatlon of all basic

MIDAS commands have now been Completed with the help of the Astronomy Group In ESO. This has led to the correction of many bugs and slgniflCant lmprovernent of the documentation. Most of these upgrades are availeble In the 91MOV release of MIDAS. In the Echelle spectroscopy package (context Echelle) new routines have been Implemented which perform order definition and optimal extradon and Provide an Improved user interface, A package for preparation of OPTOPUS obswvatlons was lmptsmented by A Gemmo. t! enables users to create the command files for drilling the starplates directly from an object Ilst in a MIDAS table file.

4 MIDAS Hot-Llne Sewice
The following MlDAS support services can be used to o w n help quickly when
problems arlse: EARN: MIDAS@DGAES051.bitnet SPAN: ES0::MIDAS Eunet: midas@so.uucp Internet: midas@eso.org FAX.: +49-894202362, attn.: MIDAS

2. Problem Report Data Base
All user reports of Midas bugs and questions as of October lW1 are now being kept in a MidakProblems database, as they are submitted to the ESO IPG. All related information (9-g. regarding the local environment. Installation, etc.) is included in the DB and I avails able to both Midas users as well as to the person assigned to the bugfix. Once a solutbn to the problem has been found, whether or not it actually leads lo a real ccde modification, a brief

3. MlDAS Releases Tlx.: 52828222 eso d, attn.: MlDAS HOT-UNE R has b e m e the general impression Tel.: 49-09-32008-456 of MIDAS site managws and MIDAS Users are also invited to send us any users that a rapid cycle of official resuggestions or comments. Although we leases (1.e. each hatf year) is no longer needed as the MIDAS system has do provide a telephone sewlce we ask stabilized. Therefore, the MlDAS Group users to use it In urgent cases only. To has decided to decrease the rate of make it easier for us to process the
official MIDAS releases to once p a year after the 91NOV version, This will also r e d m the internal overtleads and enables us to put more efforts h the development of application programmes. It is foreseen to offer new MlDAS application packages and patches through an anonymous flp account to avoid unnemssary delays for external sites. This


requests property we ask you, when possible, to submit requests h written form either through electronic networks, telefax or telex. More information about MIDAS can be found In the ESO-MIDAS Courier whkh is the biannual newsletter on MIDAS related matters Issued by the tmage Processing Group and edlted by Rein Warmels.


Performance of IRAC with the New Pupil Stop
When originally installed on the telescope in 1988, IRAC-1 had a 2.8-mm diameter pupil stop. Following the initial tests, a very low Instrumentalefficiency was measured, and it was thought at one point that the pupil stop was too small and was reducing the number of detected photons. The pupil stop was then drilled out by J.4. Lizon to 3.7 mm, but no improvement of source signal was measured, and it was deduced that the low efficiency was due to the inbinsically low DQE of the Philips array and not to anything having to do with the camera. The latter was corroborated by laboratory measurements of the pixel fill-factor which was found to be only
-1 5 %, much lower than expected from the data detector sheet. Following several observing and test nms, it was realized that the sky background was slgniflcantly higher than nominal (see Moneti et al., 1991, The Messenger No. M,66). This was not a serious problem with the 32x32 engineering amys that were used until December 1990: these arrays had a 2 3 .prn cut-off wavelength and were not sensitive in the thermal infrared, i.8. at L, where the sky (and telescope) background is very high. At that time, the limiting sensitivities were clearly imposed by poor detector quality and not by the extra noise produced by the high

sky background. With the arrival of the 6 4 x 64 array we began using the camera at L and the extra hlgh background
began to impose important limitations

on the integration times IDIT') that could be used with the L filter.

In early October 1991 an insett was designed and built which could be placed inside the current pupil stop and which effectively reduces the pupil to 2.6 mrn. This insert was installed and tested in November 1951 and a reduction in sky background was measured, white the instrumental zero pojnts (i.e. the source signals) were unaffected. The new sky backgrounds are summarized in Table 1, and they are generally com-